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Projects by Bureau SLA, Moss, Rose, Safdie, and Scogin & Elam 171
What’s Your Type? 60 Studio Visit With Paolo Soleri 110 Terra-Cotta 101 74
January 2011 www.architectmagazine.com
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THE MAGAZINE OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS
ARCHITECTURE IN AN AGE OF TRANSFORMATION
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AMERICANS AGE 65
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The Next Normal
Change is a constant, but asking “What’s next?” can be stressful. ARCHITECT ofers
this special features section as a form of group therapy, in which architects and other
thought leaders respond to five provocations about the future of architecture.
A COLLABORATION WITH BRUCE MAU DESIGN
Your Practice Isn’t Perfect Kermit Baker lauds the benefits of paraprofessionals. •
Paul Nakazawa ofers four steps for rebooting a firm in a recession. • The class of 2011
shares its plans for the 21st century.
You Dream of a Dictator Perkins Eastman experiences one-party government
firsthand in Vietnam. • Andrés Duany bemoans the meddling of neighbors in planning.
• Architecture meets community organizing in the Build a Better Burb competition.
Your Smart Buildings Aren’t That Smart Penn State’s Energy Innovation Hub gets
$129 million for energy-ef cient building. • Waggonner & Ball wants New Orleans to
return to nature. • Kiel Moe critiques architects’ addiction to technology.
Your Clients Are Really Old Matthias Hollwich thinks older Americans want to live
in diverse, higher-density communities. • Michael Graves will make sure that their
surroundings are perfectly, universally accessible.
Your Architecture Is a Commodity Clients define a good return on their investment
in design. • James P. Barrett and Joshua Prince-Ramus ask why BIM hasn’t changed
the world yet. • Design firms in Asia step up the competition.
You Can Do Better Bruce Mau thinks architects should wake up and smell the
possibilities—to make the world a better place.
119
ON THE COVER
WHAT'S NEXT FOR ARCHITECTURE?
ILLUSTRATION BY CATALOGTREE. DESIGNED
IN CONJUNCTION WITH BRUCE MAU DESIGN.
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CONTENT
JANUARY 2011
FEATURES
→ ONLINE
There’s more online at
architectmagazine.com:
More clients discuss how they
define a good return on their
investment in design.
Additional interviews with
members of the class of 2011.
Videos of Eric Owen Moss’
Samitaur Tower.
Blaine Brownell’s Mind &
Matter blog looks at products
and materials in development
and on the market.
Aaron Betsky’s Beyond
Buildings blog comments on
the impact design has on our
society and culture.
And there is always a constant
update of breaking news,
new products, slide shows,
extra images of the projects
you see here in the issue,
and more …
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Circle no. 510 or http://architect.hotims.com
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Mack Scogin Merrill
Elam Architects
Gates Center for Computer Science and
Hillman Center for Future-Generation
Technologies
Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh
EDWARD KEEGAN
Bureau SLA
National Glass Museum
Leerdam, the Netherlands
KIERAN LONG
Safdie Architects
Marina Bay Sands
Singapore
SARA HART
Peter Rose + Partners
Housing Tower at the Kripalu Center for
Yoga & Health
Stockbridge, Mass.
JOSEPH GIOVANINNI
Eric Owen Moss
Architects
Samitaur Tower
Culver City, Calif.
LYDIA LEE
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CONTENT
JANUARY 2011
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Circle no. 187 or http://architect.hotims.com
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FRONT
Dialogue What You’re Getting
News
Contact Us
AIArchitect
BUSINESS
Best Practices
The Virtues of Social Media
Clodagh uses social media for the bulk of its
marketing needs. ERNEST BECK
Mergers & Acquisitions
Norten Sues South Korean Mega-Firm
After a 2010 merger went south, Enrique
Norten, the founder of TEN Arquitectos,
sued Seoul, South Korea–based Heerim
Architects & Planners. FRED A. BERNSTEIN
Typology Green Industrial
Long considered incompatible with the
industrial sector, sustainable design is
now beginning to make headway there.
JENNIFER CATERINO
Leadership A Diffi cult Character
Want to know what the Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator assessment for an architect looks
like? AMANDA KOLSON HURLEY
Local Market Albany, N.Y.
TECHNOLOGY
Products Surfaces
IT Tools for the Wired Designer
The essential items that three designers
carry with them everywhere. BRIAN LIBBY
Continuing Education
Let It Rain, Let It Rain, Let It Rain
Terra-cotta rainscreen systems present
designers with a broad palette of cost-
efective possibilities. AARON SEWARD
Products Editor’s Choice
Mind & Matter Self-Healing Concrete
One way to increase building materials’
energy-saving potential is to make them
biologically driven. BLAINE BROWNELL
CULTURE
Books, Objects, Exhibits &
Internet
Theater Burdens to Carry
Harrison Atelier explores age and history in
Anchises. LINDSEY M. ROBERTS
Crit The Complexities of a Pioneer
A monograph on Harry Weese documents
his foresight but doesn’t hesitate to record
Weese’s self-destructive ways. EVE M. KAHN
Studio Visit Paolo Soleri
A look inside Soleri’s famed Arcosanti and
Cosanti, experimental communities in-
progress in Arizona. TIMOTHY HURSLEY
Beyond Buildings
The Rebirth of Monumentality
Neutelings Riedijk’s Museum Aan de Stroom,
in Antwerp, Belgium, reveals what a civic
structure can be. AARON BETSKY
PAST PROGRESSIVES
1987 Two of Many for Morphosis
Frequent recipients of P/A Awards, Morphosis
was honored for two very diferent projects
in the Los Angeles area. JOHN MORRIS DIXON
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CONTENT
JANUARY 2011
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Circle no. 509 or http://architect.hotims.com
THE MAGAZINE OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS
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EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR,
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GENERAL MANAGER,
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GENERAL MANAGER,
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CHIEF DESIGNER
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SENIOR DIRECTOR,
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2011 BOARD OF DIRECTORS
OFFICERS: Clark D. Manus, FAIA, President;
Jefery Potter, FAIA, First Vice President;
Dennis A. Andrejko, FAIA, Vice President;
Mickey Jacob, FAIA, Vice President; Peter
G. Kuttner, FAIA, Vice President; John
A. Padilla, AIA, Vice President; Helene
Combs Dreiling, AIA, Secretary; John W.
Rogers, AIA, Treasurer; Jonathan M. Taylor,
AIA, Associate Representative to the
Executive Committee; Amy Blagrif, CACE
Representative to the Executive Committee;
Paul W. Welch Jr., Hon. AIA, Interim
Executive Vice President/CEO.
DIRECTORS: T. Gregory Ames Jr., AIA; Tyler
Ashworth, Assoc. AIA; Douglas A. Benson,
AIA; Stacy Bourne, AIA; Donald C. Brown,
AIA; William J. Carpenter, PhD, FAIA; Susan
Chin, FAIA; Mary Patton Cox, FAIA; Thomas
R. Cox, AIA; D. Graham Davidson, FAIA;
Russell Davidson, AIA; Richard DeYoung,
AIA; Nicholas D. Docous, AIA; Gabriel
Durand-Hollis, FAIA; Jerome L. Eben, AIA;
Mohamad Farzan, AIA; Kevin J. Flynn, FAIA;
Jefrey T. Gill, AIA; John P. Grounds, AIA;
Gregory Kessler, AIA; Leonard E. Koroski,
AIA; Debra Kunce, AIA; Glen LeRoy, FAIA;
Vivien Li; Richard D. Licata, AIA; Paul D.
Mankins, FAIA; Christopher Morrison, AIA;
Francis Murdock Pitts, AIA; Beverly J. Prior,
FAIA; Larry C. Quenette, AIA; James Easton
Rains Jr., AIA; Elizabeth Chu Richter, FAIA;
Charles L. Schreckenberger, AIA; J. Cyril
Stewart, AIA; Mark Swenson, FAIA; William
R. Turner, Assoc. AIA; Edward A. Vance,
AIA; Thomas V. Vonier, FAIA; Michael J.
Waldinger; Bill T. Wilson II, FAIA; Donald T.
Yoshino, FAIA; David Zach.
NATIONAL STAFF
EXECUTIVE TEAM: Paul Welch Jr., Hon. AIA,
Interim Executive Vice President/CEO;
Tracy Harris, Vice President, Administration
and Chief Financial Of cer; Michael P.
Hoagland, SPHR, CAE, Vice President,
Human Resources; Paul T. Mendelsohn,
Vice President, Government and
Community Relations; Cynthia Metzler,
Interim Vice President, Member Value
and Communications; Kevin Novak, Vice
President, Integrated Web Strategy and
Technology; Jay A. Stephens, Esq., Vice
President and General Counsel; Elizabeth
Stewart, Esq., Vice President, Strategy &
Business Development.
MANAGEMENT TEAM: Kenneth Cobleigh,
Esq., Managing Director & Counsel, Contract
Documents; David Downey, CAE, IOM,
Assoc. AIA, Managing Director, Corporate
Relations and Development; Andrew
Goldberg, Assoc. AIA, Senior Director,
Federal Relations; Lisa Green, Managing
Director, Finance and Accounting;
Christopher Gribbs, Assoc. AIA, Managing
Director, Convention; Maan Hashem,
PMP, CAE, Managing Director, Software
Products and Services; Molly Lindblom,
Managing Director, Contract Documents;
Philip O’Neal, Managing Director,
Information Technology; Jefrey Raymond,
Managing Director, Web & Technology
Governance & Partnerships; Cedric Rush,
Managing Director, Membership Strategy
and Services; Phil Simon, Managing
Director, Communications and Marketing;
Brian Skapura, Managing Director, Web
Management; Carolyn Snowbarger,
Managing Director, Professional
Development and Resources; Terri
Stewart, CAE, Managing Director,
Member Communities; Suzanna J.
Wight, AIA, LEED AP, Managing Director,
Organizational Strategy & Alliances.
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Circle no. 24 or http://architect.hotims.com
IT’S OFFICIAL. As of this issue, after months of deal-
brokering, information-gathering, and strategic
planning, ARCHITECT is the magazine of the American
Institute of Architects. Many members are probably
wondering, “So what are we getting?”
The short answer is, a lot, with even more to come
as time goes by. For those in search of details, here
are four highlights of the arrangement, available to
architects right of the bat:
1. You’re getting what you asked for.
I’m not being glib; I mean this literally. Before the
magazine launched in 2006, we polled architects
about the kinds of information they wanted but felt
they weren’t getting from the architectural media.
We’ve continued to solicit feedback ever since—
formally and informally, through traditional surveys
and focus groups, and with the latest social-media
tools. With every dose of input, we’ve refined the
editorial mix of design, business, and technology.
When the AIA selected our parent company, Hanley
Wood, as its of cial media partner, we embarked upon
yet another major research project to determine the
profession’s information needs and habits. Our grasp of
the big picture needed a refresh, given how much the
media landscape has shifted lately. (How did humanity
manage to survive all those centuries without Twitter
and the iPad?)
We’ve translated the responses to this most
recent round of inquiry into substantive, permanent
improvements, including expanded design coverage and
a free monthly continuing education course. And you
can count on hearing from us again, looking for more
feedback. In fact, why wait? If the mood strikes, drop
us a line to let us know how we’re doing. Life moves
so quickly that it pays to brake occasionally and check
the map; we rely on your continued guidance to keep
ARCHITECT on course.
2. You’re getting Robert Ivy.
No joke. In mid-December, Hanley Wood CEO Frank
Anton and I gave the AIA board a sneak preview of
this issue. Right before inviting us to the lectern, 2010
president George Miller made an announcement:
Robert Ivy, the editor-in-chief of Architectural Record,
which until last month was the institute’s of cial
magazine, had been selected as the AIA’s new chief
executive of cer and executive vice president.
Who knows whether Ivy’s decision to accept the
job was connected in any way to ARCHITECT’s new
partnership with the AIA. Whatever the back story may
be, the outcome’s fantastic. Ivy is a profoundly efective
communicator, and his knowledge of the profession and
the institute is intimate, to say the least. I suspect he’ll
find good use for the media tools Hanley Wood brings to
the partnership, and I’m excited to collaborate with him.
3. You’re getting improved access to the AIA.
This one’s a no-brainer. When Hanley Wood was
courting the AIA, we asked a random sampling of 100
members to identify their official magazine. Fewer
than half got the answer right. Our conclusion wasn’t
that architects are unobservant or don’t care, but that
the institute might not be getting the full potential
benefit of the partnership it was in at the time.
No one who sees the cover of ARCHITECT, with its
new tagline, will doubt that we are the AIA magazine.
What’s more, an eight-page section in every issue will be
dedicated to content that the institute itself conceives,
writes, and designs for the benefit of components,
knowledge communities, and individual members. The
AIA section’s distinctive and elegant graphic template is
the work of Abbott Miller, a partner in the design firm
Pentagram and the man responsible for the original
look and feel of ARCHITECT.
While ARCHITECT will retain complete editorial
independence, we will partner regularly with the AIA
on major reports, events, research, and other initiatives.
Ideas for these projects will come from readers and
from your representatives on the magazine’s new
editorial advisory board (the members are named on
our masthead).
4. You’re getting agitated.
The relationship between the AIA and Hanley Wood
comes at a time of profound change, when the
profession is reevaluating fundamentals of design
and practice, and revolutions occur seemingly every
day in some major area of human activity: economics,
science, politics, communications. Given how much is at
stake for architecture, we, the editors, agreed with AIA
leadership that the products of our partnership should
be designed to spark constructive dialogue about the
discipline and its future.
The very worst thing that could happen to the
architecture profession at this crucial juncture would
be to unthinkingly settle for the status quo. We’re not
going to rake muck or stir pots, mind you. We’re firm
believers in civil discourse. But it’s a safe bet that not
everyone will agree with every opinion put forth in
this and subsequent issues of ARCHITECT—and in my
opinion that’s a good thing.
Some readers even may find themselves getting a
bit hot under the collar. If that’s the case, we want to
know why. Talk back. Send an e-mail. Post an online
comment. Whatever you do, please don’t settle for
silence. After all, ARCHITECT is your magazine, and
architecture deserves the best.
M
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WHAT YOU’RE GETTING
THE
RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN
THE AIA AND
HANLEY
WOOD COMES
AT A TIME OF
PROFOUND
CHANGE.
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Circle no. 494 or http://architect.hotims.com
LETTERS
From ARCHITECTMAGAZINE.COM
The articles in ARCHITECT continue their lives online after the
printed issue has been delivered, and our readers discuss each
story in the Comments section at the bottom of the article.
Below are some of the choice comments from some of our
more recent articles:
WELCOME TO CANADA!, November 2010
I’m a Canadian architect who has been working in the
States for eight years. Canadian degree, Canadian IDP, New
York State license. In order to return to Canada and practice
there, I have to pay NCARB $1,500 to create a Council
Record because they didn’t do that for Canadian interns
when I graduated. Plus, they want $500 a pop each time
you ask them to submit the record to a state or province. I
can’t aford that, plus I have a hard time paying it just on
principle. I would love to come back and set up my own firm,
but that isn’t going to happen if I have to give NCARB $2,000
just to get in the door.
SMALL SCALE, MINOR LETDOWN, November 2010
Great review. This movement [for humanitarian design]
needs sound, honest criticism. Otherwise, it will end up
being just another trend while the people who need the
service the most end up being the guinea pigs. I did not go
to see the exhibit but I wonder how many actual people
were in the photos. Was this just about buildings or design
gestures? Or was it about the incredible needs that people
face across the globe? I hope it’s the latter.
THE DESIGNER’S HAND, November 2010
I’m a hand-drawing designer but I love computers—they
are good tools. And right now, we need to step back and
protect what we are doing. The best way to do that is attach
your personal drawings to the project. (No wonder we don’t
have jobs—whoever is in need of a design can go online and
modify our work, claiming it’s his.) Hand drawings are like
seals that protect your work. I feel that a good designer will
always do good hand drawings and at the same time take
advantage of new technology to improve the quality and
the final presentation. I don’t think we need to deny any
technique as long as we are getting a benefit from it.
WATSONVILLE WATER RESOURCES CENTER, October 2010
Redwood is virtually an endangered species, so the city
of Watsonville shouldn’t be cutting down redwoods.
Another wood would be preferable for the exterior. It is
environmentally incorrect, like using ivory, for any purpose.
AMERICAN DREAM, September 2010
The question seems obvious: If the school campus, as
established by the lawn, is our greatest contribution, why
hasn’t it become iconic of a better form of urbanism in
the United States? Aaron Betsky is right that it’s not like
jazz or baseball. Yet isn’t it time we moved beyond Bob
Stern’s pastiches, sincere though they may be, toward the
rich underlying urbanism that the Univerity of Virginia
suggests? The answer may also be in Charlottesville,
dialogue
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where Stern himself pointed out years ago that Thomas
Jeferson’s Monticello—which did become iconic—sits
atop the hill. Yet Stern missed that the lawn does the
same thing! The greensward is the sacred space, a piece
of the seemingly endless American frontier brought
higher and made into the focus. The campus, as with
UVa, MIT, Columbia, Illinois, etc., should be promoted
as the antidote to sprawl, a happy midpoint between
ranchburgers and high-rises, a livable middle landscape
not just for academics.
CAN THIS PLANNER SAVE DETROIT?, October 2010
Often, the Comments section becomes the launching
point for a conversation about the story topic. Below are
a series of comments from an interview with city planner
Toni L. Grif n about the future of Detroit:
Oct. 20, 2010—10:06 a.m.
As long as you permit market forces to take the lead
on redevelopment, you will do well. Take a look at
Houston. Once a large-scale homebuilder committed to
high-density single-family townhouses in volume in
a distressed neighborhood, others followed. Then the
city rebuilt the neighborhood park. The drug dealers
left because they had no place to hide. Now we have a
thriving neighborhood where once there was only decay
and crime.
Oct. 24, 2010—6:27 p.m.
I have personally seen at least two diferent master
plans for the city of Detroit … none of which have been
fully implemented. If those involved, like Ms. Grif n
and Kresge, really want to get Detroit moving forward,
they would move to the city to help shore up the city’s
tax base. The continuing problems will go on unchecked
until foundations and corporations do more than pull
economic strings from outside the city limits, and get
down in the trenches.
Nov. 1, 2010—12:35 a.m.
These people refuse to move here and will only commit
funds if they can have complete control of the process.
They have no love for Detroit; they love what it was. It
has to be a city of tomorrow, not the past. So they need
to do more than engage the citizens for ideas. If you
start with folks from the outside and allow them to hire
their own staf, what’s going to happen is they will hire
those they know from outside. The resident talent bank
becomes an afterthought. This tends to alienate the local
residents because they see outsiders leading the charge
to fix a problem they have little intimate knowledge of.
Dec. 4, 2010—2:41 a.m.
Response to comment Oct. 20, 2010—10:06 a.m.: You
don’t live in Houston, do you? I do. I came here after
graduating from Wayne State University in 1980, having
been born and raised in Detroit. What you say about
Houston is ridiculous, and comparing it to Detroit is even
more outrageous. Houston has 5 percent of the vintage
architecture that Detroit does. Detroit is unique; keep
it that way but make it better. Bring in planners who
have lived in Detroit and are historically sensitive and
culturally savvy. Anything else will breed resentment
and resistance.
→ Want to be part of the conversation? Go to architectmagazine.com.
You can comment anonymously or make yourself known to the rest of
our community. All letters and online comments may be edited for length,
content, grammar, and style.
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Top Stories → For these stories and more, visit architectmagazine.com.
NOVEMBER 2010
ARCHITECTURE
BILLINGS INDEX
52.0
↓ 49.8 commercial
↓ 49.3 institutional
↑ 45.8 mixed practice
↑ 54.3 multifamily residential
Gold Medal
Fumihiko Maki
Fumihiko Maki, HON. FAIA,
studied architecture at the
University of Tokyo, Cranbrook,
and Harvard before gaining
notoriety in the 1960s as one of
the Metabolists, an iconoclastic
group of Japanese architects.
Maki received the Pritzker Prize
in 1993 and will accept the Gold
Medal at the 2011 convention
in New Orleans. Among his
notable current projects is World
Trade Center Tower 4, under
construction in New York City.
Topaz Medallion
Lawrence W. Speck
The Topaz Medallion for
Excellence in Architectural
Education is awarded to an
individual jointly by the AIA and
the Association of Collegiate
Schools of Architecture. This
year’s recipient, Lawrence W.
Speck, FAIA, is a principal of
PageSoutherlandPage and the
former dean of the School of
Architecture at the University
of Texas at Austin, where he
continues to teach.
Whitney M. Young Jr.
Award
Sharon Egretta Sutton
The Whitney M. Young Jr. Award
celebrates an architect or
organization that champions
social responsibility. Sharon
Sutton, FAIA, received the award
this year for her advocacy of
the disadvantaged through
community-oriented design.
She is professor of architecture,
urban design, and planning, and
associate professor of landscape
architecture and social work, at
the University of Washington.
Edward C. Kemper Award
Chester A. Widom
The Kemper Award recognizes
individual service to the AIA.
The 2011 recipient, Chet Widom,
FAIA, is a founding partner
of WWCOT (now DLR Group
WWCOT) a Southern California
firm that he led for more than
40 years. Widom retired from
the firm in 2008 and now acts
as senior architectural adviser
to the Los Angeles Community
College District. In 1989, Widom
served as AIA California Council
president and, in 1995, as
president of the national AIA.
FIRM OF THE YEAR BNIM
BNIM has always been a go-getter practice. Since its early days in Kansas City in the 1960s and 1970s (above), the
firm has expanded to Houston, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Des Moines, Iowa, and the partners have emerged as
champions of green architecture. A case in point: BNIM’s 2010 Omega Center for Sustainable Living in Rhinebeck,
N.Y., is the first building ever to receive both LEED Platinum and Living Building Challenge certification.
2011 AIA Honors
SOURCE : AIA
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Protection for tomorrow’s environment
Circle no. 298 or http://architect.hotims.com
Robert Ivy Named
AIA Executive Vice
President & CEO
THE AIA HAS ANNOUNCED that Robert Ivy, FAIA, the
editor-in-chief of Architectural Record since 1996, will
become the institute’s new executive vice president (EVP)
and CEO on Feb. 1, 2011. He succeeds Christine McEntee,
who left the AIA in July to lead the American Geophysical
Union. During the AIA’s search for a new director, Paul
Welch Jr., Hon. AIA, of the AIA California Council has been
serving as acting EVP/CEO.
“Bob brings to the AIA a great knowledge of our
profession and has thought deeply about a profession
he loves dearly,” says 2010 AIA President George Miller,
FAIA. “He will help the institute raise its voice across the
nation and around the world.” In an AIA press release,
AIA President Clark Manus, FAIA, said, “I am thrilled to be
working with Robert in the coming year.”
Ivy, who is also the vice president and editorial
director of McGraw-Hill Construction Media, is an
M.Arch. graduate of Tulane University. He was a principal
at Ivy Architects and the managing partner at Dean/
Dale/Dean and Ivy over the course of 14 years. Ivy was
elevated to the AIA College of Fellows in 1993.
Ivy’s years of experience as a communications and
media leader will benefit him greatly, he believes, in the
dif cult months and years ahead. “The AIA, in one sense,
is a large network of people and ideas,” he says. “One of
my central functions will be to enhance that capacity,
to unlock their resources, to put people in touch with
each other.” Bullish on the profession’s future, Ivy says
that this is an excellent time to bring architects together.
BRAULIO AGNESE
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Sasaki, Hacin + Associates
Create Partnership
A PAIR OF BOSTON-AREA firms, Sasaki
Associates and Hacin + Associates (H+A),
announced a strategic partnership in early
December. Not a merger, the arrangement,
in which H+A president David Hacin, AIA,
takes on a principal role at Sasaki, is more of
a May-December romance: Sasaki, currently
230 staf strong, launched in 1953; the more
boutiquey H+A, founded in 1993, employs
14 architects and interior designers.
The practices first collaborated on the
development of housing prototypes and a
new hotel for the manmade Lulu Island in
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. As the
project wrapped, the firms began discussions
to formalize the partnership.
“We are already working … and pursuing
projects together, as well as working
independently,” Hacin says. “Sasaki is
one of the world’s most collaborative and
interdisciplinary firms. One of the reasons we
are drawn together is because this is also the
core of who we are. It is not fundamentally
about saving money or an economy of scale,
but about achieving greater design results.”
In addition to the similar work practices,
Hacin’s connection to the commercial
marketplace opens up opportunities for
Sasaki. “David has a very strong portfolio
in the developer-driven area,” says Sasaki
principal Elizabeth Meek, who heads the
interiors practice. “It is a place where we
have long history, but our architecture has
been focused on college campuses as of
late. He brings us expertise in commercial
development.”
Both firms will keep their own of ces,
Sasaki’s in Watertown, Mass., and H+A’s in
downtown Boston. A current collaboration
between the firms, mixed-use housing on
Massachusetts’ North Shore, is in the early
stages of development. MIMI ZEIGER
ORLANDO SENTINEL (FL)
Kennedy Space Center plans
A 10-year master plan by PGAV Destinations
has been released for the Kennedy Space
Center Visitor Complex. The vision includes a
64,000-square-foot display for one of the three
space shuttles, whose final locations have yet to
be determined. “Kennedy Space Center is home
to the space shuttle,” says visitor center chief
operating offi cer Bill Moore. “[W]e have begun
designing a dynamic, interactive exhibit to tell
the space shuttle story from our own unique
perspective.”
COMPILED BY EDWARD KEEGAN
NEWSWIRE
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Circle no. 175 or http://architect.hotims.com
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Light. Ideas. Systems.
Circle no. 170 or http://architect.hotims.com
ASSOCIATED PRESS
China’s skyscraper superiority
China is now home to six of the world’s 15
tallest buildings—including Shanghai’s Jin Mao
Tower (above)—while the U.S. can claim only
three. Joe McDonald reports that China will
soon pass the U.S. for the most structures in the
top 100 and will eventually have many more.
“There are cities in China that most Western
people have never heard of that have … more
tall buildings than half the prominent cities
in the U.S.,” says Council on Tall Buildings and
Urban Habitat executive director Antony Wood.
NEW YORK–BASED architect and Yale
architecture dean Robert A.M. Stern, FAIA, is
the 2011 winner of the Richard H. Driehaus
Prize for Classical Architecture. In announcing
the award, jury chair and Notre Dame
architecture dean Michael Lykoudis says,
“More than any other practicing architect
today, Bob Stern has brought classicism into
the public realm and the mainstream of the
profession, reinvigorating it for generations
to come.”
The Driehaus prize was first presented
in 2003 to architect and theorist Léon Krier,
and the absence of Stern’s name among the
winners in the intervening years has long
been the subject of conversation among
professionals. The wait doesn’t seem to bother
Stern, who notes, “I’m joining a pantheon of
friends and colleagues.”
While Stern has long built in traditional
modes, his work is more diverse than many
previous Driehaus recipients. His 15 Central
Park West has been a hit in New York because
of its use of brick and limestone reminiscent
of other Upper West Side apartment
buildings, but the 57-story Comcast Center
in Philadelphia is hardly the sort of building
you’d expect from Krier or Quinlan Terry,
the 2005 Driehaus laureate. “Comcast is a
traditional, iconic shape—an obelisk—but
of our time and clad in glass,” Stern says in
describing how it fits with his other work.
The Driehaus comes with a $200,000
purse, architecture’s largest prize to an
individual and double that of the Pritzker
Prize. “Quantities count,” Stern says. “I intend
to give mine to Yale, where it will further
the study of classicism.” The award will
be presented at a ceremony in Chicago on
March 26. EDWARD KEEGAN
Stern Receives
2011 Driehaus Prize
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THE UNIVERSITY DAILY KANSAN
Warren Corman’s legacy
An era at the University of Kansas ended in
December with the retirement of university
architect Warren Corman, 84, who attended
KU from 1946 to 1950. “Corman has had a hand
in the design or development of nearly every
building project at the university in the last
half century,” Kelly Stroda writes. His first job
was as a student in the state architect’s offi ce.
After a stint in private practice, he was the chief
architect for the Kansas Board of Regents for 31
years; he became university architect in 1997.
IN AN EFFORT to help filter out product
greenwashing, NSF International, an Ann
Arbor, Mich.–based nonprofit that writes
national standards and certifies products to
protect public health and the environment, has
developed the Sustainable Product Assurance
program to help measure and verify the
environmental and social claims of products.
The program is composed of several
interconnected services that aim to
strengthen sustainable product claims. Using
measurement methods related to content,
material- and energy-resource use, and end-
of-life concerns, NSF seeks to develop national
industry standards, technically rigorous
protocols, or a customized methodology
by which to verify a product’s claims.
Sustainable product certification will involve
evaluating and testing products to ensure
that they conform to published standards
and protocols. When certification is achieved,
an NSF Sustainability Certified Mark will
be granted. This mark can then be used on
packaging, products, and marketing materials.
Certified products also will be listed in an
online NSF database.
The NSF Sustainable Product Assurance
program seeks to comply with the U.S. Federal
Trade Commission’s Green Guidelines. The
testing and certification program aims to
verify environmental claims, such as water,
waste, and energy savings, recyclability, and
nontoxic claims. For more information, visit
nsfsustainability.org. ECO-STRUCTURE STAFF
Nonprofit Targets
Building-Product
Greenwashing
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any architectural opening. Comprised of DORMA Architectural Hardware,
DORMA Glas, Modernfold, and DORMA Entrance Systems™—which markets
products and services under the DORMA Automatics, Crane Revolving Doors,
and DORMA-Carolina Door Controls brands, DORMA Group North America is part
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Visit us at www.dorma-usa.com or call our Architectural Support Desk at 866.401.6063.
Found on some of the best addresses in the world
Circle no. 189 or http://architect.hotims.com
Develop new perspectives for our
future: 3
rd
International Holcim
Awards competition for projects
in sustainable construction. Prize
money totals USD 2 million.
www.holcimawards.org
In partnership with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
(ETH Zurich), Switzerland; the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, Cambridge, USA; Tongji University, Shanghai, China;
Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City; and the Ecole Supérieure
d’Architecture de Casablanca, Morocco. The universities lead the
independent juries in five regions of the world. Entries at
www.holcimawards.org close March 23, 2011.
The Holcim Awards competition is an initiative of the Holcim
Foundation for Sustainable Construction. Based in Switzerland,
the foundation is supported by Holcim Ltd and its Group companies
and affiliates in more than 70 countries. Holcim is one of the
world’s leading suppliers of cement and aggregates as well
as further activities such as ready-mix concrete and asphalt
including services.
Aziza Chaouni, Architect, Fez, Morocco: Winner of the Global Holcim
Awards Gold 2009.
“ When a project isn’t focused on the needs of
the people, then what?”
Circle no. 377 or http://architect.hotims.com
Fairmont State University | Fairmont, WV
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Whether it’s a retrofit project or new construction, CENTRIA consistently receives high
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Circle no. 25 or http://architect.hotims.com
VIsIAAK cIALÞABAÞ1I cK 1IL Ii1iÞL cI 1IL ÞÞcILssIcK
AIAVOICES
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Vishaan Chakrabarti, AIA, is a developer, architect, planner, and director
of the real estate development program at Columbia University’s Graduate
School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation.
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graduaLe írom arcliLecLural ¡rograms. Ir mary cases, íor a more
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viLl a develo¡merL degree or busiress educaLior ir order Lo creaLe
more vellrourded ¡roíessiorals.
1oday’s sLuderLs are irLeresLed ir ar irLerraLioral lrovledge
base. Ir Clira ard Brazil ard Irdia Llere are a loL oí clarces Lo |usL
go ard build. 1ose courLries’ urbarizaLior issues dvarí America’s
largely suburbar mirdseL. Yourg ¡eo¡le are ¡oised Lo go over Llere
ard deal viLl Llose issues ir a íurdamerLally diííererL vay. Ve car
acLually brirg Llose lessors bacl Lo Llis courLry.
As ¡racLiLiorers, arcliLecLs musL be sersiLive Lo all sorLs
oí demards. 1is is vly I believe LlaL dual degrees ard cross
disci¡lirary learrirg are Lle vay oí Lle íuLure. IL’s im¡orLarL roL Lo
see iL as meldirg diííererL laLs, buL vearirg diííererL laLs—eacl ore
is disLircL. IL’s im¡orLarL íor ¡eo¡le Lo Llirl fluidly across diííererL
logics. 1e mosL successíul arcliLecLs vill be Lle ores vlo car move
alorg LlaL s¡ecLrum. As told to William Richards.
To hear from more architects about the future of the profession, and to contribute n
your own voice, visit architectmagazine.com/AIA.
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NOW 30 FUTURE 31 DESIGN 32 FEATURE 34 PERSPECTIVE 36 J
sA× inA×cisco
Or Lle Radio
A|A San |rancisco is airing
99% Invisible, a new weekly
public radio series exploring the
process and power of design.
The show helps and chall enges
listeners to notice the invisible
activity that shapes our world:
design.
Listen at n
99percentinvisible.org.
s1. iocis
Sra¡ Lo IL
A|A St. Louis hosts its annual
National Photography
Competition for Architects.
Winning images, judged by an
expert panel, will be displayed at
the A|A 2UJJ National Convention
in New 0rleans and appear in
the 2UJ3 Rizzoli Engagement
Calendar. Top winners earn cash
prizes. Submission deadline is
Varch J.
Learn more at n aia-stlouis.org.
wAsni×c1o×, o.c.
Seeirg Creer
Te new |nternational Creen
Construction Code—now under
development—promises signifi-
cant changes to practice. Te
A|A is helping to shape the code
and invites your insights and
opinions now. ¥ou can help
make the code better.
Learn more and comment at n
www.aia.org/advocacy.
wAsni×c1o×, o.c.
CorLracL Docs
|our new and updated A|A
Contract 0ocuments relating to
residential and regional planning
projects are now available. Te
8JU9 deals with the unique chal-
lenges of multifamily residential
development and mixed-use
development, while the 85U9 is
a guide specific to condominium
projects. Te 8JU7 is a standard
form of agreement between
an architect and a developer-
builder for a single-family
residential prototype. Te 82J2
is a new standard agreement
for an architect’s services for
regional or urban planning.
Learn more at www. n aia.org/
contractdocs.
ron1Acrni×ci
HaiLi Relieí
Stacey VcVahan, A|A, LEE0
AP, is the first Sustainable
0esign |ellow funded through
a joint effort by the A|A, u.S.
Creen 8uilding Council, and
Architecture for Rumanity. She
is working directly with Raitians
committed to rebuilding their
shattered communities.
Read her observations at n
ayearinhaiti.tumblr.com.
AcÞcss 1IL IKs1I1i1L
AIANOW
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1ni s1A1io× ×on1n ×iicnsonnooo i× sAi1imoni nAs sii×
on the brink of revitalization for years. Backing up to the city’s
Pennsylvania Station, the district encompasses historically
black neighborhoods, a surplus of empty factories left over from
Baltimore’s industrial heyday, and sections of North Avenue, a
once-vibrant commercial thoroughfare that declined after the
1968 riots. HBO’s show Te Wire once used the neighborhood as
a ready-made set of urban decay. Today, though, artists have
repurposed warehouses for studio and living space, small businesses
are opening on North Avenue, and cafés and galleries are again
populating storefronts.
It is this seed of renewal that attracted Seawall Development
Corp., a Baltimore-based company that invests in undervalued urban
properties with the hope that its investment could help tip the scales
in a community. “We have a formula of looking for historic buildings
in a neighborhood that is somewhat on the edge, where if you were
to redevelop a building of any great size you could significantly
influence the surrounding neighborhood and make it better,”
explains Tibault Manekin, co-founder of Seawall.
In Station North, Seawall is working with local architects to turn
a former fabric factory into a public school. Elsewhere in the city,
the company has partnered with architects to transform long-vacant
buildings into affordable housing for teachers and offi ce space for
nonprofits.
Michael P. Buckley, FAIA, a professor at the University of Texas
at Arlington, believes there is a future for architects in just this kind
of development. Baltimore is struggling under the weight of over
16,000 vacant buildings and a glut of undervalued properties, and
the city is not alone. Communities across the country are contending
with devalued real estate, and Buckley believes the time is ripe
for architects to step up. “We know we have a diffi cult financing
environment, and we have to make the case for design. Rather
than waiting for the economy to rebound, architects must engineer
solutions,” Buckley says.
“Te power of architects to visualize something needs to be
matched by the ability to visualize it fiscally,” he adds. “If architects
get empowered to understand the financing part of a project—record
cost and revenue potential of design—they get on the playing side of
the sandbox.” And with this approach, Buckley adds, the profession
could help generate new work in a tough fiscal environment, rather
than wait for the market to recover and come to them.
To that end, Buckley developed a certificate program in Asset
Repositioning and Turnaround Strategies at UT Arlington. Te
program gives students the skills to make not only an aesthetic case
for a project, but a fiscal one as well. Buckley encourages students to
see where they can advocate for design saving money. He points to
urban density as an example. “I am working with a very distressed
community on a project, and we are going to try to make density
appealing and get the city to understand that they have a tool that
they can use by dropping the per-unit land cost,” Buckley explains.
Architects could help build business for themselves, Buckley
believes, if they learn to not only record cost, but also potential
revenue. “If we could get architects to understand that if it’s OK to
manipulate visually, it’s also good to manipulate financially—as long
as it’s for the good of the architecture—then we could expand the
practice of design.”
Seawall relies on architects to take the germ of an idea for a
building and turn it into reality, but Manekin says architects can be
reluctant to move beyond design. “Typically, we have found that
they want nothing to do with understanding the financing. Tey are
busy enough as it is,” Manekin says.
“A few architects dabble with ownership,” Manekin adds. But
for the most part, “they tend to sit on the sideline and do as they’re
told. Tey’ve been taught that their role is to follow the developer’s
order,” he says.
And this, he says, is a big mistake.
“Architects have great ideas about energy consumption, about
lifecycles for buildings, about how to lay out space effectively.
Architects should be more vocal,” Manekin says.

Written by Elizabeth Evitts Dickinson.
“Te power of architects to visualize
something needs to be matched by the
ability to visualize it fiscally.”
AIAFUTURE
 
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“wni× o×i 1ccs A1 A si×cii 1ni×c i× ×A1cni, ni ii×os i1
A11Acnio 1o 1ni nis1 oi 1ni wonio.”
LrvirormerLalisL |olr Muir’s asserLior is as Lrue Loday as iL vas
IUU years ago vler le vroLe Llese vords. BuL as Muir surveyed Lle
Americar Lo¡ogra¡ly aL Lle Lurr oí Lle lasL cerLury, le lilely could
roL lave íaLlomed Lle vasL urbarizaLior LlaL vould defire Lle vorld
Loday. 1e lumar race is or Lle ¡reci¡ice oí ur¡recederLed clarge·
For Lle firsL Lime ir lisLory, more Llar lalí oí Lle global ¡o¡ulaLior
vill reside ir ciLies. 1is greaL urbarizaLior is cou¡led viLl a risirg
avareress LlaL ciLies musL embrace correcLiviLy íor íuLure success.
Ir Lle lasL several years, disasLers—boLl raLural ard marmade,
írom Lle floods oí KaLrira Lo Lle ecoromic devasLaLior ir slrirlirg
ciLies lile DeLroiL—lave made iL ¡airíully clear LlaL ve carroL live
ir a vacuum. CiLies are, Lo borrov írom Muir, a com¡lex sysLem oí
irLervover Llreads. Vler ore urravels, ve all íeel Lle eííecLs.
Tc kcgional Dcsign kcvolution
Tis May, the nation’s architects
convene in New Orleans to
advance the future of vibrant,
place-based design.
z~cn :oP1ìcP
AIA zc¡¡ ccKVLK1IcK
AIADESIGN
Clark D. Manus, FAIA, CEO of San Francisco–based Heller Manus
and president of the American Institute of Architects, believes that
in the future architecture and planning must address regional design.
Cities, he contends, must become integral components of larger
communities, economies, and ecosystems if they are to thrive. “To
try to solve the planet’s environmental issues on a building-by-
building basis is noble, but I don’t think it’s big enough,” Manus says.
“Sustainable communities can happen only when people are thinking
collectively.”
Tat’s why Manus and like-minded fellow architects think it’s
time for a regional revolution. Increasingly, architects recognize that
they must look beyond a project’s property line in order to engage,
restore, and enhance a region’s economic, environmental, and social
vitality—not to mention the fiscal health of the profession.
“We’re at the point now where the carbon footprint is the
barometer,” says Bruce A. Race, FAIA, AICP, founder of RACESTUDIO
and associate professor of practice in the College of Architecture
and Planning at Ball State University. “I talk to my students about
how to build places that support lifestyles while having one-eighth
the carbon footprint—because if they don’t do that, they’re going
to spend their career moving cities from southern Florida. Te
innovation expected of them is unlike any generation before it.”
Regional solutions, Race contends, are critical to tackling the
sustainability and economic issues that threaten the planet: air and
water quality, energy consumption, mobility, and productivity.
Tat the world must think regionally is not up for discussion;
how architects will help achieve this complex goal is. What does
regional design look like? How do architects help communities work
across disciplines, across geographic, cultural, and political divides,
to coalesce around a unified and sustainable vision of place?
Regional approaches to urban planning that catalyze
communities through design advocacy are “the essence of the
profession,” Manus says. “It’s what the AIA believes is at the heart of
what we can provide as architects.”
Which is why, from May 12–14, the AIA will convene the nation’s
architects to explore best practices in regional design at the AIA
2011 Convention. Te theme—Regional Design Revolution: Ecology
Matters—reflects “the ability of architects to be effective and action-
oriented when resolving the issues facing our communities,” Manus
says. Te event will happen in a city at the epicenter of a strong
region, a place that epitomizes cultural identity: New Orleans.
Learning from New Orleans
Perhaps no other city in the nation has spent as much time
thinking about architecture and urban planning as New Orleans. Te
massive natural disaster that leveled the city is, in many ways, the
contemporary urban disaster writ large. Te dismantling of New
Orleans happened in a matter of hours; for cities like Detroit, it took
decades. But the fundamentals are the same: We built cities we could
not sustain. “New Orleans is one of the best examples in the country of
what happens when you’re not paying attention to the local ecology,
where your aspirations and natural place are not in sync,” Race says.
New Orleans is a completely singular and unique place, yet
its problems are an emblematic to-do list for all American cities.
How do you bridge racial and economic disparity? How do you
celebrate historic connections to food, music, and architecture
without harboring the prejudices and bad choices of the past? How
do you restore a community’s economic vitality without losing
the connections to its heritage? Addressing the multifarious social,
political, and ecological issues calls for a regional response that
respects both New Orleans’ unique culture and its location at the
mouth of the Mississippi River Delta.
Today, New Orleans is doing more than merely rebuilding. Te
city is driving innovation in regionally sensitive building, planning,
and sustainability—whether it’s with the LEED Platinum houses
created for the Make it Right Foundation or the planning priorities
that address the ecological, economic, political, and cultural truths
of a city at the epicenter of a fragile ecosystem. “We’re trying to
rebuild with a community objective of social justice,” says Allen
Eskew, FAIA, director of local firm Eskew+Dumez+Ripple.
Since the storm, New Orleans has increased its efforts to add
density to its urban core while considering ways to shrink its
footprint away from flood-prone areas like the Lower 9th Ward.
Region-wide solutions to flooding and transportation are being
discussed. Mathes Brierre Architects, among others, proposes tearing
down the Claiborne Avenue Expressway that rips through the heart
of the historic Treme neighborhood and substituting a light rail line
that can evolve into an epicenter of economic development. And
architects are looking at ways to use the region’s watershed cycles
to the area’s benefit, instead of walling water away in hardened,
inflexible canals.
“Everybody looks back at the five-year history of New Orleans
and has a sense of what we can learn, what we can take back to our
communities, and those things we shouldn’t repeat,” Manus says.
Race points to the many areas where architects address
sustainable, high-performing building—from the single-family home
to the commercial rehab to the neighborhood master plan. “We are
all working on this at different scales and over time. Our profession
can contribute to a regenerative model for a region,” he says. “Why
not think about how we can, in a conference setting, come together
and acknowledge that?”
In May, the AIA 2011 Convention will be an idea factory of
innovative practices, products, and presentations, with lessons from
New Orleans and from cities and regions across the country. “Te
whole profession is starting to reorganize itself to meet the demand
for sustainability,” Race says. “Tat’s part of our profession. We love
challenges. We love design.”
33

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Te Regional Design Revolution
Convention program guide is
searchable online at www.aia.org
convention.
Te Politician
One year into his second four-year term on the Salt Lake City
City Council, Soren Simonsen, AIA, sees his career as a placemaker.
He accomplishes this by splitting time between architecture and
policy making.
“Policy influences so much of the work that architects do, and
I really wanted to be a part of that,” he says. Simonsen is a partner
with Community Studio, a practice dedicated to neighborhood-
based urban design. City council positions are part-time, so
Simonsen works full-time at his firm, averaging 20 hours per week
on political work. “I don’t spend much time skiing or mountain
biking anymore,” he says.
Salt Lake City is undergoing what Simonsen calls unprecedented
capital improvements. “Probably 80 percent of the work we do in
city council relates to capital improvement and planning or zoning
issues,” he says. Simonsen finds that his experience as an architect
brings a set of skills to his policy work. “You have to be a good
listener, because you’re always working on someone else’s behalf to
implement their vision,” he says. “Architects also have the ability
to look at problems from many different angles.”
Te Materialist
New York–based Jennifer Carpenter, AIA, LEED AP, is a full-spectrum
designer. She has worked on the massive (helping design Washington
National Airport while at Cesar Pelli & Associates) to the minute
(creating children’s furniture for Nurseryworks).
In 1998, Carpenter joined Rogers Marvel Architects, and her role
as an architect extended into furniture and product design. In 2000
Carpenter co-founded the offshoot TRUCK Product Architecture,
where she designed furniture for retailers such as MoMA and created
everything from tables (for Design Within Reach) to retail fixtures for
displaying tableware (for Kate Spade).
In 2010 she launched Jennifer Carpenter Architect, taking on
architecture, furniture, and product design. Tere is a link to her
vast projects: materials. “Even though design disciplines are quite
distinct, materials are the common thread,” she says. “Tere’s a lot
of discovery that can come out of the material iterative process.”
Each practice, she points out, has its own set of challenges. “For all
the discussion about fluidity between disciplines, they’re really quite
distinct.” Understanding this has allowed a range of commissions.
“I go back and forth between the scales,” Carpenter says.
AIAFEATURE
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Multitaskers
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Tc Prcscrvationist
For Chicago-based historic preservation architect T. Gunny Harboe,
FAIA, design involves the past, present, and future. “It’s often
assumed that because it’s preservation, there’s not all that much
design involved,” Harboe says. “In reality, there’s lots of design,
particularly in finding a technical solution that has vexed the building
for a long time.”
Sometimes this involves bringing a building up to code, but his
work is more than technical details. “Toughtful stewardship of
our cultural heritage is an important part of creating a sustainable
society.”
In bridging the past with the future, he routinely encounters
pragmatic issues of performance, balancing that against heritage.
One issue: windows. “It is not a good solution if the building performs
better but loses its heritage values in the process,” he says.
Troughout his career, he has worked with a roster of early and
midcentury Modernist masterpieces from Louis Sullivan’s Carson
Pirie Scott department store to Mies van der Rohe’s Crown Hall. He
says it is a tough design challenge: “When we do a really good job it
looks like no one’s been there.”
Ancni1ic1cni is ×o1 ¡cs1 A mA11in oi oiiivini×c
buildings. It’s a way of thinking. As such, architectural
training lends itself to a range of applications. We sat
down with four professionals who have gone beyond
the building, extending their practices into other
domains. From children’s furniture to metalwork,
preservation to politics, the projects demand a strong
critical eye and an expertise in problem-solving. In
short, regardless of the work, they act as architects.
Tc Craftsman
When the economy dropped in the mid-1980s, Texas architect Lars
Stanley, FAIA, LEED AP, turned to metal artisanry to diversify his
practice. He has since built Lars Stanley Metalworks into a successful
venture, turning out award-winning gates, sculpture, furniture,
architectural details, and lighting fixtures.
Stanley lives and works on a two-acre site in Austin, Texas,
splitting his time between his architecture studio and metal
workshop. Whether in the smithy or the studio, his method is similar.
“Architecture is a process of developing ideas, exploring options, and
understanding reactions to the environment,” he explains. “With
metalwork, it’s the same process.”
Stanley collaborates with a range of architects and clients looking
for custom-metal details and he spends his days running between
the studio and the metal shop to try out new ideas. “Architectural
education can expand into other types of practices that can be
very rewarding,” Stanley says. “I tell all of my interns to think of
architecture more broadly.”

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Architecture is more than just
the design of buildings. Meet four
professionals who are bringing
design thinking to the masses.
;on: cP:u~ìì
35
1IL Ii1iÞL cI 1IL ÞÞcILssIcK
AIAPERSPECTIVE
1ni ¡A×cAnv issci oi Ancni1ic1 1Acxiis 1ni ic1cni oi 1ni
¡roíessior. IL’s a bold move. Lile Yogi Berra said, “1e íuLure air’L
vlaL iL used Lo be.”
YeL, as readers oí AÞcII1Lc1 lave come Lo lrov, Lle ediLors
do roL sly avay írom ary issue LlaL miglL lave ar im¡acL or
arcliLecLs—lerce Lle rame oí Lle magazire—ever Lle diffi culL ores
Lrarsíormirg our ¡roíessior, our clierLs, ard Lle ¡ublic ve serve.
1ey’ve beer doirg iL íor years. Begirrirg viLl Llis issue oí Lle
magazire, Lle AIA ard Harley Vood vill be doirg iL LogeLler.
Lvery morLl AÞcII1Lc1 vill Lale or a Limely Lo¡ic—lealLlcare,
susLairabiliLy, Lle educaLior oí Lle ¡roíessior. Ard every morLl or
Llese ¡ages readers vill fird a íorum íor member voices, revs írom AIA
com¡orerLs arourd Lle vorld, íeaLures, ard Lle IrsLiLuLe’s ¡ers¡ecLive
or maLLers oí ¡arLicular corcerr Lo Lle members—lile Lle íuLure.
VlaL abouL Lle íuLure: 1is mucl is clear· 1e issues oí Lle 2IsL
cerLury—Lrars¡orLaLior, lealLl, saíeLy, lard use, erergy, aííordable
lousirg, ard, oí course, susLairabiliLy—are aL Lleir core desigr
maLLers LlaL require Lle core com¡eLercy oí arcliLecLs. 1is is Lle
good or aL leasL lo¡eíul revs abouL Lle íuLure. Nov comes Lle lard
¡arL· brirgirg Lo liglL Lle ¡ossibiliLies oí vlaL could be a golder age
íor desigr Llirlirg. IL’s roL Lle vorl oí a sirgle arcliLecL or firm,
lovever LalerLed. IL’s ever beyord our ¡roíessior ard irdusLry.
VlaL’s called íor is a careíully LlouglLouL, irLegraLed a¡¡roacl
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¡roíessior, vorls viLl Lle sclools Lo male sure Lle rexL gereraLior
oí arcliLecLs is ¡re¡ared íor Lle íuLure, s¡orsors Lle researcl LlaL
brirgs Lo liglL lrovledge resources LlaL male a diííererce, ard
educaLes Lle ¡ublic or Lle vays ir vlicl desigr ard arcliLecLs
elevaLe ard erricl Lle lumar ex¡erierce. 1ese are |usL Lle mosL
obvious clallerges.
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lave our lards or Llese levers oí clarge, or do ve leave our íuLure
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1e value oí Lle Americar IrsLiLuLe oí ArcliLecLs (AIA) is Lle
collecLive sLrergLl oí Lle members vorlirg LogeLler or belalí oí
Lleir irdividual ¡racLices ard Lle collecLive viLaliLy oí our ¡roíessior.
VlaL las mairLaired Lle value oí AIA membersli¡ over Lle years las
beer Lle abiliLy oí Lle IrsLiLuLe Lo ada¡L Lo clarge, clarge LlaL las
beer driver by Lle members Llemselves ir res¡orse Lo a vorld LlaL
vould roL be recogrizable Lo Lle I8 arcliLecLs vlo íourded Lle AIA
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1is commiLmerL Lo be erergized raLler Llar overvlelmed by
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commu ricaLiors reeds, iLs visior ard service roL orly ir Llis cour
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LlaL ircludes irLegraLed media, oLler ¡ublicaLiors, ard Lle raLioral
corverLior—a vorld oí rev o¡¡orLuriLies íor Lle íuLure.
Ir Llis ard subsequerL issues, Llese dedicaLed AIA ¡ages vill
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¡ers¡ecLive oí Lle IrsLiLuLe’s leadersli¡, vlicl, a¡¡ro¡riaLely, vill
a¡¡ear belird Lle members, roL ouL ir írorL. Ore Llirg more· 1o
mairLair Lle credibiliLy oí Llis secLior, ve vill roL discourage diííer
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As you—ard ve—become more used Lo Lle o¡¡orLuriLies beirg
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MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS → 44 TYPOLOGY 50 LEADERSHIP 60 LOCAL MARKET 64
BUSINESS
The Virtues of Social Media
BEST PRACTICES →
CLODAGH, THE MONO-MONIKER New York design
entrepreneur, has been in business for more than 25
years and prides herself on being ahead of the curve.
Yet it took a while for her and her eponymous firm to
embrace social media. Now, the 12-person operation,
which includes a product-design division and an interior
design practice for high-end residential, commercial,
spa, and hospitality clients, is integrating social-media
tools for branding, advertising, marketing, and business
development. A self-described nontechie, the Irish-born
Clodagh spoke to ARCHITECT by phone while wandering
the streets of Dublin and gave tips on how a small firm
can best deploy the power of social media.
Find a good tweeter.
You don’t always need a full-time stafer, Clodagh
suggests. Look for someone who is tech-savvy and
has the skills and knows your business. At Clodagh,
it’s Lauren Sanford, an interior designer. “She went
Before she discovered
the joys and benefits
of Facebook and Twitter,
Clodagh admits, “I was a
Luddite, stalled on the
information highway.”

TEXT BY ERNEST BECK
PHOTO BY MATT CARR
41
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to a Twitter seminar and came back all steamed up,” Clodagh says. “Lauren does most of the
twittering right now, either what I tell her or whatever she picks up on herself.”
Drive traf c to your website.
You want eyeballs on your site, and tweeting, blogging, and Facebook posts are the best way to do
that. “We had a quarterly newsletter,” Clodagh says, “but it’s so cumbersome.” Use social-media
tools to talk about what you are doing day to day and week to week, as well as new products and
brand enhancements, plus what you’re doing at the trade shows. “Even e-mail blasts are a thing
of the past,” she adds. “We’ll only use e-mail blasts for holiday greetings.”
Build a fan club following with Facebook.
This is the place to post stories, pictures, press releases, and YouTube videos of speeches and talks.
Facebook is “like ‘Dear Diary’ back in Victorian times. You can expose everything.”
Tweet, text, and blog all you can.
Don’t stop, Clodagh recommends. Whatever you find or see, whatever you stumble on in the
street or eat in a restaurant, or when you experience “the thrill of some amazing décor”—pass it
on to other architects and designers. It lets people know who you are and what you’re passionate
about. “Then people twitter back, and you become a group of chirping birds.”
Forget bricks and mortar.
“We recently closed our downtown showroom because people had stopped walking in of the
street,” Clodagh says. “So why pay rent? Everyone is buying online. It’s a radical change. You can
tweet out when there’s something new to promote on the site and people don’t have to come in
anymore to see it.”
Share your enthusiasm.
It’s not just about products. Promote what you care about. “For us that’s environmental
consciousness, wellness, green design, what ‘good design’ means, and experiences where people
can flourish.”
Break down barriers.
Architecture and design have all become a bit too “churchly,” Clodagh believes. “We’ve become
like doctors and lawyers, remote from most people.” Social media can help change that and make
the profession more user-friendly and approachable. You can let people know there’s nothing
remote about what you do so they won’t be intimidated. “Facebook pulls that barrier away.”
Don’t mind your P’s and Q’s.
Social media is the place to express your opinions, so don’t be afraid to speak your mind.
“Everything is too edited, anyway.” Be honest and forthright, fresh and direct. In other words,
don’t look back. “I’ve never regretted anything we’ve put out there,” Clodagh declares.
Open the doors of perception to a virtual world.
In a business such as architecture, people want insight into the work designers do—the creative
process. Social media connects the world. Remember, she says, that today, “there are zero degrees
of separation.”

YOU WANT EYEBALLS ON YOUR SITE, AND
TWEETING, BLOGGING, AND FACEBOOK
POSTS ARE THE BEST WAY TO DO THAT. “WE
HAD A QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER,” CLODAGH
SAYS, “BUT IT’S SO CUMBERSOME.”
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“THEY TOLD
ME … A
PRESTIGIOUS
ADDRESS” WAS
IMPORTANT,
NORTEN SAYS,
EXPLAINING
WHY HE
MOVED HIS
FIRM TO
155 FIFTH AVE.
44
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business
MERGERS → & ACQUISITIONS
Norten
Sues South
Korean
Mega-Firm
AFTER A 2010 MERGER WENT
SOUTH, THE FOUNDER OF TEN
ARQUITECTOS SUED SEOUL-BASED
HEERIM ARCHITECTS & PLANNERS.
TEXT BY FRED A. BERNSTEIN
TEN ARQUITECTOS, THE NEW YORK firm of Enrique
Norten, Hon. FAIA, has had a Fifth Avenue address since
last August. Back then, it was on the verge of merging
with a large South Korean company, Heerim Architects
& Planners. “They told me it was important to Asian
clients that we have a prestigious address,” Norten says,
explaining why he moved to tonier new of ces on the
third floor of 155 Fifth Ave.
But just weeks after the firm moved into the space,
the deal went sour. Now, Norten is suing Heerim for
$3 million, claiming fraud and breach of contract. But
Heerim, according to its New York lawyer, Jae Lee,
scuttled the deal because Norten missed meetings with
Heerim executives and farmed out work to his Mexico
City of ce without permission. Norten’s subsequent
decision to remain in the Fifth Avenue space makes
him a “squatter,” Lee says.
The saga began about a year ago, when Heerim—a
Seoul, South Korea–based giant with of ces in Dubai,
United Arab Emirates; Baku, Azerbaijan; and Hanoi,
Vietnam—began looking for a U.S. partner. Heerim
executives made a wish list of about a dozen firms and
began meeting with their principals, according to Lee.
During several meetings in New York and Seoul, Norten
made a good impression. “He was very afable and
enthusiastic,” says Lee, who adds that it would have
been easy to merge with Norten’s firm because “he
didn’t have a lot of projects.” (In an e-mail, Norten calls
that statement “absolutely not true.”)
Over the summer, the parties signed documents
establishing a joint venture called TEN Heerim, owned
49 percent by Norten and 51 percent by Heerim’s
CEO, Young Kyoon Jeong. (In New York, only licensed
architects are allowed to own architecture firms, which
Enrique
Norten
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WHILE THE DEAL WAS BEING FINALIZED, HEERIM
ASSIGNED A COUPLE OF JOBS TO NORTEN. THE
WORK WAS SUBSTANDARD AND “A CLIENT-RELATIONS
DISASTER,” CLAIMS HEERIM’S LAWYER, JAE LEE.


46 business
explains why Jeong, who earned an M.Arch. at the
University of Pennsylvania and has been licensed
in the state of New York since 1994, stood in for
Heerim.) Norten would earn $250,000 a year,
plus a $100,000 bonus, for his role as managing
director of design. And it would guarantee the
new venture at least $1 million a year in billings.
Norten would continue to run his separate Mexico
City–based firm, also called TEN Arquitectos.
According to Norten, in order to satisfy
Heerim he arranged for an unpaid leave of
absence from the University of Pennsylvania,
where he is a professor of architecture, and even
declined work that he thought would take time
away from the new firm. In August, he moved
to the Fifth Avenue space. But on Aug. 17, he
received an e-mail in which Jeong said he didn’t
want to continue the joint venture. Norten says
he was stunned. Less than a month later, he sued
Heerim, claiming fraudulent inducement, breach
of contract, and breach of fiduciary duty and
demanding $3 million in damages.
Norten speculates that troubles in South
Korea caused Heerim to walk away. “The stock
was dropping, and they were losing projects,”
Norten says. “So I think the board told him, ‘You
need to focus on the Asian markets. You can’t
be everywhere.’ ” But in an e-mail, Jeong writes,
“There is no truth to Mr. Norten’s allegations that
Heerim decided to refocus on Asia.” In fact, Jeong
says, Heerim is looking for another U.S. partner.
According to Lee, while the deal was being
finalized, as a sign of good faith, Heerim assigned
a couple of jobs to Norten, who promised that
the work would be done in New York. Instead,
“without telling anyone, he had the work done by
the Mexico City of ce,” Lee claims. Not only was
the work substandard, Lee says, but “when the
client found out, it was a client-relations disaster
for Heerim.” He says that Heerim executives flew
to New York to discuss the matter, as well as
inconsistencies it had found in Norten’s financial
statements, but Norten repeatedly stood them
up. Overall, Lee says, Heerim executives “were
exasperated by his lack of cooperation” and “lost
any trust” they’d had in Norten.
But Norten says he never stood up Heerim
executives, that Heerim knew about the
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NORTEN SPECULATES THAT TROUBLES IN
SOUTH KOREA CAUSED HEERIM TO WALK AWAY.
“THE STOCK WAS DROPPING, AND THEY WERE
LOSING PROJECTS,” NORTEN SAYS.
48 business
involvement of the Mexico of ce, and that it
had seen accurate financials months before it
withdrew from the deal. Meanwhile, he has
remained in the Fifth Avenue of ce; he claims
he has the right to be there, but Heerim says he
should leave or pay rent.
Once Norten filed suit, according to Lee,
Heerim had no choice but to defend itself. “Now
it’s a matter of pride,” says Lee, who wonders why
Norten turned to the courts so quickly. Norten
might have thought he could extract a settlement
from Heerim by threatening to take the dispute
public, Lee says, but that option is closed. In Lee’s
words, “Norten has already fired all his bullets.”
(Norten says in an e-mail that he sued promptly
so as not to forfeit his rights.)
That Norten should founder in the pursuit
of globalization is somewhat ironic. For years
he has been seen as the embodiment of cross-
border practice. Born in Mexico, he opened TEN
Arquitectos there in 1986; in 2001, he expanded
to New York, where he quickly landed several
important projects.
Heerim has also been adept at expanding its
international practice. Founded in 1970, it quickly
became South Korea’s biggest firm, and one of the
few architecture firms in the world to be publicly
traded. With almost 1,100 employees, Heerim
is a huge presence in its homeland, but when
it worked with U.S. firms—including projects
designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox and HOK (the
tallest buildings in South Korea and Vietnam,
respectively)—it tended to find itself as the
“associate architect.” Bringing a “design architect”
such as Norten in-house could have helped
Heerim emerge from that status.
Norten says that he has been embarrassed
by Heerim’s withdrawal: “Having announced
the deal, it’s not good for my reputation.” It
was Norten who contacted the press hoping
for coverage of the story, which he sees as a
warning to other American architects who try
to make deals with foreign firms. They should
be wary, Norten says, of the “regulatory and
legal diferences between the United States and
other countries.”
As for the Heerim debacle, “It was a blessing
that it [the break-up] happened before we started
working together,” Norten says. “Imagine if we
had become really entangled.” Circle no. 299 or http://architect.hotims.com
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TYPOLOGY →
Green
Industrial
WHEN THE STEELCASE Wood Furniture Manufacturing
Plant in Caledonia, Mich., was certified LEED Silver
in 2001, it was the first industrial facility to achieve
that designation from the U.S. Green Building Council
(USGBC).
Nearly 10 years later, after an explosion of green
building, the total number of LEED-certified projects
has jumped to more than 7,300. Yet industrial projects
comprise a relatively small number of this total. In
December, the USGBC reported only 198 so far. The lag
can be attributed to a number of factors, such as the
economics of speculative development, the typically
higher energy demands of these facilities, a lack of
industrial-specific LEED guidelines, and the diminished
industrial construction starts of the past few years.
“Initially, the commercial real estate industry didn’t
see LEED as relevant to this product type,” says Ruth
Brajevich, the chief marketing of cer for Irvine, Calif.–
based Ware Malcomb. Brajevich’s firm has completed
industrial LEED projects for real estate investment trusts
(REITs) and private equity firms.
The coexistence of green and industrial has been
considered the realm of owner-users, who can most
benefit from reduced operating costs, increased building
value, and LEED cachet, explains Eugene Page, a senior
managing director in the Los Angeles of ce of real
WAREHOUSES AND FACTORIES WOULDN’T SEEM TO LEND THEMSELVES TO
SUSTAINABLE DESIGN, BUT ATTITUDES—AND PRACTICES—ARE CHANGING.
TEXT BY JENNIFER CATERINO

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ReCAP Book Storage
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Circle no. 96 or http://architect.hotims.com
estate firm Charles Dunn Co. But with the
USGBC now reporting 814 LEED-registered
industrial projects, and global industrial REITs
such as ProLogis and AMB Property Corp.
implementing green building initiatives, the
rules for green industrial are changing.
“We’re seeing that nontraditional building
types can fit well with sustainable initiatives,”
says Edmund Klimek, AIA, a partner at KSS
Architects in Princeton, N.J.
CHANGING ATTITUDES
Thomas J. Bisacquino is the president and CEO
of the Washington, D.C.–based NAIOP, whose
members are involved in the development
and ownership of industrial, of ce, and
mixed-use properties throughout North
America. To gauge its members’ commitment
to sustainable practices, NAIOP assembled
a “green task force” in 2007. “It was widely
agreed that if you’re going to put energy-
saving technology or methodology into a
building, you want a three-year or less return
on investment [ROI],” Bisacquino says, adding
that the majority of members support energy-
ef ciency measures to the extent that the
tenant is willing to pay for it. “The tenant is
driving the bus on this,” he says.
Klimek, who estimates that more than
80 percent of KSS Architects’ industrial
clients are expressing interest in sustainable
design, doesn’t consider the focus on ROI as
an obstacle to green industrial development.
Among KSS’ recent green industrial projects is
a build-to-suit, 255,000-square-foot LEED Silver
distribution center for Empire Merchants
North in Coxsackie, N.Y., and a new sales and
distribution center in South Brunswick, N.J.,
for the Coca-Cola Co. that is being developed by
Forsgate Industrial Partners.
“Some building owners have a clear 20-
year plan, others want a return in as little as
five years. We can do it and be sustainable.
These are not mutually exclusive things by any
stretch of the imagination,” Klimek says.
Owens Corning’s Brian King, who is
products and program director for foam
insulation, agrees that economics drive
development decisions. The company
recently completed a 45,000-square-foot
manufacturing facility in Gresham, Ore., that
was awarded LEED Gold. For Owens Corning,
King says, the nature of its business—the
plant makes Greenguard-certified Foamular
insulation—contributed to the decision to go
green. “The fact that we make a product that
goes into LEED projects definitely played a role
in … us building a LEED facility,” King says.
BUILDING A BETTER LEED
Ware Malcomb reports that it’s common
for industrial clients to explore LEED as an

Solyndra Fab 2 • Fremont, Calif. • Studios Architecture and CH2M Hill
This complex features a photovoltaic array, daylighting, reclaimed-water systems, and
recycled and recyclable materials. LEED Gold is being sought for the office component.

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TILE FROM SPAIN:
THE PRODUCT THAT NEVER SLEEPS.
Ceramic tile has increasingly become my
floor and wall material of choice, interior
and exterior. The common thread of my
projects is that they require materials that
can be easily and quickly installed and that
they remain effective despite intensive
usage. Plus, the sustainability benefits of
tile make this an easy choice.
– Matt Dubbe, Mead & Hunt Inc.
BUILD FOR LIFE
Certain spaces see more than their share of traffic.
Think of the abuse an elementary school floor must
endure – thousands of little feet walking, running,
jumping day in and day out. Or hospital hallways, as
hundreds of doctors, nurses, patients and families
go about the business of saving lives. Add gurneys
that are rushed down the hall, stat. Supply carts
shoved mercilessly against the wall. Airports, same
story: millions of passengers, employees and airline
crew members, luggage wheels, people-moving
carts, wheelchairs – night and day.
For a space that never rests, it requires a product
that is poised to be on the job 24/7/365. In this case,
ceramic tile is the ideal building material and one
that sees its functional benefits rise to the occasion
of high-performance specifications. Characteristics
such as durability, easy maintenance, hygienic
properties and low lifecycle cost create the perfect
union when ceramic tile is paired with these
demanding venues. There is no building material
that holds such a proven track record for durability.
Directly related to the impervious glazed surface,
or the deep abrasion resistance of an unglazed
format, ceramic tile offers a longer lifespan than
most floor and wall coverings.
When cleanliness is a must, tile offers
unparalleled hygiene benefits. As an inorganic
material, mold, mildew, fungus, and other viruses
don’t stand a chance. Cleaning is a cinch requiring
nothing more than hot water. And without the need
for harsh chemicals, there’s low toxicity impact on
our ecosystem.
Without the need for costly replacement, repair,
refinishing or expensive cleaning regimens, tile also
contributes to consumer cost savings over the life of
the installation.
Build for life. An easy mantra to follow when
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high-performance, functional benefits: durability, easy maintenance,
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Circle no. 385 or http://architect.hotims.com
In 2008, AMB opened Building 100 at Morgan Business
Center in Bloomingdale, Ga. Though originally planned as
the first speculative LEED Silver facility in the Southeast, the
building ultimately netted LEED-CS Gold. According to the
USGBC, the 347,000-square-foot project boasts a 32 percent
reduction in energy use and a water savings of 2 million
gallons per year, compared with a conventional structure.
Similarly, when Owens Corning set out to build its
Foamular facility, it set its sights on LEED-NC Silver. King
says the implementation of a number of sustainable site
and water-ef ciency strategies—minimizing outdoor light
pollution and incorporating a bioswale, among them—
helped it accumulate enough points to achieve a Gold rating.
Whether or not a project seeks LEED, design features
such as daylighting, ef cient lighting, reflective roofing,
and indoor air quality measures, including enhanced HVAC
systems, can translate into significant energy savings and
reduced operating costs.
Working with ProLogis at its Park Duck Creek
facility in Stockton, Calif., Ware Malcomb completed
a 780,000-square-foot distribution center for Sears
that earned LEED Silver certification. Employing a
comprehensive energy-ef cient lighting system and
extensive daylighting strategies helped the project
obtain nine of those credits in the Indoor Environmental
Quality category. The project is expected to save Sears
approximately $400,000 in lighting costs annually,
according to a Ware Malcomb analysis.
Because lighting is the largest electrical load in its
Empire Merchants North
• Coxsackie, N.Y. •
KSS Architects
This corporate
headquarters and
distribution center
achieved LEED Silver.
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EnvelopeFirst

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warehouse facilities—consuming as much as 70 percent
of a facility’s energy—in 2006, ProLogis formulated a
lighting retrofit and standardization program for its
portfolio. The REIT reports that the program has resulted
in a reduction in energy use by as much as 75 percent
through the use of T5 and T8 fluorescent lights, coupled
with sensors and photoelectric cells.
Though Bisacquino says he thinks lighting retrofits
make a tremendous amount of sense, he warns that
some NAIOP members are uneasy about making an
investment in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or similar
technologies that have experienced rapid cost reductions
over a short period of time.
SITE, SUPPLY CHAIN, AND BUILDING
Because of industrial real estate’s interdependent
relationship with goods and their movement,
Klimek says these projects need to be approached
with a perspective that extends beyond the physical
components of the buildings. “The industrial sector’s
focus on moving goods implies a host of sustainability
issues that go beyond just the impact of the buildings
themselves,” Klimek says.
Factoring the supply chain into a project’s site
selection has the potential to significantly minimize an
industrial project’s environmental impact. By locating
its Foamular plant near its growing Northwest customer
base, for example, Owens Corning expects to prevent
emissions of at least 500 tons of carbon dioxide annually
that would have resulted from ground transportation.
Klimek also points to urban infill sites, particularly
those that retain previously built infrastructure. AMB
research on industrial site-selection strategies suggests
that infill locations not only are more sustainable, but
provide owners with superior occupancy, rental growth
and returns, and ef cient supply chain operations.
In 2009, ProLogis formed a renewable energy group
to focus on renewable energy projects globally. The
industrial developer is looking for opportunities to
deploy large-scale distributed solar on its more than 450
million square feet of rooftops worldwide. By renting its
roof space to utilities and investors, ProLogis has been
able to send energy directly back into the grid.
“Industrial buildings are becoming a source for
energy rather than a drain,” Klimek says. “In the long
run, that’s where industrial can make a big diference in
terms of sustainability.”
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polyethylene.
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LEADERSHIP →
A Difficult
Character
IMAGINE THAT YOU are the coach of a kids’ sports
team. The team has a great season and makes it to the
championship playofs, held in a town a plane ride away.
There is enough money to send some team members to
the playofs, but not all of them.
So how do you decide who can go?
Robert Gaarder, a leadership coach and consultant
on organization development, has heard dozens of
answers to this question over the years, including “Send
the best players,” “Have them draw straws,” “Send the
kids who’ve been playing on the team the longest”
(this reporter’s), and even “Send them all—I’ll pay the
airfare out of my own pocket, because it’s just not fair
otherwise.”
Your response reveals more than your attitude
to youth sports, Gaarder says. It suggests whether
you depend primarily on detached thinking (“T”) or
empathic feeling (“F”) when making decisions. T/F is
one of four dichotomies that make up the Myers-Briggs
Type Indicator, the popular personality test based on
the theories of Carl Jung. Developed by two American
women, Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine
Briggs, during the 1940s and ’50s and first published
in 1962, the Myers-Briggs test is now taken by more
than a million people per year worldwide. Its 126
forced-choice questions attempt to classify a person’s
TEXT BY AMANDA KOLSON HURLEY
THE FOUR
DICHOTOMIES OF
MYERS-BRIGGS
E/I (Extraversion/
Introversion): action-
oriented vs. thought-oriented
S/N (Sensing/Intuition):
gathering information as
concrete data vs. trusting to
abstract ideas and instinct
T/F (Thinking/Feeling):
decide based on objective
logic vs. decide based on
empathy
J/P (Judging/Perceiving): like
to have matters settled vs.
keep decisions open
WHEN A LEADERSHIP CONSULTANT REVIEWED
THE MYERS-BRIGGS TESTS OF 100 ARCHITECTS,
HE DISCOVERED THERE REALLY IS AN “ARCHITECT
TYPE”—AND IT’S NOT ALWAYS AN EASY ONE.
ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ
U.S.
POPULATION
11.6% 13.8% 1.5% 2.1% 5.4% 8.8% 4.4% 3.3% 4.3% 8.5% 8.1% 3.2% 8.7% 12.3% 2.5% 1.8%
ARCHITECTS
(BASED ON
100 TESTS)
6% 1% 1% 20% 0% 0% 6% 11% 0% 0% 4% 9% 6% 0% 5% 31%
HOW COMMON IS YOUR TYPE?
60
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→ innate preferences according to T/F and three other
dichotomies: extraversion/introversion (E/I), sensing/
intuition (S/N), and judging/perceiving (J/P). When
the four scales are combined, 16 diferent four-letter
personality types emerge.
Gaarder, who holds an MBA and a Ph.D. in
organization behavior and development, first
encountered Myers-Briggs in graduate school and has
made it an important part of his consulting business.
“There are a lot of instruments out there, but the
Myers-Briggs, I find, is the best in terms of leadership
development,” he says. “There’s a high degree of validity
and reliability. There’s been so much research done
on it [the test]—hundreds or thousands of doctoral
dissertations.”
For the past decade, Gaarder has worked mainly
with small-to-midsized architecture and engineering
firms, for the most part in the Washington, D.C., area.
He acts as a one-on-one executive coach with the firm’s
managing partner, or he advises a team of leaders who
want to move the firm in a new direction. Whenever
he works with an individual, he requires that person
to take the Myers-Briggs test, as well as submit to
what he calls “a 360 review” (a performance review
based on feedback from peers and subordinates as
well as superiors).
So far, he’s administered Myers-Briggs to about 125
architects. When he reached 100, he sat down to review
their tests in the aggregate—and was surprised by what
he saw. Among the general U.S. population, the most
frequent types are, according to estimates by the Myers
& Briggs Foundation, ISFJ, at 13.8 percent, ESFJ, at 12.3
percent, and ISTJ, at 11.6 percent. But among Gaarder’s
group of 100 architects, just one was an ISFJ, and not a
single one scored as an ESFJ.
By contrast, the most frequent type among the
architects was ENTJ—extraversion, intuition, thinking,
and judging. ENTJs accounted for a whopping 31 percent
of the architects that Gaarder tested, despite the very
low frequency of the type (estimated at 1.8 percent)
within the general population.
Gaarder cautions that his data is skewed toward
firm leaders, with whom he normally works. “I’m
working now with principals, associate principals. I’m
working more at the top of the organization,” he says.
“Nonetheless, they’re architects. The fact that 30 percent
of them are ENTJs, and the general population is like
2 percent, is huge.”
Besides an apparent predilection for architecture,
what qualities do ENTJs share? “Frank, decisive, assume
leadership readily,” according to the thumbnail portrait
on the Myers & Briggs Foundation website, a description
adapted from Isabel Briggs Myers’ book Introduction to
Type. “Quickly see illogical and inef cient procedures
ISTJ 12%
ESTJ 10%
MOST COMMON
ENGINEER TYPES
MOST COMMON
ARCHITECT TYPES
ENTJ 31%
INTJ 20%
BASED ON ROBERT GAARDER’S DATA
62
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Circle no. 296 or http://architect.hotims.com
THOROUGH, DEPENDABLE,
AND ORGANIZED, ISTJ TYPES
OFTEN MAKE EXCELLENT
PROJECT MANAGERS.
and policies, develop and implement comprehensive systems to solve
organizational problems.”
In Gaarder’s less stilted words, “The good news is, the ENTJ has
a lot of leadership qualities. They can envision the future. They are
these grand-scale organizers; they think in terms of systems.” It
makes sense, then, that the architecture-firm principals in Gaarder’s
group overwhelmingly scored as ENTJ (16 of them) as opposed to
other types (three ISTJs, for example).
However, the flip side of big-picture thinking can be a hazy
attention to details. “A consistent problem in a lot of architecture
firms [is] they aren’t good at managing the details, at follow-
through. … I had one architect tell me, ‘I leave the details to the
engineers.’ Which drives the engineers crazy.”
Managers tend to hire people like themselves, with similar
strengths and weaknesses. But Gaarder recommends that ENTJ
architects, to complement their own talent for large-scale thinking,
look to hire project managers with the qualities of a diferent type,
ISTJ (introversion, sensing, thinking, judging). Thorough, dependable,
and organized, ISTJs bring sharp focus and assiduous follow-through
to an enterprise, qualities their ENTJ colleagues may lack. (Managers
can keep personality types in mind as they hire, but the Myers &
Briggs Foundation’s ethical guidelines for use of the test strongly
warn against using it to screen job applicants.)
Another common drawback of the ENTJ type is a go-it-alone
attitude—a lack of empathy and an impatience with teamwork.
“There’s an arrogance about an ENTJ, often,” Gaarder observes.
“It’s like, ‘Well, I know what’s best for this client.’ ” Collaborative
practice and team-based “design thinking” may be all the rage in
the profession right now, but clearly, they don’t come naturally to
a great many architects, who’d rather present their own ideas for
others to implement without discussion.
To make an enterprise truly collaborative, all architects—and
ENTJs in particular—need to strive for self-awareness, so they can
understand their limitations as well as their talents. “What do I do in
groups? Am I listening? Am I really open?” are a few of the questions
that Gaarder suggests they ask themselves. In his leadership training
sessions, he does an exercise in which participants plan a project,
first by themselves and then as a team. “It takes three times as long
to do it as a team, but they get a better product,” he notes.
Of course, 100 is a relatively small number of tests to draw any
sweeping conclusions from, and the test itself is not without its
critics, who charge that it’s vague, unreliable, and unscientific. That
said, there’s something compelling about Gaarder’s findings, which
seem to support anecdotal wisdom about “the typical architect.”
And what to do about the kids’ sports team? “Send the best
players”: It’s a classic ENTJ response.
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MARKET STRENGTHS
• Strong technology sector (Forbes’
15th-best city for innovation)
• Institutions of higher education
• Recreational and cultural amenities
MARKET CONCERNS
• Ongoing sufering of old-economy
sectors
• Sprawling growth that threatens
downtown
• State government financial woes
and national financial crisis
POPULATION & JOB GROWTH
The N.Y. State Department of Labor
recorded 0.8% job growth for Albany
in 2010; about 6.7% of its 93,836
residents are unemployed.
The recession did not devastate
Albany, but it did “further slow
down a stalled economy,” says
Anthony Garner, AIA, an associate
at Architecture +, a firm in nearby
Troy. “Nearly all private-college work
stalled when endowments collapsed.
The New York State University
Construction Fund stopped nearly
every thing that was not under
construction, though they did fairly
rapidly restart shovel-ready projects.
Projects still in design remain stalled.”
RESIDENTIAL MARKET
According to the Greater Capital As-
sociation of Realtors, the year-to-date
median home sale price was down
0.9% through the third quarter of
2010, at $168,000. Homes were on
the market an average of 71 days.
COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE MARKET
Last year, 17% of Albany’s 6.1-million-
s.f. central business district was
vacant, with no of ce projects under
construction; average asking rate:
$17.55/s.f. The city’s 23.8-million-s.f.
industrial market is 10.3% vacant;
average asking rate: $4.36/s.f.
“Much of the activity is happening
outside of the traditional city limits,”
confirms John Tobin, director of
architecture for local firm EYP
Architecture & Engineering. “With
more than $6.5 billion in public and
private investments, the University
at Albany’s NanoTech Complex has
attracted over 250 global corporate
partners—and is the most advanced
research complex at any university
in the world.” EYP itself is moving its
150-person of ce to the complex.
FORECAST
“Rapid growth and development
are happening all around us,” Tobin
says. “Hopefully high-speed rail will
accompany this tremendous growth,
which will provide even more direct
access to this amazing region.”
Albany, N.Y.
LOCAL MARKET →
TEXT BY MARGOT CARMICHAEL LESTER
AND CLAIRE PARKER
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Arbor Hill Branch Library
ARCHITECT: Kevin Hom +
Andrew Goldman
Architects, New York.
COMPLETION: 2010.
BRIEF: $4 million, 10,000-s.f.
public library sheathed in a
reflective silver aluminum
panel skin; LEED Gold
certification expected.
Cathedral of the
Immaculate Conception
Renovation
ARCHITECT: Mesick Cohen
Wilson Baker Architects,
Albany.
COMPLETION: 2010 (phase two).
BRIEF: $6 million phase of
ongoing renovation to Patrick
Keeley–designed church
(1848).
William S. Hackett Middle
School
ARCHITECT: Envision
Architects, Albany.
COMPLETION: 2008.
BRIEF: $22 million
renovation; received 2009
Award of Merit, AIA Eastern
New York Chapter, and
other awards.
State Capitol Restoration
ARCHITECT: Mesick Cohen
Wilson Baker Architects.
COMPLETION: 2013
(phase four).
BRIEF: $45 million phase
of a 30-year renovation
and restoration includes
rehabilitation of long-covered
skylights and the Great
Western Staircase.
0.94
Expansion Index Value,
Albany metro area
The Expansion Index
from Reed Construction
Data is a 12-to-18-
month look ahead
at the construction
marketplace. A value
of 1.0 or higher
signifies growth.
64
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business
Search results
Model number information is not published for all product categories. If you require information about a specific model number, please
contact Customer Service for further assistance.
Copyright © 2010 Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
Number of hits: 13 The maximum number of hits returned is 5000.
You may choose to Refine Your Search.
Company Name Category Name Link to File
Assembly No. WA-3-003 Fire Door Assemblies and Window Assemblies GSNN.WA-3-003
Design No. C901 Fire Resistance Ratings - ANSI/UL 263 BXUV.C901
Design No. U531 Fire Resistance Ratings - ANSI/UL 263 BXUV.U531
Design No. U533 Fire Resistance Ratings - ANSI/UL 263 BXUV.U533
Design No. U537 Fire Resistance Ratings - ANSI/UL 263 BXUV.U537
Design No. U538 Fire Resistance Ratings - ANSI/UL 263 BXUV.U538
Design No. U545 Fire Resistance Ratings - ANSI/UL 263 BXUV.U545
Design No. U551 Fire Resistance Ratings - ANSI/UL 263 BXUV.U551
Design No. U552 Fire Resistance Ratings - ANSI/UL 263 BXUV.U552
PILKINGTON DEUTSCHLAND AG Fire-resistance-rated Glazing Materials CCET.R18372
PILKINGTON NORTH AMERICA INC Fire-protection-rated Glazing Materials KCMZ.R16644
PILKINGTON NORTH AMERICA INC Fire-protection-rated Glazing Materials Certified for Canada KCMZ7.R16644
PILKINGTON NORTH AMERICA INC Fire-resistance-rated Glazing Materials CCET.R16132
Page1of 1 UL OnlineCertificationsDirectory - SearchResults
Access information has been taken from the UL offcial web site at
www.ul.com on 12/6/2010
The International Building Code (IBC) states in
Chapter 7 that all fre rated glazing must bear a
permanent label with the name of the manufacturer,
the test standard identifers for which application the
glazing is approved and the offcial identifcation of
the third party laboratory that conducted the testing
for which the product is listed. The classifcations
for each fre rating glazing product with the
maximum dimensions and the approved framing
systems are available on-line. The following steps
will help you navigate the UL webpage to access the
information you need.
STEP 1: Go to www.ul.com, click on Certifcations
STEP 2: Enter the name of the company you are
searching for (Pilkington in this case)
STEP 3: Click on the blue link to the corresponding
certifcation
Pilkington Pyrostop
®
– Fire Rated Glass
UL Classifcation
Choosing a Classifcation:
Fire Rated Floor Assemblies
This classifcation is for the fre resistance foor
systems. This provides the listed sizes, a description
of the system and drawings of the assembly.
Fire Resistance Framing Systems
In this section the information for the listed framing
systems are available. Click on the appropriate link
to obtain information on the frames, to fnd drawings
and descriptions of the classifed glass confgurations.
Cross reference the-fre protection-rated glazing
materials link to fnd the size limits. The descriptions
will provide information on the types of setting blocks,
glazing stops, sealants and installation requirements.
BXUV.U531: L-Angle Steel Framing System
BXUV.U533: Heat Barrier Framing System
BXUV.U537: Curtain Wall Framing System
BXUV.U538: Wooden Framing System
BXUV.U545: Steel Curtain Wall Framing System
Fire Protection Classifcations
In this section the various fre protection glass types
are listed for each fre rating with the maximum
dimensions. You will fnd information on the glass
thickness, the approved glazing compounds, how
the glass was tested for the application and how the
glass must be marked to meet the IBC requirements.
Other important information is available here, such
as the approval for etching or sandblasting, surface
applied flms and Venetian blinds.
1
1
2
2
3
3
How to use the Underwriters Laboratories website
to fnd the Pilkington Pyrostop
®
fre rated glass classifcation on line.
Pilkington Pyrostop
®
– Glass Specifcations
The following chart lists Pilkington Pyrostop
®
products, and the test results that they attain in order to meet standards set by UL, ULC,
ASTM, NFPA and those required by the IBC for use in fre rated glass applications.
To fnd out more, please contact Technical Glass Products (TGP) at 800-426-0279 or visit www.freglass.com
©
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*Can becombined with other glass products for enhanced performance.
**Thickness with 8 mm spacer.
***Thickness with 14 mm spacer.
Type
Fire-Rating
Minutes
Glass
Thickness
approx.
Daylight
Transmission
approx.%
Weight
approx.
lbs/sq. ft.
STC
approx.
dB
Assembly
Max.
Exposed
Area (sq. in.)
Max.
Exposed
Width(in.)
Max.
Exposed
Height (in.)
Building
Code
Marking
45-200 45 3/4” (19 mm) 86 9.2 40
Windows, Sidelights & Transoms 4,500 95 1/4 95 1/4
DOH-NT-45
Doors 3,724 41 5/8 89 3/4
60-101 60 7/8” (23 mm) 87 11.3 41
Windows, Sidelights & Transoms 5,605 96 96
W-60
Doors 3,724 41 5/8 89 3/4
90-102* 90 1 7/16” (37 mm) 84 17.6 45
Windows, Sidelights & Transoms 3,724 96 96
DOH-T-90
Doors 3,724 41 5/8 89 3/4
120-104* 120 2 1/8” (54 mm)** 75 21.7 45 Windows, Sidelights & Transoms 3,724 111 111 W-120
Interior Use
Type
Fire-Rating
Minutes
Glass
Thickness
approx.
Daylight
Transmission
approx.%
Weight
approx.
lbs/sq. ft.
STC
approx.
dB
Assembly
Max.
Exposed
Area (sq. in.)
Max.
Exposed
Width(in.)
Max.
Exposed
Height (in.)
Building
Code
Marking
45-200 45 3/4” (19 mm) 86 9.2 40
Windows, Sidelights & Transoms 4,500 95 1/4 95 1/4
DOH-NT-45
Doors 3,724 41 5/8 89 3/4
45-260* 45
1 5/16”
(33 mm)**
77 12.5 40
Windows, Sidelights & Transoms 4,500 95 1/4 95 1/4
DOH-NT-45
Doors 3,724 41 5/8 89 3/4
60-201 60 1 1/16” (27 mm) 86 12.5 44
Windows, Sidelights & Transoms 5,605 96 96
W-60
Doors 3,724 41 5/8 89 3/4
60-261* 60 1 5/8” (41 mm)** 77 15.8 44
Windows, Sidelights & Transoms 5,605 96 96
W-60
Doors 3,724 41 5/8 89 3/4
120-202 90 1 9/16” (40 mm) 83 19.0 46
Windows, Sidelights & Transoms 3,724 111 111
W-120
Doors 3,724 41 5/8 89 3/4
120-262* 90 2 1/8” (54 mm)** 74 22.1 46 Windows, Sidelights & Transoms 3,724 111 111 W-120
120-202 120 1 9/16” (40 mm) 83 19.0
46 Windows, Sidelights & Transoms 3,724 111 111 W-120
120-262* 120 2 3/8” (60 mm)*** 74 22.1
ExteriorUse
Type
Fire-Rating
Minutes
Glass
Thickness
approx.
Daylight
Transmission
approx.%
Weight
approx.
lbs/sq. ft.
STC
approx.
dB
Assembly
Max.
Exposed
Area (sq. in.)
Max.
Exposed
Width(in.)
Max.
Exposed
Height (in.)
Building
Code
Marking
120-401 120
2 13/16”
(72 mm)**
75 30.9 45 Fire-Rated Floors 2,405 47 1/2 50 5/8 W-120
Floor Use
Pilkington North America, Inc.
Fire Protection Glass North America
946 Kane Street, Suite A • Toledo, Ohio 43612
Telephone 419-478-0165 • Telefax 419-478-0191
www.pilkington.com/fre
December 2010
01
10

20
25 30

40
50
THE
50
COMING IN MAY 2011
A firm ranking with a
difference, the ARCHITECT 50
evaluates U.S. architecture
firms based on their
profitability, design quality,
and commitment to
sustainable building.
Think your firm should
be on the list?
We welcome nominations.
Contact Amanda Hurley:
ahurley@hanleywood.com
Deadline: February 4, 2011
North Thomas Avenue, PO Box 128, Sayre, PA 18840
w w w . r y n o n e . c o m
V A N I T Y T O P S | C A S E G O O D S | C O U N T E R T O P S
Over 350
ar chi t ec t s
Have us on speed dial.
Rynone offers a look for any multi-family, commercial, military or government
housing project whether it is cultured marble, granite, engineered stone,
laminate or solid surface. It doesn’t matter if the project is 15 units or 1500
Rynone can get it manufactured and delivered quicker than anyone else
because Rynone manufactures almost 900 vanity tops and 1,300 linear feet
of laminate countertop a DAY. Rynone offers the largest selection of standard
and custom sizes available anywhere. RYNONE’S CAPABI LI TI ES
HAVE SECURED OUR POSI TI ON AS THE MANUFACTURER THAT
ARCHI TECTS CAN COUNT ON.
Circle no. 502 or http://architect.hotims.com
Suberra cork countertops
are manufactured with
postindustrial cork that is
compressed with a polyurethane
binder during manufacturing
to create a smooth, suedelike
texture. The counters have
antimicrobial properties and are
water- and heat-resistant. The
cork is made from bark harvested
every nine years, giving the trees
time to regenerate. • suberra.com
• Circle 100
IT → 70 CONTINUING EDUCATION 74 PRODUCTS 84 MIND & MATTER 90
TECHNOLOGY
Surfaces
EDITED BY LAURIE GRANT
PHOTOS BY MIKE MORGAN
PRODUCTS →
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Metal, a new line of ceramic tile from Bellavita Tile,
is available in stainless steel, bronze, and copper
finishes. The brushed patterned tiles can be arranged
horizontally and vertically and are available in four
sizes:
5
/8" square;
5
/8" by 2"; a combination of the
previous two and
5
/8" by 4" (shown); and
1
/2" diameter
penny rounds. • bellavitatile.com • Circle 101
Smith & Fong Co. has launched PlybooStrand
bamboo plywood and flooring. This FSC-
certified line is available in panel thicknesses
of
3
/16",
1
/2", and
3
/4", and flooring thicknesses
of
3
/8" and
9
/16". Both types are offered in
Havana, Sahara, and Neopolitan finishes. No
urea-formaldehyde is used in the production
process. • plyboo.com • Circle 104
The Modono Glass Tile Collection is manufactured
using dichroic thin-film technology to manage the
transmission, reflection, and absorption of specific
light wavelengths to produce a color-changing tile.
The collection comes in sizes from 3" by 3" to 12" by
28" in four series, each with a variety of color and
pattern options. • modonoglass.com • Circle 105
BR111 Exotic Hardwood Flooring has introduced a
5
/8"-thick
solid Green Label line and a collection of bamboo flooring. The
5
/8" line includes woods such as macchiato pecan, amendoim,
tigerwood, Brazilian cherry, wenge, sapelli, and afzelia and
uses 36% less raw lumber than the existing
3
/4" line. The
bamboo collection is launching with eight solids and seven
engineered finishes. It’s available in widths from 3
3
/4" to 5". •
br111.com • Circle 102
Suberra cork countertop
LG Hausys’ Hi-Macs Eden Plus
solid-surface material comes in
13 colors with recycled content
ranging from 12% to 41%. The
1
/2"-thick acrylic solid surfaces
are colorfast and Greenguard-
certified for Indoor Air Quality.
• lghausys.com • Circle 103
Johnsonite has added Granit Safe-T to the
Granit Complete Collection. This slip-
resistant, homogenous floor—available in 12
colors—does not require waxes or finishes
and is wet-room approved. Johnsonite also
released Masquerade, a millwork finishing
border that resembles exotic woods and
stones. Available in 12 wood grains and 11
stone patterns, including crème (shown),
the material will not chip or crack. •
johnsonite.com • Circle 106
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technology
Tools for the
Wired Designer
IT →
TEXT BY BRIAN LIBBY
ILLUSTRATIONS BY PETER ARKLE
THREE DESIGNERS, THREE ESSENTIALS.
ASK ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS about using technology to do their jobs and you’ll get a range of
answers based on training, temperament, age, and philosophy. Some take pride in being early adopters of
the latest tools for design and the communication of ideas. Others, taking a more traditional tack, preach
the fundamental necessity of being able to draw. But today’s hardware and software for the plugged-in
designer, as the examples below demonstrate, is blurring those lines by incorporating old traditions, such as
pen and paper, into the instantaneous communication that’s part and parcel of the modern business world.
Braulio Baptista, Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Architects
When he first ordered his iPad (3G, 32GB, $599), Braulio
Baptista, AIA, a partner at Zimmer Gunsul Frasca
Architects (ZGF) in Portland, Ore., was motivated by
entertainment: watching Netflix movies and reading
magazines such as The New Yorker or Edition29. “I was
surprised to find out, however, that with some specific
apps I can stay productive when I’m away without having
to carry around my bulky PC laptop,” Baptista says.
He uses Autodesk’s SketchBook Pro to draw and
AutoCAD WS for viewing drawings. “Most of what I do
on the iPad is review and critique,” Baptista says, adding
that the iPad’s 9.7-inch screen ofers “a fair amount
of real estate” with which to work. “While I’m on the
road,” he continues, “I can review drawings and other
in-progress work such as renderings and diagrams. Then
I can send the drawings back with comments and mark-
ups. It was like having to relearn how to finger paint.”
Baptista says the iPad’s portability means he carries
it to more places than he would a laptop, allowing him to
increasingly overlap work and leisure. “I also have a PDF
library with ZGF’s portfolios by building type so that I
can use it as a marketing and presentation tool,” Baptista
adds. And not only is the iPad lighter than his laptop,
but it relieves the need to pack heavy, space-consuming
magazines and books when traveling.
Alberto Cavallero, KlingStubbins
For Washington, D.C.–based Alberto Cavallero, AIA,
a principal at KlingStubbins, the hardware of choice
is even cheaper. “I find the most challenging thing
about architecture is to translate concepts into reality,”
Cavallero says. “It’s about connecting the mind with the
hand. We have these very sophisticated design tools, and
it’s easy to use them when the project is developed and
really cooked. But those happen at the end, and they’re
the tip of the iceberg based on messier decisions that get
made in other ways. The most challenging aspect is how
you can communicate in a way that has to be both spatial
and very quick. Sometimes BIM and drafting tools are too
cumbersome for that.”
Cavallero thus finds the Wacom Bamboo Fun tablet
($199), connected to his HP laptop, to be an essential
tool. “It’s a way of sketching into your computer, a way
of capturing a very quick, mercurial thought,” he notes.
“You’ll always see the best architects talking and drawing
at the same time. … It crystallizes a moment of thought
that is lost otherwise. With this, I can have a video
conference call and actually be sketching very loosely
on the screen. In the past, the inevitable thing was [that]
you’d end up saying, ‘That’s a good idea, but somebody

“IT’S A LITTLE
CHEEKY,”
CAVALLERO
SAYS WITH A
LAUGH,
“BUT MY
MECHANICAL
PENCIL WITH
A SKETCHPAD
AND A DIGITAL
CAMERA TO
RECORD IT”
IS OFTEN THE
QUICKEST WAY
TO WORK.
70
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technology
© 2011 Simpson Strong-Tie Company Inc. SF11-A
If your client comes to you with waterfront property, you definitely want to take advantage
of the natural view. And with the Strong Frame

ordinary moment frame, you can do
just that by creating wall openings up to 20 feet wide and 19 feet tall. In fact, there are
368 pre-engineered steel frame configurations to choose from as well as custom sizes.
So whether you’re designing a custom home on the lake, retrofitting a multi-story building
or creating an “open” floor plan, Simpson Strong-Tie has a frame to frame your design.
For additional information, call (800) 999-5099 or visit www.strongtie.com/strongframe.
We provide the frame,
you frame the view.
Circle no. 182 or http://architect.hotims.com
will have to sketch it out. I’ll have it for you tomorrow.’ This lets you do
it on the screen right away.”
Compared with the iPad, Cavallero finds drawing on the Wacom
tablet much more precise. “It feels like sketching on paper,” he says.
“And you can use it in pretty complex programs,” including Adobe
Photoshop. If you have the Corel Painter software, Cavallero adds,
“you can even sketch right into a Word or PowerPoint document or
an e-mail.” There’s another, more rudimentary new-old hybrid tool
that the architect finds equally efective. “It’s a little cheeky,” Cavallero
says with a laugh, “but my mechanical pencil with a sketchpad and a
digital camera to record it” is often the quickest way to work.

Bungane Mehlomakulu, IBE Consulting Engineers
IBE Consulting Engineers principal Bungane Mehlomakulu, whose
Los Angeles–based firm has collaborated with Pritzker Prize–winning
designers Frank Gehry, FAIA, and Thom Mayne, FAIA, as well as the
sustainability-focused Will Bruder, AIA, says his choice is an iPhone
app that makes his job a little bit easier: the HVAC Toolkit ($23.99), by
Carmel Software Corp.
“I use it throughout the design process,” Mehlomakulu says,
“though it probably gets used more through design development and
less when we’re preparing construction documents.” What all can it do?
It gets “pretty technical pretty quick,” he says, “but, basically, it can help
with duct sizing, air characteristics”—also known as psychrometrics—
“pipe sizing, steam properties, and very basic load calculations.”
HVAC Toolkit (which now comes in an expanded, “Ultimate” form
as well, for $49.99), “was one of the first apps I saw,” Mehlomakulu says.
“Checking today, there are more and more.” Which points up a basic
truth for those who have tethered their design and business habits to
the plugged-in world: Don’t expect your choices to get any simpler.
4,764
Number of applications for smartphones and the iPad available
at press time that had any of the following words in their title or
description: architect, architecture, business, construction, contractor,
engineer, engineering. Not every app is for work (some are games,
for example), but you get the idea: There’s a lot out there.
SOURCE: APPSHOPPER.COM
technology
Circle no. 512 or http://architect.hotims.com
Factory-installed windows and R-42 foam insulation
No moisture or air infiltration - Guaranteed!
See our portfolio of projects online...
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SLENDERWALL
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and a wholly-owned subsidiary of publicly traded Smith-Midland (DE). ©2010
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Architect: BBG-BBGM
Call Westin for reservations: 800-937-8461
The Most Technologically Advanced
Performance-Oriented Exterior Cladding Available
1/2-inch thermal break
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Steel-frame-to-concrete
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Uses 4-proven technologies:
galvanized steel studs &
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a 30 lbs/sf award-winning architectural
precast and steel-stud exterior panel system
Circle no. 500 or http://architect.hotims.com
C
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E
D
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Let It Rain, Let It Rain,
Let It Rain
TERRA-COTTA RAINSCREEN SYSTEMS PRESENT DESIGNERS
WITH A BROAD PALETTE OF COST-EFFECTIVE POSSIBILITIES.
TEXT BY AARON SEWARD
TERRA-COTTA RAINSCREEN SYSTEMS have been in
German façade manufacturers’ catalogs since at least
the 1980s. But this marriage of an ancient material with
a more contemporary construction methodology has
only really caught on in the United States over the past
decade. In that relatively brief amount of time, however,
this nation’s architects have put the system to good use
both in solving project-specific design challenges as
well as in foiling one of the chief enemies to a building’s
longevity: water infiltration.
The traditional way to keep water out of a building
has been to seal the envelope, generally with caulking.
This has one major fault. Caulking materials inevitably
deteriorate. Weather causes them to expand and
contract, and eventually crack, while UV rays corrode
them. Meanwhile, wind, or the inevitable pressure
diferential between interior and exterior, causes water
to worm its way into the exterior.
Rainscreens, of whatever material, answer this
problem by doing away with caulked façade joints
and replacing them with a vented cavity between the
cladding and insulation, where the final weather barrier
is established. This eliminates the pressure diferential
and allows the water that does invade the system to be
harmlessly vaporized.
A multitude of materials can be employed in
rainscreen systems, including woods, metals, and
masonry. Terra-cotta, however, ofers a relatively
afordable way to achieve a durable finish, with a wide
spectrum of design possibilities. The material can be
manufactured in almost any color imaginable, and in
extrusions limited only by physics and the architect’s
imagination. The three projects that follow are examples
of designers using terra-cotta rainscreen systems to
develop a contemporary response to built environments
dominated by brick and stone.
AIA/CES Credit:
You can earn 1 LU hour for
reading this article and
successfully completing the
quiz. You must answer 8 of
10 questions correctly to earn
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Learning Objectives
1. Describe why conventional
methods of keeping water
out of a building are
ineffective over time.
2. Describe how rainscreens
prevent water infiltration.
3. Discuss how terra-cotta
rainscreens improved the
envelope performance of
three projects.
4. Describe aesthetic options
available with terra-cotta
rainscreen systems.
CONTINUING EDUCATION → : EXTERIORS

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technology
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Project: The Collections Resource Center
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Architect: Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
Chicago Office
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Circle no. 257 or http://architect.hotims.com
Page 74: For the
University of
Michigan’s Ross
School of Business,
Kohn Pederson Fox
Associates (KPF) used
terra-cotta both as
visual punctuation for
the glass-and-aluminum
curtainwalls and in
a rainscreen system
for the large planar
surfaces. The apparent
differences in tile
color are due to the
fact that some of the
tiles have vertical
flutes that point
to the right, while
others have vertical
flutes that point to
the left.
This page: The
rainscreen system
includes an air
barrier outside
the mineral-fiber
insulation, “in case
any wind-driven rain
got behind the terra-
cotta,” says KPF
associate principal
Phillip White, AIA.
“In Europe, they
typically don’t
add that.”
Gypsum sheathing
Mineral-fiber
insulation
Bituminous
waterproofing
sheet
Tile fastening clip
Metal stud
backup wall
Control joint Neoprene sheet
Aluminum flashing
Sealant
Air
barrier
Terra-cotta panel
0 2" 4"
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Ross School of Business, University of Michigan
Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, 2008
When the University of Michigan hired Kohn Pedersen
Fox Associates (KPF) to design a new 281,000-square-
foot home for its school of business in Ann Arbor, Mich.,
the architects found themselves facing the challenge
of integrating their building into a context of revival
styles. The project sits diagonally across from the neo-
gothic William W. Cook Law Quadrangle. “The client
had an inclination to use a material that would enable
the building to be perceived as a good neighbor to the
campus’ traditional buildings, and a material that would
last with a high level of elegance over the life span of
building, but we didn’t want to do brick or gothic, exactly,”
explains William Pedersen, FAIA, the design principal
for the project. “A terra-cotta rainscreen seemed perfect.
The modular nature of its construction lends it a certain
modernity, and it blends well with a masonry context.
It also goes well with glass and stone.”
The architects used the terra-cotta in two diferent
applications: as larger surfaces with no fenestration, and as
vertical punctuation elements on the glass-and-aluminum
curtainwalls. Only the unpunctuated surfaces employ a
true rainscreen system. The tiles hang from aluminum
clips attached to metal stud-framed walls. From interior to
exterior, the wall sandwich is assembled like this: metal
studs, gypsum sheathing, bituminous sheet waterproofing,
3
5
/8 inches of mineral-fiber insulation, an air barrier, a
1
3
/4-inch vented air space, and, finally, the terra-cotta
cladding. “We wrapped the mineral-fiber insulation with
an air barrier in case any wind-driven rain got behind the
terra-cotta,” says KPF senior associate principal Phillip
White, AIA. “In Europe, they typically don’t add that, but we
did because when insulation gets wet, it loses its value.” The
architects subjected the system to a battery of performance
testing and believe the wall to provide an R-value of 16.
While the terra-cotta’s red-brown color is vibrant on
its own, the architects took full advantage of the sculptural
properties of the material to add texture to the surfaces of
the building by using vertically fluted tiles. In half of the
fluted pieces, the flutes point slightly to the right, whereas
in the other half, they point the same degree to the left.
These ridged tiles are alternated on the wall with the flat
tiles, giving the otherwise planar surface an interesting
texture. The tiles—which vary in size but are, for the
most part, roughly 1 foot by 2 feet 5 inches—were also
hung oriented vertically (most terra-cotta rainscreen
systems feature horizontally hung tiles). This allowed the
crisp joints between tiles to further strengthen the lines
of the building.
The sculptural tiles did add cost to the system, but KPF
worked with the manufacturer to reduce the number of
extrusions to 10, thus keeping the price tag within reason.
The wall was stick-built on site and cost approximately
$70 per square foot—far cheaper than the project’s
curtainwall, which rang in at around $120 per square foot.
Rainscreen Section


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technology
The beauty and strength of Timely steel door frames have endured for 40 years. In fact they have
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TI MELY DOOR FRAMES CELEBRATI NG 40 YEARS OF STRENGTH
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Meditech Computer Science Building
Payette, 2008
Medical Information Technology, or Meditech, is a
healthcare software developer, one of the industry’s
leaders in hospital records database management.
When commissioning a computer science building for
its new 17-acre campus on the northern shore of South
Watuppa Pond in Fall River, Mass., the company wanted
to embody its high-tech culture and yet nod to the area’s
historical architecture. In the 19th century, Fall River was
a center of American textile manufacturing, and many
of the old mills—constructed from local stone—still dot
the landscape. Boston architecture firm Payette looked
to these structures for inspiration when designing the
120,000-square-foot building, a strategy that led the
architects to clad half of the facility in a terra-cotta
rainscreen system. “Although terra-cotta is a very ancient
material, its application in a rainscreen ofered a way to
reinterpret the mills in a contemporary way,” says Payette
associate principal Jef DeGregorio, AIA.
The terra-cotta rainscreen clads the entrance face
of the building and is outfitted with punched windows
set in a pattern much like that found in the local textile
mills. This relatively closed façade stands in contrast to
the opposite face: a floor-to-ceiling glass curtainwall that
allows Meditech employees to take in views of the water
and the landscaping. In addition to establishing an open
and closed dynamic, the opposing façades are oriented
optimally for sun exposure, with the terra-cotta and its
superior insulation values accepting the lion’s share of
the summer sun and heat. The punched windows are
triple glazed for the same reason. The terra-cotta features
an R-value of 12.5, whereas the windows have R-values
from 4.5 to 5.6 in the summer and 4.2 to 5.5 in the winter.
To add variety and texture to the terra-cotta façade,
the architects designed a stripe pattern in the chalky
white tiles, which are 3 feet 4 inches wide by 14 inches
high. The pattern was accomplished by extruding each
Payette used a terra-
cotta rainscreen
system to cover the
entrance face of the
Meditech Computer
Science Building
(above). In addition
to offering a
contemporary riff on
the area’s historical
architecture (mills
built from stone),
the terra-cotta
absorbs the sun’s
heat, insulatating
the interior with an
R-value of 12.5.
Rather than assemble
everything on-site,
Payette had the
rainscreen system
(right) prefabricated
in 30-foot-wide by
14-foot-high panels
and hoisted into place
by crane, saving time
and money.
Rainscreen Section


©

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Stainless steel
drain pan
Rigid insulation
Terra-cotta panel
Continuous
aluminum z-girt
Expansion joint
Exterior
sheathing
Tile fastening
clip
Aluminum
spring flashing
Spray-foam
insulation
Custom
aluminum cap
Through-insulation
flashing
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Circle no. 31 or http://architect.hotims.com
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tile with a 2-inch-wide horizontal stripe of honed finish at
the bottom and the remainder of the tile with a corduroy
pattern. “We went through a long process with the
manufacturer and looked at 70 to 100 diferent samples
of terra-cotta to get to the right coloring and texturing,”
DeGregorio says. “There was no amount of rendering or
computer modeling that could tell us if the building was
too stripy or not stripy enough. Terra-cotta ofered us the
flexibility to actually mock-up lots of diferent pieces and
see what worked.”
Rather than stick-build the rainscreen system, Payette
had it prefabricated in 30-foot-wide by 14-foot-high
panels that were trucked to the site, then hoisted into
place by crane and clipped to the floor slabs. This saved
time and money on installation and made the process
easier in the face of the site’s strong winds. Each panel,
from interior to exterior, was made up of 6-inch cold-
formed metal framing,
5
/8-inch exterior sheathing, an
air and vapor barrier, 2-inch rigid insulation, a 1
3
/4-inch
vented air gap, a vertical aluminum rail that accepts
the terra-cotta, and then the tiles themselves, which
were shiplapped. The windows were installed later. “We
worked hard on the details to make sure the air and
vapor barriers were secured and used the cladding to
keep as much of the system as watertight as possible,”
DeGregorio says. The system was bid at $80 per square
foot, not including the windows.
Crimson Hall, Bridgewater State University
DiMella Shafer, 2007
In designing Crimson Hall, a 130,000-square-foot student
residence at Bridgewater State University, Boston
architecture firm DiMella Shafer combined terra-cotta
rainscreen, brick cladding, and glass curtainwall to
create the building’s envelope. The decision was, in part,
one of contextual sensitivity. “The rest of the campus
is made up of multimaterial structures that mix brick
and precast concrete and things like that,” says firm
principal Ed Hodges, AIA. “I wanted to keep our building
in that tradition.” The proportion of material to material,
however, came down to a matter of cost. Availed of a
tight budget and an expedited construction schedule, the
architects clad most of the building in brick, saving the
curtainwall and terra-cotta for the standout elements
of the facility.
DiMella Shafer used the rainscreen system on about
25 percent of Crimson Hall. A desire to emphasize the
mélange of materials guided the architects’ detailing of
the terra-cotta. The sandy-colored tiles themselves are
14 inches high by 4 feet long, allowing the terra-cotta
surface to pop next to the smaller red bricks.
Construction of the project began in March 2006,
with a completion date set in July of the following year.
This meant that the cladding would have to be erected
during the winter months. In this case, the terra-cotta
The construction
schedule for DiMella
Shaffer’s Crimson
Hall meant that the
building’s cladding
would have to be
erected during the
winter. But this meant
few problems for the
terra-cotta rainscreen
system, which has
a dry-installation
process.
Rainscreen Section


Tin/zinc-coated metal
coping over rosin paper and
waterproofing membrane
Terra-cotta tile
rainscreen system
Mineral wool insulation
Painted aluminum
window
Aluminum fin
Girt system
Flexible flashing over
continuous stainless steel
flashing
Aluminum sill
Painted aluminum header
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PROPER ATTIC VENTILATION WITH SOFFIT:
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White River Hardwoods
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1. Why is caulking less effective at sealing
the envelope to protect against water
infiltration?
a. Caulking deteriorates over time
b. Caulking is damaged by UV rays
c. Caulking expands and contracts with
temperature changes
d. Caulking can be weathered by wind
and water
e. All of the above
2. Rainscreens work by:
a. Preventing water infiltration behind the
cladding altogether
b. Creating a void between the cladding
and insulation that allows penetrated
water to evaporate
c. Using caulking at strategic locations on
the cladding to prevent water infiltration
d. Creating a pressure differential that
allows water to penetrate the cladding
and drain behind the cladding
3. Most terra-cotta rainscreen applications
feature ______ panel installations;
however, panels can also be
installed ______ .
a. Vertical, horizontally
b. Linear, randomly
c. Horizontal, vertically
d. Random, linearly
4. True or False: Terra-cotta can be
successfully used in combination with
masonry, curtainwalls, and aluminum
cladding for performance and aesthetic
needs.
5. The Ross School of Business at the
University of Michigan features:
a. Vertically fluted tiles to add texture
to the otherwise planar surface
b. Multicolored terra-cotta tiles that
provide three contrasting light values
c. Atypical, horizontally hung tiles
d. Prefabricated walls
6. According to the article, in Europe,
terra-cotta rainscreen installations
typically do not include:
a. Vertical tile patterns and assemblies
b. An air barrier to protect the insulation
c. Prefabricated walls delivered to the
project site
d. Fibrous insulation
7. The Meditech Computer Science Building
features a terra-cotta rainscreen wall
opposite a glass curtainwall. The building
is oriented with the ______ façade facing
south, allowing it to ______ .
a. Curtainwall, passively heat the building
b. Curtainwall, provide natural light
and views to the interior offi ces
c. Terra-cotta rainscreen wall, prevent
unwanted solar gain
d. Terra-cotta rainscreen wall, absorb
most of the sun loads
8. True or False: Terra-cotta has a
significantly higher insulating value than
triple-glazed windows.
9. The Crimson Hall project at Bridgewater
State University features terra-cotta tiles
that are sandy in color and texture to
contrast with the rest of the cladding,
which includes:
a. Punched windows
b. Glass curtainwall
c. Bricks
d. Aluminum panels
e. Both A and C
f. Both B and C
10. True or False: The R-value of the
terra-cotta wall helped the Crimson Hall
project earn LEED certification.
QUIZ
rainscreen system was a big help to DiMella Shafer
because it employs a dry installation process. The system
was built layer by layer on top of metal studs. The wall
composition, from interior to exterior, consists of gypsum
wallboard, metal studs, sheathing, an air barrier, 2-inch
mineral fiber insulation, a 1
3
/4-inch air gap, and, finally,
an aluminum rail system upon which the terra-cotta
tiles were clipped. The windows in the wall were set back
at the water barrier and flashed with aluminum and
membrane flashing.
At around $50 square foot (in 2007 dollars), the terra-
cotta rainscreen system at Crimson Hall was a bargain.
Its R-value of 12.15 also helped the project to achieve LEED
certification. But the real value may be in the system’s
durability. “Because there’s no caulking in the rainscreen
system, it doesn’t require a lot of maintenance,” Hodges
says, “and that’s crucial for any material you use in a
building that’s going to last 100 years.”
→ DiMella Shaffer used
terra-cotta (at right
in photo) on about
25 percent of Crimson
Hall. The tiles’ sandy
color and size—14
inches high by 4
feet long—provides a
sharp visual contrast
against the smaller
red bricks.
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To earn credit and obtain a
certificate of completion, visit
go.hw.net/archceu and complete
the online quiz for free. If you are
new to Hanley Wood University,
create a free learner account;
returning users log in as usual.
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J0IN YRL RLV0L0YI0N.
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The Tapered Series architectural metal
wall panel system from Dri-Design
allows each panel face to be angled
from top to bottom, bottom to top,
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and shingles can be created. The
rainscreen system is suited for accent
areas or entire façades. Materials
available include painted aluminum,
zinc, copper, and stainless steel. •
dri-design.com • Circle 108
The new collapsible Rubber Stool from
Japanese design collective h220430
takes occasional seating to a new
level. Constructed from recycled
rubber, the stool is formed by bending
a single piece of rubber and bolting
the legs to keep them in place. When
not in use, it can be flattened and
rolled up for easy storage. The rubber
construction also provides natural
cushioning for optimal comfort. •
h220430.jp • Circle 109
Herman Miller has unveiled SAYL
Chairs, a new collection of task and
guest seating with an unframed
design. Chair backs are available
in upholstered or 3D Intelligent
suspension options. The latter is an
injection-molded material infused
with different degrees of tension
to provide sacral, lumbar, and spine
support. • hermanmiller.com •
Circle 110
Designed by Jahara Studio, the new
Batucada Light is manufactured
by Via Light. This LED task lamp
is constructed from hammered
anodized aluminum. The metal
shade reflects light, increasing
illumination on the desk surface.
Colors options include green, yellow,
purple, and black. More colors will be
released annually. • jaharastudio.com
• Circle 111
Lutron Electronics Co. now offers
two styles of dimmers for CFLs and
LEDs: Diva/C-L and Credenza/C-L.
The dimmers also work with
incandescent and halogen bulbs.
They use Lutron’s HED Technology,
which has dimming circuitry
designed to be compatible with most
high-efficacy bulbs. The Diva dimmer
is wall-mounted, and the Credenza
plugs into any table or floor lamp. •
lutron.com • Circle 112
We liked the design
of the new Tron
Armchair, but we liked
it even more when we
learned that Tron:
Legacy director Joseph
Kosinski (above, with
Olivia Wilde and Jeff
Bridges), studied
architecture at
Columbia University’s
Graduate School of
Architecture, Planning
and Preservation.
Editor’s Choice
PRODUCTS →

EDITED BY LAURIE GRANT
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Seeing it like you do.
©
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Glass is more than just a design element,
more than just something to manage
light and energy—it’s an opportunity.
As the world’s largest supplier of flat
glass, we go beyond glass to bring your
ideas to life.
Through superior products, service and
innovative solutions, we work with you
to eliminate obstacles and complete
your project with your vision intact.
Because in the end, we measure success
by how well you do.
To discuss your next opportunity, call an
AGC Representative at 1-800-251-0441
or visit www.na.agc-flatglass.com.
BEYOND GLASS
TM
Circle no. 193 or http://architect.hotims.com
Grace Construction Products
has introduced Grace Ice &
Water Shield HT, a self-adhering
roofing underlayment designed
to deliver in-place performance
for waterproofing and high-
temperature applications up
to 240 F. Made of rubberized
asphalt, the membrane is for use
on sloped roof decks and under
coverings such as metal, slate,
tile, cedar shakes, and shingles.
The underlayment allows for
120 days of exposure time. •
graceconstruction.com • Circle 113
Kawneer Co. has introduced its
AA3350 IsoPort Horizontal Sliding
Window. It is available as single-
hung, double-hung, horizontal
sliding, or fixed with a polyamide
thermal break design and factory
glazing. One-inch insulating or
laminated glass improves energy
efficiency and enhances sound
transmission class and outdoor-
indoor transmission class (sound
resistance) performance. •
kawneer.com • Circle 114
Trace and Courtship are reversible
fabrics from Knoll Textiles that
can be used as privacy curtains,
drapes, or bedcovers. Courtship,
a woven midweight drapery,
features a raised vertical stripe
created by a chenille Trevira yarn
that adds multicolored texture.
Six colors are available. Trace,
available in seven colors, has an
all-over small-scale weave with
seven different colored yarns in
the weft. • www.knolltextiles.com
• Circle 115
Lasertron’s etched stainless steel
backsplashes start as a single piece
of mirror-finish stainless steel.
During the manufacturing process,
pattern outlines are masked and
the exposed area is brushed with
an abrasive. No toxic chemicals are
used. Geometric patterns include
squares, circles, and diamonds.
Panel sizes can be made up to 48"
by 96". • lasertrondirect.com •
Circle 116


technology
Classical in essence and origin, highly
refined in execution. Available in a
variety of finishes. Metro can be specified
in fluorescent, incandescent, or LED.
CUSTOM LI GHTI NG
Collaborate with our design team for
ideation, 3D CAD and photorealistic
rendering to support your next project.
Metro
ayrelight.com
877. 722. AYRE
Circle no. 511 or http://architect.hotims.com
Visit us at
Las Vegas – January 18-21, 2011
Booths: S11107 / C4029
Where the Industry Connects Every Day. www.thebluebook.com
Want to get connected to the industry’s
largest, most active construction network?
From design through post-construction, The Blue Book
Building and Construction Network is helping the entire
industry improve its digital workfow and productivity.
Log-on to the new bluebook.comand you’ll fnd a powerful
set of FREE information solutions designed to help you:
Find the right people
Find the right products
Find the right projects
Design and collaborate
Share plans and specs
Promote your projects
View, takeof, markup documents
Network to build strong relationships
From the cornerstone Blue Book directory you’ve trusted
for nearly 100 years, to progressive new BIM and Virtual
Design opportunities, The Blue Book Network’s mission
remains the same...to connect buyers and sellers throughout
the project workfow...every day.
Get connected today at:
www.thebluebook.com l 888-303-2243
Circle no. 262 or http://architect.hotims.com
Nysan Solar Control has released
GreenScreen DuoTone fabric. The
two-tone fabric is available in
four color options and allows
architects to control heat gain.
A light color on the exterior
reflects heat and, though it
appears opaque from the
outside, a darker interior surface
allows for outward views. The
recyclable, PVC-free fabric is
made of 92% polyester yarn
and 8% polyurethane finish. •
nysan.com • Circle 117
Pneumocell is an assembly kit
of inflatable building elements
inspired by biological cell
structures. The pieces can be
connected, by nylon zippers,
in myriad configurations to
create a full self-supporting
structure. Each cell is made out
of flame-retardant thermoplastic
polyurethane foil. Cells are
airtight, protect against
solar radiation, and do not
require constant inflation. •
pneumocell.com • Circle 118
PorterSIPs structural insulated
panels, which feature a layer of
expanded polystyrene between
sheets of oriented strand board
(OSB), achieve insulation values
of up to R-52, and are available in
thicknesses up to 11
3
/8". Type A
panels have a
7
/16" OSB skin on
both faces. Type C panels have
face sheathing that is equivalent
to or exceeds the strength
specification of a
7
/16"-rated
structural sheathing, and have
Roseburg reverse board and
batten fir plywood on the interior
surface. • portersips.com •
Circle 119
Wire—a collaboration between
Tagina and Simone Micheliis—is
a ceramic system that can be
used in residential and contract
environments. Wire.House has a
double-fired, 12mm-thick white
body and is meant for interior use.
It comes in two standard colors for
floors and two colors for accent
pieces. Wire.Natural can be used in
interior and exterior applications
and is made of glazed porcelain
in 12mm or 20mm thicknesses.
It comes in standard and antislip
finishes. • tagina.it • Circle 120

technology
To learn more, call 1-800-231-7788
or visit www.tateaccessfloors.com.
Sometimes, it’s okay
for sustainability to
be beneath you.
Take a stand on
green-build with
Tate underfloor
service distribution
systems (UFSD).
With Tate’s UFSD, it’s the things you don’t see that make the
difference. The beauty of this system is in what happens below
the surface. A combination of modular wiring, cabling and air
delivery systems offers savings in materials and energy efficiency,
while also improving air quality and comfort. In fact, it’s a system so full
of green-build attributes, you never really walk on it, you make a stand.
Circle no. 245 or http://architect.hotims.com
MIND → & MATTER
Self-Healing Concrete
ONE WAY TO
UP MATERIALS’
ENERGY-SAVING
POTENTIAL IS
TO MAKE THEM
BIOLOGICALLY
DRIVEN.
TEXT BY BLAINE BROWNELL, AIA
ILLUSTRATIONS BY PETER ARKLE
REDUCING THE EMBODIED energy of building
materials is a sustainability approach that has received
serious attention recently, resulting in a few extreme
examples of materials that are “grown” rather than
manufactured—thus virtually eliminating the energy
that would typically be used in the process. Although
material production is a critical point of potential energy
savings, long-term maintenance can account for even
greater energy consumption over a material’s life cycle.
So why not grow materials with a view to that as well,
making them self-reparable—and thus longer lasting?
A team of Newcastle University (U.K.) students
recently unveiled a proposal for a self-healing concrete
powered by bacteria. Led by instructor Jennifer Hallinan,
a Research Councils U.K. Fellow in Complex Systems
at the university’s Centre for the Integrated Systems
Biology of Ageing and Nutrition, the students developed
a genetically modified microbe designed to reconstruct
cracks that form in concrete. When a fissure forms in
the material, the bacteria travel to the bottom of the
crack and create a mixture of calcium carbonate and
microbial glue that patches the concrete. This biological
patch ultimately cures to the same strength as the
surrounding material.
The production of concrete is “a significant
contributor to global warming,” Hallinan said in a
Newcastle University press release announcing the
development. “Finding a way of prolonging the lifespan
of existing structures means we could reduce this
environmental impact.” The bacteria could be especially
useful, she pointed out, “in earthquake zones where
hundreds of buildings have to be flattened because there
is currently no easy way of repairing the cracks and
making them structurally sound.”
Concerned about the unintended consequences
of loose bacteria (imagine getting some on your skin),
the team devised a self-destruct gene that prevents
the microbes from surviving outside of their concrete
world. The students designed the microbe to recognize
the specific pH of concrete before initiating a repair
sequence, at which time they will move to the depths
of a fissure. Once there, the bacteria begin the healing
process by detecting the clumping of other microbes. Like
the diferentiated cells in human bones, the bacterial
cells assume three separate roles in the reconstruction
process: those that create crystals of calcium carbonate
(the aggregate); those that morph into filaments for
reinforcing (the rebar); and those that secrete an
adhesive, which binds the mixture together (the cement).
The nine-person student team—with backgrounds
that include chemistry, biology, computer science, and
civil engineering—won a gold medal for its “BacillaFilla”
microbe in the International Genetically Engineered
Machines contest sponsored by the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology. The energy-saving potential of
the surprising invention suggests that we will see other
biological strategies for maintaining building materials
in the future.
Given the profound significance of a biologically
driven, self-reparable constructed environment,
we should advocate for the increased participation
of architecture students and practitioners in these
endeavors. After all, one day, that concrete you specify
may be a quasi-living thing.
5%
Amount of worldwide CO
2

emissions generated by
cement manufacturing.
SOURCE: PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION


Read more of Blaine’s
reports on cutting-edge tech at
ARCHITECT’s Mind & Matter blog:
go.hw.net/Brownell.
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Circle no. 260 or http://architect.hotims.com
The face of mainstreet.
Quik-Brik
®
- PRODUCT -
For more information on our broad range of products or for free literature call 1-855-346-2766 or visit oldcastleapg.com
-Project: Chandler Fire Administration Building, Chandler, AZ.
The face of masonry. No matter where you are, chances are we’re
somewhere close by. In fact, you’ve probably seen us many times before in the
places you shop, work, play, learn, and live. We manufacture the brands and
products used in the interiors and exteriors of civil, commercial, and
residential construction projects across the nation. We leave our mark with
satisfied customers and clients who have chosen North America’s largest
manufacturer of building products to simplify the process of making buildings
happen. We’re Oldcastle Architectural. We are the face of masonry.
TRENWYTH
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AMERIMIX
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Architectural
Circle no. 504 or http://architect.hotims.com
EXHIBIT →
In vino veritas, goes the old aphorism, yet the
truth applies not only to what spills from tipplers’
mouths, but to our society at large. How Wine
Became Modern: Design + Wine 1976 to Now, at the
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and developed in
part by Diller Scofidio + Renfro, analyzes wine’s
rise in cultural influence since the landmark 1976
Judgment of Paris (in which California vintages were
deemed superior to their French counterparts) blew
open the insular world of winemaking, marketing,
and packaging. Included are four models of wineries-
by-starchitects and a map of 200 worldwide. Also on
view: exotic glassware, including Etienne Meneau’s
Carafe No. 5 (shown), 200 wine labels, and a “smell
wall.” Through April 17. • sfmoma.org
THEATER → 100 CRIT 104 STUDIO VISIT 110 BEYOND BUILDINGS 116
CULTURE
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From the mid-18th century to the
beginning of British colonial rule
in 1858, Lucknow was the cultural
center of northern India. European
artists and adventurers traveled
to the city to view a different
kind of wealth, opulence, and
beauty. Paintings, jewelry, and
more from the “Constantinople
of India” are now on display at
the Los Angeles County Museum of
Art, in India’s Fabled City: The
Art of Courtly Lucknow. Almost
200 pieces—including Mir Kalan
Khan’s A Drowning Man Saved From
Marine Monsters by a Princely
Boat (right)—are organized in
12 sections, with two devoted to
the city’s landscape and palatial
architecture. Through Feb. 27. •
lacma.org
EXHIBIT →
Edward Durell Stone and Sen. J. William
Fulbright, two successful sons of Fayetteville,
Ark., joined forces in the early 1950s.
Fulbright wanted to diversify his family’s
wagon-making company, and he asked the
architect, a lifelong friend, to design
furniture for production. The resulting
pieces—on view in Ozark Modern: Edward Durell
Stone’s Fulbright Furniture, at the University
of Arkansas’ Fine Arts Center Gallery—combined
midcentury modern’s clean lines with a regional
Arkansas aesthetic. Through Feb. 16. •
art.uark.edu/fineartsgallery P
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WEBSITE →
Adobe Systems takes pride in
being a Web leader, so the
launch of the Adobe Museum of
Digital Media (AMDM) site is not
too surprising. Adobe tapped
architect Filippo Innocenti
to design a virtual building
that, as the AMDM fills with
exhibits, will be part of the
experience. The premiere show,
Tony Oursler’s “Valley,” is
borderline creepy, and the
second, by Mariko Mori, was not
up at press time, but we’ll be
sure to return this spring to
see what Rhode Island School of
Design president John Maeda has
to offer. • adobemuseum.com
For more information on Nichiha products,
visit nichiha.com or call 1-866-424-4421.
ADVERTISEMENT
ARCHITECTURE IN AN AGE OF
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INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS
Mission Accomplished! Nichiha Provides
Cost-Effective Solution To Restoration Project
R
ecently, Nichiha was chosen for the
restoration of a Burger King store in
Paris, Illinois. Nichiha supplied a unique
combination of both interior and exterior
fiber cement cladding materials. In order to
keep the project on a very aggressive time
schedule, Heartland Food Corporation chose
Nichiha ultimately because all the materials
were readily available and could be installed
quickly; the crew completed the project
within three days.
“We are extremely pleased with the results
and positive feedback we have received on
the appearance of the building since the
retrofit. The Nichiha products used for our
renovation enabled us to create a significant
visual improvement to both the interior and
exterior of our facility, using a simple cost-
effective application method,” said John
Kayser, Director of Construction for Heartland
Food Corporation. Heartland Food Corporation
realized that Nichiha USA would be a value-
added product line that would facilitate the re-
branding and re-imaging programs for existing,
aged Burger King locations.
Value And Versatility
Nichiha offers a wide variety of colors and
textures that can be used on a wide range
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restaurants, metal buildings, multifamily,
offices, and healthcare for both exterior and
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architects and building owners who want a
durable, long-lasting cladding that is quick to
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With a 50-year warranty*, Nichiha is the per-
fect choice for new construction, restoration or
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It was certainly the perfect choice for this com-
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*See Nichiha warranties for detailed information on
terms, conditions and limitations.
fiber cement cladding
Circle no. 4 or http://architect.hotims.com
EXHIBIT →
A $2,500 car seems like every
16-year-old’s dream, but it’s a
revolution for India’s 1.17 billion
citizens. The Nano, developed by
Tata Motors, went on sale in India
last year. Starting this month,
Cornell University’s Herbert F.
Johnson Museum of Art explores the
compact auto and its ramifications.
Unpacking the Nano: The Price of
the World’s Most Affordable Car,
created by Cornell’s College of
Art, Architecture, and Planning,
investigates the design and
marketing of such an inexpensive
car, as well as the environmental
consequences of mass automobile
ownership. It’s been called “the
car of the recession” and “the
people’s car,” but will the Nano
become “the Third World’s Model T”?
Through March 27. • museum.cornell
.edu; aap.cornell.edu J
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For lightness of touch.
DORMA TS93 in Contur Design.
DORMA Architectural Hardware · 800-523-8483 · www.dorma-usa.com
DORMA By Choice

Experience the difference—
Premium products, superior customer service, exceptional brand.
With its unique cam and roller design,
the TS93 System in Contur Design
represents the pinnacle of surface
applied door closers, enabling a door
to open much easier than one
operated by a rack and pinion closer.
The ADA-compliant TS93 provides
regular arm operating efficiency with
the sleek aesthetics of a track arm.
Circle no. 501 or http://architect.hotims.com
Belden Brick continues to meet your needs by creating new colors,
sizes, textures, and special shapes. Belden Brick manufactures more
than 20 different sizes of face brick and clay pavers, more than 300
colors, 10 different textures and hundreds of special shapes.
With more than 125 years of experience
the Belden Brick Company has set the
standard of comparison.
STANDARD OF COMPARISON
Circle no. 82 or http://architect.hotims.com
Division 10: Rigid Sheet, Corner Guards, Handrails, Crash Rails and Kickplates
Cubicle Curtains and Track
Regulatory, Directional, Informational and Identifcation Signs
Division 6: Vanity and Counter Tops, Tub Surrounds and Shower Bases
Division 7: Thermal and Seismic Expansion Joint Systems,
Parking Deck Systems and Fire Barriers
Division 8: Clad Doors and Window Sills
Division 9: Interior Coatings
Division 12: Shower Curtains, Bedspreads and
Window Treatments
InPro delivers
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Download InPro BIM Objects in a snap!
Snap this QR Code with your smart phone to visit www.inprocorp.com/bimready,
view our entire library of BIM objects and download instantly.
Download the free reader for your phone at www.i-nigma.com.
Just another reason why InPro can confidently claim
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BIM Objects for
Autodesk® Revit®,
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Circle no. 221 or http://architect.hotims.com
BOOK →
Most architects could describe the
21st century’s first decade in
six words: security, icons, boom,
bust, green, infrastructure. Blair
Kamin, Hon. AIA, the Pulitzer
Prize–winning architecture
critic of the Chicago Tribune
and a contributing editor for
Architectural Record, touches on
all of these topics in Terror and
Wonder, which collects 51 of his
articles from the past 10 years. •
$30; University of Chicago Press L
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EXHIBIT →
In 1961, the AIA awarded the first Gold
Medal for Photography to Ezra Stoller
(1915–2004), an artist whose ability
to turn buildings into near-Platonic
ideals helped Modernism’s bold moves in
form-making—such as Eero Saarinen’s TWA
Terminal (shown)— gain acceptance. The
chance to view Stoller’s archival prints
in person doesn’t come around often, so
if you’re in New York over the next few
weeks, make time to visit the Yossi Milo
Gallery. Through Feb. 12. • yossimilo.com
IMPs from MBCI: Elegant. Efficient. Effective.
Aesthetically appealing, competent and functional? It may be hard to believe, but MBCI’s Eco-ficient™ insulated metal panels offer all of these advantages. Elegance. Because of our many
panel profiles, color offerings and applied finishes, design opportunities are abundant. Efficient. In one quick step, the interior skin, insulation and exterior skin is up, which results in reduced
labor costs and allows for earlier business starts. Effective. Eco-ficient™ panels help meet green building requirements by functioning as Continuous Air Barriers (CABs) and providing
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Circle no. 402 or http://architect.hotims.com
Burdens to Carry
HARRISON ATELIER EXPLORES AGE, HISTORY IN ANCHISES.
THE SET IS NO MERE BACKGROUND in the dance
performance Anchises. Five dancers assemble and
disassemble foam cubes, sit on them, lean against them,
and stack them.
The performance, choreographed by Jonah Bokaer,
premiered last October in England and ran in November
at the Abrons Art Center in New York. For Ariane Lourie
Harrison and her partner, Seth Harrison, of the New
York firm Harrison Atelier, collaborating with Bokaer
was more than a chance to explore theatrical design.
“Understanding how to give visibility to an issue, be it
only in ephemeral form—a performance or a pavilion—is
a valuable site of experimentation,” Ariane says.
Ariane teaches at the Yale School of Architecture; Seth
is a designer and entrepreneur focused on biotechnology.
They met Bokaer through a friend, and Bokaer later asked
them to help brainstorm a new performance. The three
were interested in aging, so Ariane and Seth found an
image for inspiration of Anchises, a figure from Greek
myth, being carried out of the burning city of Troy by
his son Aeneas. “That image was the ideal of filial piety,
taking care of your parents,” Ariane says.
TEXT BY LINDSEY M. ROBERTS
PHOTO BY SIOUX NESI

THEATER →
In Anchises, designers
Ariane Lourie Harrison
(pictured) and Seth
Harrison investigate
the aging body in
space.
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Ariane and Seth (who are 39 and 50, respectively)
had just finished phase one of a master plan for the
Fire Island seashore in New York, in which they tried
to engage all ages. “The person you are at 8 years old
could be considered as diferent from … 80 as [are] a
man and a bird,” Seth says. In Anchises, the five dancers,
aged from 24 to 75, make visible Seth’s point by the
diferences in their range of movement.
On the set, medical-like clear PVC tubes hung from
metal rods are tied together to hold foam cylinders in
a basket. During the performance, the dancers undo
the tubes, and the columns topple. The Harrisons
had noticed that in Baroque paintings of Anchises,
he usually carries something. “We saw that Anchises
was carrying a bag. Both Aeneas and Anchises were
carrying burdens,” Ariane says. “We said, ‘Let’s take
that bag and blow it up.’ ” The basket holds “glories
of civilization, burdens of family obligations, debris
of exiled populations, or blocky pieces of familiar
furniture,” Ariane says. “We wanted to use the idea
of age to pose some dif cult questions.”
The set represents the ruined city of Troy, but also
the breakdown of the body as we age and the state
of facilities for the aging. “Are we ready as a society,”
Ariane asks, “to really address the aging population
in a way that doesn’t recourse so quickly towards
institutionalization?”
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“becomes an
environment for
the piece,”
co-collaborator
Seth Harrison
says. Initially
gathered together as
“Anchises’ bag,” the
tubes “are loosened,
only to twine around
performers and
become a shimmering
network.” The square
and cylindrical
blocks function as
props. “We were
looking for materials
that were flexible
and soft, because
of the broad range
of ages in the
cast,” Ariane Lourie
Harrison adds.
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Circle no. 254 or http://architect.hotims.com
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Circle no. 281 or http://architect.hotims.com
The Complexities
of a Pioneer
FOR THE GREATER PART OF HIS CAREER, CHICAGO ARCHITECT HARRY WEESE
DEMONSTRATED PROTEAN TALENT AND AHEAD-OF-THE-CURVE THINKING.
BUT HE SUFFERED FROM SELF-DESTRUCTIVE BEHAVIORS AND HABITS, TOO.
THE ARCHITECT HARRY WEESE, FAIA, is best remembered
these days for a grand underground civic work: the
vaulted and cofered stations of the Washington, D.C.,
Metro system. Yet the man was anything but a team
player who deferred to authority.
In The Architecture of Harry Weese (W.W. Norton
& Co.; $59.95), the first monograph on the architect,
author Robert Bruegmann portrays a charismatic, hard-
drinking Chicagoan who looked like a handsomer Dan
Rather. Harry Mohr Weese (1915–1998) constantly defied
common sense in his business decisions and hobbies and
sometimes ofended everyone around him. He ranted
against flashy competitors such as Helmut Jahn (“Genghis
Jahn,” Weese called him) and hidebound bureaucrats who
rejected his loopier proposals for installing infrastructure
on new, manmade islands and stretching glass roofs over
avenues to create pedestrian arcades.
Bruegmann suspects that Weese’s erratic behavior
and rebelliousness were partly rooted in his childhood.
His father, Harry Ernest Weese, a rigid Methodist banker
and John Bircher, forbade smoking and drinking at the
family’s house in the Chicago suburb of Kenilworth, Ill.
The elder Harry frugally ran an “agricultural operation
in the backyard, growing vegetables, raising chickens,
fattening a turkey, and keeping bees,” Bruegmann writes.
Young Harry “would fidget constantly and chew his tie
absent mindedly” unless distracted by supplies of pencil
and paper. He churned out drawings of pirate hideouts,
Robert Bruegmann’s
monograph, with
contributions from
Kathleen Murphy
Skolnik, is the
first devoted to
Harry Weese (above
right, circa 1980s).

TEXT BY EVE M. KAHN
CRIT →
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Eve M. Kahn has
been writing about
architecture and design
for two decades.
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Circle no. 286 or http://architect.hotims.com
windmills, boats, and football players. He also blew of
steam by building rickety huts and tree houses.
The elder Harry feared that his son “might stray into
the low-paying and, to his mind, socially dubious field
of art,” Bruegmann writes. But the father did finance
young Harry’s somewhat more pragmatic architecture
training—first at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, then at Yale University, and finally at the
Cranbrook Academy of Art. At these schools, young Harry
befriended fellow future stars, including Charles and Ray
Eames, I.M. Pei, and Eero Saarinen.
Bruegmann supplies a few steamy anecdotes about
Weese’s school years. At Cranbrook, the budding architect
flirted with sculptor Lily Swann, who was about to
become Saarinen’s first wife. “Finding Lily and Harry
together inside one of the large urns that marked the
entrance to Cranbrook, Saarinen challenged Weese to a
duel,” Bruegmann reports. “Weese talked him out of it,
reportedly suggesting that they instead go for a walk
in the woods.” Weese later befriended a wealthy male
student from Alabama, Benjamin Baldwin, and soon
married Baldwin’s sister Kitty, a psychologist.
After a World War II stint as the engineering of cer on
a destroyer, Weese set up a retail design store in Chicago
and assigned Kitty to run it. She marketed a foresighted
mixture of Alvar Aalto furniture, Harry Bertoia jewelry,
and Paolo Venini glass, while her husband built a solo
practice partly through his school connections. Saarinen’s
friend Irwin Miller, a Cummins Engine Co. heir and
executive, hired Weese to design a cylindrical church and
schools with piers and saw-tooth roofs near Cummins’
headquarters in Columbus, Ind.
Weese became a kind of Postmodernist ahead of
his time, reviving arched windows, symmetry, and
elemental classical forms in the mold of Louis Kahn and
the Venturis. He also pioneered preservation, criticizing
urban-renewal projects that were clearing away the kind
of humane, jumbled streetscapes that Jane Jacobs had
just started documenting. Weese protested Chicago’s
demolition plans for the El, Louis Sullivan’s Auditorium
and Garrick theaters, and H.H. Richardson’s planar stone
Glessner House. As early as 1961, he advised San Francisco
planners to restore cable-car networks, stop carving out
elevated expressways, and create a registry of “all historic
buildings and landmarks.” He sank his own money
into preservation, too, buying Chicago warehouses for
conversion into apartments.
Old buildings’ shapes and materials influenced
Weese’s own designs. He used exposed-timber beams on
ceilings and sheltered pathways and outdoor staircases
with colonnades. Yet he also sometimes folded building
masses into origami points and cantilevered wings that
the likes of Zaha Hadid or Daniel Libeskind would admire.
Weese took on more than 1,000 commissions over his
career, and for this monograph, Bruegmann brought
in art historian Kathleen Murphy Skolnik to write 34
mini-profiles of major buildings. They are scattered from
Ghana (a 1950s embassy clad in mahogany brise-soleils)
to Kentucky (a 1970s Z-shaped headquarters for Fruit of
the Loom, with streams running through the skylighted
atriums) to Wisconsin (a 1960s Cor-Ten steel lake house
bolted onto a limestone clif) to California (Stanford
University’s 1970s engineering center, with timber
framing embedded in tawny stucco).
Weese could usually visualize his new building
schemes within 20 seconds of first seeing the client’s

Completed in 1978,
Harry Weese’s
Frederick E. Terman
Engineering Center at
Stanford University
(above) balanced
the need to protect
a handful of trees
with a thoughtful
layout that offered
natural ventilation
and a maximum use
of daylight. But the
architect was capable
of design bravado,
too, as Shadowcliff
(1969; above right)—
a one-room studio
cantilevered
from a 150-foot
limestone wall—aptly
demonstrates.
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Circle no. 283 or http://architect.hotims.com
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GEEK IS GOOD
[ ]
proposed site. It would then take him perhaps 20 minutes to draw up
his ideas on any pieces of paper at hand. Then he would fob of the
sketches on young underlings at Harry Weese & Associates (HWA).
The firm grew to more than 100 staf, with no signature style. “He
feared any kind of rationalization or standardization,” Bruegmann
writes. Turnover rates were high, and so many alumni, including
Stanley Tigerman and Harry’s younger brother Ben, went on to start
their own successful practices that HWA “came to be known by wags
in the of ce as the ‘Harry Weese Academy,’ ” Bruegmann writes.
Weese lived large on his profits. He dressed in silk bow ties, sailed
a succession of sloops, drove his Jaguars too fast, sent his children to
private school, and kept an apartment in Chicago, a country house
nearby, and a ski house in Aspen. The of ce became “dangerously
disorganized,” Bruegmann writes. By the 1980s, Weese was in and out
of rehab for alcoholism. “He failed to prepare adequately for meetings
and even insulted potential clients on job interviews,” Bruegmann
adds. The architect spent his last years sobering up in nursing homes
and a Veterans Administration hospital. Bruegmann is more reticent
about Weese’s notorious womanizing; the book includes a few
references to “attractive women” that Weese met on the job.
So, no, this is not the usual hagiographic posthumous monograph.
But it does reveal Weese’s protean talent for manipulating forms,
angling views and windows in unpredictable ways, and respecting
and reinterpreting the past. Skolnik’s building profiles—which,
annoyingly, are not cross-referenced with page numbers in
Bruegmann’s biographical essay—contain informative floor plans
and quotes from positive and negative reviews over the years. (Weese
himself considered his Marriott Hotel slab in Chicago “something of a
dog.”) Skolnik also notes which buildings have been drastically altered
or demolished. Weese’s campus works have proved particularly
vulnerable: Beloit College in Wisconsin razed his brick science hall,
and similar plans are afoot for a concrete-and-limestone humanities
center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and for Williams
College’s brick library.
His masterpiece, the D.C. Metro, however, seems to have sufered
not much worse than deferred maintenance, coats of gray paint, and
loudspeakers “installed in visible places rather than behind acoustic
panels,” Skolnik writes. Not a bad survival rate for the miles-long
work of a complicated, self-destructive man that one co-worker called
“the most exasperating person I ever met. Also, the most gifted.”
In next month’s Crit, Roger K. Lewis will consider Bing Thom’s expansion
of Weese’s Arena Stage complex, in Washington, D.C.

WEESE COULD USUALLY VISUALIZE
HIS NEW BUILDING SCHEMES WITHIN
20 SECONDS OF FIRST SEEING THE
CLIENT’S PROPOSED SITE. IT WOULD
THEN TAKE HIM PERHAPS 20 MINUTES
TO DRAW UP HIS IDEAS.
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Circle no. 165 or http://architect.hotims.com
Paolo Soleri
KICKING OFF A SERIES OF VISITS TO
DESIGN STUDIOS AROUND THE COUNTRY,
PHOTOGRAPHER TIMOTHY HURSLEY DROPS IN
ON THE FAMOUS EXPERIMENTAL SETTLEMENTS
OF ARCOSANTI AND COSANTI IN ARIZONA.
STUDIO VISIT →
Architect Paolo Soleri was born in Turin, Italy, in 1919. He settled permanently in Arizona in 1956
and almost immediately began to build Cosanti, his home and studio near Scottsdale, as an
experiment in eco-friendly habitation. Fourteen years later, Soleri launched Arcosanti (above),
his low-impact city in the desert, 65 miles north of Phoenix. And just last month, Scottsdale
dedicated a bridge and plaza that Soleri designed for the Arizona Canal. The festivities included
talks by Will Bruder, AIA, and Alan Hess and an exhibit at the city’s contemporary art museum.
PHOTOS BY TIMOTHY HURSLEY
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Go to: http://certguide.lafarge-na.com
Circle no. 474 or http://architect.hotims.com
ARCOSANTI
The Arcosanti complex
(above right) exemplifies
Soleri’s concept of Arcology,
or the fusion of architecture
and ecology. It sits on an
860-acre property, adjacent
to the 71,000-acre Agua
Fria National Monument.
Many of Arcosanti’s 50 or so
employees and volunteers
live on site full-time, giving
tours and workshops,
constructing new buildings,
and fabricating sculptural
bronze and ceramic bells
that are a major source of
revenue.
Soleri eats lunch in the café
(above left) on the second
floor of the mixed-use Crafts
III building. Crafts III (above
right, at left) was constructed
from 1972–77 to serve as a
visitors center. It incorporates
a gallery on the fourth floor,
a bakery on the third, and
housing on the first.
The south-facing Foundry
Apse (right) was completed
in 1974. A fabric screen
provides additional shade,
while exhaust heat from
the furnace warms adjacent
living quarters on cold winter
nights. Further up the hillside
is a second apse for making
ceramics.
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Circle no. 34 or http://architect.hotims.com


To see more photos of Arcosanti
and Cosanti by Timothy Hursley, go to
architectmagazine.com.
COSANTI
Soleri spent 1947–50 as an
apprentice of Frank Lloyd
Wright at both Taliesin East
in Wisconsin and Taliesin
West in Arizona. During that
time, he met his late wife,
Colly; her father was one of
Soleri’s first clients. After a
brief stint back in Italy, the
Soleris returned to Arizona
for good in 1955 and began
to built the Cosanti complex.
The Ceramics Studio (above)
dates to 1958. Its earth-cast
concrete shell incorporates
a skylight with Wrightian
geometry.
The below-grade, skylit
Cosanti Gallery (right) was
constructed in 1961 by
pouring concrete over a
sculpted mound of earth,
then excavating the soil once
the concrete had hardened.
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THE LIFE AND DEATH of a city stand intertwined in
the new Museum Aan de Stroom (MAS), designed by
Neutelings Riedijk Architects. Rising 197 feet on an
island just next to Antwerp, Belgium’s historic core, the
museum is devoted to the city’s history. It’s finished
now, though exhibitions will not open until this spring.
Recently, Willem Jan Neutelings, who lives across the
harbor from his largest design to date, gave me a tour.
Monumentality was the way architecture used to
honor and fix the past. The essence of the architect’s
activities was creating buildings whose appearance,
position, and scale were divorced from the complexities
of everyday life and whose interiors were dedicated to
framing important activities that gave meaning to that
life. That tradition began to fade in the 19th century. The
ability to break down power and distribute it was one
of Modernism’s desires, and the movement’s collages,
antihierarchical constructions, and open forms are one
of its enduring legacies. At the same time, the extremes
of monumentality to which totalitarian regimes had
recourse gave the tradition a bad name.
It takes a building such as this to make the
argument that a certain kind of monumentality—one
that would be open and flexible, while standing above
and beyond daily life in order to provide reflection
on that quotidian reality—is necessary. This the MAS
achieves, partially through its fortunate siting: on
an island in the middle of the old harbor, so that it
is slightly isolated, but still close to the city’s heart.
From the building, one can see historic Antwerp, the
yuppifying old harbor, the Schelde River, the suburbs,
and the new harbor reaching out toward the sea. As
you move up through the building, rising on escalators
to open halls, you look out through floor-to-ceiling
glass that is corrugated, so that it needs no supports.
Every time you rise up a level, you turn 90 degrees, and
a diferent view at a diferent height opens up to you.
Moreover, these viewing platforms are free and open
to the public. On every level, a closed, concrete box will
contain exhibits that explain aspects of Antwerp’s past.
After this spiral rhythm, the restaurant and viewing
platform at the top almost seem like a disappointment:
The city revealed in its totality is not nearly as
interesting as the framed and changing perspectives
experienced up until now. You do get a view of the
artwork Luc Tuymans designed for the plaza next door.
What appeared to be variegated paving reveals itself as
a skull picked out in diferent hues of gray, providing a
memento mori at the moment of victory over gravity.
After visits in the preceding weeks to big, bland
museum boxes, in cities such as Los Angeles and Boston,
which have replaced monuments to civic generosity
and give no acknowledgment of the treasures they
house, the MAS’s soaring achievement stood out all
the stronger for me. Add to this that the building—all
200,000 square feet of it, with more than 50,000
square feet of gallery space—cost less than $50 million,
including its public spaces, and the achievement is all
the more astonishing. It just proves that we can honor
our past while we build with a view to our future. S
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Read more of Aaron’s design
observations at ARCHITECT’s Beyond
Buildings blog: go.hw.net/Betsky.
BEYOND BUILDINGS →
The Rebirth of
Monumentality
NEUTELINGS RIEDIJK’S MUSEUM AAN DE STROOM
REVEALS WHAT A CIVIC STRUCTURE CAN BE.
TEXT BY AARON BETSKY
ILLUSTRATION BY PETER ARKLE
116
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Circle no. 206 or http://architect.hotims.com
Green Products for a Greener Planet.
At Firestone Building Products, refectivity and sustainability are two of the top priorities in our ongoing product research
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Circle no. 206 or http://architect.hotims.com
IT’ S NOTHING NEW TO SAY THAT CHANGE IS A CONSTANT. The Greek philosopher
Heraclitus first made the point back in 500 B.C. Twenty-four centuries later,
Karl Marx tagged change as the prevailing characteristic of the Industrial Age
in a famous passage from The Communist Manifesto: “All fixed,
fast-frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable
prejudices and opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones
become antiquated before they can ossify. All that is solid melts
into air, all that is holy is profaned, and man is at last compelled to
face with sober senses his real conditions of life, and
his relations with his kind.”
If change is constant, the rate of change is variable. Sometimes it creeps, nearly
unnoticeable, as during the monolithic 3,000-year reign of the Egyptian pharaohs.
Sometimes it moves with devastating speed, as when the Black Death cut the
population of Europe by a third in just four years: 1347–1351. Lately, change has
hit a surreal pace, as though some giant Monty Python cartoon hand is dropping
our ancient and venerable prejudices—about architecture, the economy, weather,
the government—into a blender, and the
machine is set to “liquify.” Who knows
what bizarre concoction will eventually
come pouring out?
The uncertainty can be crippling. In
2009, in just four months, demand for
mental health services in the U.S. doubled,
as measured in a survey commissioned by
Spectrum, a healthcare consultancy. And
according to a December 2010 Rasmussen
Reports poll, only 23 percent of Americans
believe the country is headed in the
right direction. Our national stress level
is orange.
It’s not so easy to track the demand for
mental health services among architects.
But the profession’s exceptionally high
unemployment rate would suggest that architects are feeling the efects of change more than most. The economy is just
one concern among many: emerging technologies, the imploding star system, a widening generation gap, a shifting
regulatory climate, decaying suburbs, shrinking cities, intensifying global competition.
Consider this issue of ARCHITECT as an antidote to our stress-inducing zeitgeist, a necessary investment in
professional therapy. The topic, content, and structure are an industry-wide group efort; they emerged from in-
person and online conversations with architects, evolved in discussion with the magazine’s new editorial advisory
committee, and took final form in collaboration with our creative partners at Bruce Mau Design.
To get the conversation started, we organized the feature section around five deliberately provocative statements,
such as “Your clients are really old” and “Your architecture is a commodity.” Articles respond to each provocation
from a variety of perspectives, some favorable and others oppositional. In trying to understand the transformation of
architecture and spark dialogue around the deceptively simple question, “What’s next?,” it’s critical to recognize that
there are no right or wrong answers, merely intelligent guesswork. JOIN THE CONVERSATION AT ARCHITECTMAGAZINE.COM.
A COLLABORATION WITH BRUCE MAU DESIGN
TEXT BY NED CRAMER
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Circle no. 419 or http://architect.hotims.com
ARCHITECTURE FIRMS ARE GENERALLY INEFFICIENT, saddled by a 19th-century
business model and tethered to the boom-bust economics of the real estate
industry. As an antidote, AIA chief economist Kermit Baker suggests the
stabilizing benefits of paraprofessionals. Business consultant Paul Nakazawa
encourages architects to go with the flow of the financial crisis. And students
from across the globe share their plans for architecture in the 21st century.
IS A LLICCENNSEED ARRCHHITTECCT DDDOINGG YYOUUR
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THE NEXT NORMAL 124
ARCHITECTURE, WHEN MEASURED IN ECONOMIC TERMS, is not a terribly ef cient
profession. This is not in any way meant to imply that architects aren’t
hard workers or that they waste their time on unimportant details.
Rather, it has to do with their productivity—their output per hour of
labor—or, more specifically, the historically low levels of productivity in
the construction industry.
Over the past two decades, employment at architecture firms has
been increasing at a rate of about 4 percent per year. However, over
this same period, the volume of nonresidential construction being built
has increased by a little more than
1 percent per year. There are good
reasons why it takes more hours to
design a square foot of space today
compared with two decades ago:
Buildings are more sophisticated;
clients are more demanding; building codes are more complicated;
there are a lot more products to choose from. But architecture firms by
and large are not being compensated for these added responsibilities.
According to the AIA’s The Business of Architecture, 2009, annual net
billings per architecture firm employee averaged just $130,000, and
for most small firms they didn’t
exceed $100,000.
Obviously, a firm’s revenue per
employee establishes the upper
limit for the compensation it can
ofer, so firms with higher revenue per employee will likely pay higher
salaries. More broadly, professions that bring in higher revenue per
employee will likely have higher compensation levels. Lawyers, who on
average bring in almost twice as much revenue as architects, also have
compensation levels about 60 percent higher.
Hiring paraprofessionals is one important way to manage costs
and increase staf ef ciency. Paraprofessionals are typically trained
to be proficient in a more limited set of functions than a full-fledged
professional.
Other professions have made extensive use of paraprofessionals.
In law of ces nationwide, for example, paralegal and legal assistant
positions total more than a third of the number of lawyers, according
to the U.S. Department of Labor. In dentistry, there are twice as many
dental assistants as there are practicing dentists. But medicine is the
profession that has made the greatest use of paraprofessionals: from
licensed practical nurses to registered nurses to physician assistants,
there are many more paraprofessionals than physicians. The healthcare
field is structured to ef ciently leverage a physician’s time.
The Department of Labor projects that growth in paraprofessional
positions will outpace growth in professional positions over the
coming decade. In some professions, such as medicine, the supply of
physicians can’t keep up with demand, so the growth is met through
paraprofessionals. Using paraprofessionals is deemed to be a more cost-
efective use of resources because these workers need less training and
are paid only a fraction of a physician’s salary.
Some larger architecture firms have positions for CAD and BIM
specialists that are not filled by licensed architects. However, the use
of paraprofessionals for technical design tasks is not widespread in
the architecture profession. In fact, at many small and midsize firms,
nonarchitectural functions such as information technology, graphic
design, and marketing are commonly performed by professionally
trained architectural staf, usually interns or recently licensed architects.
Design paraprofessionals are so uncommon that the Department
of Labor hasn’t even published estimates or projections. We shouldn’t
be surprised that revenue per employee and compensation is so low in
architecture when we have professionals performing functions that
could be done by paraprofessionals.
In addition to increasing compensation in the profession and
allowing architects to concentrate on those things they were educated
and licensed to do, there is another benefit of expanding the use of
design paraprofessionals. Architects work in a unique industry. Both
residential and nonresidential construction are among the most cyclical
sectors of our economy, meaning that there is an inherent boom-or-bust
nature to them. It is not uncommon—in fact, it is almost expected—that
years of strong growth will be followed by years of steep declines.
Architecture firms are constantly struggling to match staf resources
with fluctuating workloads. Given the cyclicality in the construction
industry, a period of being understafed, when a firm is struggling to
meet project deadlines, is likely to be quickly followed by a period when
a firm is overstafed and needs to go through the destructive exercise
of salary freezes, furloughs, or downsizing. Think of 2007 and 2009, and
how quickly we went from boom to bust.
How have we coped with this downturn? The way we always have,
by eliminating a lot of our “paraprofessional” positions: interns and
recently licensed architects who perform these more standardized
design functions.
If there were true design paraprofessionals, they could move more
fluidly into and out of a broader range of positions in the design and
construction industry as needs changed—working with engineering
firms, construction companies, developers, facility managers, and
building owners, in addition to architecture firms. This would allow
architects to pursue the creative design careers that they envisioned
when they made the decision to invest so much time and money into
becoming an architect.
But when we use emerging professionals to manage the ebb and
flow of the construction cycle, we also risk eliminating the future leaders
of firms, as well as the future leaders of the profession, in hard times.
To this day, the profession has not fully recovered from the early 1990s
construction downturn, which forced a lot of younger architectural staf
out of the profession, never to return.
ARCHI TECT JANUARY 2011
125
DESIGN
PARAPROFESSIONALS
PRINCIPALS/PARTNERS
DEPARTMENT HEADS,
PROJECT MANAGERS
ARCHITECTS/DESIGNERS
I.T., MARKETING, OTHER
NONARCHITECTURAL STAFF
INTERNS
EMBRACE
THE CHANGE
THIS YEAR WILL BRING LITTLE comfort to
architecture firms that are just hanging on,
hoping to ride out this recession without
making fundamental changes in mindset,
behavior, and practice. Ironically, the potential
of architects and allied professionals to make
substantive contributions for the betterment
of society has never been greater, yet we are
trapped in an emotional quagmire of wanting
to “recover.”
So, let’s be clear—the foreseeable future
only requires about half of the pre-recession
workforce in architecture. Those who remain
in the profession need to augment their
knowledge, create and deliver a much higher
level of value, and be open and willing to work
productively in a highly complex and often
disrupted business and societal environment.
Market downturns and recessions would
be far less damaging if individuals and their
respective organizations were more skeptical
about success in good times and less panicked
in dif cult ones. The rule-of-rules in the world
is that change is a condition of life. So leading
firms never assume that the underpinning of
their success is permanent.
When things seem most successful and
secure, top managers in such practices insist
the most strongly that their
organizations stay tuned into
changes in the business world.
In the most challenging times,
they act tactically to limit
losses while continuing to
make strategic investments.
In this recession, these
actions have included very
dif cult decisions, such as laying of significant
numbers of staf with years of dedicated
service; remaking practices from the ground up
by reconceptualizing business models, service
oferings, and the number of staf required
to address the future needs of clients and
markets; and moving into new markets and
territories of practice.
Unfortunately, the story for the majority
of practices is a litany of casualties due to lack
of foresight and procrastination in the face
of major change. The common casualties are
vision, communication, focus, development,
and investment. They are commonly displaced
by short-term survival tactics, suspension
MOOVE YOUUR BUSSINESSS BEYOONDD TAAACTTICAAL RRESSPOONSSES TO THE
RECCESSSIOON, ANND SSTAARTT TTHINNKKIING SSTRRATTEGGICCALLLY.
ARCCHITECCT AANDD BUUSINESS GURRU PPAUL NAKAZZAWWA OFFFERS
STEEPSS FOOR RREBBOOTINNG AA BEELEEAGGUUEREDD ARCHHITTECTTURRE FIRM.
THE NEXT NORMAL 126
of communications and developmental
initiatives, and complete loss of discrimination
regarding what work the firm pursues.
Firms that have fallen into the latter group
of behaviors need to reestablish a discipline
of returning to first principles as the basis for
moving forward. Here’s how.
Step 1. Constantly articulate and reevaluate
your firm’s vision.
The basis for every sustainable enterprise is
the investment of people in eforts that are
meaningful. The first principles that generate
practices and the core values that inform them
endure over time. The larger an organization
becomes, the more critical it is for the
principles and values of the firm to be made
explicit, and to be constantly revisited as a
way to promote an efective firm culture.
The failure of markets is not a failure
of a firm’s values, but it signals the need to
reevaluate the firm’s goals and strategy in light
of disruptive changes. A firm’s vision fails when
the collective is unable to chart a new course.
In many ways, the industry’s continued
emphasis on marketing professional services
serves to contain the profession within fairly
narrow boundaries. Without new visions
for practice—sited in a broader context of
issues, ranging from cultural change to the
growth of cities—how can we imagine that
the profession can produce a whole new
constellation of value?
Step 2. Make sure your firm has a well-
understood theory of business and practice—
one that fits its size.
Having a clear vision for your firm is necessary,
but that alone is not suf cient to have a
sustainable enterprise. The key propositions
about what your company really does and
what accounts for success need to be well
understood if you want to fully capture
opportunities for organizational learning
and growth. These propositions are not
immutable, but the lack of them reduces firms
to completely reactive behaviors.
The increasing scale of horizontally and
vertically integrated practices—i.e., AECOM,
URS Corp., Jacobs, and Stantec—signals
profound changes in critical parameters of
practice, including capabilities to service
clients globally; scalar issues of business risk
and financial capacity tied to larger projects;
and single-source responsibility tied to more
integrated forms of project delivery.
Since most of the super-large firms are
publicly owned entities, their drive for market
dominance over the coming years will shift
the paradigm in ways that are parallel to
other professions, such as medicine, in which
an increasing percentage of doctors work for
healthcare systems instead of private practices.
Assuming that the current trend in industry
consolidation can be sustained through the
treacherous straits of the global financial crisis,
the prognosis for midsize practices grounded
in a business model of commodity service and
delivery is increasingly uncertain.
Small practices can survive if they are
principally focused on a specific locale or
network and serve as a community resource.
But small-to-midsize firms that have a strong
propositional basis in practice, are able to
work across diferent
fields of knowledge,
are technology-savvy,
and are woven into
multiple networks of
societal stakeholders may have the brightest
future. They include a category of firm whose
output is represented as “cultural production,”
working across the full spectrum of scale and
type of objects, territory, and infrastructure.
Such practices exist mostly in networks that
include established knowledge communities
in educational institutions, governmental
bodies, and major corporations.
The fork in the road that is coming into
clearer focus reveals an increasing scale of
organizations providing commodity service
and delivery on one hand, and on the other
a class of practices driven by the production
of knowledge and content. The two classes of
firms potentially have an even greater universe
of collaborative possibilities and value creation
when they come together to address the most
challenging problems of our time.
Step 3. Take a hard look at your firm’s
developmental assets and make sure you’re
investing in the right things.
How many firms find that they are pitted
against competitors they have never seen
before, for work that they could have
easily won before the recession? How
many principals find that their marketing
departments are putting out proposals that
completely miss the boat on what their clients
are looking for now? How many firms find
that their ownership transition plan has failed
because the presumed successors cannot
provide the needed leadership and vision?
The developmental assets of architecture
firms are largely intangible and reside in
people and complex webs of connectivity that
bind them together. There are four classes
of assets: ideas (intellectual capital); image
(symbolic capital—the power to represent
ideas, convey meaning, and communicate
identity); networks (social capital); and
capabilities (implementation capital—the
abilities to conceive, program, plan, develop,
and deliver work). These four asset classes,
when properly connected and orchestrated,
catapult firms from being above average to
being exceptional.
When the underlying paradigm of society
shifts, the edifice of these assets—which
represent years of dedicated efort and
financial investment—is badly shaken, if not
toppled. The canonical modes of practice,
whether general practice, market-sector
leadership, or “starchitecture,” are repudiated,
and the investment strategies that correspond
to a firm’s developmental assets are all open
to question.
The leadership and other key members
of firms, who have built successful careers in
various modes of practice, understandably
have a very dif cult time letting go and
embracing an uncertain future. But in a
time when investment capital is scarce,
the alignment of vision and strategy is
imperative. We can say with a high degree
of confidence that investing in yesterday’s
success is, at best, misguided.
Step 4. Face and embrace the future.
The profession of architecture in the United
States was codified during the 19th century.
While many aspects of the profession have
changed substantially since then, traces of past
modes of thought and behavior are far from
expunged. Collectively, we remain captive to
19th-century notions of organization. It is clear
that further changes in architectural business
models and organizational structures will track
the global trend of outdated social, political,
and economic structures being shed.
For the moment, architectural practice
appears to embrace two distinct, but
complementary, trajectories. The first aims
to capture the service and delivery needs of a
world that will be increasingly urban, and the
vast utilitarian and infrastructural needs of
a rapidly expanding population. The second
is sited in the multiple layers of issues and
meanings of complex societies and is directed at
the development of communities and cultures.
The opportunities for our profession,
equipped with our unique capacities for spatial
thinking and design, reside in embracing these
challenges.
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A fork in the road is coming into focus, between super-large
firms providing commodity service on the one hand, and small-
to-midsize firms devoted to cultural
production on the other.
ARCHITECTURAL MAD-LIBS: VIA TWITTER, FACEBOOK, AND LINKEDIN, WE ASKED READERS TO FILL IN THE BLANKS. THE RESPONSES APPEAR THROUGHOUT THE ISSUE.
TONY GARZA DANIEL HEATON, AIA @GRAPHITETREE
CHRISTOPHER WEBSTER THOMAS HACKETT
LISTEN
TO THEM
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1. Has architecture school been the way you imagined it would be when
you enrolled?
Kale: My undergraduate education was more about gaining skills and
learning crafts. Graduate school made me think beyond the architectural
scale and introduced cross-disciplinary learning possibilities. It became
my personal enlightenment.
Risch: Not at all. I didn’t really expect
something precise, but I liked (and still
do) very much what I discovered.
2. Do you want to become a licensed
architect, and do you see that as essential
to your future career?
Nencheck: With three years of internship
experience, I will take the licensing exams
shortly after graduation. Licensure is a
step toward a position of leadership and
increased responsibility within a firm, and
for me would be an important culmination of my years of study.
Risch: Due to legal regulations in Switzerland, you don’t really have a
choice [other] than to become a licensed architect; otherwise you can’t
get building licenses. But as a graduate of a Swiss federal institute of
technology, one quasi-automatically becomes a licensed architect, so this
isn’t an issue of concern to me.
Kale: Yes, but [I] don’t know how. Today we study and practice
architecture globally but still get licensed by local authorities. Licensure
is even more challenging for architects with foreign degrees. There is a
need for an international accreditation system.
3. What do you want to be doing, and where, in five years’ time?
Fay-Paget: In five years’ time, I would like to be somewhere in the
Midwest, where I will open my own business that ofers architectural
design, construction management, and structural engineering.
Nencheck: In five years, I plan to both practice architecture and continue
the independent research projects I pursued in graduate school.
Risch: I want to be doing architecture, but where and how is open for now.
Wherever I go, I probably won’t stay long, in order to benefit from the
knowledge and culture of diferent architects.
4. What does an architect need most: design talent, social commitment,
or business savvy?
Fay-Paget: The architecture student in me says “design talent,” the
entrepreneur in me says “business savvy,” and the woman in me says
“social commitment.” But I feel that an architect needs design talent
above all else, because without it, nothing would be designed worth
building.
Risch: Design talent and social commitment are essential for
meaningful architecture, but business savvy is even more essential for
successful architecture. As the values that generate great architecture
are mostly not … [economic ones], every architect has to find ways of
combining these.
5. What’s the biggest problem that architects of your generation will
have to help solve?
Nencheck: The greatest issue facing architects today is climate change.
Architects have a responsibility to design and build environmentally
sensitive and sustainable buildings in order to preserve existing
resources.
Fay-Paget: I believe that the biggest problem with architecture today is
that most of it is “dead.” By this, I mean that most firms simply cut and
paste buildings or entire complexes from one project to another. The
intricate design process of a project has been mutilated by budgets and
timelines that no longer allow for design to actually occur.
Kale: We should make ourselves believe that having a green building is
as ordinary as having a fire-safe building. So that sustainability can be
perceived as a social necessity, not an overused marketing term.
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ROGER NILSEN
JAMES MOSER, AIA
@JOHN_WARBURTON
KEVIN PARENT, AIA
ARCHI TECT JANUARY 2011
129
WHERE’ S ROBERT MOSES WHEN YOU NEED HIM? These days, it’s
tempting to wish for an all-powerful champion of design. But
be careful. As the master planner for Hanoi, Vietnam, architect
Brad Perkins learns that working for an authoritarian, single-
party government doesn’t eliminate every roadblock. New
Urbanist Andrés Duany decries the “orgy of public process”
that inhibits urban planning. And three students, by
contrast, tap into community organizing in their
competition-winning scheme for suburban
Long Island, N.Y.
AVERAGE NUMBER OF DAYS
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AVERAGE NUMBER OF DAYS
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the cities of Jinan and Nanjing, under Sun Yat-sen. (Previously, he had
worked as a top deputy at Burnham and Root.) His father, Lawrence B.
Perkins, FAIA, was founding principal of Perkins + Will, which is now a
frequent competitor with Perkins Eastman on international projects.
His brother, the political economist Dwight Perkins, was until recently
the director of Harvard University’s Asia Center and has in the past
served as a development consultant to the Vietnamese government.
“I vetted everything with my brother,” Perkins says. His expertise
was useful, and his contacts and credibility within the Vietnamese
government, Perkins believes, helped Perkins Eastman (in collaboration
with the Korean firms Posco E&C and Jina Architects, the Vietnamese
Institute of Architecture, Urban and Rural Planning, and the Hanoi
Urban Planning Institute) win the job over RTKL Associates and a joint
bid from Arata Isozaki and the Of ce for Metropolitan Architecture.
Certainly, though, Perkins knows the Asian ropes in his own
right—he has made 105 trips there (more than 20 of them to Vietnam),
and quite literally wrote the
book on foreign architectural
practice: His primer,
International Practice for
Architects, was published in
2007. In it he writes, “Vietnam
has the potential to be a real
market for North American
design services.”
The extent to which that
potential has been realized has
surprised even Perkins, given
the troubled history between
Vietnam and the United States.
“It’s amazing how warmly
we’re treated,” he says. The relative youth of the Vietnamese population
of 89.6 million accounts for this to some degree; a significant majority
is under the age of 35 and therefore has no memory of the war. Hanoi
itself came through the war largely intact. The country’s historic
tensions with its Asian neighbors, in particular Japan and South Korea,
play to the favor of American firms.
It is Vietnam’s youthful and rapidly expanding population that
is placing such enormous pressure on its urban centers. Hanoi, the
national capital, is at present a city of 6.5 million, but demographers
project that number to rise by some 40 percent in the coming decades.
To account for the city’s growth, the new master plan will push
development out to five satellite cities separated from the historic core
by a greenbelt of parks, lakes, and land reserved for agriculture. “Our
plan was built around sustainability,” Perkins says. “We’re trying to get
Hanoi to recognize they have this wonderful one-time opportunity to
do something the Chinese have not done, which is to protect one of the
great architectural zones, which runs through the center of the city.”
This new vision is dependent on a radical overhaul of the city’s
infrastructure. “The existing system cannot keep up with the pace of
the population growth of the city, especially in the ancient quarter,”
says Do Dinh Duc, director of Hanoi Architectural University. Essential
services such as power and sewage treatment are woefully inadequate
even for Hanoi’s current population, never mind what it will be in 10 or
20 years. Residents, for instance, depend on some 10,000 illegal wells
for potable water. The new plan would answer that demand with a pair
of water-treatment plants. Also among the items the plan calls for: a
new light-rail system, a new regional road network, a new international
airport, and a vastly improved flood-management system.
If it all sounds enormously ambitious, that’s because it is. “Daniel
Burnham’s ‘Make no little plans, they have no magic to stir men’s
blood’? That’s really only possible in a place like Vietnam,” Perkins says.
“As a planner, that makes it quite enjoyable. The government has the
ability to make big plans. And they really believe that planning matters,
and they take it very seriously.”
Indeed, the plan has the strong backing of Prime Minister Nguyen
Tan Dung, the head of government in a one-party state without a free
press. This does not mean, however, that it has been or will remain free
of opposition. “When you get there, you realize how hard it is to control
anything,” says Paul Buckhurst, a principal at Perkins Eastman who
spent 34 weeks in Hanoi during the planning process.
“It’s fairly common for low-income people to protest in front of
local authority of ces,” Spencer, of the University of Hawaii, says. In
the past year alone, some 200 building projects in Hanoi have been
halted due to public opposition. “It’s not a system where the state can
just do anything.”
Thus far, the new master plan has been fairly well received,
according to Perkins, pointing to an 87 percent positive response to an
anonymously conducted survey. “In the presentations, people could
stand up, and did,” he says. “There was a good deal of pushback.”
The success or failure of the plan will in large measure reside in
the team’s continuing ability to satisfy local community groups, many
of which are faced with relocation or other significant changes to their
traditions and habits. “It’s one thing to define a vision, and another
to realize it,” Spencer says. “The vision and the plan can be great
technically, but unless you have widespread buy-in and a lot of goodies
for people who are existing stakeholders, it’s going to be very dif cult.”
Preservation is a particularly challenging issue, and one
that has left the team, on occasion, at odds with members of the
Vietnamese government. In a rapidly modernizing city with such
a mixed architectural heritage—historic Vietnamese, French, and
Soviet structures in varying states of distress—there are persistent
questions as to what is worth saving. “Every act of preservation is a
reinterpretation of what Vietnamese history is,” Spencer says.
If all follows according to plan, by 2050, Hanoi will have emerged
as a city on par with London, New York, Moscow, and Tokyo. The path
for that growth is now set, but it is only a path. “One of the wonderful
things about Hanoi, and one of the reasons it has a chance to be a great
world capital, is that it’s just beginning its development,” Perkins says.
That, of course, is both its burden and its opportunity.
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PUBLIC FACILITIES
PUBLIC RECREATION
AGRICULTURAL
RURAL CONSERVATION
DOUGLAS SPOHN DOUG RICHARDS
MICHAEL POYNTON JOHN CRUET JR.,AIA
ARCHI TECT JANUARY 2011
133
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Public engagement in the community planning
process is a relatively new phenomenon. Is it
good evidence of American democracy in action
or of public skepticism about the planning
profession?
Urban planning with public participation has
not always existed, nor has it been deemed
necessary. Even 50 years ago, planners were
still considered demigods. They had reformed
cities to be beautiful, healthier, cleaner, and
more stable. Planners had done more for public
health than doctors. By making lives much
better, they had come to be trusted by the
people.
For example, take John Nolen, whose small
of ce delivered hundreds of city plans in the
1920s. How did he do so much? San Diego is
an example. He visited the city for a couple of
weeks, spoke to whomever he needed to, then
got back to Boston, prepared the documents,
and mailed them back to San Diego, and … it
was implemented over the years.
In the 1950s, planners were still considered
so trustworthy that when they had that towers-
in-the-park idea, they could flick their hand
and get an entire neighborhood demolished.
But those inner-city plans became socially
toxic almost immediately, and as the suburban
promise was betrayed, confidence in top-down
planning evaporated.
Participatory planning rose out of that
disappointment. It wasn’t just the result of Jane
Jacobs versus Robert Moses—it was categorical,
a nationwide insurgency by people who had
never heard of those two.
The Congress for the New Urbanism has
popularized the charrette as a process. Where
does it fit into the range of civic engagement?
Bottom-up avoids the big mistakes of top-
down planning, but it is quite inef cient. New
Urbanism merges the virtues of top-down and
bottom-up planning, combining the principles
of its charter and the participation through the
charrette. This is something new. The planner
adjusting principles to local circumstances is a
system that has now worked very well indeed
hundreds of times.
But we seem to be reaching a tipping point now
where municipalities will give up on engaging
the public because it’s gotten too time-
consuming and too expensive.
We were involved in Miami 21, a citywide
charrette. That process was bottom-up and
required convincing everyone concerned. It cost
millions of dollars and took four years. It was a
magnificent result and the most comprehensive
such efort by any big city, but it will probably not
be repeated. The economy has changed all that.
While the New Urbanist system may work
well, it is also expensive. To mount a charrette
requires those rare, highly skilled professionals
that can speak to regular folk, think clearly, and
draw quickly. Charrettes can cost $300,000. We
need to get the cost down to $50,000.
The other complaint you’ve voiced is that
NIMBYism has become too obstructionist. Is
there a better way to get public participation
in the design process without a project falling
prey to local interests?
Conventional public participation makes
the mistake of privileging the neighbors, the
people who live within a half-mile of the given
proposal. So it becomes extremely dif cult to,
say, locate a school or an infill project. While
democracy doesn’t need a great number of
voters to function well, it does require a full
cross-section to participate. That is the source
of its collective intelligence. You can’t confuse
neighbors with the community as a whole.
We propose using the jury pool or the
phone book to invite a random group, which
is then understood to be apart from the self-
interested neighbors, just as the developer or
the school board are acknowledged as vested
interests. The neighbors must be seen as vested
interests as well.
But how are municipalities going to be able to
make big decisions?
If you can’t build a bike path or lay a power
line that connects to the new solar energy
farm, then you can’t engage in the 21st century.
We have also been developing the concept of
subsidiarity, the design of decisions: what issue,
by which people, and when.
The region makes decisions about heavy
infrastructure, the neighborhood decides
about traf c, the block makes decisions about
parking, the household makes decisions about
its building, and the individual makes decisions
about the bedroom. The smallest group at the
latest point in time that can competently make
a decision—that is subsidiarity. Thus we’re
evolving participatory planning towards a more
intelligent democracy.

A lot of architects are working in China, which
doesn’t have much of a public process to speak
of. Should we copy their model?
It’s much easier to get things done there. But
they’re also making terrible mistakes. The
outcome of their planning is generally awful
and provides evidence that you need some sort
of public participation.
But if you want to be cynical about it, the
West will benefit from sending over all those
irresponsible designers who are screwing
up their quality of life. China will become an
undesirable place to live. In the future, their
best talent will choose to live in San Francisco
or Seattle. It is poison-pill planning. The CIA
couldn’t do better.
INTERVIEW BY DIANA LIND
PHOTO BY NOAH KALINA
“Conventional public participation
makes the mistake of privileging
the neighbors. … You can’t confuse neighbors with the community as a whole.”
ARCHI TECT JANUARY 2011
135
“THE TIME FOR THINKING CAUTIOUSLY IS OVER,”
exclaimed the call for entries in the recent
Build a Better Burb competition. Ryan H.B.
Lovett, John B. Simons, and Patrick Cobb’s
student entry, Upcycling 2.0, responds with
multidimensional intelligence to the brief,
which requests that participants be “bold” in
developing ideas to retrofit the downtowns of
New York’s Long Island.
Organized by the Long Island Index, part
of the Rauch Foundation, the competition
clearly resonated with the design community,
attracting 212 submissions. The jury chose 23
finalists and five primary winners, one people’s
choice winner, and the student winner,
Upcycling 2.0.
Long Island Index director Ann Golob
succinctly explains the impetus behind the
competition: Long Island is having a hard time
getting its young people to stay. Low-paying jobs
for younger adults and the lure of edgier New
York City are resulting in an aging population.
“We need to reinvent ourselves,” Golob says.
In developing Upcycling 2.0, arguably
the most innovative of the competition-
winning designs, Lovett, Simons, and
Cobb—all enrolled at Columbia University’s
Graduate School of Architecture, Planning,
and Preservation—tapped into their training
as architects and urban planners. They also
applied innovative practices from economics,
community organizing, and other disciplines.
And as members of the competition’s target
demographic, they know their audience.
Competition juror Daniel D’Oca, a partner
at Brooklyn, N.Y.–based Interboro Partners,
called the plan (portions of which are shown
above) “a creative, optimistic reading of
the suburb and its building blocks, which it
proposes to combine in interesting ways.”
At the largest scale, the scheme accepts
as a given the existing regional configuration
of towns and mass transit that connect Long
Island to New York. But it is at the local level—
namely, Hicksville, N.Y., a bedroom community
of more than 41,000—that the students turn
traditional suburbia on its head.
Upcycling 2.0 posits that in order
to encourage community participation,
individuals and organizations should combine
revenue streams—such as a portion of rental
and lease income and membership dues—and
then use the funds for public development (1 ).
This overarching idea intrigued jurors: “It’s not
just about design—it’s about how these people
can pool their money,” Golob says.
Lovett, Simons, and Cobb would
administer the funds and the projects through
a nonprofit community-improvement group.
“The project title is misleading. This is less
upcycling than a homeowners association
with a conscience,” says juror Allison Arief.
The group would encompass local residents,
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OUR ANCESTORS MANAGED FOR MILLENNIA WITHOUT AIR CONDITIONING, electric light, and the other
appurtenances of modern life. So should the profession’s eforts to go green necessarily involve
more technology? The recipient of a $129 million government research grant explains his
ideas for making buildings more energy-ef cient. (Hint: Technology is only part of the solution.)
A consortium proposes a counterintuitive strategy for New Orleans’ flooding problems. And a
professor suggests that architects need to design, and build, more simply.
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DATING FROM THE ERA of the Revolutionary
War, Philadelphia’s Navy Yard was a bustling
shipyard for more than two centuries. During
its World War II heyday, it employed 44,000
people, and by 1995, when the U.S. Navy closed
the site, there were over 200 buildings from a
pastiche of eras on the 1,200-acre spread. The
Navy Yard became a business park, providing
of ce space for about 80 companies, including
Tasty Baking Co., the Philadelphia-based maker
of Tastykakes, and Urban Outfitters.
Now it has become a laboratory for the
buildings of the future. Led by Pennsylvania
State University, a consortium of 112
organizations from academia and industry has
just received a federal grant of $129 million to
study what it takes to build new structures
that use minimal energy and to retrofit, for
ef ciency, everything from modern of ce
buildings to drafty old gymnasiums.
In an interview with ARCHITECT, James
Freihaut, the consortium’s director of
operations and technology, who is a professor
of architectural engineering at Penn State,
describes how, in addition to revolutionary
components and systems, we need a revolution
in collaboration—and in policy.
The Navy Yard consortium is the nation’s
third Energy Innovation Hub: the first two,
at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at
CalTech, focus on nuclear energy and solar
energy, respectively. Why is this hub focused on
energy-ef cient building?
We use 40 percent of all our primary energy
in operating building systems. Yet unlike the
automobile, aerospace, and manufacturing
industries, which have seen dramatic decreases
in their fuel consumption over the last 30 to
40 years, there has been no really appreciable
change in buildings’ energy use. We really need
to address this.
How does the project’s focus on retrofitting
deal with that problem?
There are 5.2 million or so commercial
buildings in the U.S. with lifetimes of 20 to 40
years or more. If you just concentrated on new
construction, it would take 20 to 30 years to
realize any significant energy improvements.
We need to really concentrate on existing
buildings and making them much more
energy-ef cient.
It’s also a much more dif cult job to do,
technically and economically. If we can tackle
the retrofit market, then we will be able to deal
with new construction fairly easily.
What does a full retrofit entail?
First, you characterize how much electricity,
natural gas, or oil the building uses and break
that down to the various subsystems, like
lighting and HVAC, to see which aspects of the
building are contributing most to that usage.
Then you do a systematic “what if” redesign,
coming up with technology for each of the
components that would radically reduce the
energy used.
What new technologies are Hub researchers
developing for such retrofits?
One example is active façades, which respond
ARCHI TECT JANUARY 2011
141
dynamically to the building’s environment.
These might have embedded phase-change
materials, a wax or gel that can absorb heat as
the façade gets hot from the sun. As the heat
starts to transmit through the building’s façade
into the interior, the phase-change material
slows down the temperature increase inside, so
that the air-conditioning system doesn’t have
to use as much energy to keep up.
We’re also studying building coatings
that respond to the intensity of sunlight and
become more or less reflective or difusive, so
that the heat doesn’t get into the structure to
begin with. People are looking at protective
coatings that are also energy generating, as
well as photovoltaic shingles and sidings that
generate electricity. Crucially, we’re also looking
at extensive use of sensors in buildings, to
develop a control system that will distribute
heating, cooling, and ventilation to where the
people are, rather than the building as a whole.
Some of these materials already exist. Some
of this technology already exists. But it’s not
being used correctly.
One example is on-site power systems,
which generate electricity using photovoltaics,
wind turbines, gas turbines, or internal
combustion engine–based systems, which have
the added benefit that all the heat energy from
the exhaust is recovered to provide hot water,
heating, and even cooling. You can buy systems
like these that generate power and store it
for the building’s use, like a hybrid car, right
now. The reason they’re not used more often
is that buildings aren’t designed to use them
ef ciently, so the payback period may be five
to 15 years.
As it stands, a lot of this technology isn’t
economically feasible to use in a building.
How much would it cost, per square foot, to
have all this technology?
Thousands of dollars. If you wanted a totally
instrumented, dynamically responsive building
with pseudoactive materials, it would be very
expensive.
How can we deal with the cost barrier?
A major problem is that we don’t have good
modeling tools that can simulate all the
diferent systems in a building, which would
let the design and construction team see
the advantages and disadvantages of each
of the proposed technologies. The whole
package might be overkill for some buildings.
Furthermore, many systems are most cost-
efective when they are designed in concert
with the rest of the building.
They do modeling like this all the time in
the automobile and aerospace industries. The
reason we don’t do it in the building industry
is that the design process is really fragmented.
A developer hires an architect. An architect
suggests an architectural engineering firm. The
architectural engineering firm suggests certain
contractors, construction companies. You hire a
commissioning agent downstream.
Everybody has their own little design tools
and is trying to optimize their profitability
from their part of the design. You don’t get a
product that
gets the best
performance
for the lowest
cost and
lowest energy use. We need all these people
working together—a vertically integrated
industry. For that, we need new design tools.
The hub is working on that.
Complicating all this, however, are certain
policies. If you are using public funding, you
have to have fair competitive bidding on each
aspect. If I want to do an integrated design
with architectural engineers, contractors,
construction, and commissioning agents all
in the same room, how can I bid out diferent
parts of the job?
How is the Hub dealing with that issue?
We’re trying to figure how this would work
by doing some real projects. At the Navy
Yard, we’re renovating a gymnasium that
was built in 1942. It may have lead paint
problems—a typical retrofit issue—and is
historically significant, so it’s going to be a
challenge. Furthermore, using state funds for
it is going to make it very dif cult to do an
integrated retrofit.
But, obviously, we want to practice what
we preach. We’ll have Penn State physical plant
people, who deal all the time with state funds,
in on this process, telling us good ideas and
explaining the problems they have run into
with specific state policies. Then we have to
document that and find a way around it that
the rest of the industry can follow.
We’re also doing a retrofit with private
funds. Urban Outfitters, whose international
headquarters is here, has asked us to help
renovate a 70,000-square-foot older building.
There will be a diferent set of issues in
each of these projects—and that’s good. We
want to see the diferent issues that come
up and figure out a way to either change
those polices or to find a creative way to
address them.
How much energy would a retrofitted of ce
building save per year? And how soon would
such a package be available?
Just by using integrated design and existing
technology, we think we can get a 30 percent
reduction. With a more intense design process
and advances in dynamic controls, smart-grid
technology, and materials, we can get to 50
percent. If we really put some long-term efort
into new materials and smart-grid technology,
we think we can get 80 percent. Though we
are still grappling with the business model, the
hub hopes to have a package of suggestions for
the 30 percent reduction retrofit available to
developers within one to 1.5 years.
You’ve received $22 million in federal funds this
year and are expecting similar amounts over
the next five. But that depends on congressional
appropriations. If funding is canceled, how will
you spin of what you’ve accomplished into
something useful?
We’re not going to accomplish enough in one
year, that’s for sure—maybe in three years.
Certainly in five years, our plan is to be self-
suf cient. It’s actually very complicated, as I
think you can see now. It’s not just a technology
issue, it’s a policy issue, it’s a business model
issue, it’s a cultural issue.
The World Business Council for Sustainable
Development had an energy-ef cient building
task force for five years, and their conclusion
was pretty much the same thing. If we don’t
do integrated design and delivery of buildings,
we’re not going to get anywhere in building
energy ef ciency. But it’s such a complicated
problem that no one company, even United
Technologies or IBM or GE, can take the
financial risk to do what it’s going to take. We
need the government to share the risk with us.
The Achilles’ heel of all this could be the
policy issues that encourage the current form
of behavior. I can guarantee you countries
like China and India—who are growing
exponentially and want to develop energy-
ef cient systems—have learned from our
mistakes. They’re learning that they need to
do integrated designs and building systems
development, and I bet you that they do it.
INTERVIEW BY VERONIQUE GREENWOOD
PHOTO BY NOAH KALINA
“Everybody has their own little design tools and is trying to optimize
their profitability from their part of the design. You don’t get a product
that gets the best performance for the
lowest cost and lowest energy use.”
THE NEXT NORMAL 142
AARCHITECTTUREE FIRRM WAAGGOONNEER & BALL HAS TEAMEED WITH TTHE DDUTCCH GOOVERNMENT AND THE AMERICAN PLANNING
AASSOCCIATIION TTO PRROVEE THAAT SAAVINNG NNEW ORLLEANNS CCOULLD BEE AS SIMPPLE AS LETTING THE WATER IN.
TEXT BY KATIE GERFEN
IMAGES COURTESY WAGGONNER & BALL ARCHITECTS
NEW ORLEANS ARCHITECT DAVID WAGGONNER, FAIA, has been on a four-year crusade in defense
of water. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, everyone from the federal government on
down has been focused on keeping the water out of New Orleans—building bigger,
better, higher levees and finding new ways to contain any water within city bounds.
But Waggonner is leading a veritable Enlightenment salon of thinkers to question every
aspect of moving water in and out of New Orleans, and to reestablish the connection
between residents and this most basic of resources.
ARCHI TECT JANUARY 2011
143
Waggonner hasn’t embarked on this journey alone: He is working
with people such as U.S. Sen. Mary Landrieu, who as early as 2006
organized a series of trips to exchange ideas with the people who know
flooding best: the Dutch. Out of those talks emerged a series of three
formal workshops at Tulane University, known as the Dutch Dialogues.
The first took place in March 2008 and centered on Louisiana’s landscape
and its properties; the second, in October 2008 during the American
Planning Association (APA) convention, focused on planning at the
regional, city, and neighborhood scales; and the third was in April 2010,
when participants developed a water strategy that would “nourish the
whole system,” Waggonner says. Landrieu continued to lead concurrent
delegations to the Netherlands to learn as much as possible and to
establish relationships between Dutch leaders and key U.S. decision-
makers, including Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator
Lisa P. Jackson.
The water-management concepts that emerged from the Dutch
Dialogues suggest that throwing more infrastructure at the problem
is not the best solution: “As we’re thinking about the infrastructure
we would need, we’re shifting more toward the Dutch model,”
Waggonner says, “which is really starting with the ground and water
and biodiversity layer, and then [moving] to the infrastructure layer,
then up to the habitation layer.” The idea is to analyze the groundscape
of the city and environs or “reshape the bowl,” as Waggonner puts it,
to create a series of drainage pools and canals that would run through
the city, managing stormwater runof by gravity rather than pumps.
Bringing water back into the urban fabric creates new opportunities for
redevelopment of communities as well. “Water is an attractive thing, a
thing to reconceive this place,” the architect says. But, he adds, “It’s not
so easy when you’ve been traumatized by it.”
The existing, “primarily technologically based system,” as
Waggonner refers to it, collects water in three main outfall canals—
enclosed by stem walls, or mini-levees—and uses pumps to eject the
water into Lake Pontchartrain (1 ). This system is not just in place for
catastrophic hurricanes, but also to accommodate runof from the
near-tropical rainfall that regularly blows through the area. Part of the
Dutch Dialogues scheme involves setting the average surface level at
5 feet below sea level, which would allow for the removal of concrete
floodwalls and the creation of a series of canals and waterways. Gravity
keeps water circulating through the system. “You don’t want dry water
courses,” Waggonner says. “A dry ditch is not an attractive thing.” The
new system creates visual, physical, and social connections between
the water and the neighborhoods and provides storage to accommodate
storm surges or runof from massive rains.
Removing the stem walls and creating a connection, both visual
and infrastructural, with the canals creates a waterfront destination in
place of decaying urban barriers (3). Widening the canals where possible
allows a more natural waterline and additional capacity for both storage
and pumping. Another motivation for taking down the walls isn’t
urbanistic, it’s psychological: “You do a better job of maintaining what
you can see,” Waggonner says.
After Dutch Dialogues II, a local community group, Friends of Lafitte
Corridor, approached Waggonner and his firm to work on a sustainable
water strategy. Currently, stormwater is collected in an open box culvert.
A proposed solution involves expanding the culvert and covering it
over; water would still run through it, just underground (2). This new
structure would allow for a second layer of water from the Bayou to run
over the top—essentially creating a double-layered canal—as part of the
circulating water system that draws water through the city and back out
to the lake. The scheme also looks at the nearby Carondelet Canal, which
ran from Bayou St. John to the French Quarter but has long been filled in.
The canal is somewhat reestablished, this time as a bioswale, creating a
stormwater storage and bioremediation zone separate from the larger
water system. It’s about “modifying the engineered structure and getting
back toward the natural condition,” Waggonner says. “It’s not just about
New Orleans, it’s about applying these systems across the boundaries.”
But despite the involvement of planning luminaries such as Paul
Farmer, executive director and CEO of the APA, who helped Waggonner
lead the Dutch Dialogues along with economist Dale Morris of the
Royal Netherlands Embassy, the scheme to rethink New Orleans’ water
infrastructure is having trouble gaining traction. The U.S. Army Corps
of Engineers has two options on the table for New Orleans: repair the
existing stem walls and keep them in place, or remove the walls and
the current pumping system, and dig trenches (as deep as 30 feet) to
serve as water storage. The first option costs roughly $800 million—the
amount earmarked by Congress—the second $3.4 billion, according to
the Army Corps. The City of New Orleans would be left to foot the bill
for maintenance. The plan that emerged from Dutch Dialogues II and
III would come in between the two in terms of cost but would arguably
create a much better urban experience and require less maintenance.
Support for changing the paradigm is easy to find among intellectuals
and foreign governments, but harder to wrangle at home. “New Orleans
is a test case,” Waggonner says. “We’re the canary in the coal mine with
regards to American infrastructure.” But with a new mayor prioritizing
water management, and the interest of a U.S. senator, the EPA, and
the APA, the plan could move forward—and help to heal New Orleans
residents’ relationship with the water that so defines their region.
PROPOSED LAFITTE CORRIDOR
ARCHI TECT JANUARY 2011
145
DO
MORE
WITH
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DDOOUBLLEE-GGLLAZZIINGG VVSS. MMASOONNRRY. WHY, IN
AAN ERRAA OOF RRAAPIIDLLY DIIMINISSHINGG RRESOURCES, IS
AARCHHITTECCTURRE SOO TTECHHNOLLOGICCAALLLY COMPLEX?
TEXT BY KIEL MOE, AIA
GRAPHIC BY JAMESON SIMPSON

ARCHITECTURE DOES
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PA AST, PRESENT AND FUTUR RE
MUULTI-TAS SKING
PU USH THE ENVELOPPE
DE ESIGN MO ORE WITH H LESS
WO ORK FOR R FREE
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SYYNTHESIS S
NAAIVETY? MISGUIDDED OPTIIMISM?
5
7
1
3
4
6
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DOUBLE-GLAZED CURTAINWALL
MASONRY CONSTRUCTION
CHARLES STARCK, AIA @JIMSYME
@ARCHISPEAK
LUANE FAUCHER
@AVSCAPEGOAT
MIKE WEBBER
KEVIN PARENT, AIA
MARK BERON ROB ANGLIN
DAVID PERONNET
THE NEXT NORMAL 146
ARCHITECTS OFTEN HAVE A NOSTALGIC VIEW OF PROGRESS: Our feebly linear
understanding assumes that humanity always benefits when a new
technology arises. Architects frequently deploy systems, software, and
products to replace older versions and diferentiate themselves in a
crowded and competitive marketplace. Many architects thus embrace
linear progress with excitement and incorporate technology with
misplaced enthusiasm, unaware that they are caught in a vicious cycle,
based on recurrent, and self-undercutting, obsolescence. Technology
is anything but new, and the traditional view of progress—a curiously
mixed cocktail of acquiescence and hubris—reflects little about its
real dynamics.
In reality, progress is nonlinear and unstable. As such, it is
very much open to design. Today, progress itself must be designed.
Contrary to the traditional model, one design for progress today would
selectively de-escalate the most egregious forms of technology in favor
of a lower-technology but higher-performance paradigm. Neither
stubbornly reactionary nor blindly optimistic, this lower-technology,
higher-performance approach is an intelligent mongrel of both the
archaic and the contemporary, and it can improve the performance of
our design practices and buildings.
Instead of adding ever-increasing layers of intricacy, specificity, and
coordination, architects should question the complexity that dominates
our buildings and lives. Using a low-technology, high-performance
approach, architects can exceed the performance expectations of a
higher-technology building, and in the process they can engender
durability, adaptability, tolerance, and, most importantly, resilience—
qualities that are increasingly fundamental to architecture. One cannot
underestimate the role of designed resilience in the 21st century.
Conspicuous Consumption, Conspicuous Construction
The linear model of progress in architecture is invariably additive:
When architects encounter new problems and obligations, they often
respond by layering materials, technologies, consultants, software.
The double-glazed envelope is a classic example—a cascade of
compensations for the conceit of an overilluminated, underinsulated
glass box. The extra glass and steel, automated shading devices, fire
controls, and operable vents consume prodigious amounts of embodied
energy and coordination time. These costs are dif cult to justify when
envelopes with a vastly more sensible 20 to 40 percent ratio of window
to opaque, insulated wall can
yield much higher performance
for thermal conditions, lighting,
operational energy, embodied
energy, serviceability, and
resilience.
Monolithic wall assemblies
such as site-cast, air-entrained,
lightweight insulating concrete
are, by contrast, an optimal
approach to the de-escalation of
technology. The lower strength
of lightweight concrete requires greater wall thickness to perform
structurally. The concrete incorporates millions of air pockets that
provide insulation equal to layered insulated wall assemblies and
that manage vapor and water migration with its capacity to “breathe.”
Indeed, what are often seen today as problems inherent to building
envelopes, such as vapor or water migration, only became problematic
as assemblies became layered with thinner, task-specific systems and
air conditioning.
Whether lightweight air-entrained concrete, solid cross-laminated
wood panels, solid masonry, or solid stone, monolithic assemblies
become even more beneficial when coupled with a thermally active
surface for heating and cooling, created by moving water through
pipes that are embedded directly into walls and ceilings. Structure
becomes the primary mechanical system. In Portland, Ore., Opsis
Architecture renovated a masonry horse stable into its new of ce by
retrofitting the building with a thermally active surface, which at
once served as the seismic retrofit, the thermal-conditioning system, a
perdurable finish material, and a foundation for a future expansion.
Bureaucracy of Technique
Architects have inherited a mentality of overly programmed, layered,
engineered, additive, complex, and obsolescent design from the 20th
century. We routinely strain against the bureaucracy of techniques
we have passively grown to accept. We lose more ground than we
gain in our successive attempts at “progress,” and yet, somehow, we
routinely acquire more liability. Architecture stands to benefit from
a rigorous reevaluation of its more pernicious theories, techniques,
and technologies.
As the complexity of buildings and practices continues to
increase, so does our inability to know the dif cult whole. This is an
intellectually and professionally dubious position. In a radically less-
additive mentality, there are systemic gains for buildings and practices
when we do more with less by orders of magnitude: 40 drawings in
a construction set, not 400, for instance. Practices that do this know
more about what they do and do more of what they know well. Doing
less but better, and in turn achieving more, is consequential progress.
A primary aim of de-escalating technology is an escalation of actual
knowledge about technique, practice, and performance.
Twin Obsolescence
Architecture’s chronically divergent preoccupations with a building’s
image and the inevitable obsolescence of ever-escalating technologies
and systems is not a cogent pathway forward in this century, and
it never was. Rather, consequential progress will emerge only
when architects productively merge architecture’s objecthood and
objectivity; when they grasp that a single-speed bicycle ofers a model
of far-higher-performance design than a Toyota Prius, much less a
Formula One race car.
In all aspects of practice, an increasingly interesting question has
arisen: What is the least architects can do and still exuberantly achieve
or exceed the expectations of our discipline? This is not to suggest
laziness, or some trivial minimalism, but rather to invoke a more
mindful engagement with technique—a wholly untaught, unthought
but inordinately consequential concept in architecture in this century.
What the profession needs is more intellectual and disciplinary
agility to finally set our techniques and practices on a course for
meaningful progress. This will emerge from strategic shifts in our
pedagogies and practices. It will not emerge from capitulating to the
demands of software packages, certification checklists, or greenwashed
products. As Lewis Mumford wrote, “The machine itself makes
no demands and holds out no promises.” Progress will not arrive
automatically, but through thoughtful tactics and strategies. Progress
will only be achieved when it is designed.
BETTER THAN MOST PROFESSIONS NO OT PAY
CE ELEBRATE ITSELF INTTEGRATEE BEAUTYY AND UTTILITY
SH HARP PEN NCILS INTTERVENTTION
INTTROSPEC CTION TAALKING A ABOUT ITSSELF TO ITSELF
AIR PLENUM
EXHAUST VENTS
OPERABLE LOUVERS
FIXED SUNSHADES
18 "-THICK INSULATING CONCRETE
OPERABLE WINDOW
FIXED GLAZING
SECTIONS KEY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
CHRISTOPHER WEBSTER
@RWILKANOWSKI
@ARCH_TODAY
@MFRECH
JAMES MOSER, AIA
@CANALENGINEER
@JUSTJUDYCREATE
ARCHI TECT JANUARY 2011
147
AMERICANS AGE 65
AND OVER IN 2010
AS AMERICA’ S 76 MILLION BABY BOOMERS reach retirement age, what they
need—and want—in their living arrangements will change dramatically.
Some boomers will seek out suburban gated communities such as Leisure
World in Seal Beach, Calif., which explicity excludes primary residents
under the age of 55. Architect Matthias Hollwich is banking on a diferent
trend—the desire of older Americans to live in diverse, higher-density
communities, with a host of services and activities. And no matter
where the baby boomers choose to retire, Michael Graves wants their
surroundings to be perfectly, universally accessible.
AMERICANS AGE 65
AND OVER IN 2050
ASSUME
THEY WANT
TO HAVE FUN
THE NEXT NORMAL 150
A BELOVEDD GRANDMOTHERR’S DEATHH TRANNSFORMMED 339-YEEAR-OLD ARCCHITTECTT MMATTTHIASS HHOLLLWWICH
INTO AN UNLIKELY, PASSIOONATE ADDVOCATTE OF AARCHITTECTUREE ANDD PLANNNINGG FOOR TTHE AGGING.
BY HIS OWN DEFINITION, German architect
Matthias Hollwich is old. He certainly doesn’t
look it. Tall, and muscularly filling out a black
T-shirt, he’s got the kind of youthful energy
you see in athletes and workaholics. There’s no
gray in his goatee, and while his hair is cropped
short, he’s still got most of it. So I’m taken
aback when he answers a query about his age.
“I’m 50 percent of my life,” Hollwich states
with a glint in his eye. “The average German
reaches 78, and I’m 39. I have passed 50 percent
of my life expectancy, so I’m of cially old.”
Standing on the threshold of middle age,
Hollwich is on a mission to change how society
as a whole—and, specifically, the architecture
profession—thinks about aging. It begins
with a counterintuitive position. In a culture
obsessed with preserving the luster of youth
for as long as possible, with a whole host of
methods from the surface to the structure
(Botox, little blue pills, artificial organs),
Hollwich believes we ought to call ourselves
old earlier. Doing so will change the way we
look at older people and, eventually, how
people will look at us.
By acknowledging the aging process and
integrating it into daily life, he argues, we’re
better able to prepare for the inevitable end-
of-life changes that, at present, we keep grimly
hidden away in assisted-living facilities and
nursing homes.
Hollwich has dubbed this critical
perspective “New Aging,” and for the past three
years, he’s conducted workshops, seminars, and
research studios on the subject—first at the
Bauhaus Dessau Foundation in Germany and
then at the University of Pennsylvania, where
he teaches. (He routinely takes his students
into nursing homes to see existing conditions
firsthand.)
This past fall, he organized “New Aging:
An International Conference on Aging and
Architecture” at Penn’s School of Design. The
conference brought together a diverse group
of designers, academics, and scientists, from
architect and gerontologist Victor Regnier to
the controversial British antiaging researcher
Aubrey de Grey.
But Hollwich is far from a cloistered
academic. As a principal of the New York–
based practice Hollwich Kushner (or HWKN)
and co-founder of the architectural social
networking site Architizer, he’s in a position
to pursue and promote design projects that
rethink what it means to be old. However, his
qualifications don’t explain why a decidedly
hip architect (with an Of ce for Metropolitan
Architecture pedigree, no less) would choose
to align himself with the Golden Girls set.
“My grandmother died next to me in a
room. We were living for years in the same
house, and my mother was her caretaker,”
Hollwich recalls. “I was the last one to talk to
her. I felt it when she died. It was not scary.
It was very beautiful that I was so close to
her.” He was living with his family in Munich
at the time.
“For her,” he continues, “she was looking
forward to it [her death], because she didn’t
feel so well anymore. And she felt she
could hand over her life now to the next
generation. But there was, I think, a moment of
confrontation with death. Denial is the worst
thing we can do. Most people deny that they’re
going to die or they’re going to get frail or that
they’re going to need to move into a nursing
home … or even that they have to give up the
car, the driving license.”
Multigenerational living and a clear-eyed
reckoning with the limits of independence are
at the root of Hollwich’s New Aging. Together,
they suggest increasingly popular architectural
and urban planning solutions such as walkable
communities in urban areas, with close-
at-hand amenities such as grocery stores,
pharmacies, and public transit, or housing
developments that entice active sexagenarians
with rock walls and shopping malls, but also
incorporate what Hollwich calls “stealth
care”—home nursing services that operate as
invisibly as infrastructure—to serve the elderly.
“By bringing aging closer to home, you make it
less scary,” he says.
Currently, HWKN is at work on just this
kind of development in Palm Springs, Calif.
It’s geared to the LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual,
and transgender) community, a group usually
invisible in discussions of aging, even though it
represents an increasing elderly population.
Called Boom, the project is banking on the
combination of high design and a wide range
of facilities—spa, boutique hotel, medical care,
active but wheelchair-accessible landscapes—
as a signature draw. HWKN has enlisted 10
firms on the project, including such notables
as J. Mayer H., Diller Scofidio + Renfro, and
Lot-Ek. Bruce Mau Design is creating Boom’s
visual identity.
Still, it’s hard to imagine a vibrant
65-year-old, fit enough to go shopping and
play tennis daily, who would want to move to
a community full of old people. And I say as
much to Hollwich.
“If we don’t like how we’re … going to live
when we’re 80, then we need to re-engineer
what will happen,” he replies. He envisions
older people living in both stand-alone
developments and facilities mixed into the
existing urban fabric: In Geropolis, a study he
worked on in Dessau, the team developed a
series of community typologies for aging, some
modeled on college campuses and shopping
malls, and with spiritual retreats and wellness
hubs. “These spaces are not just for the elderly,”
he maintains. “I mean, when you look at what’s
good for our pioneers, it’s good for everyone:
mixed-use buildings, mixed generations,
reduced need for mobility and transportation.”
Pioneers? I ask, and he says of the boomers
and Gen-Xers who will redefine old age, “I call
them pioneers because they [will] go to a point
in life that nobody has ever been.”
TEXT BY MIMI ZEIGER
PHOTO BY NOAH KALINA
ARCHI TECT JANUARY 2011
151
THE NEXT NORMAL 152
AN ABSURDLY FRRUSTRATING ATTEMPT AT SSHAVINNG IN HHIS HOOSPITAAL RROOMM MOTTIVAATEDD MMICHHAEEL GRRAVVESS
TO BECOME A CHAMPION OF UNIVEERSALL DESIIGN——IN HHEALTHCARRE, AANDD EVVERRYWWHEEREE.
IT’S EARLY AFTERNOON when my taxi pulls up
in front of a boxy clapboard building in
Princeton, N.J. Michael Graves, FAIA, keeps a
number of studios on this tree-lined street.
I worry that I haven’t made it to the right
one, especially when I’m welcomed by three
wooden steps leading to a small porch. As
far as I can tell, there’s no accessible ramp or
lift, and I can’t ascertain how Graves—who’s
used a wheelchair since 2003, when a spinal
infection left him paralyzed from the chest
down—gets to work.
Only later, once I am seated in a room
filled by a huge Graves-designed conference
table, do I learn how the architect reaches the
front door: via a ramp concealed by a row of
carefully pruned hedges. Graves isn’t hiding
his disability; it’s the ramp that’s hiding in
plain sight. The design is a straightforward
example of integrated accessibility. For Graves,
accessibility is a daily experience composed of
dozens of challenges unimaginable for able-
bodied designers.
Case in point: While I am seated at the
conference table—a glass-topped afair with a
sculptural white base that draws whimsically
on the architect’s love of classical forms—
Graves is parked sideways at the narrow end.
Designed before his disability, the table is too
low for his knees and motorized wheelchair to
slip under.
Graves is soft-spoken. He tells long stories
that are at once personal and political—one
is infused with just-barely-concealed rage
against the former Bush administration’s
policy on stem cell research (which might
yield treatments to help his condition). Graves
was in and out of eight hospitals during
the year and a half after his illness, and a
narrative about that time soon spins into an
architectural moral.
“My first day in my wheelchair, I thought,
‘Oh, good, today finally I can shave,’ ” he begins.
“So, I took myself into the bathroom—I was
very proud of myself, by the way—and I
reached for the hot water [tap], and I couldn’t
reach it. And so I thought, ‘Well, that’s not such
a big deal. I can ask somebody to bring me my
electric razor.’ And then I looked around where
I would plug in the electric razor, and the outlet
was on the wall next to the floor.”
Unable to see his face in the mirror and
increasingly frustrated, he asked his doctor to
sit in a wheelchair and go through the same
tasks, with similarly obstructed results.
For several years, Graves has consulted
on hospital facilities and durable medical
goods—the kind of products used both at home
and institutionally. Healthcare has become
as important a part of his work (with both
Michael Graves Design Group, his product
and graphic design firm, and Michael Graves
& Associates, his architecture firm) as hotel
complexes and housewares for Target. In 2009,
Graves partnered with medical equipment
manufacturer Stryker to create a collection
of hospital-room furniture geared to address
the needs of both patient and caregiver. The
designs draw on his own experiences, as well
as behavioral research and interviews with
medical administrators, doctors, nurses, and
disabled and elderly users.
Graves is frustrated by the lack of good,
afordable, mass-produced healthcare products,
especially as baby boomers reach the precipice
of old age. “I used to say that we are in ‘the
new normal.’ And it got to be a phrase. There
are now—I’ve forgotten how many millions
of boomers there are. But if you sprained your
ankle today and you needed to get a pair of
crutches, where would you go?”
I have no idea, I tell him. “They aren’t
immediately available all around town,” he
agrees. “I say that because there’s not much
competition. And the people who buy those
things are generally elderly, on fixed income,
and they’re not going to spend the most.”
Graves directs me to sit on a terra-cotta-red
armchair with a rounded back and bulbous
arms that recall the Mickey Mouse–ears
teakettle he produced for Disney. We’re in his
product design studio, surrounded by young
employees and prototypes for stereos, bathtub
safety bars, and kitchen utensils. He tells me
to pretend that I am elderly and to try to lift
myself out of the chair.
“One of the things we understood was that
people have to get to the front edge of the chair
before they can get up,” Graves explains. “And
when they get there, then it’s the big push.
My grandmother wouldn’t have made it. She
would do that two or three times before she
was able to get up.”
I grip the shepherd’s-crook-like arms, tilt
forward (“Nose over toes,” Graves instructs),
and easily lift myself into a vertical position.
The rounded arms that seemed originally like
a flight of design fancy actually provide me
2 extra inches of leverage.
Once standing, I walk and Graves rolls to
his workspace in the of ce. Tubes of paint are
scattered on his desk, and several canvases are
in the works. Rome is Graves’ favorite place, but
he has not been there since his paralysis. It’s an
impossible terrain for wheelchairs, even high-
tech ones. In ochre, brick-red, and olive-green
paint, you can see his longing to return.
Each painting is an abstracted vision of
the Italian landscape; a few of them were
commissioned by a local hospital. But another
small canvas catches my eye. It depicts a
light-filled hospital room. The red Stryker
chair, two tables, and a bed are rendered in the
same Mediterranean hues as the landscapes—
Graves’ dream of a more humane healthcare
environment.
“Even though I was one of the originators
of Postmodernism, I don’t think in terms of
style at all. I never have,” he says. “I was simply
trying to humanize Modernism. I was simply
trying to find a way to make an architecture
that didn’t leave me cold.”
TEXT BY MIMI ZEIGER
PHOTO BY NOAH KALINA
ARCHI TECT JANUARY 2011
153
ASSUME
THEY WANT
YOUR HELP
NOBODY BECOMES AN ARCHITECT because of a love for business. But recessions have
strange efects. Architects who typically appraise their work based on its artistic,
social, or environmental value are suddenly acting like MBAs. They’re looking for
quantitative ways to prove to clients that an investment in design is worthwhile.
They’re testing the efficiencies of building information modeling. And they’re
watching and worrying about firms in Asia emerging as potential competitors.
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
OF THE U.S. IN 2009
VALUE OF CONSTRUCTION PUT
IN PLACE IN THE U.S. IN 2009
1
2 3
THE NEXT NORMAL 156
PROVE YOUR
DESIGN
HAS VALUE
1 California Academy of Sciences •
Alison Brown, Chief of Staf and
chief financial of cer
The California Academy of Sciences spent a
reported $488 million on its LEED-Platinum
building, designed by Renzo Piano, Hon. FAIA,
in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park. A big
return on this big investment is important
to the institution, and CFO Alison Brown
uses visitorship and membership as primary
measurement tools.
The museum projected that first-year
attendance in the new building, which opened
in 2008, would be about 1.6 million. Instead,
it drew 2.3 million. And at the time that the
academy moved into the new building, Brown
says, “We were at about 15,000 member
households.” The opening year peak was closer
to 115,000. “We think our steady state is closer
to 60,000 member households,” she says, still
above the projected 40,000.
Brown also uses another, softer metric:
multiple engagements with people,
especially what she calls the “doughnut hole”
demographic of teenagers and young adults
without children. According to the Morey
Group, a consultancy, 60 percent of groups
visiting cultural institutions include children.
At the academy, the figure is 40 percent. “We’re
drawing a lot more adults,” Brown says. It’s
hard to quantify the reason why, but she
credits Piano’s design. The old building, Brown
says, “looked like a chemical factory.”
2 Chickasaw Nation Medical Center • Bill
Anoatubby, Governor of the Chickasaw Nation
The old medical center serving the Chickasaw
Nation in Ada, Okla., was designed to cover
20,500 annual patient visits, less than one-
tenth of the actual number of visits. The new
PageSoutherlandPage-designed center, which
opened in 2010, is three times the size and
cost $148 million. To determine the benefit of
the Chickasaw Nation’s investment in design,
Gov. Bill Anoatubby looks at financial return,
community response, and user satisfaction.
Anoatubby credits the design with helping
to secure a spot in the 2007 Indian Health
Service Joint Venture program, which provides
“up to $25 million per year [for the next 20
years] in additional funds for staf ng and
operation costs,” he says. The Chickasaw was
one of two tribes selected out of a pool of 71.
To build community support, lead designer
Lawrence W. Speck, FAIA, met with tribal
elders “to ensure that the design incorporated
all the cultural elements important to our
community,” Anoatubby says. He adds that
patients and caregivers say the “design creates
an environment that is conducive to healing.”
Though some benefits of the design are
hard to quantify, the numbers of patient
beds, dental chairs, doctors, and services are
more concrete, and they have all increased.
“We think the facility will have a significant
positive impact on the overall quality of care
and health outcomes,” he says.
3 Los Angeles Trade-Technical College •
Roland Chapdelaine, president
Los Angeles Trade-Technical College is located
in an inner-city neighborhood that president
Roland Chapdelaine characterizes as “probably
the most economically challenged community
not only in the city, but the country.” So when
planning the first new campus buildings in 45
years, it was “critical that we demonstrate to
our community that we are willing to provide
them the best,” he says.
MDA Johnson Favaro came on board to
develop a master plan and then to design new
student services and technology buildings.
Funded as part of a $3.5 billion bond measure—
split among nine community colleges—the
new structures opened in January 2010.
The expected surge in admissions during
the financial crisis, coupled with the recent
completion date, make it dif cult to quantify a
return on investment. But softer metrics speak
plainly enough. “Since we are a downtown
inner city, graf ti is a challenge for us. And I
can say that with these new buildings, it has
been absolutely minimal,” Chapdelaine says,
“which I think is a powerful statement about
how the community looks at these buildings.”
The first facilities survey isn’t until spring, but
anecdotal evidence suggests the students, also,
are “really pleased,” he says.
THERE CAAN BEE MAANY MOTTIVESS FOOR TTHHE COONSTTRUCCTIOON OFF A NNEWW
BUILDDINGG, AND MANY MEAASURRES OFF ITTS ULTIMMATEE SUCCESSS OR FAAILURRE.
THREE TOOP CLLIENNTS OOFFEER THHEIRR OWWWN DEEFINITION OFF
AA GOOOD RETTURRN OON TTHEIR INNVVESTMMENNT INN DEESIGGN.
TEXT BY KATIE GERFEN

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ARCHI TECT JANUARY 2011
157
How has BIM changed the way you work?
Joshua Prince-Ramus: I personally believe it is the future. But at our
practice, which is probably not radically diferent from most practices,
BIM hasn’t yet lived up to its potential—not due to any failure on its
part, but because of the failure of the team as a whole: the triad of
owner, architect, and general contractor.
What do you mean by failure?
Prince-Ramus: BIM has the potential to facilitate incredible design team
collaboration from start to finish, to have everyone collaborate with a 3D
model. It’s just that we are still operating with a traditional contractual
apparatus, and BIM requires something new that doesn’t yet exist. So
to use BIM to its real potential with an old contract is [like playing]
roulette. We use BIM and our partner contractors use BIM, but as the
saying goes, it’s like driving a Ferrari to get groceries.
Jim, how has BIM changed the construction industry?
James P. Barrett: We’ve got 200 BIM projects now worth about $30
billion, and it’s growing. It’s pretty much a mandate. As it is now,
we’re in the same boat as Joshua—we’ve essentially looked at BIM as
a sustaining innovation that allows us to do what we’ve always done,
just better.
Better, faster, easier, and more cost-efective?
Barrett: Yes. The tools allow us to do trade coordination better than
we did before, and in some cases significantly better. And there are by-
products that come of that where we’ve got better work quality in the
field. But you could argue we’re still doing what we’ve always done. In
fact, the sequence of coordination is pretty much the same. And so the
conscious choice now is, we recognize that we have this tool. What else
can you do with it? What else does it enable you to do?
BIM WELL
WITH
OTHERS
INTERVIEW BY ERNEST BECK
PHOTOS BY NOAH KALINA
THHE BENNEFITTS OF BBUILDDING INNFORMMATIONN MODDELIINGG ARE
MMORE PROMMISE THAN REAALITYY. JAMMES P.. BARRRETT,
NAATIONAL DIRRECTOOR OF INTEGGRATEED BUILLDINGG SOOLUUTIONSS
ATT TURNNER CCONSTRRUCTION COO., AND JOSSHUA PPRINNCE-RAMMUS
OFF REX DELIBBERATE THEE PROSS AND CONS.
THE NEXT NORMAL 158
“The conscious choice now is, we recognize that we have this
tool. What else can you do with it? What else
does it enable you to do?” —James P. Barrett
ARCHI TECT JANUARY 2011
159
“I keep thinking, why don’t we have the same relationship with
contractors as we do with our engineers? We have a core team of
consultants who we like to work with on almost
every job, so why aren’t we building up those kinds
of relationships between contractor and architect?”
—Joshua Prince-Ramus
THE NEXT NORMAL 160
Could you be more specific?
Barrett: Pre-construction is far more dif cult, but working in BIM
has been, I would argue, more fruitful for us, because it’s forcing us to
address fundamental issues of how we work with design teams and
what the product is that we need to make BIM useful for our purposes.
Prince-Ramus: The ideal scenario would be, you create a form and you
essentially say to the computer, “Give me a price.” And then you say,
“Now rationalize it, but using 20 pieces,” and then I get a new price.
And I say, “OK, well, that’s too much. Now give it to me in 14 pieces.”
Barrett: We’re all sort of saying, “We’ll show you what we’ve done in
3D,” but that’s still missing a huge next step, which is optimization. That
thought process isn’t really happening, not on any significant level.
Prince-Ramus: And for us that is actually the most exciting potential of
BIM. That’s how we like to work. We want to know, how are they going
to build it, and what are the limiting factors in the design approach we
are trying? You are going to have to say, “OK, we’ve got budget X; we
want to make the most of whatever it is for the money and to know that
we’re spending the money wisely.”
With BIM, are construction companies making more design decisions?
Barrett: We’re trying to keep a strong line between that. We make it a
more information-rich environment to make better decisions that’ll
have long-term impact. We have enough problems without taking on
design liabilities.
Prince-Ramus: The problem is, there is often a void left by the architect
not controlling these processes, and often the contractor fills that void.
So the first problem is the failure of the architect, and the second is the
contractor essentially assuming architectural duties that they don’t have
the legal liability to do.
Barrett: We have had the opposite, which is interesting, when the
architect takes the model too far.
Prince-Ramus: Everything that you have described, how to build a model
and things like that, there is always a learning curve. And so I keep
thinking, why don’t we have the same relationship with contractors
as we do with our engineers? We have a core team of consultants who
we like to work with on almost every job, so why aren’t we building up
those kinds of relationships between contractor and architect?
Does BIM help to achieve, or facilitate, that collaborative efort?
Prince-Ramus: It doesn’t necessarily demand BIM. But BIM is a powerful
tool, and if you get into that territory you’d be remiss not to use it.
Barrett: Mistakes in BIM are inevitable with the combination of
imperfect people working with an equally imperfect nascent technology.
A necessary precondition of BIM is a protective environment that allows
sharing and collaboration among the parties without fear of finger
pointing and blame. We take the Las Vegas approach to BIM, which is:
What happens in BIM stays in BIM.
Control of intellectual property rights is also an issue with BIM. How do
you deal with this?
Prince-Ramus: My observation is that when people start worrying
about IP, it’s because they don’t understand how to use BIM. We own the
drawings, the specifications, and the performance specifications. When
you do a performance specification, what you’re saying is, “We insert
your proprietary information. You own that, you keep it. We own the
performance specification.”
So is ownership of the BIM model really a question?
Prince-Ramus: The question of ownership is naïve. It’s exactly what
would happen in a 2D physical drawing situation. That is, we don’t own
the proprietary details, yet we will take our stuf and leave if the client
terminates us for convenience. We retain ownership of what we created.
How about in the construction industry?
Barrett: It’s not an issue for us whatsoever. We make no claims ourselves
for IP other than a proprietary system through our trade contractors. But
otherwise it has never come up as an issue.
Is BIM changing your hiring and recruitment strategies?
Barrett: We’re hiring more architects. Unlike with the design community,
there’s no history for us with BIM. Because our use of BIM is accelerating,
we are moving beyond a coordination tool to more for pre-construction.
That’s where we need people with diferent perspectives that are not
bound by tradition. We’ve become more like problem-solvers.
Prince-Ramus: We’re starting to hire nonarchitects.
Barrett: We are apparently hiring Joshua’s castofs.
Is this shift BIM- or technology-related?
Prince-Ramus: It’s an architectural education issue. It’s not that I’m not
hiring architects. But as someone who teaches and has a practice and
has real projects, I see the skill set of people with architectural education
as increasingly irrelevant, if not detrimental.
As the use of BIM becomes more widespread, what does the future hold?
How will you be designing and building?
Barrett: We’re seeing a strong movement toward engagement. We’re
encouraging it with the design team and owners and trade contractors
early in the process. We are going to see that totally accelerate. I also see
the development of a network of alliances. BIM can enable that because
you have a better tool to coordinate the players and their work product.
Prince-Ramus: Once engaged it takes a mental shift for architects to
start saying, “If I do my job really well I should be able to come up with
something remarkable by using the things at hand as opposed to doing
it in an abstraction and then hoping to God that somebody can figure it
out.” Is that where we’ll be in five or 10 years? Unfortunately, no. I think
that’s where we should be now.
*
*Apologies to Paul Rand
WHEN PEOPLE LEARN I’M AN ARCHITECT, THEY ALWAYS SAY TTHE INFORMAATION KIND OR THHE RE EAL KIND? CAN YOUU DESIGN MY BASEMENT REMODEL FOR FREE??
LIKEE ART VANDELAY? I WANTEED TO BE AAN ARCHHITECCT, BUT I WAASN’T GOOD AT MATH
@LIVLAB
@JOHNCLUVER
@GEISVIZ
@ABIGREDAPE
ARCHI TECT JANUARY 2011
161
WATCH
YOUR BACK
OUUR STUUFF MAYY BE MADE INN CHINA, BUTT WHENN IT COOMESS TTO IDEAAS, THEE UNITEED STAATES ISS STILL ON TOOP.
PRROFESSSIONALL SERVIICES, INCLUDDING ARCHITEECTURRE, CCONNSTITUTE ROUUGHLYY A THIRD OF AAMERICCA’S EXPORTTS.
BUUT BE WWARNEED: DESSIGN FIRMSS IN AASIA AARE CAATCHHING UP.
The United States imported more than four times as many goods from
China as we exported there in 2010, but our trade imbalance with China
has gone the other way when it comes to professional services. The
American architecture profession has been part of that export growth.
Many major American architecture firms now have of ces in the largest
Chinese cities, such as Beijing and Shanghai, as well as second-tier cities
like Tianjin. But trade, by its very nature, goes both ways, and some
Chinese firms have begun to open of ces in the U.S.
The Ager Group, a China-based architecture, landscape architecture,
and planning firm of more than 110 people with of ces in Shanghai and
Beijing, opened a Boston of ce in 2007. If this is symbolic of both China’s
emergence as the world’s second-largest economy and America’s loss
of hegemony, it also isn’t all bad. The Chinese opening of branch of ces
in the U.S. reflects, in part, Chinese respect for the quality of American
professionals, evident in the career of Ager’s founder and president,
Xiaowei Ma.
An alumnus of the Beijing Forestry University, Ma came to the U.S. to
receive a graduate degree in landscape architecture from the University
of Minnesota, after which he worked for Sasaki Associates and other U.S.
firms before returning to China to set up his own of ce in 2001.
His respect for American practice came through in a conversation I
had with Ma recently in his Shanghai of ce. He notes that Ager sends its
Chinese employees to the Boston of ce for periods of time, “to open up
their minds and renew their design thinking.” Ma doesn’t see Ager as a
Chinese firm with an American branch. Indeed, in a 2008 interview in
World Architecture Review, Ma responded to the opposite perception in
China. Ager “is not a purely foreign design firm that simply imposes the
western design process and design philosophy on Chinese culture,” he
said. As one of the firm’s principals in Boston, Jessica Leete, puts it, “That
Ager is China-based rather than U.S.-based really only has to do with
where the current majority of the work is.”
Ager’s 12 principals represent multiple nationalities—Chinese,
Philippine, and American among them—and almost all have
international education or work experiences, creating a diversity
that Ma sees as essential in today’s global practice. “The world is
flat, without borders,” Ma says, “making nationality just a person’s
background.” That observation applies as much to clients as it does to
design professionals. “Ager is based in Shanghai,” Ma adds, “but the
client might come from the United States, [while] in the United States,
the client might come from China. … The market is cross-national.
AGER GROUP / SHANGHAI
THE NEXT NORMAL 162
Our talents and thoughts are also cross-national.”
That cross-nationalism leads to some practices that may become
common in architectural firms with of ces around the globe. Ager
employs full-time Chinese-English translators, for example. The firm’s
“strategic choice required that our company have a very international
atmosphere, with bilingual communication,” Ma says. Since its first
year, Ager has also organized study trips for staf across of ces to other
countries, so they can experience as many cultures as possible.
All of this suggests that the very notion of a headquarters and
branch of ce may have become irrelevant. What matters, according to
Ma, is a firm’s “continuity of brand”—an idea that is, itself, an American
export to the rest of the world. THOMAS FISHER, ASSOC. AIA
URBANUS / SHENZHEN
In the Nanshan District in the western part of Shenzhen, the heady
density of the city is far from view. Here, on the OCT Loft campus—a
series of renovated warehouse buildings clustered in a dense of ce
parklike setting—the feeling isn’t of industry but commerce of a cultural
kind, like an edgy art school. The scene is downright serene compared
with the crowded city center of Shenzhen, which has sprung up as
an icon of China’s rapid rush to modernization and urbanization: In
30 years, the population has exploded from 30,000 to 9 million.
Designed by Urbanus, a Chinese architecture firm founded in 1999,
the OCT Loft campus was one of the first major urban regeneration
projects undertaken by the firm, and for the past few years, it has
also been the of ce of the architecture practice. “It’s a unique place,
programmed and designed by us,” explains Urbanus partner Wang Hui,
“a living case to test our ideas.”
Currently employing 85 staf between the of ce in Shenzhen and an
outpost in Beijing, the firm has come a long way since it was founded by
Wang, Liu Xiaodu, and Meng Yan. (A fourth partner, Zhu Pei, split of in
2004 and currently runs a successful practice of his own.) Collectively,
the founding members of Urbanus were educated at China’s Tsinghua
University and did graduate study in the U.S., then spent their formative
years at firms such as Kohn Pedersen Fox and Gensler. In 2004, the
firm scored its biggest victory, winning a competition to design the
communications center for the 2008 Beijing Olympics.
Urbanus has completed projects across a wide spectrum of type and
scale. The Greater China Oriental New World, a 1.6-million-square-foot
mixed-use high-rise in Shenzhen, for example, minimizes the severity of
the building mass with towers of vertical folds. The Dafen Museum is a
critically acclaimed art institution built into the side of a hill. Urbanus’
most thought-provoking work may be its Tulou housing in Guangzhou.
Financed by China Vanke Co., one of China’s largest and richest
developers, it was one of the rare high-quality, low-income housing
projects in China and was included in an exhibition at the Cooper-
Hewitt National Design Museum in New York.
The partners are quick to note that their country has experienced
a total shift in architecture over the past 10 years. There were two
watersheds: the Olympics and Expo 2010 Shanghai, both magnets of
architectural experimentation and
urban transformation. Change has
largely been good, the partners believe. “This phenomenon has the
benefit of making modern architectural styles the norm in China,” Liu
notes. The downside: “There are many projects being done by architects
who neither understand modernist principles, nor have the design
ability to create new ideas and images,” Liu says. “The result is … lousy
redesign of Western examples.”
Urbanus will do what it can to counter that problem. Just last year,
it won the competition to design Shenzhen Crystal Island, a 99-acre
transport hub and cultural center, in collaboration with the Of ce for
Metropolitan Architecture. Also last year, at a much smaller scale, the
firm completed the Jade Bamboo Garden in Shenzhen, a patch of green
space over a parking lot which connects two residential areas.
The project, paid for by a private developer as a concession to the
local community, was a triumph for both the environment and local
urban policy. Says Wang: “Our design is based on reality, as well as a
dynamic knowledge pool, and this gives us endless inspiration and
nutrition.” ANDREW YANG
MORPHOGENESIS / NEW DELHI
When Manit and Sonali Rastogi started Morphogenesis in New Delhi
in 1996, the couple—who met as undergraduates at New Delhi’s School
of Planning and Architecture and were fresh from graduate school
at London’s Architectural Association (AA)—confronted a sluggish
economy and architecture market. The liberalization of the nation’s
economy in 1991 had yet to impact development, but it turns out their
timing could not have been better. As many young architects do, they
entered a competition—to design a corporate headquarters for the
Apollo Tyres Group, in Gurgaon, Haryana—which they won. The project
was completed in 2000 and went on to win several awards.
“From there, we never looked back,” says Manit, who acknowledges
that the firm, now 93 strong and led by the Rastogis as well as Sanjay
Bhardwaj and Vijay Dahiya, is in the fortunate position of being able to
pick and choose its projects.
Ten of the top 30 fastest-growing urban areas in the world are in
India, and 700 million people are estimated to move to its cities by 2050.
Multinational corporations are flocking to the country to tap into its
vast, resource-rich, labor- and consumer-abundant market. The world’s
corporate architecture firms have been swift to move in too. (“Oh, they’re
all here,” Manit laughs.) Over its 15-year existence, Morphogenesis
has completed close to 30 projects, including corporate headquarters
for Ernst & Young, commercial of ce buildings, factories, a shopping
mall, and several interiors and high-end residences, as well as an entire
residential subdivision.
But rather than settle into the niche of go-to firm for high-design
symbols of the new capitalism, Morphogenesis has grander ambitions.
“One important thing we are bringing back from the AA is how to
think about architecture as a process,” Manit says. The firm indulges
in lengthy research phases, giving its work the cultural depth and
technological sophistication that has been earning them accolades.
The award-winning Pearl Academy of Fashion in Jaipur (completed
in 2008) exemplifies this approach: Utterly contemporary, the building
features several clever takes on traditional techniques. Lifted on piloti,
it has a central void or underbelly with a deep pool fed by recycled and
rainwater, which evaporates and cools the building. The idea is based on
the baoli, or stepwell, seen in ancient Indian architecture.
At this pivotal moment in India’s development, Morphogenesis’
principals realize the urgency to get involved. This might explain why
the firm is investing so much energy in a plan to transform the city’s
extensive network of nullahs (canals) from unhygienic sewage drains to
a green network of pedestrian and cycling paths and new social spaces.
Perhaps most ambitiously, in 2009, Manit took the helm of the Sushant
School of Art and Architecture and launched a School of Design. “Pure
frustration,” Manit explains as his motivation.
The number of architecture schools in India has jumped from 25 to
135 in the past 20 years, but this expansion, the Rastogis say, hasn’t done
much to improve the quality of young architects’ training. The nation
clearly has a great many needs at the moment, and Morphogenesis
seems determined to fill as many as they can. CATHY LANG HO
“The world is flat, without borders,” Xiaowei Ma says, “making
nationality just a person’s background.” That observation applies
as much to clients as it does
to design professionals.
RECENTLY, I MADE AN IMPROMPTU VISIT TO HARVARD to visit my
old friend and long-term collaborator, Sanford Kwinter. He in-
vited me to present to his class at the GSD, and opened it up to
the broader Harvard community. We talked about the work that
I am focused on these days, launching a new educational project
committed to providing the tools of innovation and design think-
ing to the broadest, most inclusive audience possible. Our discus-
sion was animated and exciting—because it was troublesome
and even alarming to some of the students. One brave student
was willing to complain out loud: “I’m not comfortable with your
‘corporatist’ language and your obsession with getting to scale. Is
it really necessary?” My response was brutal: “I don’t care about
your problems, because they are not real problems. They are lux-
ury problems. You have the luxury of cynicism. The people in Ma-
lawi sufering and dying from infections that could be prevented
have never heard the word ‘corporatist.’ They have real problems,
and they know one thing: They need solutions now. At scale.”
The cynicism and navel-gazing that infect the field of architecture at
this moment—the whining malaise and never-ending complaints of pow-
erlessness and economic hardship and marginalization and irrelevance and
on, and on, and on—set me on fire. Not because some of this is not true. Not
because I don’t share the dif culties we are all grappling with to build and
maintain a business during the most challenging economic conditions in
living memory. Not because I don’t appreciate and support the dreams and
ambitions and authentically good citizenship that form the cultural founda-
tion of the architectural life. I am infuriated for two reasons: First, there is
simply no basis in historical fact that could possibly support a complaint
about being an architect—of any kind, in any form—at this moment in his-
tory. Second, to the degree that there are problems in architectural practice
in America, they are self-inflicted. Architecture is largely irrelevant to the
great mass of the world’s population because architects have chosen to be.
Is it really dif cult being an architect in America? It’s dif cult to be a
female intellectual in Kandahar. It’s difficult to raise a family living on
waste products in the garbage dumps of China. It’s dif cult to find your way
as a child in Malawi, where the infection rate of HIV/AIDS is 17 percent,
having already wiped out a generation of mothers and fathers. It’s dif -
cult to overcome drug addiction from the quicksand of poverty and incar-
ceration in America’s overpopulated prisons. These conditions are dif cult.
Being an architect is not dif cult.
So, really, are we going to listen to another gripe about how dif cult it
is to be an architect today? No, we are not. If you are a student at Harvard,
or a practicing architect, you are the privileged 1 percent. That’s right—
1 percent. I’m not talking about 1 percent of college graduates, but 1 percent
of humanity. Less than 1 percent of the world has experienced the power
of higher education. Look at what we have accomplished with less than
1 percent, the revolution of possibility that we have collectively created:
access to food and water and healthcare and energy and knowledge and
connection and mobility for billions of people. With less than 1 percent
we have created Massive Change. Imagine if we could reach just one more
percent. Imagine if 2 percent had access to the educational tools that we take
for granted. And that is my point: Architects take for granted the extraor-
dinary powers they have to shape the world, to create beauty, to produce
wealth, to reach people with new ideas.
If you are an architect and are thinking any thought other than, “Hey,
this is awesome! This is the craziest, coolest, most beau-
tiful time in human history to be alive and working;” if
you aren’t saying, “Wow! I get to constantly learn new
things, and everything is uncertain. I want everyone
on the planet to get in on the action and be part of this
new world of invention and beauty!”—I don’t want to
hear it. If you are thinking a complaint, just stop. If your
thought sounds whiny or rhymes with “woe is me” or
has a mildly racist undertone about people “over there”
taking “our” jobs—I don’t want to hear it. If you can’t
tell the difference between
critical and negative, and have
conflated the two and built a
practice around “challenging”
this or that, and are wondering
why people aren’t interested—
don’t come crying to me.
However, if you have wo-
ken up and realized that the
internal monologue and obses-
sion with policing the boundary
of “big A” licensed Architecture
means that architects could
lose the thread of the most im-
portant movement in history,
the movement to redesign the
world and everything we do to sustainably meet the needs of the 4.5 billion
children who will be born before midcentury, then do something about it.
If you realize your colleagues have been so busy policing the fence of exclu-
sivity that they forgot to open the door of possibility, then get in the game.
If you understand that the practice of architecture—the practice of syn-
thesis that generates coherent unity from massively complex and diverse
inputs—just might be the operating system that we need to solve the
challenges that we face in meeting the needs of the next generation,
then join the movement. If you get the fact that architecture, and the
design methodologies at its core, could be central to the future of cities,
governments, ecologies, and businesses, then please raise your voice in
the chorus of potential. Get into the discussion and leave your worries
about the fence that separates you from the rest of the world behind you.
Stop the complaining—and join the revolution of possibility.
TEXT BY BRUCE MAU
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Circle no. 287 or http://architect.hotims.com
BIG
THANKS
A COLLABORATION BETWEEN ARCHITECT AND BRUCE MAU DESIGN (BMD), The
Next Normal evolved through countless e-mails, conference calls,
and Skype discussions between staf at the magazine in Washington,
D.C.—especially art directors Aubrey Altmann and Marcy Ryan—and at
BMD’s of ce in Toronto, where Blair Johnsrude took the creative lead on
the project, with support from associate creative director Laura Stein and
project coordinator Julie Netley.
Altmann and Ryan traveled to Toronto to brainstorm with BMD
designers (luckily, Altmann’s passport came through just in time). “The
project really caught fire when Aubrey and Marcy came up for a classic
BMD creative workshop,” Johnsrude says. “We camped out in our studio
library for a day, and used every Post-it note in the studio to fill up the
project boards with all kinds of impossibly outrageous ideas.” Many of
those were eventually ruled out for practical considerations. “But it was
important to put all our psychedelic visions on the table, to discover the
essential spirit of what we were trying to do.”
Altmann and Johnsrude were in constant communication as they
laid out the pages. When Dutch design firm Catalogtree came on board
to create infographics, “it was only natural to hold our three-country
meetings on Skype—often at midnight, Dutch time,” Johnsrude
remembers. “It was a way to stretch the energy of our brainstorming
session through the entire project.”
The Next Normal was edited by Ned Cramer, Katie Gerfen, and
Amanda Kolson Hurley. Greig O’Brien calmly directed trafic and made
sure the pages got to the printers on time. Lindsey M. Roberts finessed
the copy and helped us get our facts straight. Articles, photographs, and
illustrations were contributed by a crack team from the U.S. and beyond:
KERMIT BAKER, Hon. AIA, is the chief economist for the American Institute
of Architects. He is also the project director of the Remodeling Futures
Program at the Joint Center for Housing Studies at Harvard University.
ERNEST BECK, an ARCHITECT contributing editor, is a New York–based
freelance writer. He focuses on architecture, design, innovation, and
business.
CATALOGTREE, an ARCHITECT contributing artist, is a multidisciplinary
design studio in the Netherlands founded by Daniel Gross and Joris
Maltha. Work includes typography, generative graphic design, and the
visualization of quantitative data.
THOMAS FISHER, Assoc. AIA, is the dean of the College of Design at the
University of Minnesota and an ARCHITECT contributing editor.
VERONIQUE GREENWOOD is a New York–based writer whose work has
appeared in Scientific American and Seed and on TheAtlantic.com.
CATHY LANG HO is an independent writer and editor in New York and an
ARCHITECT contributing editor. She was the founding editor of The
Architect’s Newspaper and is a fellow of the American Academy in Rome.
NOAH KALINA is an ARCHITECT contributing artist and a photographer based
in Brooklyn, N.Y. His work has appeared in I.D., Nylon, Blender, The New
York Times Magazine, and other publications.
EDWARD KEEGAN, AIA, is a Chicago architect who complements his
independent practice by writing, broadcasting, and teaching on
architectural subjects. He is an ARCHITECT editor-at-large.
MARK LAMSTER is at work on a biography of the late architect Philip
Johnson, to be published by Little, Brown. He lives in Brooklyn, N.Y.
DIANA LIND is the former editor-in-chief of Next American City. She is
currently program director of the Geneva-based New Cities Foundation.
KIEL MOE, AIA, is an assistant professor of design and building
technologies at Northeastern University. His most recent book is
Thermally Active Surfaces in Architecture.
PAUL W. NAKAZAWA, AIA, is a business adviser to firms in the fields of
architecture, landscape architecture, urban design, and engineering.
He is on the faculty of the Harvard University Graduate School of Design.
JAMESON SIMPSON is an illustrator in California. His illustrations have
appeared in such magazines as Popular Science and Wired.
ANDREW YANG is the managing director of Roll & Hill, a contemporary
lighting company. For the past decade, Yang has been a design journalist,
writing for design publications as well as The New York Times and
The Wall Street Journal.
MIMI ZEIGER, an ARCHITECT contributing editor, writes for publications
including The New York Times, Dwell, and Wallpaper. Her third book,
Micro Green, will be published by Rizzoli in April.
DATA SOURCES FOR PROVOCATIONS IN ORDER OF APPEARANCE: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR; U.S. CENSUS BUREAU; U.S. CENSUS BUREAU; WORLD BANK; WORLD BANK;
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA MUSEUM OF PALEONTOLOGY; CORNELL UNIVERSITY STUDY BY RICH HOLIHAN, DAN KEELEY, DANIEL LEE, POWEN TU, AND ERIC YANG
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Circle no. 380 or http://architect.hotims.com
DESIGN
MACK SCOGIN MERRILL ELAM ARCHITECTS 172
BUREAU SLA 182
SAFDIE ARCHITECTS 188
PETER ROSE + PARTNERS 198
ERIC OWEN MOSS ARCHITECTS 206

DESIGN
CARNEGIE MELLON
UNIVERSITY GATES
AND HILLMAN CENTERS
TEXT BY EDWARD KEEGAN, AIA
PHOTOS BY TIMOTHY HURSLEY
PITTSBURGH, PA.
MACK SCOGIN MERRILL ELAM ARCHITECTS
Faced with a hilly site in the center of campus, and
a program that required more than 200,000 square
feet of classroom, offi ce, laboratory, and study spaces,
Mack Scogin Merrill Elam Architects raised the bulk
of the new Gates Center for Computer Science and
Hillman Center for Future-Generation Technologies
above its hillside site, creating a cantilevered complex
that seems to hang in midair.
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DESIGN→ SCOGIN ELAM
Reaching seven stories tall at the
top of the hill, the Gates Center
(above, right) and Hillman Center
(above, left) are connected by
a multistory glass-enclosed
bridge. The two centers share a
vocabulary of black, diamond-
shaped zinc tiles with varied
silver-toned window surrounds
combined with a more traditional
curtainwall.
EARLY 20TH-CENTURY Pittsburgh architect Henry
Hornbostel has found kindred spirits in Atlanta-based
Mack Scogin and Merrill Elam. Their design for the
new Gates Center for Computer Science and Hillman
Center for Future-Generation Technologies, on the
campus of Carnegie Mellon University, is a 21st-century
reinterpretation of the architectural principles that
Hornbostel relied on when he drafted the campus master
plan and designed its earliest structures starting in 1904.
Before selecting Mack Scogin Merrill Elam Architects
for the project, the Carnegie Mellon building committee
toured recently completed computer science buildings
across the continent. “All the successful ones have
had one faculty member take on the project,” School
of Computer Science dean Randal E. Bryant says, so
professor Guy E. Blelloch was selected to serve as liaison
to the architects. “I just wanted a Japanese car,” Bryant
recalls—“something nice, economical, that functioned
well, and had cupholders in the right places.”
The selection of Scogin, who led the design, and Elam,
who was integrally involved in the process at the firm
and with the client, was easy. “We bonded instantly—
Mack is an academic,” Bryant says. “Mack taught people
to see and understand,” adds Ralph R. Horgan, associate
vice provost for campus design and facility development.
The architects were presented with a site and
program of considerable complexity. Hornbostel’s master
plan—only partially realized—uses two intersecting
green spaces (called the Mall and the Cut) to define the
campus. The Gates and Hillman Centers (two volumes in
one building connected by a multistory glass-enclosed
bridge) are located in a valley behind the buildings that
front the greens; its grade level is almost 80 feet lower.
Placing the 208,000-square-foot structure, designed
to be LEED-Gold compliant, on the hilly site was even
more dif cult due to its subgrade conditions. Sewers,
data cabling, and rock confined the buildable area to a
comparatively small footprint.
“It was Mack and Merrill’s inspiration to lift the
building up from the valley,” Bryant says, creating a IMAGE ON PAGE 171:© NIC LEHOUX
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10-level concrete frame structure with a floor plate that
is larger on its upper floors. The lowest two levels are
below grade and provide parking. The next five levels are
public and link the upper campus to the lower campus. In
the Gates Center, a central atrium houses a 650-foot-long
spiral walkway called Helix 1; undergraduate classrooms,
a café, the dean’s suite, of ces, and an auditorium are
grouped either around—or in—the ramp. This inclined
plane’s gentle 1 in 20 slope ofers a leisurely connection
between entrances on multiple levels of the building. The
top two floors are mainly devoted to faculty of ces.
Beyond the public areas, the core programmed spaces
are the faculty of ces—nearly 120 individual rooms that
the client insisted all have natural light and a view to the
outside. “We didn’t think they could do it,” Blelloch says.
“It’s like giving students a problem that you know can’t
be solved.” Coupling the site’s inability to accommodate
much grade-level building and the client’s desire for
outward-facing exterior of ces gave Scogin and Elam the
opportunity to create the building’s distinctive forms. The
Folded natural
zinc panel
Black zinc shingles Zinc slip sheet
Window
3" rigid
insulation
Airbarrier
Exterior cement
board sheathing
Light gauge metal
framing and interior
gypsum board
Framing for
air cavity
Exterior cement board
Window Surround Axonometric
The sixth and seventh floors of the Gates Center (above right) are glass-enclosed and offset
from the other floor plates. This glass volume is filled mainly with open project space and a
collaborative commons, as well as conference rooms and select faculty offi ces. The glazing
continues on the façades lining the courtyard spaces between the two buildings, creating a
visual connection between them.
upper levels of the Gates Center are larger than the lower
ones, placing more square footage where of ces can take
advantage of better views. The fact that the building
mass is divided into two primary volumes—with the
Hillman Center to the north and the Gates Center to the
south—allowed the architects to incorporate as many
nips, tucks, and angles as possible to provide subtly
diferent orientations for the individual faculty of ces,
and to allow for terraces and other outdoor space.
The exterior of the building is always the last thing
Scogin and Elam address—and where they usually get
the most creative. “We’ve never had budgets for elegant,
fine materials,” Scogin says. They chose a zinc rainscreen
for the Gates and Hillman Centers’ cladding—and the
durable black shingles in a diamond pattern stand
out among the yellow brick buildings of Hornbostel
and his successors. The 310 windows are all treated
diferently—their consistent size is masked by diferent
surrounds made of silver zinc, which contrasts with
the black walls. “It’s an opportunity to individualize
and de-institutionalize them,” Scogin says. “I think it’s
something Hornbostel would have relished.”
Blelloch lived with the project from programming
to architect selection to building completion—and the
process of creating the Gates Center for Computer Science
and Hillman Center for Future-Generation Technologies
helps him link contemporary computer science to
architecture.
“There’s a commonality to how you design an
algorithm,” Blelloch says. “Computer science is logical, but
there’s an aesthetic as well—it has to function, but it also
has to look right and be elegant.” The Gates and Hillman
Centers are all of these things—and a fitting continuation
of Henry Hornbostel’s architectural legacy.
The varied floor plans
(opposite)—hardly one of the
nine matches that directly above
or below it—create room for
courtyards, terraces, and even
a small green roof. This terrace
(above) between the Gates and
Hillman Centers provides not only
an outdoor study space, but also
a view for the classrooms, offi ces,
and lounge spaces that line it.
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0 100 200
N
SCOGIN ELAM ←DESIGN
First-Floor Plan
Fourth-Floor Plan
Seventh-Floor Plan
Second-Floor Plan
Fifth-Floor Plan
Eighth-Floor Plan
Third-Floor Plan
Sixth-Floor Plan
Ninth-Floor Plan
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Scogin and Elam placed a
premium on natural light and
view lines that connect the
different floors and programs.
Stairwell atria promote
interaction between the building
users. This one in the Hillman
Center (top) connects faculty
offi ces, informal lounge spaces,
and a student café.
Other, necessarily enclosed,
spaces such as almost 120
faculty offi ces, classrooms, and
laboratory high bays (right) are
connected to the rest of the
building and campus through
extensive use of glazing.
178
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TOP LEFT: © NIC LEHOUX
SCOGIN ELAM ←DESIGN
In the Gates Center, a central
650-foot-long spiral ramp called
the Helix 1 visually connects four
stories even as it wraps around
glass-enclosed classrooms and
meeting spaces.
0 1 2
LED fixture
3" by 3" aluminum
clip angle
Perforated milled
aluminum panel with
clear anodized finish
Concrete slab
2"-diameter
stainless steel
handrail
Translucent guardrail
system with glass
DESIGN→ SCOGIN ELAM
TOOLBOX
The Randy Pausch Memorial Footbridge
Randy Pausch was an alumnus and noted computer science professor at Carnegie Mellon.
His inquisitive approach helped bridge every discipline offered at the university, particularly
computer science and the performing arts. Diagnosed with terminal pancreatic cancer, Pausch
famously gave what is known as “The Last Lecture” at Carnegie Mellon, resulting in a book of
the same name and an oft-downloaded Internet video. At the conclusion of the 2007 lecture, it
was announced that the fifth-level bridge that connects the Gates and Hillman Centers to the
adjacent Purnell Center for the Arts and to a campus green space known as the Cut, would be
named the Randy Pausch Memorial Footbridge.
The bridge’s initial design was relatively utilitarian. “How would we change the bridge to
honor Randy?” Scogin recalls asking. The answer was to modify the handrail on the south side of
the bridge as a metal light box that could provide illumination for people walking on the bridge
while also creating a soaring five-stories-in-the-sky light show.
Scogin developed an aluminum cutout design that depicts penguins diving into water. The
imagery is based on Pausch’s annual selection of a single student as the “first penguin”—that
individual who had courageously dived headlong into a task that ultimately proved too great to
execute or, as Scogin puts it, the “biggest failure.”
To work out the lighting technology, dean Randal Bryant put the architects in touch with
Color Kinetics (now a division of Phillips). One of the company’s founders is a Carnegie Mellon
alumnus. The collaboration produced a playful element illuminated by LED lights that are, of
course, computer controlled. “We always like lighting to add sparkle and energy to the building,”
Scogin says.
Project Credits
Project Gates Center for Computer Science and Hillman Center for Future-
Generation Technologies, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Client Carnegie Mellon University
Design Architect and Architect of Record Mack Scogin Merrill Elam Architects,
Atlanta—Mack Scogin, AIA, Merrill Elam, AIA (principals); Lloyd Bray (senior project
architect); Kimberly Shoemake-Medlock (senior project architect and manager);
Alan Locke, Jared Serwer, Jason Hoeft, Clark Tate, Trey Lindsey, Jeff Collins (core
project team); Ben Arenberg, Britney Bagby, Cayce Bean, Brian Bell, Misty Boykin,
Daniel Cashen, Jacob Coburn, Amanda Crawley, Margaret Fletcher, Francesco
Giacobello, Helen Han, Carrie Hunsicker, Patrick Jones, Janna Kauss, Jeff Kemp,
Matthew Leach, Gary McGaha, Ted Paxton, Bo Roberts, Dennis Sintic, Barnum Tiller,
John Trefry, Anja Turowski, B. Vithayathawornwong, Matt Weaver (project team)
Local Architect Edge studio
Associate Architect Gensler
Interior Designer Mack Scogin Merrill Elam Architects
Mechanical, Plumbing, Structural, Electrical, Acoustical Engineer Arup
Civil and Geotechnical Engineer Civil & Environmental Consultants
Geotechnical Engineer Construction Engineering Consultants
Construction Manager and General Contractor P. J. Dick
Landscape Architect Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates
Lighting Design Arup
Fire Protection, Life Safety, Communications, IT, LEED, A/V, Security Consultant
Arup
Specifications Consultant Collective Wisdom
Digital Assets Manager CHBH
Cost Consultant Heery International
Pausch Bridge Lighting Design C & C Lighting
Parking Consultant Tim Haahs
Hardware Consultant Ingersoll Rand Security Technologies
Façade Assessment Wiss, Janny, Elstner Associates
Surveyor Gateway Engineers
Size 208,000 square feet and a 150-car parking garage
Cost $81 million (construction cost)
Materials and Sources
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Gypsum Georgia-Pacific gp.com
HVAC Semco semcohvac.com
Insulation Owens Corning owenscorning.com; Dow building.dow.com
Lighting Control Systems Lighting Control & Design lightingcontrols.com
Lighting Delray Lighting delraylighting.com; Designplan Lighting designplan.com;
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Lighting Corp. linearltg.com; Lithonia Lighting lithonia.com; Lighting Services
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Metal VM Zinc vmzinc.com; Rheinzink rheinzink.com
Offi ce Furniture Herman Miller hermanmiller.com
Paint Sherwin-Williams sherwin-williams.com
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Windows, Curtainwalls, and Doors Oldcastle Building Envelope oldcastlebe.com
Bridge Section
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Circle no. 266 or http://architect.hotims.com
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DESIGN
NATIONAL GLASS MUSEUM
LEERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS
BUREAU SLA
TEXT BY KIERAN LONG
PHOTOS BY JEROEN MUSCH
DESIGN
The exhibition galleries of the National Glass Museum occupy two
historic houses on the Royal Leerdam glass factory site. Now opened to
the public, these spaces hold rotating shows of glassware from around
the Netherlands. The bulk of the company’s archive and permanent
collection is now stored—and on display—in a series of bridges that
span the gap between the two houses.
IT IS A DISTINCTIVE feature of northern European countries
that citizens understand the value of their industrial
heritage. Across Scandinavia, and throughout Germany and
the Low Countries, the astonishing 20th-century flowering
of manufacturers in glass, ceramics, and steel, and later in
electronics and other consumer goods, is now recognized not
just for its economic value, but because the objects produced
are at the heart of the countries’ modern identities. The
Netherlands’ new National Glass Museum in Leerdam, recently
carved by Amsterdam architect Bureau SLA out of two 1910s
villas, is evidence of this pride in a distinguished history of
mass production.
The town of Leerdam, just south of Utrecht, is known
for two things: a rather bland, mass-market brand of cheese
(Leerdammer), and glass. Glass was first produced in the town
in the 18th century, but it was after visionary industrialist P.M.
Cochius became director in 1912 that the factory there—which
became Royal Leerdam in 1953—began to attain its august
modern reputation. He brought in new manufacturing
techniques, but also a new modern style of glassware by
architects and designers such as H.P. Berlage, J.J.C. Lebeau, and
Andries Dirk Copier.
The two houses that the new National Glass Museum
occupies on the Leerdam site were once home to Cochius and
his finance director. A gallery was already in place in one of
the villas, and the initial brief called for the removal of of ces
and storage to the newly acquired villa next door, expanding
the exhibition spaces in the original one. Bureau SLA and its
principal Peter van Assche suggested another solution. “We
thought that it would be a shame if you couldn’t see that
the museum had become bigger, and we wanted to make
everything public,” he says.
Rather than taking the obvious route of creating a
building to link the two villas, the idea of a number of bridges,
with storage integrated, began to take hold. This allowed
public access to every floor of both villas and transformed
the scale of the complex from domestic to civic. You can
now walk in a straight line from one gallery, over a bridge,
and into another. The bridges are clad with an aluminum
mesh skin over polycarbonate, and inside they provide open
storage for the collection’s archive, in display cases designed
by Dutch furniture designer Piet Hein Eek. More conventional
exhibition areas occupy the interiors of the villas themselves.
Structurally, the bridges are independent of the villas,
with their own steel supports visible in the interior gallery
spaces. Another happy coincidence of the bridge arrangement
is that visitors have multiple means of escape in case of fire.
This means that the building needs only one elevator, and
also allows the timber structures of the houses to be exposed
without running afoul of fire regulations.
The visitor’s experience of the museum is now an unlikely
but elaborate promenade architecturale. The museum is built
into the side of a dike, and the main entry is at the top of the
slope on the second floor. Visitors zig-zag across the bridges,
from villa to villa and from floor to floor. The exit is on the
ground floor and opens onto a riverside plaza.
Before the expansion, the museum normally received
around 15,000 visitors per year. In just the last five months,
attendance has been 85,000. Van Assche says that the
building’s openness has transformed the institution and
the visitor experience of it: “People now spend more time
in the storage bridges than they do in the exhibition. I think
it’s because you can see the timeline of the Leerdam factory
there, and because people can recognize things that they have
at home.”
184
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The museum is built into a dike, so its main entry is actually on the
south side (this page) and on the second level. The ground-floor
exit on the north façade (opposite top) opens onto a garden court.
Inside each bridge, interruptions in the polycarbonate walls offer
views of the site (opposite bottom) through the powder-coated
aluminum mesh cladding.
BUREAU SLA ← DESIGN
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Project Credits

Project National Glass Museum, Leerdam, the Netherlands
Client Kleurrijk Wonen (during design and construction); National Glass Museum (occupant that assumed
post-completion ownership)
Architect Bureau SLA, Amsterdam—Peter van Assche (architect); Mathijs Cremers (project architect);
Gražina Bendikaite, Gonçalo Moreira, Tereza Novosadová, Mick van Essen (project team)
Interior Designer Bureau SLA
Structural Engineer Sineth Engineering; Konstrucktieburo Krabbendam-Boerkoel
Electrical Engineer SchreuderGroep Ingenieurs/Adviseurs
Geotechnical Engineer Inpijn-Blokpoel Ingenieursbureau
General Contractor Aannemersbedrijf J. Van Daalen
Climate Engineer SchreuderGroep Ingenieurs/Adviseurs
Lighting Designer Bureau SLA
Project Management BLOEII Project Development
Furniture and Showcase Design Piet Hein Eek
Size 10,800 square feet
Cost €1.5 million ($1.96 million)
Materials and Sources
Adhesives, Coatings, and Sealants Sigma-Aldrich Co. (coatings) sigma.com
Appliances Miele miele.com
Ceilings plasterboard and paint
Exterior Wall Systems SABIC Innovative Plastics (Lexan polycarbonate) sabic.com
Fabrics and Finishes Kabel-Zaandam (color-coated aluminium mesh) www.kabelzaandam.nl
Flooring poured polyurethane floor
Furniture Piet Hein Eek pietheineek.nl
Gypsum Xella International (Fermacell) fermacell.nl
Lighting Wever & Ducré wever-ducre.com
Paints and Finishes Sigma-Aldrich Co. sigma.com
Plumbing and Water System copper and PVC piping
Structural System steel
DESIGN→ BUREAU SLA
Ground-Floor Plan
Curator’s offi ce Terrace Café Entry
Offi ce Library Storage bridge
Second-Floor Plan
Entry
Storage bridge Exhibit space
Museum shop
Fourth-Floor Plan
Storage bridge
Exhibit space
Elevator
Third-Floor Plan
Exhibit space
Exhibit space Storage bridge
0 15 30 N
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Circle no. 292 or http://architect.hotims.com
MOSHE SAFDIE, FAIA, IS enjoying an embarrassment of
riches. The architect’s Boston-area firm has five large-
scale projects scheduled for completion this year—three
in the U.S. and one each in Singapore and India. The
Marina Bay Sands resort in Singapore, designed for the
Las Vegas Sands Corp., is one of the most ambitious:
The $5.7 billion, 9-million-square-foot program includes
a 2,500-room hotel, convention center, casino, retail,
dining, nightclubs, event plaza, and museum, all topped
by the Sands SkyPark. The complexity of the program is
behind the project’s eight-month-long grand opening:
while the hotel and SkyPark opened last June, the final
elements, including the ArtScience Museum, won’t open
until Feb. 19.
Safdie confronted the project’s colossal scale by
dividing the hotel component into three 55-story towers
overlooking Marina Bay; the voids between them frame
views to downtown Singapore. The sloping geometry
of the towers required the structural engineers at Arup,
particularly the bridge and tall-building specialists, to
devise a strut-and-tension-cable system to support the
walls during construction. “The struts were enormous,
temporary steel legs, which crisscrossed the hotel
atrium,” Safdie describes. “These were removed after
large trusses linking the towers were installed” at the
23rd floor. The cables, not part of the original design,
were left in place after the towers’ completion, and were
grouted into the concrete shear walls to conceal them.
A low-rise, undulating podium in front of the towers
houses a vast array of entertainment venues. But keeping
the podium structures low meant that there was little
open space left for outdoor amenities. “Once we laid the
MARINA BAY SANDS
TEXT BY SARA HART
PHOTOS BY TIMOTHY HURSLEY
SINGAPORE
SAFDIE ARCHITECTS
The Marina Bay Sands complex
brings a taste of Las Vegas to
Singapore. Three 55-story hotel
towers are topped by a skypark
that culminates in a 213-foot-
long cantilever—the signature
move in a 38-acre complex that
also includes a casino, a retail
complex, performance venues,
a convention center, and a
museum.
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The massive cantilever was not the
only structural feat: Because of the
sloping forms at the base of the
hotel towers, a temporary system
of struts and tension cables was
devised to support the structure
until the curving walls met at the
23rd story. The struts were removed,
but the cables were left in place
and tucked into the concrete
structure.
DESIGN→ SAFDIE
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footprint of the building, we still lacked the necessary
location for the amenities of the hotel complex, which
includes swimming pools, gardens, and jogging paths,”
Safdie explains.
To solve the problem, Safdie had the audacious idea
to build the three-acre SkyPark, 656 feet in the air, by
bridging the tops of all three towers. Though the park
was originally constrained to the towers’ footprint, the
design team decided, after consulting a feng shui expert,
to cantilever a portion of the park of of the north tower.
And it is no small cantilever: at 213 feet, it runs nearly the
length of a 747 and is one of the largest public cantilevers
in the world. “The move gave the building directionality,
and now, as you enter Singapore from the highway, it
presents itself as a dramatic gateway element,” Safdie says.
Tremendous structural and construction challenges
followed, not the least of which involved extensive wind
testing and modeling. Originally, the hull-shaped belly
of the park was designed as a pure toroid, but the form
was streamlined to allow for ef cient cladding: 9,000
silver-painted, metal-composite panels enclose the
mega trusses that bridge the three towers at the 55th
story. Of ces for hotel operations and mechanical rooms
housing water tanks for the swimming pools are also
contained within the hull.
The hull was built of-site in 14 separate steel
segments. Each was trucked to the site, lifted into place
using hydraulic strand jacks, and assembled on top of
the towers. The two largest sections were a pair of
262-foot-long, 1,400-ton box girders that formed the 213-
foot cantilever. At a lifting speed of 46 feet per hour,
it took more than 16 hours to lift the girders and slide
them into place.
At every step, the structural design of the cantilever
was reevaluated and modified as necessary. The taper of
the main supporting box girders was reduced to improve
the cantilever’s response to vibrations that are created
as people walk, run, or use the swimming pool. A 5-ton
tuned mass damper located at the tip of the cantilever—
and hidden within the hull of the architectural form—
provides additional stability. The damper is suspended
from transverse girders and accessed via catwalks in
place for inspection and maintenance of the box girders.
It’s easy to get distracted by the mega-scale and
complexity of the project, when looking at the numbers—
billions of dollars, millions of square feet, and a skypark
with a 15,000-square-foot infinity pool, and space for
3,900 people to mingle among 650 plants and 250 trees.
Yet, Marina Bay Sands exhibits the same ingenuity and
fearlessness that defined Safdie’s controversial Habitat
67 residential complex for the 1967 International and
Universal Exposition in Montreal. The principles that
drove that design more than 40 years ago remain the
principles driving his work today: ethical standards,
which require addressing the realities of urban density,
demographics, and scale while preserving the genius
loci of a place confronted by globalization. On the other
hand, what most distinguishes the Marina Bay Sands as a
Moshe Safdie design is his unflinching eagerness to push
beyond perceived limits of construction to accomplish
feats of derring-do.
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55th-Floor Plan
Ground-Floor Plan
SkyPark Plan
Restaurant
Infinity pool
Sun deck Nightclub
Observation
deck
Restaurant
Gardens
Executive lounge
Hotel atrium below
Spa
Promenade
Nightclub
Retail arcade
Retail
Event plaza
Casino
Museum
Theaters
Cooling plant
Restaurants
Hotel atruim
Gardens
Convention center
0 100 200
0 100 200
0 250 500
The view from 57 stories up is breathtaking. The
public can access an open observation deck on
the cantilever itself, but other amenities such as
the infinity pool are reserved for hotel guests.
To create a unique material identity
for the SkyPark, the architects clad it
in 9,000 metal-composite panels that,
combined with its form, make the
structure reminiscent of a bullet train.
SAFDIE ←DESIGN
Nearly the length of a 747 jet, the
cantilever is supported, in part, by
1,400-ton box girders that extend
back into the building structure.
DESIGN→ SAFDIE
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Section Through Complex
0 100 200
SkyPark
Hotel tower
Link truss and
mechanical levels
Lobby atrium
Bayfront
Avenue
Future mass
transit line
Casino
Roof
garden
Retail
arcade
Waterfront
promenade
SAFDIE ←DESIGN
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Nine million square feet of
enclosed space allows for plenty
of unique interior environments.
The hotel tower atrium (this
page) extends up to the 23rd
floor, where the building narrows.
The ground floor features lobby
amenities and restaurants.
Guest room circulation is
accommodated by projecting
balconies that look out over
custom art installations. The
massive casino (opposite) has
gaming tables and slot machines
in a setting that Safdie co-created
with the Rockwell Group.
DESIGN→ SAFDIE
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Project Credits

Project Marina Bay Sands Integrated Resort, Singapore
Client/Owner Marina Bay Sands (Las Vegas Sands Corp.)
Architect Safdie Architects, Somerville, Mass.—Moshe Safdie, FAIA
(design principal); Gene Dyer, AIA, Easley Hamner, FAIA, David
Robins, Carrie Yoon (project directors); Rafael Acosta, David Brooks,
Isaac Franco, AIA, Tunch Gungor, Michael Guran, Jeffrey Huggins,
Jeff Jacoby, Charu Kokate, AIA, Jaron Lubin, Toshihiko Taketomo, AIA,
Dana Tanimoto, AIA, Trevor Thimm, Siebrandus Wichers
(project team)
Executive Architect Aedas
Structural, Civil, Façade, Geotechnical, Acoustic Engineer Arup
M/E/P Engineers (Design) Vanderweil Engineers
M/E/P Engineers (Production) Parsons Brinckerhoff
Landscape Architect (Design) Peter Walker and Partners Landscape
Architecture
Landscape Architect (Production) Peridian International
Lighting Consultants Project Lighting Design
Casino Design Safdie Architects with the Rockwell Group
Interior Designer CL3 Architects; Hirsch Bedner Associates
Theater Consultants Fisher Dachs Associates
Water Feature Design HFA International
Construction Manager Ssangyong Engineering & Construction Co.
General Contractor (Hotel, SkyPark) Ssangyong Engineering &
Construction Co.
Artists James Carpenter, Antony Gormley with Tristan Simmons,
Ned Kahn, Sol LeWitt, ChongBin Zheng
Size 9 million square feet
Cost $5.7 billion (including land)
Materials and Sources
Adhesives, Coatings, and Sealants Dow Corning dowcorning.com;
GE siliconeforbuilding.com
Appliances Fabristeel www.fabristeel.com.sg
Carpet Tai Ping Carpets taipingcarpets.com
Concrete Ssangyong Engineering & Construction Co. ssyenc.com;
Yau Lee Group yaulee.com; KTC Group ktcgroup.com.sg;
Yongnam www.yongnam.com.sg
Glass Shanghai Yaohua Pilkington Glass Co. sypglass.com;
Cardinal Glass Industries cardinalcorp.com; Singapore Safety Glass
ssg.com.sg
HVAC Shin Nippon Air Technologies Co. www.snklk.com
Lighting Control Systems United Engineer Group uel.com.sg
Lighting Gexpro gexpro.com
Masonry and Stone Engareh (atrium) engarehgroup.com;
Artebuild (rooms) artebuild.com
Metal Yongnam www.yongnam.com.sg; JFE Steel Corp.
www.jfe-steel.co.jp/en; AME Group ame.com.au; Lip Chee
Engineering lipcheehardware.com
Paint KEIM Mineral Coatings of America (exterior) keim.com;
Dulux (interior) dulux.com
Plumbing and Water System OSK Engineering (contractor) oskpl
.com.sg; Toto (fixtures) totousa.com; Deluge (sprinklers) deluge
.com.sg; Landscape Engineering (water features) lepl.com.sg
Roofing Kalzip (Corus system) kalzip.com; GRP Roofing
grpflatroofsystems.co.uk; Alfasi Group alfasi.com.au; Struts Building
Technology struts.com.sg
Site and Landscape Great Harvest Construction (hotel); Prince’s
Landscape & Construction (SkyPark and hotel) princelandscape
.com; Venturer
Wayfinding Pentagram (design) pentagram.com; King Wah
Engineering Co. (construction) king-wah.com.hk
Windows, Curtainwalls, and Doors Benson (wall systems, west
façade) betaprojex.com/bensonwp; Jangho (atrium and spa)
janghogroup.com; Arco Aluminum arcoaluminum.com; (east
façade); Technal (doors) technal-int.com; Prime Structures
www.primestructures.com.sg; Stelatex stelatex-singapore.com;
Alfasi Group alfasi.com.au
Pool Contractor Innovez Sports Technologies innovezsports.com;
Natare Corp. natare.corp
Hotel Tower Section
Hotel rooms
Mechanical floors Observation deck
Cantilever
SkyPark Spa level Garden
0 100 200
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312.670.2400
www.aisc.org/sustainability
Circle no. 22 or http://architect.hotims.com
DESIGN
HOUSING TOWER
AT KRIPALU CENTER
TEXT BY JOSEPH GIOVANNINI
PHOTOS BY MATTHEW SNYDER
STOCKBRIDGE, MASS.
PETER ROSE + PARTNERS
DESIGNING AN 80-ROOM dormitory on a very low budget
was not in itself a daunting prospect for Cambridge,
Mass., architect Peter Rose, AIA. But the mission of the
Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health, a retreat devoted to
holistic healing and meditation in the atmospheric
Berkshires, elevated expectations. Rose’s challenge was
to express the program’s intangible goals—integrity,
authenticity, serenity, self-realization—in the building. In
short, he had to grapple with matter to express spirit.
The sylvan context of the dorm, a tree-lined, meadowed
site with a view of a sprawling lake, certainly helped. But
the existing midcentury Jesuit seminary did not. Rose had
to respond to the beauty of the Berkshires while negotiating
what looked like an oversize roadside motel.
The dorm is only part of Rose’s larger commission to
design a master plan—aimed at segmenting the main
structure to achieve what Rose calls “demassification”—
and he selected a site at the end of the former seminary,
positioning the new building to avoid views of the old
while capturing those of the lake out front and the
forest in back. To fit the program on a footprint squeezed
between the existing building and a perimeter road, Rose
designed a six-story block divided by a vertical wedge-
shaped service core, resulting in two unequal, angled
wings. A double-loaded corridor, widened at one end,
runs the length of the structure; the resulting geometries
were determined based on careful curation of views.
Striating the façade with strips of cypress, Rose
materially aligns the dorm to the wooded site rather
than to the brick seminary; the building reads from a
distance as wood against the woods. Manually operated
sliding window screens allow guests to modify their
views and sun exposure, and the randomness animates
the façade.
Inside, the cellular rooms are monastic. The strict
$450 per square foot budget kept rooms at 9 feet 9 inches
by 19 feet. Rose wasn’t aiming at stylistic minimalism,
but was simply calculating livable minima. “It was as
lean as you can make it,” he says. As a result, structure
doubled as surface: the floors and piers embedded in the
demising walls are exposed concrete. But this exercise in
economy ended up contributing to the experience of the
space. The density of the concrete in the compact rooms
creates a silent sense of contemplative isolation.
The four dormitory floors rest on a podium of public
space, including the entry and a glass-enclosed walkway
linking to the old seminary. Groups practice yoga in a
large meeting room lined with sliding windows that
ensure guests see only the sky, mountain ridges and trees
from their mats on the floor; the windows also allow
for cross-ventilation. The simplicity of the space is not
stylistic but elemental. The sprung floors are wood; the
walls and ceiling are exposed concrete, with plywood
panels dropped from the ceiling to mask pipes. Color is
natural and integral. Rose has always been a master of
material collage, and the material honesty throughout
the dormitory gives the space a sense of embodied
authenticity. No simulacra, only the real thing, plus tight
editing to eliminate the unnecessary.
Functionally, Rose used the concrete’s thermal
mass for temperature control. Embedded plenums and
micro-chases for radiant heating and cooling create
a spatially ef cient HVAC system, which allowed for
the building’s tight 90-inch floor-to-floor heights. “We
activated structure as a piece of the mechanism, and
concrete is a perfect medium for sustainability,” he says.
The integrated climate-control strategy resulted in a
projected 40 percent less energy consumption than that
of a typical forced-air system.
Without wearing karma on his sleeve, Rose achieved
a strong but nuanced architectural presence appropriate
for yoga instruction. He knew when to stop adding
and when to quit subtracting, and achieved a design
conducive to ambient serenity: The architecture supports,
and even assists, but does not intrude. “The architecture,
like yoga itself, is full of subtlety and layers of complexity
that gently improve the structure’s performance,” he
says. “Light, air, using minimal means to create a calm,
healing environment—it’s all about fulfilling these
almost intangible requirements.”
Located in the Berkshires, the
new dormitory building at the
Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health
is a study in wood, glass, and
concrete. Cypress cladding runs
the length of the façade, and
matching strips are worked
into manually operated window
shades for each guest room.
198
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DESIGN→ ROSE 200
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Split by a central service core, the
six-story building has two canted
wings. On the east façade (this
page) these volumes are carefully
placed to minimize views of the
existing brick buildings slightly
to the north. Staircases at either
end of the building are enclosed
by glass (opposite) with concrete
walls that contribute to the
structure and thermal mass of
the building.
DESIGN→ ROSE
Drawing Head
Ground-Floor Plan Guest-Room Floor Plan
Guest rooms
Stair tower
Existing building
Elevator
Lobby
Berm
Meeting room and
main yoga studio
Connector bridge
Existing building
0 25 50
N
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DESIGN→ ROSE 202
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DESIGN→ ROSE
PETER ROSE ARCHITECTS ← DESIGN 203
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Each guest room (opposite) is
a compact 9 feet 9 inches by 19
feet; those dimensions include
space for an en-suite bathroom.
Floors and ceilings are concrete
(covered by resilient flooring
and exposed, respectively) with
embedded radiant heating and
cooling. The movable cypress
louver is still visible just outside
the window. Visitors spend most
of their time in the yoga studio
and meeting room on the ground
floor (top), which has a sprung
wood floor. The spartan character
carries through to public spaces
such as the main lobby (left).
DESIGN→ ROSE
Project Credits
Project Housing Tower at Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health, Stockbridge, Mass.
Client/Owner Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health
Architect Peter Rose + Partners—Peter Rose, AIA (design principal); Peter
Guggenheimer, AIA (managing principal); Erkin Ozay, William Bryant (project
managers); Matthew Snyder, Amy Beckman, AIA, Jon Chase, Duong Bui, Van Wilkes
Fowlkes, Louis Kraft (architects)
Mechanical Engineer Icor Associates
Structural Engineer Richmond So Engineers
Electrical Engineer Icor Associates
Civil Engineer SK Design Group
Construction Manager Barr & Barr Inc., Builders
Landscape Architect Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates
Lighting Designer Lam Partners
Climate Engineer Transsolar Klimaengineering
Size 34,000 square feet
Cost $15.3 million
Materials and Sources
Carpet Milliken Floor Covering millikencarpet.com
Ceilings Custom-fabricated metal ceiling panels
Concrete Exposed cast-in-place concrete
Flooring Wooden Kiwi Productions (yoga room) woodenkiwi.com; Forbo Group
forbo.com; Marmoleum (resilient sheet flooring, guest rooms) forboflooringna.com
Furniture Architect-designed and locally fabricated
Glass PPG Industries (exterior glazing, Solarban 60) ppg.com; Oldcastle
BuildingEnvelope (bathroom door glazing) oldcastlebe.com
Lighting Litelab Corp. (track lighting) litelab.com; Edge Lighting (bedroom light
sconce) edgelighting.com; RSA Lighting by Cooper Lighting (corridor recessed
lighting, bathroom lighting) rsalighting.com
Metal Shepard Steel (custom-fabricated metal window guards, exterior sliding
cedar sunshade frames, and perforated-steel ceiling screen) shepardsteel.com;
Powerstrut (sliding track system) powerstrut.com
Millwork Tibbetts Woodworking tibbettswoodworking.com
Plumbing and Water System American Standard (guest room shower fixtures,
sinks) americanstandard-us.com; Kohler kohler.com
Roofing Sika Sarnafil (roofing membrane) sarnafilus.com
Structural System Cast-in-place concrete frame (primary structure) left exposed in
guest room, lobby, and parts of the exterior
Windows, Curtainwalls, and Doors Wausau Window and Wall Systems (guest
room sliding windows, curtainwall) wausauwindow.com; Kawneer (entry doors,
installed and fabricated by Chandler Architectural Products) kawneer.com, Building
Specialties (steel guest room doors installation and fabrication); Omnia Industries
(bathroom door hardware) omniaindustries.com
Façade Section at Window Façade Section
Sliding aluminum
window
Flashing
Operable window shade
Drainage layer
Wire mesh rail
Concrete
Rigid insulation
Shade track
Cypress cladding
Concrete slab
0 6" 12"
204
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Single-ply roofing
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O
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sors:
O
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orsers:
Am
erican M
onum
ent Association
Building Stone Institute
Canadian Stone Association
Elberton Granite Association
National Building Granite Quarries Association
Northw
est Granite M
anufacturers Association
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REG Code: M05
206
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SAMITAUR
TOWER
CULVER CITY, CALIF.
ERIC OWEN MOSS ARCHITECTS
TEXT BY LYDIA LEE
PHOTOS BY TOM BONNER
Riders of L.A.’s imminent light-rail line
won’t need to rely on their Kindles for
entertainment. The panes of acrylic
bridging the gaps between the Samitaur
Tower’s five offset rings serve as projection
screens, which will showcase films and
video art for commuters’ pleasure.
DESIGN→ MOSS
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FROM THE TOP of the new Samitaur Tower, you can see
several of the 15-odd buildings designed in Culver City, Calif.,
by architect Eric Owen Moss. The tower directly overlooks
the dark tilting form of the Stealth, and the bulbous Beehive
and twisting green Umbrella are to points east and south.
Moss’s corner of Culver City is an architectural wonderland,
a landscape of Seussian shapes with a forceful materiality
of zinc, cement plaster, and slump glass. And of course, there
is the structure at hand, a five-story tower of steel plate and
milky acrylic: oil derrick meets iPad.
The Samitaur Tower sits adjacent to a new light-rail line,
under construction and expected to open by 2012. With a
projected daily ridership of 27,000, this new infrastructure
brings with it a large, and largely captive, audience.
Developers Laurie and Frederick Samitaur Smith, who
also own the construction company that built the tower,
commissioned Moss to design something to entertain strap-
hangers, and perhaps entice them to linger: a structure
that’s primary goal is to showcase film and video art. A
novel concept, perhaps, but the Samitaur Smiths have spent
25 years developing this once-blighted section of Culver
City—working with Moss as their sole architect—into an
urban center of art and culture. “We wanted to stabilize the
neighborhood, and introduce jobs, architecture, and art,”
Frederick Samitaur Smith says.
The tower’s form is defined by five ofset steel rings,
which are cantilevered of of steel beams at the rear. The
rings are partially filled in with steel floor plates, creating
diferent levels that can be occupied by tower visitors. The
gap between each ring level is bridged by diferently shaped
panes of an acrylic and optical-film assembly, which, when
viewed together, form an irregularly shaped rear-projection
screen. Each screen is angled toward a diferent form of
transportation: The first level is intended for street traf c,
while other screens point toward the entrance to the tower,
the future light-rail station, and the notoriously congested
Santa Monica Freeway. “You could make the argument that
we’re solving the problem of diferent vantage points,” Moss
says. In situations where the geometry of the rings would
dictate that the screen tilt up instead of down (reducing
visibility) the architect omitted them, leaving apertures for
taking in the view. The Samitaur Smiths are still mulling
over what to show in their new drive-by theater.
The tower tops out at 72 feet above grade, but the
site also boasts a sunken level with a small outdoor
amphitheater and another, smaller, screen on the rear of
the building that is directed at this audience. The concrete
bleachers only seat 200, but for larger events, guests can
spill into the neighboring parking lot (also owned by the
Samitaur Smiths) and still see the show. The tower “has a
very suggestive role for an urban artifact, which is a new
kind of thing. There’s no name for it,” Moss says. “It’s a new
kind of program.” But a new name might have to be coined:
Moss designed the tower as a prototype, and, if the response
is good, the Samitaur Smiths are looking at deploying
several more throughout the city.
The rings, which form the tower’s floor plates, are
cantilevered off of steel beams. Running vertically through
all five of them is a circulation stair and adjacent glass-
enclosed elevator shaft, which will allow visitors to climb
to the top and enjoy views from the balconies at every
level or attend events in the acrylic-enclosed spaces.
0 5 10
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Floor Plan at 12' Floor Plan at 24'
Floor Plan at -12' Floor Plan at -6'
Floor Plan at 36' Floor Plan at 48'
1
/2"steel plate
column assembly
1
/2"-thick coextruded
acrylic and optical film
assembly
12"-wide cantilever beam
6"-wide cantilever beam
Concrete bleachers
Drainage system
Hydraulic elevator
Compacted earth with Tensar
reinforcement geogrids
Guardrails
Circulation stair
0 5 10
-12'
-6'
12'
24'
36'
48'
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Building Section
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DESIGN→ MOSS
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Acrylic Mullion Placement Diagram Acrylic Mullion Diagram
Hole Template Diagram
Drilled
attachment
holes
Clear acrylic fin
Top template used to
determine hole location
for each unique mullion
Bottom template
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ERIC OWEN MOSS ←DESIGN
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The programming for the Samitaur
Tower’s five screens is still under
consideration, but whether it’s
Van Gogh’s Starry Night or a
classic film on display, everyone
will have something to watch. The
different screens were engineered
and oriented to cater to different
audiences: one to drivers, one to
pedestrians, another to passengers
of the light-rail, and still another to
people sitting on concrete bleachers
in a below-grade amphitheater.
214
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DESIGN→ MOSS
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Project Credits

Project Samitaur Tower, Culver City, Calif.
Client/Owner Samitaur Constructs, Frederick and Laurie Samitaur Smith
Architect Eric Owen Moss Architects, Culver City, Calif.—Eric Owen Moss, FAIA,
(principal); Dolan Daggett (project architect); Pegah Sadr, Eric McNevin,
Vanessa Jauregui (project team)
Mechanical Engineer Nibecker & Associates
Structural Engineer Arup—Bruce Danziger
Electrical Engineer Lucci & Associates
Civil Engineer Samara & Associates; Paller-Roberts Engineering
Geotechnical Engineer Geotechnologies
Construction Manager Peter Brown, Tim Brown
General Contractor Samitaur Constructs
Façade Engineer Toft, De Nevers & Lee, Doug Street
Size 5,000 square feet
Cost Withheld
Materials and Sources
Acrylic Mullions Reynolds Polymer Technology (custom) reynoldspolymer.com
Adhesives, Coatings, and Sealants Dow Corning (structural sealant)
dowcorning.com
Elevator Otis Elevator Co. otisworldwide.com
Lighting Control Systems Vantage Controls vantagecontrols.com
Lighting Crescent/Stonco, by Philips crescentlighting.com; Allscape by Philips
allscape.net
Metal Deck ASC Steel Deck www.ascsteeldeck.com
Projection Screens Arkema (custom) arkema-inc.com
Site and Landscape Products Tensar International Corp. (geogrid) tensarcorp.com;
Stover Seed Co. stoverseed.com
Structural System Structural Steel over cast-in-drilled-hole and
grade beam foundation
Windows, Curtainwalls, and Doors Torrance Steel Window Co.
torrancesteelwindow.com
TOOLBOX
Imposing from the front, the Samitaur Tower actually has a relatively minimal structure. The core
columns, which surround the stairwell and the elevator shaft at the rear, are constructed from
1
/2-inch-thick steel plates welded to channel steel sections, a technique used in shipbuilding. The
hot-rolled steel has a natural mill scale finish, and is treated with a clear protective coat. Each
level is primarily supported by two wide-flange steel beams, which cantilever out—as far as 20
feet—from the column assemblies. The beams support galvanized metal platforms, which form
the floor plates. “It’s a very aggressive structural system in terms of keeping that force in check,”
says project architect Dolan Daggett. “It allowed us to do an uninterrupted structural skin on the
perimeter, and create one giant image” on each screen. To deal with the concentrated point load,
eight cast-in-place drilled piers, at depths of up to 65 feet, form the foundation.
The screens were another technical challenge for the team. It’s one thing to create an electronic
billboard, another thing entirely to create a giant movie screen capable of showing Stanley Kubrick’s
2001: A Space Odyssey. Because the tower was specifically designed for art, not commerce, a screen
composed of bright LEDs was out of the question. The offi ce worked with French company Arkema
to custom-design the curved rear-projection screens. They are composed of a
1
/2-inch-thick system
of optical film sandwiched between two layers of coextruded acrylic. (The thickness allows them to
double as guardrails.) Vertical acrylic fins from Reynolds Polymer allow for an uninterrupted image
to be shown from ceiling-mounted projectors.
Structural Analysis, Floor Deflection Diagrams
Composite Floor Framing Detail
Steel plate
Channel steel
1
/2"-thick stiffener plates
1
/2"-thick steel plate
12"-thick steel plate
0 5 10
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BUILDING
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REPUTATION
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Circle no. 302
ARCAT now has hundreds of data rich generic
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Master’s Degree in Architecture.
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Solarban R100 glass combines superior
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The skinny on slim tile.
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Circle no. 309 Circle no. 310 Circle no. 311
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available in the US through
index–d.com 877. 777. 0592
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available in the US through
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Advertiser Page Circle Website Phone
3A Composites 40 505 www.AlucobondUSA.com 800.626.3365
Adams Rite 75 257 www.ritedoor.com
AGC Flat Glass America 85 193 www.na.agc-flatglass.com 800.251.0441
Alcoa 45 507 www.reynobond.com 478.374.4746
American Hydrotech 102 254 www.hydrotechusa.com 800.877.6125
American Institute of Steel Construction 197 22 www.aisc.org/sustainability 312.670.2400
Amerlux 9 187 www.amerlux.com 973.882.5010
Amvic Building System 12 394 www.amvicsystem.com 877.470.9991
ARCAT 43 430 www.arcat.com
Architect 215, 217 - www.architectmagazine.com
Architect 50 65 -
Armstrong C2-1 95 www.armstrong.com/techzone 877.ARMSTRONG
ASI Global Partitions 19 244 www.globalpartitions.com
ASSA ABLOY 18 295 www.assaabloydss.com
Ayre Architectural Lighting 86 511 www.ayrelight.com 877.722.AYRE
Azon 58 293 www.azonintl.com 800.788.5942
Belden Brick 97 82 www.beldenbrick.com 330.456.0031
BetaLED C3 503 www.BetaLED.com 800.236.6800
Big Ass Fans 109 165 www.bigassfans.com 877.BIG.FANS
Bluebeam 23 175 www.bluebeam.com/smart
Bluworld of Water 101, 115 160, 1 www.bluworldusa.com 407.426.7674
Boston Architectural College 54 284 www.the-bac.edu 617.585.0202
Builder Concept Home 2011 220 - www.builderconcepthome2011.com
Building Systems Design, Inc. 4-5 23 www.speclink/arch 888.BSD.SOFT
Cambridge Architectural 15 24 www.cambridgearchitectural.com
Cascade Coil Drapery 22 81 www.cascadecoil.com 800.999.2645
Cathode Lighting Systems 46 506 www.CathodeLightingSystems.com
CENTRIA 28 25 www.CENTRIA.com 800.759.7474
CertainTeed Saint-Gobain 13, 59 509, 432 www.certainteed.com 800.233.8990
Chamberlain 107 283 www.liftmaster.com 800.323.2276
Construction Specialties 21 298 www.c-sgroup.com 888.621.3344
CSI 79 31 www.csinet.org/certification
Dell 51 96 www.Dell.com/smb/Vision 888.378.3355
DORMA 26 189 www.dorma-usa.com 866.401.6063
DORMA Architectural Hardware 96 501 www.dorma-usa.com 800.523.8483
Dri-Design 165 287 www.dri-design.com 616.355.2970
E. Dillon & Company 61 499 www.edillon.com 800.234.8970
Easi-Set 73 500 www.slenderwall.com 800.547.4045
Eldorado Stone 69 479 www.eldoradostone.com/arch 800.925.1491
Firestone Building Products 117, 118 206 www.firestonebpco.com/roofing/greenroofing
Georgia-Pacific 120-121 2, 419 www.gpgypsum.com 800.255.6119
GKD Metal Fabrics 91 260 www.gkdmetalfabrics.com 800.453.8616
Glidden Professional 53 297 www.gliddenprofessional.com
Haddonstone 37 59 www.haddonstone.com 719.948.4554
ad index
Advertiser Page Circle Website Phone
Hanley Wood University 81 - www.hanleywooduniversity.com
Hanover Architectural Products 52 480 www.hanoverpavers.com 800.426.4242
Hansgrohe 113 34
HDI Railings 42 481 www.hdirailings.com 717.285.4088
Holcim 27 377 www.holcimawards.org
index-d 105 286 www.index-d.com 877.777.0592
InPro Corporation 98 221 www.inprocorp.com 877.780.0034
International Roofing Expo 167 - www.TheRoofingExpo.com 800.864.5761
Invisible Structures, Inc. 14 400 www.invisiblestructures.com 800.233.1510
Kawneer 17 494 www.kawneer.com
Kingspan 57 231 www.PathtoNetZero.com
Lafarge 111 474 www.certguide.lafarge-na.com
Lithonia Lighting 187 292 www.lithonia.com/RTLED/architect
Lumber Liquidators 103 281 www.lumberliquidators.com/commercial 800.274.2360
Lutron 7 510 www.lutron.com 888.LUTRON1
Marble Institute of America 38-39 3, 44 www.marble-institute.com 440.250.9222
MBCI 99 402 www.mbci.com/ecoarch 877.713.6224
McNichols 62 296 www.mcnichols.com/arch 866.754.5144
Mortar Net 25 508 www.MortarNet.com 800.664.6638
Mule-Hide 48 299 www.mulehide.com 800.786.1492
NanaWall 49 211 www.nanawall.com 800.873.5673
Nichiha 95, 170 380 www.nichiha.com 866.424.4421
Nora 181 266 www.nora.com/us 800.332.NORA
Oldcastle Architectural 92 504 www.oldcastleapg.com 855.346.2766
Oldcastle BuildingEnvelope 2-3 52 www.oldcastlebe.com 866.OLDCASTLE
Petersen Aluminum 11 470 www.PAC-CLAD.com 800.PAC.CLAD
Pilkington 64 ab 45 www.pilkington.com 800.426.0279
Pine Hall Brick 56 173 www.americaspremierpaver.com 800.334.8689
PPG Industries, Inc. 47, C4 46, 431 www.ppgideascapes.com 888.PPG.IDEA
ProAV 221 - www.proavmagazine.com
RD Awards 108 - www.RDAwards2010.com
Reward Wall Systems 63 270 www.rewardwalls.com 800.468.6344
Rynone 66 502 www.rynone.com
SBI 168-169 - www.smartbuildingindex.com
SELUX 24 170 www.selux.com/usa 800.735.8927
Simpson Strong-Tie 71 182 www.strongtie.com/strongframe 800.999.5099
StoneExpo 205 - www.StonExpo.com
Tate 88 245 www.tateaccessfloors.com 800.231.7788
The American Institute of Architects 83 490 www.aia.org/convention 800.242.3837
The Blue Book 87 262 www.thebluebook.com 888.303.2243
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Timely Prefinished Steel Door Frames 77 487 www.TimelyFrames.com 800.247.6242
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Cancer Center Axonometric Plan
Kate Mantilini Axonometric Plan
LOS ANGELES–AREA FIRM Morphosis Architects began
winning P/A Awards in 1977 and has been recognized in
the program 25 times since. In 1987, it was honored for
two projects serving the public in divergent ways. An
award went to the Kate Mantilini restaurant in Beverly
Hills, Calif., and a citation to the Comprehensive Cancer
Center at the Cedars-Sinai medical complex (associate
architects for the latter were Gruen Associates).
The restaurant was conceived as a freestanding
structure on Wilshire Boulevard, a sophisticated
embodiment of the “roadside steakhouse” that was
requested by the client. The cancer center was an
underground addition wedged into an existing medical
complex, an outpatient facility that responded to then-
emerging methods of treatment. In both cases, the
architects tailored distinctive environments to specific
kinds of users.
Both projects featured daylight flooding central
spaces from above—the only source of it for the
cancer center, which burrowed two levels below
grade. Both were more restrained than much of the
contemporary work by Morphosis and its Southern
California contemporaries, displaying a rigorously
modular order—imposed in the case of the restaurant
by its reuse of a former bank building. In both designs,
this regularity is countered by bold visual incidents:
a sculptural assemblage reaching for the light in the
cancer center; a boxing-ring mural and a skylit model
of the solar system in the restaurant.
Kate Mantilini still ofers an appealing destination
for the area’s celebrities, while continuing to welcome
a broader public. The cancer center, succumbing to the
more rapidly evolving demands of medical treatment,
is no longer there. C
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TWO OF MANY
FOR MORPHOSIS
OFTEN HONORED IN THE P/A AWARDS PROGRAM,
MORPHOSIS WAS RECOGNIZED IN 1987 FOR TWO
VERY DIFFERENT PROJECTS IN THE L.A. AREA.
1987 → ONE P/A AWARD, ONE CITATION
1987 P/A Awards Jury
Joe Berridge
Bernardo Fort-Brescia, FAIA
Thomas S. Hines
George Hoover, FAIA
Ricardo Legorreta, AIA
Vivian E. Loftness, FAIA
George M. Notter Jr., FAIA
John Templer
TEXT BY JOHN MORRIS DIXON, FAIA
224
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past progressives
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