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MOUNT ZION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND

TECHNOLOGY
PILIVALAM P.O., TIRUMAYAM TALUK.,
PUDUKKOTTAI DISTRICT – 622 507.
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
LAB MANUAL
FOR V SEMESTER!

AE2306 - PROPULSION LABORATORY
1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SL.NO NAME OF EXPERIMENTS MARKS SIGNATURE
2
SYLLABUS
AE2"06 PROPULSION LABORATORY L T
P C
0 0 " 2
OB#ECTIVE
To understand the bas! !on!e"ts and !arr#out e$"er%ents n Aeros"a!e Pro"u&son.
LIST OF E$PERIMENTS
1. Stud# o' an ar!ra't "ston en(ne. )In!&udes stud# o' asse%b&# o' sub s#ste%s*
+arous !o%"onents* ther 'un!tons and o"eratn( "rn!"&es,
2. Stud# o' %a(neto and (nton s#ste%.
-. Stud# o' an ar!ra't .et en(ne !o%"ressor.
/. Stud# o' .et en(ne !o%buston !ha%ber.
0. Stud# o' .et en(ne turbne.
1. Stud# o' 'or!ed !on+e!t+e heat trans'er o+er a 2at "&ate.
3. Stud# o' 'ree !on+e!t+e heat trans'er o+er a 2at "&ate
4. Stud# o' 'ree .et.
5. Stud# o' 6a&& .et.
17. Stud# o' ra%.et.
TOTAL% &5 PERIODS
LIST OF E'UIPMENTS
(for a batch of 30 students)
S(.N) E*+,-./012 '13
E4-/5,./012
N).
1 Pston en(nes 1 1
2 8et En(ne 9En(ne %ode& 1 2*-*/
- For!ed :on+e!t+e a""aratus 1 0
/ Free :on+e!t+e a""aratus 1 1
0 2;< tra+ers n %e!hans% 2 4*5
1 Free .et test setu" 1 4
3 A&u%nu% "&ates 6th de2e!ton %e!hans%s 1 5
4 Ra%.et 1 17
LIST OF E$PERIMENTS
-
1. Stud# o' an ar!ra't "ston en(ne. )In!&udes stud# o' asse%b&# o' sub s#ste%s*
+arous !o%"onents* ther 'un!tons and o"eratn( "rn!"&es,
2. Stud# o' %a(neto and (nton s#ste%.
-. Stud# o' an ar!ra't .et en(ne !o%"ressor.
/. Stud# o' .et en(ne !o%buston !ha%ber.
0. Stud# o' .et en(ne turbne.
1. Stud# o' 'or!ed !on+e!t+e heat trans'er o+er a 2at "&ate.
3. Stud# o' 'ree !on+e!t+e heat trans'er o+er a 2at "&ate
4. Stud# o' 'ree .et.
5. Stud# o' 6a&& .et.
17. Stud# o' ra%.et.
BEYOND SYLLABUS
11. Stud# o' .et en(ne o"eraton and !&ass=!atons.
12. Stud# o' .et en(ne "ro"e&&er.
E$P NO% 6
STUDY OF PISTON ENGINE
/
INTRODUCTION
A Pston en(ne s a heat en(ne that uses one or %ore "stons to !on+ert
"ressure nto a rotatn( %oton. The %an t#"es are the nterna& !o%buston en(ne
used e$tens+e&# n %otor +eh!&es* the stea% en(ne 6h!h 6as the %ansta# o' the
ndustra& re+o&uton and the n!he a""&!aton Str&n( en(ne.
There %a# be one or %ore "stons. Ea!h "ston s nsde a !#&nder* nto 6h!h a
(as s ntrodu!ed* ether a&read# hot and under "ressure )stea% en(ne,* or heated
nsde the !#&nder ether b# (nton o' a 'ue& ar %$ture )nterna& !o%buston en(ne,
or b# !onta!t 6th a hot heat e$!han(er n the !#&nder )Str&n( en(ne,. The hot (ases
e$"and* "ushn( the "ston to the botto% o' the !#&nder. The "ston s returned to the
!#&nder to" )To" <ead :entre, ether b# a 2#6hee& or the "o6er 'ro% other "stons
!onne!ted to the sa%e sha't. In %ost t#"es the e$"anded or >e$hausted> (ases are
re%o+ed 'ro% the !#&nder b# ths stro?e. The e$!e"ton s the Str&n( en(ne* 6h!h
re"eated&# heats and !oo&s the sa%e sea&ed @uantt# o' (as.
In so%e des(ns the "ston %a# be "o6ered n both dre!tons n the !#&nder n
6h!h !ase t s sad to be doub&e a!tn(.
COMPONENTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
The %a.or !o%"onents seen are !onne!tn( road* !ran? sha't)s6ash "&ate,* !ran?
!ase* "ston rn(s* s"ar? "&u(* !#&nder* 2#6hee&* !ran? "n and +a&+es or "orts.
In a&& t#"es the &near %o+e%ent o' the "ston s !on+erted to a rotatn(
%o+e%ent +a a !onne!tn( rod and a !ran?sha't or b# a s6ash "&ate. A 2#6hee& s
o'ten used to ensure s%ooth rotaton. The %ore !#&nders a re!"ro!atn( en(ne has*
the %ore +braton;'ree )s%ooth&#, t !an run a&so the h(her the !o%bned "ston
ds"&a!e%ent +o&u%e t has the %ore "o6er t s !a"ab&e o' "rodu!n(.
A sea& needs to be %ade bet6een the s&dn( "ston and the 6a&&s o' the !#&nder
so that the h(h "ressure (as abo+e the "ston does not &ea? "ast t and redu!e the
eA!en!# o' the en(ne. Ths sea& s "ro+ded b# one or %ore "ston rn(s. These are
rn(s %ade o' a hard %eta& 6h!h are s"run( nto a !r!u&ar (ro+e n the "ston head.
The rn(s =t t(ht&# n the (roo+e and "ress a(anst the !#&nder 6a&& to 'or% a sea&.
ENGINE TERMINOLOGY
Stro?eB Ether the u" or do6n %o+e%ent o' the "ston 'ro% the to" to the botto%
or botto% to to" o' the !#&nder )So the "ston (on( 'ro% the botto% o' the !#&nder to
the to" 6ou&d be 1 stro?e* 'ro% the to" ba!? to the botto% 6ou&d be another stro?e,
Indu!tonB As the "ston tra+e&s do6n the !#&nder head* t Csu!?sC the 'ue&9ar
%$ture nto the !#&nder. Ths s ?no6n as CIndu!tonC.
0
:o%"ressonB As the "ston tra+e&s u" to the to" o' the !#&nder head* t
C!o%"ressesC the 'ue&9ar %$ture 'ro% the !arburetor n the to" o' the !#&nder head*
%a?n( the 'ue&9ar %$ read# 'or (n(htn( b# the s"ar? "&u(. Ths s ?no6n as
C:o%"ressonC.
I(ntonB Dhen the s"ar? "&u( (ntes the !o%"ressed 'ue&9ar %$ture* so%et%es
re'erred to as the "o6er stro?e.
E$haustB As the "ston returns ba!? to the to" o' the !#&nder head a'ter the
'ue&9ar %$ has been (nted* the "ston "ushes the burnt Ce$haustC (ases out o' the
!#&nder E throu(h the e$haust s#ste%.
The 'o&&o6n( s an addtona& "ara%eter 'or a 2 stro?e en(ne
Trans'er PortB The "ort )or "assa(e6a#, n a 2 stro?e en(ne that trans'ers the
'ue&9ar %$ture 'ro% the botto% o' the en(ne to the to" o' the !#&nder
TYPES OF PISTON ENGINES
It s !o%%on 'or su!h en(nes to be !&ass=ed b# the nu%ber and a&(n%ent o'
!#&nders and the tota& +o&u%e o' DISPLACEMENT o' (as b# the "stons %o+n( n the
!#&nders usua&&# %easured n CUBIC CENTIMETES )!!,.
I07(,0/ E08,0/
Ths t#"e o' en(ne has !#&nders &ned u" n one ro6. It t#"!a&&# has an e+en
nu%ber o' !#&nders* but there are nstan!es o' three; and =+e; !#&nder en(nes. An n;
&ne en(ne %a# be ether ar !oo&ed or &@ud !oo&ed. It s better suted 'or strea%&nn(.
I' the en(ne !ran?sha't s &o!ated abo+e the !#&nders* t s !a&&ed an n+erted en(ne.
Ad+anta(es o' %ountn( the !ran?sha't ths 6a# n!&ude shorter &andn( (ear and
better "&ot +sb&t#. An n;&ne en(ne has a h(her 6e(ht;to;horse"o6er rato than
other ar!ra't en(nes. A dsad+anta(e o' ths t#"e o' en(ne s that the &ar(er t s* the
harder t s to !oo&. <ue to ths* ar"&anes that use an n&ne en(ne use a &o6; to
%edu%;horse"o6er en(ne* and are t#"!a&&# used b# &(ht ar!ra't.
O--)2/9 E08,0/
An o""osed;t#"e en(ne has t6o ban?s o' !#&nders o""oste ea!h other. The
!ran?sha't s &o!ated n the !enter and s ben( dr+en 'ro% both sdes. The en(ne s
ether ar !oo&ed or &@ud !oo&ed* but ar !oo&ed +ersons are used %ost&# n a+aton. It
!an be %ounted ether +ert!a&&# or horFonta&&#. The ad+anta(e o' a horFonta&&#;
o""osed en(ne s that t a&&o6s better +sb&t# and e&%nates 2ud &o!? t#"!a&&# 'ound
on botto% !#&nders. An o""osed en(ne a&so has a re&at+e ad+anta(e n ben( %ost&#
'ree o' +braton. Ths s due to the 'a!t that the "stons are &o!ated &e't and r(ht o' the
!ran?sha't and a!t as ba&an!e 6e(hts 'or ea!h other.
1
V7T3-/ E08,0/
:#&nders n ths en(ne are arran(ed n t6o n;&ne ban?s* t&ted -7;17 de(rees
a"art 'ro% ea!h other. The en(ne !an be ether ar !oo&ed or &@ud !oo&ed.
R:9,:( E08,0/
Ths t#"e o' en(ne has a ro6 o' !#&nders arran(ed n a !r!&e around a !ran?!ase
&o!ated n the %dd&e. The !o%bnaton o' !#&nders %ust be an odd nu%ber n ea!h ro6
and %a# !ontan %ore than one ro6. The odd nu%ber o' !#&nders a&&o6s 'or e+er#
other !#&nder to be on a "o6er stro?e* a&&o6n( 'or s%ooth o"eraton. The "o6er
out"ut s an#6here 'ro% 177 to -*477 GP.
& S15);/ /08,0/
En(nes based on the 'our;stro?e or Otto !#!&e ha+e one "o6er stro?e 'or e+er#
'our stro?es )u";do6n;u";do6n, and are used n !ars* &ar(er B!ATS* and %an# &(ht
AICA"T. The# are (enera&&# @ueter* %ore eA!ent* and &ar(er than ther t6o;stro?e
!ounter"arts. There are a nu%ber o' +aratons o' these !#!&es* %ost notab&# the
AT#INS!N and MILLE !#!&es. Most tru!? and auto%ot+e dese& en(nes use a 'our;
stro?e !#!&e* but 6th a !o%"resson heatn( (nton s#ste%. Ths +araton s !a&&ed the
DIESEL C$CLE. The 'our stro?es re'er to nta?e* !o%"resson* !o%buston and e$haust
stro?es that o!!ur durn( t6o !ran?sha't rotatons "er 6or?n( !#!&e o' Otto :#!&e and
DIESEL EN%INES. The 'our ste"s n ths !#!&e are o'ten n'or%a&&# re'erred to as >su!?*
s@ueeFe )or s@uash,* ban(* b&o6.>
2 S15);/ /08,0/
The t6o;stro?e nterna& !o%buston en(ne dHers 'ro% the %ore !o%%on 'our;
stro?e en(ne b# !o%"&etn( the sa%e 'our "ro!esses )nta?e* !o%"resson*
!o%buston* e$haust, n on&# t6o stro?es o' the "ston rather than 'our. Ths s
a!!o%"&shed b# usn( the be(nnn( o' the !o%"resson stro?e and the end o' the
!o%buston stro?e to "er'or% the nta?e and e$haust 'un!tons. Ths a&&o6s a "o6er
stro?e 'or e+er# re+o&uton o' the !ran?* nstead o' e+er# se!ond re+o&uton as n a 'our;
stro?e en(ne. For ths reason* t6o;stro?e en(nes "ro+de h(h s"e!=! "o6er* so the#
are +a&ued 'or use n "ortab&e* &(ht6e(ht a""&!atons su!h as !hansa6s as 6e&& as
&ar(e;s!a&e ndustra& a""&!atons &?e &o!o%ot+es. T6o;stro?e en(nes are st&&
!o%%on&# used n h(h;"o6er* handhe&d a""&!atons 6here &(ht 6e(ht s essenta&*
"r%ar&# strn( tr%%ers and !hansa6s. To a &esser e$tent* these en(nes %a# st&& be
used 'or !ertan s%a&&* "ortab&e* or s"e!a&Fed %a!hne a""&!atons. These n!&ude
outboard %otors* h(h;"er'or%an!e* s%a&&;!a"a!t# %otor!#!&es* %o"eds* under bones*
s!ooters* sno6%ob&es* ?arts* u&tra &(hts* %ode& ar"&anes )and other %ode& +eh!&es,
3
and &a6n%o6ers. In the "ast* t6o;stro?e !#!&es 6ere e$"er%ented 6th 'or use n
dese& en(nes* %ost notab&# 6th o""osed "ston des(ns* &o6;s"eed unts su!h as
&ar(e %arne en(nes* and I4 en(nes 'or tru!?s and hea+# %a!hner#
A V/53 B:2,< 2 S15);/ E08,0/ C3<(/
S15);
/
P,21)0
D,5/<1,)0
A<1,)02
O<<+55,08
9+5,08 T=,2
S15);/
E4-(:0:1,)0
Stro?e
1
Pston tra+e&s
u" the !#&nder
barre&
Indu!ton E
:o%"resson
As the Pston tra+e&s u" the barre&* 'resh
'ue&9ar %$ s su!?ed nto the !ran?!ase
)botto% o' the en(ne, E the 'ue&9ar %$ n
the !#&nder )to" o' the en(ne, s !o%"ressed
read# 'or (nton
Stro?e
2
Pston tra+e&s
do6n the
!#&nder barre&
I(nton E
E$haust
The s"ar? "&u( (ntes the 'ue&9ar %$ n the
!#&nder* the resu&tn( e$"&oson "ushes the
"ston ba!? do6n to the botto% o' the
!#&nder* as the "ston tra+e&s do6n* the
trans'er "ort o"enn(s are e$"osed E the
'resh 'ue&9ar %$ s su!?ed 'ro% the
!ran?!ase nto the !#&nder. As the 'resh
'ue&9ar %$ s dra6n nto the !#&nder* t 'or!es
the s"ent e$haust (ases out throu(h the
e$haust "ort.
A V/53 B:2,< & S15);/ E08,0/ C3<(/
S15);/ P,21)0 I0(/1 >A<1,)02 E4-(:0:1,)0
4
D,5/<1,)0
E4=:+21
V:(?/
P)2,1,)02
O<<+55,08
D+5,08 T=,2
S15);/
Stro?e
1
Pston
tra+e&s
do6n the
!#&nder
barre&
In&et +a&+e
o"en9E$haust
+a&+e !o&sed
Indu!ton
stro?e
As the Pston tra+e&s do6n the
!#&nder barre&* the n&et +a&+e o"ens
E 'resh 'ue&9ar %$ture s su!?ed nto
the !#&nder
Stro?e
2
Pston
tra+e&s u"
the
!#&nder
barre&
In&et E e$haust
+a&+e !&osed
:o%"resson
stro?e
As the "ston tra+e&s ba!? u" the
!#&nder* the 'resh 'ue&9ar %$ s
!o%"ressed read# 'or (nton
Stro?e
-
Pston
tra+e&s
do6n the
!#&nder
barre&
In&et E e$haust
+a&+e !&osed
I(nton
)"o6er,
stro?e
The s"ar? "&u( (ntes the
!o%"ressed 'ue&9ar %$* the
resu&tn( e$"&oson "ushes the "ston
ba!? to the botto% o' the !#&nder
Stro?e
/
Pston
tra+e&s u"
the
!#&nder
barre&
In&et +a&+e
!&osed9E$haust
+a&+e o"en
E$haust
stro?e
As the "ston tra+e&s ba!? u" the
!#&nder barre&* the s"ent e$haust
(ases are 'or!ed out o' the e$haust
+a&+e
E$P NO %2
STUDY OF MAGNETO AND IGNITION SYSTEM
Introdu!tonB
A&& the (nton s#ste%s are re@ured to de&+er a h(h tenson s"ar? to
ea!h !#&nder o' the en(ne. Auto%ot+e en(nes ha+e h(h rotatona& s"eed due to
6h!h there s a re@ure%ent o' a nu%ber o' s"ar?s "er se!ond. On the other hand
ar!ra't re!"ro!atn( en(ne turn s&o6&# as !o%"are to auto%ot+e en(nes.
The (nton s#ste%s are !&ass=ed nto 'o&&o6n( t6o !ate(ores de"endn(
on ho6 the "r%ar# ener(# 'or o"eratn( the !r!ut s %ade 'or a+a&ab&e
1.Jatter# (nton s#ste%
2.Ma(neto (nton s#ste%
REKUIREMENTS OF AN IGNITION SLSTEMB
5
It shou&d "ro+de a (ood s"ar? bet6een the e&e!trodes o' the "&u( at the
!orre!t t%n(.
It shou&d 'un!ton eA!ent&# o+er the entre ran(e o' en(ne s"eed.
It shou&d be !o%"a!t and eas# to %antan.
The nter'eren!e 'ro% the h(h +o&ta(e sour!e shou&d not aHe!t the
'un!tonn( o' !o%%un!aton s#ste%.

auto%ot+e en(nes (enera&&# use batter# (nton n 6h!h the !urrent 2o6 to
"rodu!e a h(h +o&ta(e s"ar?. Ar!ra't (nton s#ste% re@ures at &east t6o s"ar?
"&u(s 'or ea!h !#&nder and t6o se"arate e&e!tr!a& s#ste% !r!uts 6th se"arate
sour!es o' e&e!tr!a& ener(#. The 'aster the (enerator turns %ore +o&ta(e s
"rodu!es. To o+er!o%e ths &%tatons so%e o' the (nton s#ste%s used on ear&#
ar!ra't en(nes had a batter# (nton s#ste%s to =re the other s"ar? "&u(.
MAGNETO IGNITION SLSTEMSB
The %a(neto (nton s#ste% uses a "er%anent %a(net as a sour!e o'
ener(#. The %a(neto de+e&o"s h(h +o&ta(e* 6h!h 'or!e a s"ar? to .u%" a!ross
the s"ar? "&u( (a" n ea!h other !#&nder.
Ar!ra't %a(neto (nton s#ste%s are !&ass=ed as ether &o6 tenson or h(h tenson.
LOD TENSION MAGNETO IGNITION SLSTEMB
The &o6 tenson %a(neto s#ste% (enerates &o6 +o&ta(e. Dh!h 2o6s to the
"r%ar# 6ndn( o' a trans'or%er !o& near ea!h s"ar? "&u( throu(h the !arbon
brush dstrbuter. At ths "ont* the +o&ta(e s n!reased to a h(h +o&ta(e and
!onne!ted to the s"ar? "&u( throu(h a +er# short &ead. A t#"!a& &o6 tenson
%a(neto (nton s#ste%.
GIGG TENSION MAGNETO IGNITION SLSTEMSB
The h(h tenson %a(neto s#ste% uses a "er%anent %a(net a&ternatn( !urrent
(enerator to "rodu!e the "r%ar# !urrent. Ths !urrent 2o6s a throu(h the "r%ar#
6ndn( o' the h(h +o&ta(e ste" u" !o&. The !o&&a"se o' the %a(net! =e&d around
the "r%ar# 6ndn(. Ths h(h +o&ta(e s !arred to the dstrbutor and then to the
s"ar? "&u(.
SPARK PLUGB
17
The 'un!ton o' the "&u( n an (nton s#ste% s to !ondu!t a short %"u&se o'
h(h +o&ta(e !urrent throu(h the 6a&& o' the !o%buston !ha%ber. Man
!o%"onents o' the s"ar?"&u( are the e&e!trode* nsu&ator and the outer she&&. The
outer she&& s %ade o' =na&&# %a!hned stee& and s "&ated to "re+ent !orroson
'ro% en(ne (ases and "ossb&e thread seFure.
GEAT RANGEB
The heat ran(e o' a s"ar? "&u( re'ers to the ab&t# o' the nsu&ator and !enter
e&e!trode to !onne!t and !ondu!t heat a6a# 'ro% ts t". Got s"ar? "&u(s ha+e a
&on( heat "ath and t" o"erates at a h(h te%"erature on the other hand* a !o&d
s"ar? "&u( has a short heat "ath. The "rn!"&e 'a!tors (o+ernn( the heat ran(e o'
ar!ra't s"ar? "&u( are*
<stan!e bet6een the !o""er s&ee+e around the nsu&ator and the nsu&ator t".
Ther%a& !ondu!t+t# o' the e&e!trode.
Rate o' heat trans'er.
Sha"e o' the nsu&ator t".
<stan!e bet6een the nsu&ator t" and she&&.
IGNITION GARNESSB
As e$"&aned n the "re!edn( "aras* the h(h +o&ta(e (enerated n the %a(neto
!auses a s"ar? to .u%" the (a" n the s"ar? "&u(. I(nton harness s used 'or ths
"ur"ose* 6h!h !onssts o' an nsu&ated 6re. One end o' the 6re s !onne!ted to
the dstrbutors b&o!? and the other to the s"ar? "&u(.
The (nton s#ste% harness ser+es dua& "ur"ose )a, t su""orts the 6res and
"rote!t the% 'ro% da%a(e b# en(ne heat* +braton or 6eather eHe!t )b, ser+es
as a !ondu!tor 'or stra# %a(net! =e&ds that surround b# 6res as the# !arr# h(h
+o&ta(e. J# !ondu!tn( these %a(net! &nes o' 'or!e to the (round* the (nton
hardness !uts do6n e&e!tr!a& nter'eren!e 6th the ar!ra't rado and other
e&e!tr!a&&# senst+e e@u"%ent* 6h!h s re'erred to as she&dn(.
:ON:LUSIONB
Thus the e$"er%ent stud# o' the %a(neto and (nton s#ste% ha+e been
ana&#Fed.
11
E$P NO %"
STUDY OF COMPRESSOR
AIM %
TO STU<L AJOUT TGE :OMPRESSOR IN 8ET ENGINE.
COMPRESSOR%
The %an 'un!ton o' a !o%"ressor s to n!rease the "ressure o' the
%ass o' ar re!e+ed 'ro% the ar n&et du!t and ds!har(e t nto the !o%buston
!ha%ber at "ro"er te%"erature*"ressure and +e&o!t# !ondton.The se!ondar# 'un!ton
o' the !o%"ressor s to su""&# the b&eed ar re@ured 'or +arous "ur"ose n the en(ne
and the ar!ra't ant;!n( s#ste%*et!.
The t6o t#"es o' !o%"ressors are !entr'u(a& 2o6 !o%"ressor and
a$a& 2o6 !o%"ressor.Joth t#"es are dr+en b# the en(ne turbne 6h!h are a!tua&&#
!ou"&ed dre!t&# to the turbne sha't.In the !entr'u(a& !o%"ressor*the ar s turned
"er"end!u&ar to the a$s o' rotaton on the other hand n the a$a& !o%"ressor*the
ar2o6 s "ara&&e& to the a$s o' rotaton.
CENTRIFUGAL FLOW COMPRESSOR:
12
The !entr'u(a& !o%"ressor !onsst o' a %"e&&er*a dHuser and a
%an'o&d.It re!e+es ar at the !enter and a!!e&erate t out6ards b# a !entr'u(a&
a!ton.The ar e$"and nto the dHuser 6h!h s bas!a&&# d+er(ent du!t.
:entr'u(a& 2o6 !o%"ressor ha+e ether a sn(&e entr# or a doub&e
entr# %"e&&er and %a# ha+e sn(&e or dua& sta(e. The %a&'un!ton o' the %"e&&er s to
"!?u" and a!!e&erate ar out6ard to the dHuser.The %"e&&er s rotate at h(h s"eed b#
the turbne and the ar s !ontnuous&# ndu!ed nto the !entre o' %"e&&er.
The an(&e at 6h!h the &eadn( ed(e o' the +anes %a?es 6th the
tan(enta& dre!ton ( (+en b# the dre!ton o' re&at+e +e&o!t# o' the ar at the n&et.I'
the ar &ea+es the %"e&&er t" at an abso&ute +e&o!t# MINO*t 6&& ha+e a tan(enta&&# a
!o%"arat+e&# s%a&& rada& !o%"onent under dea& !ondton 6ou&d be su!h that the
!o%"onent. <ue to ts nerta*the ar tra""ed bet6een the %"e&&er +anes s o""osed to
%o+e round 6th the %"e&&er.
A9?:01:8/2B
• G(h "ressure rse "er sta(e
• Good EA!en!#
• Lo6 startn( "o6er re@ure
• Lo6 6e(ht
D,2:9?:01:8/2%
• Lar(e 'ronta& area
• More than t6o sta(es are not "ara&&e&
AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR:
Ar2o6 s "ara&&e& to the a$s o' rotaton n the a$a&
!o%"ressor.The bas! !o%"onents o' the a$a& 2o6 !o%"ressor are rotor and
stator.Joth rotor and stator !arres b&ades atta!hed 6th ar'o& se!ton.Usua&&# a ro6
n&et (ude +anes s a&so "ro+ded 6h!h s an addtona& stator ro6 u"strea% o' the
=rst sta(e n the !o%"ressor.It assst to dre!t the a$a&&# a""roa!hn( 2o6 !orre!t&# n
the =rst ro6 o' rotors.
The 'un!ton o' the stator s to a!!e"t h(h !o%"ressed ar and
dea!!e&erate t.So that there s an n!rease n the stat! "ressure.The stators are a&so
ndre!t the 2o6 at an an(&e sutab&e to enter the ro6 o' rotors.
A9?:01:8/2%
1-
• G(h "ea? eA!en!
• S%a&& 'ronta& area
• Stra(ht throu(h 2o6
• In!reased "ressure rse
D,2:9?:01:8/2%
• <A!u&t to %ana(e and h(h !ost
• Re&at+e&# h(her 6e(ht
• G(h startn( "o6er re@ure%ent
CONCLUSION%
Thus the %an !o%"onents and "er'or%an!e o' !o%"ressor
6as studed.
E$P NO%&
STUDY OF COMBUSTION SECTION
INTRODUCTION%
A(( 1=/ 1+5@,0/ /08,0/2 =:?/ <).@+21,)0 <=:.@/5 ,0A=,<= 1=/ B+/(
,2 .,4/9 A,1= =,8= -5/22+5/ :,5 :09 @+50/9.T=/ 5/2+(1,08 =,8=
1/.-/5:1+5/ /4=:+21 8:2 ,2 +2/9 1) 1+50 1=/ -)A/5 1+5@,0/ :09 -5)9+</
1=5+21 A=/0 -:22/9 1=5)+8= 1=/ 0)CC(/.
1/
T=/ -5,.:53 B+0<1,)0 )B 1=/ <).@+21,)0 2/<1,)0 ,2 1) @+50 1=/ B+/(
:,5 .,41+5/ 1=/5/@3 :99,08 =/:1 /0/583 1) 1=/ :,5 1) :<=,/?/ 1=/
/D<,/0<3 )B 1=/ <).@+21,)0 <=:.@/5 -5)?,9/ 1=/ ./:0 B)5 E4,08 1=/ B+/(
:09 1=/ :,5 1) /02+5/ 8))9 <).@+21,)0 :09 @+50 1=,2 .,41+5/ /D<,/01(3.
C))( 1=/ =)1 <).@+21,)0 -5)9+<1 1) : 1/.-/5:1+5/ A=,<= 1=/
1+5@,0/ @(:9/2 <:0 A,1=21:09 +09/5 )-/5:1,08 <)09,1,)0.D/(,/?/5 1=/ =)1
8:2/2 1) 1=/ 1+5@,0/ 2/<1,)0.T=/ <).@+21,)0 <=:.@/5 ,2 ()<:1/9 @/1A//0
1=/ <).-5/22)5 :09 1+5@,0/,1=/ <).@+21,)0 <=:.@/5 :(A:32 :55:08/
A,1= 1=/ <).-5/22)5 :09 1+5@,0/ :5/ .:9/ B5). .:1/5,:( <:0 A,1=21:09
=,8= 1/.-/5:1+5/ )B <).@+21,)0.
TYPES OF COMBUSTORS%
I0 A=,<= B5). <).@+21,)0 2/<1,)0 :5/ ,80,1/9 :09 -:22 9,5/<1(3 ,01)
1=/ 1+5@,0/.T=/2/ <).@+21,)0 <=:.@/52 :5/ <(:22,E/9 :2,
• C:0713-/ <).@+21,)0 <=:.@/5
• A00+(:5713-/ <).@+21,)0 <=:.@/5
• C:07A00+(:5 13-/ <).@+21,)0 <=:.@/5
Can typ !"#$%&t'"n !(a#$):
T=,2 ,2 :0 )(9 13-/ )B <).@+21,)0 <=:.@/5.I1 <)02,212 )B 2/5,/2 )B
)+1/5 =)+2,08 =:?/ ,12 )A0 -/5B)5./9 ,00/5 (,0/ :09 : <:2,08.T=/ <:02
:5/:55:08/9 :5)+09 1=/ </015:( 2=:B1.T=/ ,09,?,9+:( <).@+21)52 :5/
,01/5<)00/<1/9 A,1= 2.:(( -5)-:8:1,)0 1+@/2 A=/0 1=/ <).@+21,)0 21:51
,0 1=/ <:0 =:?,08 ,80,1/ -(+8 ,0 1=/ /08,0/.
Ann%*a) typ !"#$%&t'"n !(a#$):
A00+(:5 13-/ <).@+21,)0 <=:.@/5 <)02,212 )B :0 )+1/5 =)+2,08
A=,<= <)01:,02 )0(3 )0/ ,00/5 (,0/.T=/ -/1/5/9 (,0/ ,2 5/1+50/9 :2 :
@+<;/1 .+(1,-(/ B+/( 2-5:3 0)CC(/ -5)1+@/ ,01) 1=/ @:2;/1.B)1= -5,.:53
:09 2/<)09:53 :,5 -5)?,9/9 B)5 <).@+21,)0 :09 <))(,08 .:03 .)9/50
<).@+21)5 =:?/ :0 :00+(:5 9/2,80.
Can-Ann%*a) typ !"#$%&t'"n !(a#$):
I0 : <:07:00+(:5 <=:.@/5 9/2,80,1=/ <:21,08 ,2 :00+(:5 :09
.+1(,-(/ <:0 2=:-/9 :5/ ()<:1/9 5:9,:((3 :@)+1 1=/ :4,2 )B 1=/ /08,0/.1=/
(,0/ 1:;/0 :,5 :1 B5)01 :09 9,2<=:58/ :1 1=/ 5/:5.F(:./ -5)-:8:1,)0 1+@/
:5/ +2/9 1) <)00/<1 1=/ (,0/ ,2 .:9/ B)5 1) ,80,1/ -(+8 ,0 ()A/5 (:0/.
10
R+)& ,"- ann%*a) !"#$%&t'"n !(a#$):
T=/ 5/?/52/ F)A <).@+21,)0 <=:.@/5 =:2 2)./ B+0<1,)0 :2
1=5)+8= F)A <+.@+21,)0 <=:.@/5.,1 )0(3 9,G/5 ,0 F)A )B :,5 1=5)+8= 1=/
<).@+21,)0 ,021/:9 )B :,5 1=5)+8= <).@+21,)0 B5). 1=/ 5/:9 A,1= 1=/
<).@+21,)0 8:2 F)A @/,08 )--)2,1/ ,0 9,5/<1,)0 1) 1=/ 0)5.:( :,5F)A
1=5)+8= 1=/ /08,0/ :B1/5 1=/ <).@+21,)0 1:;/2 -(:</.
CONCLUSION%
T=+2 1=/ <).@+21,)0 2/<1,)0 =:2 21+9,/9 2+<</22B+((3
E$P NO% 5
STUDY OF TURBINE
AIM%
To stud# about the turbne n en(ne
INTRODUCTION%
Dor? !an be e$tra!ted 'ro% a (as at a h(her n&et "ressure to the &o6er
ba!? "ressure b# a&&o6n( t to 2o6 throu(h a turbne.In a turbne*as the (as "asses
throu(h t (ets e$"ands."art o' the ener(# o' the (as durn( e$"anson s !on+erted
nto ?net! ener(# n the 2o6 noFF&es.
The (as &ea+es the statonar# noFF&es at a re&at+e&# h(her
+e&o!t#.Thus the t6o "r%ar# "arts o' the turbne are*
• The stator b&ades
• The rotor b&ades
The sta(e o' a rn( o' =$ed noFF&e b&ades 'o&&o6ed b# the rotor b&ade
rn(.The 2o6 n a turbne sta(e %a# be "art&# rada& and a$a& 6h!h s !a&&ed %$ed
state.nor%a&&# the turbne en(ne s !&ass=ed as*
• I%"u&se sta(e
• Rea!ton sta(e
11
I#p%*& &ta.:
An %"u&se sta(e s !hara!terFed b# the e$"anson o' the (as 6h!h
o!!urs on&# n the stator noFF&es.The rotor b&ades are a!ts as dre!tona& +anes to
de2e!t the dre!ton o' the 2o6.Further the# !on+ert the# !on+ert the ?net! ener(# o'
the (as nto 6or? b# !han(n( the %o%entu% o' the (as %ore or &ess at !onstant
"ressure.
Ra!t'"n &ta.:
The rea!ton sta(e s one n6h!h e$"anson o' the (as ta?es "&a!e
both nthe stator and rotor.The 'un!ton o' the stator s the sa%e as that n the %"u&se
sta(e.Jut the 'un!ton n the rotor s n t6o 'o&d.*
),Rotor !o+erts the ?net! ener(# o' the (as nto 6or?
),:ontrbutes a rea!ton 'or!e on the rotor b&ades
MULTI STAGE MACHINES%
It %a# be noted that*'or a (+en rotor s"eed*on&# a &%ted !han(e n the
ener(# &e+e& o' the 2ud !an o!!ur n sn(&e sta(e %a!hnes.Ths s true 'or both
turbnes and !o%"ressors.Mu&tsta(e %a!hnes %a# e%"&o# ether %"u&se or rea!ton
sta(es or a !o%bnaton o' both.I%"u&se %a!hnes %a# ut&Fe an# one o' the 'o&&o6n(*
),A &ar(e "ressure dro" n nu%ber o' "ressure sta(e
),A h(h ?net! ener(# n the nu%ber o' +e&o!t# sta(es
),:o%bnaton o' both
It %a# be noted that turbne "&ants ha+e a s%a&&er nu%ber o' sta(es due to
!o%"arat+e&# &o6er +a&ues o' the "ressure rato e%"&o#ed !o%"ared to other s%&ar
"o6er"&ants.
CONCLUSION%
Thus the "er'or%an!e o' the turbne 6as studed su!!ess'u&&#.
13
E$P NO %6
STUDY OF FORCED CONVECTION APPARATUS
INTRODUCTION
The %"ortant re&atonsh" bet6een Re#no&ds nu%ber* "randt& nu%ber and
nusette nu%ber n heat e$!han(er des(n %a# be n+est(ated n ths se&' !ontaned
unt.
AIM
To deter%ne the theoret!a& and a!tua& heat trans'er !oeA!ent usn( 'or!ed
!on+e!ton a""aratus.
APPARATUS RE'UIRED
For!ed !on+e!ton a""aratus.
E$PERIMENTAL SETUP
The e$"er%enta& setu" !onsst o' a tube throu(h 6h!h ar s sent n b# the
b&o6er the test se!ton !onssts o' a &on( e&e!tr!a& sur'a!e heater on the tube.* 6h!h
ser+es as a !onta!t heat 2u$ sour!e on the 2o6n( %edu%. The n&et and out&et
te%"eratures o' the 2o6 are %easured b# the ther%o!ou"&es and a&so the
te%"eratures at se+era& &o!atons a&on( the sur'a!e o' heater 'ro% 6h!h a+era(e
te%"erature !an be %easured. An or=!e %eter n the tube s used to %easure the ar
2o6 rate 6th a U;tube 6ater %ano%eter.
An a%%eter and a +o&t%eter are "ro+ded to %easure the "o6er n"ut to the
heater. A "o6er re(u&ator s "ro+ded to +ar# the "o6er n"ut to the heater. A %u&t;
"ont d(ta& te%"erature nd!ator s "ro+ded to %easure the abo+e ther%o!ou"&eNs
n"ut. A +a&ue s "ro+ded to re(u&ate the 2o6 o' ar.
FORMULA USED
A<1+:( ./1=)9%
A+era(e te%"erature o' heater P )T
2
QT
-
QT
/
QT
0
, 9 /
A+era(e te%"erature o' ar P )T
1
QT
1
, 9 2
Po6er n"ut o' heater MKN P II P hA)LMT<, P %!
"
RT
Dhere RT S )a+( te%" o' heater, S )a+( te%" o' ar,
h S Geat trans'er !o;eA!ent
A S Geat trans'er area P T <L
< S <a%eter o' the tube
L S Len(th o' the tube
LMT<S &o(arth%! %ean te%"erature dHeren!e
14
P U)a+( te%" o' tube S out&et ar te%",;)a+( te%" o' tube S n&et ar
te%",V
WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
&n U)a+( te%" o' tube S out&et ar te%", 9 )a+( te%" o' tube S n&et ar
te%",V
% S Mass '&o6 rate o' ar P XAI
I S +e&o!t# o' ar P K 9 area o' the tube
!
"
S s"e!=! heat o' ar
A!tua& heat trans'er !o;eA!ent h
a!t
P K 9 A)LMT<,% !
"
RT
Dhere K P +o&u%e o' ar 2o6n( throu(h the tube t !an be !a&!u&ated as 'o&&o6s
K P :
d
a
1
a
2
Y)2(h
7
, 9 Y)a
1
2
S a
2
2
,
Dhere :
d
P 7.1
a
1
S area o' the tube P T d
1
2
9 /
a
2
S area o' the or=!e P T d
2
2
9 /
d
1
S da%eter o' the ""e
d
2
S da%eter o' the or=!e
h
7
S head o' the ar !ausn( the 2o6

P )h
1
S h
2
, X
6
9 X
a
X
6
S denst# o' 6ater
X
a
S denst# o' ar
T=/)5/1,<:( ./1=)9%
Re#no&dsNs nu%ber R
e
P I< 9 Z
NusetteNs nu%ber Nu P h< 9 K
Dhere < S <a%eter o' the tube
I S +e&o!t# o' ar
Z S ?ne%at! +s!ost#
K S Ther%a& !ondu!t+t#
A&so Nu P.72- $ R
e
7.4
$ P
r

7./
PROCEDURE
S6t!h on the %ans.
S6t!h on the b&o6ers.
Ad.ust the re(u&ator to an# desred "o6er n"ut the heater.
Ad.ust the "oston o' the +a&+e to an# desred 2o6 rate o' ar.
15
Dat t&& the stead# state te%"erature s rea!hed.
Note %ano%eter readn(s h1 and h2.
Note the te%"erature a&on( the tube.
Note the ar n&et and out&et te%"eratures.
Note the +o&t%eter and a%%eter readn(s.
Ad.ust the "oston o' the +a&+e and +ar# the 2o6 rate o' ar and re"eat the
e$"er%ent.
For +arous +a&+e o"enn(s and 'or +arous "o6er n"uts* the readn(s %a# be
ta?en to re"eat the e$"er%ent.
RESULT
The theoret!a& and a!tua& heat trans'er !oeA!ents are deter%ned usn( 'or!ed
!on+e!ton a""aratus
E$P NO %7
STUDY OF FREE CONVECTION APPARATUS
INTRODUCTION
:on+e!ton s a %ode o' heat trans'er 6here b# a %o+n( &@ud trans'ers heat
'ro% a sur'a!e. Dhen the 2ud %o+e%ent s !aused b# denst# dHeren!es n the 2ud*
due to te%"erature +aratons* t s !a&&ed FREE OR NATURAL :ONIE:TION. Ths
"ro+des students 6th a sound n'or%aton about the 'eatures o' 'ree !on+e!ton heat
trans'er 'ro% a heated +ert!a& rod a +ert!a& rod du!t s =tted 6th a heated +ert!a&&#
"&a!ed !#&nder ar (ets heated and dense around ths !#&nder* !ausn( t to rse. Ths n
turn (+es rse to !ontnuous 2o6 o' ar u"6ard n the du!t. The nstru%entaton
"ro+des the heat n"ut and te%"erature at dHerent "ont on the heated !#&nder.
AIM
To deter%ne the theoret!a& and a!tua& heat trans'er !o;eA!ent usn( natura&
!on+e!ton a""aratus.
APPARATUS RE'UIRED
Natura& !on+e!ton a""aratus
SPECIFICATIONS
Rod &en(th L P 077%%
Rod da%eter d P /7%%
FORMULA USED
A!tua& %ethodB
A+era(e te%"erature o' heater P )T
2
QT
-
QT
/
QT
0
, 9 /
A+era(e te%"erature o' ar P )T
1
QT
1
, 9 2
Po6er n"ut o' heater MKN P II P hART
27
O+era&& heat trans'er !o;eA!ent MhN P K 9 ART
Dhere RT S )a+( te%" o' heater rod, S )a+( te%" o' ar,
Theoret!a& %ethodB
Nu P h&
!
&# '0()3)G
r
P
r
,
19/

'or G
r
P
r
[ 17
0
G
r
S (rasho''Ns nu%ber S \(RT L
-
9 Z
2

P
r
S "randt& nu%ber
Z S ?ne%at! +s!ost#
\ S 1 9 )%ean te%" o' ar Q 23-,
# S Ther%a& !ondu!t+t#
NuS NusetteNs nu%ber P h&

&#
Nu P h&

&# '0()*)G
r
P
r
,
19/

'or 17
0
[ G
r
P
r
[ 17
4
Nu P h&

&# '0(+3)G
r
P
r
,
19-

'or 17
4
[ G
r
P
r
[ 17
12
PROCEDURE
S6t!h on the unt and ad.ust the re(u&ator to "ro+de sutab&e "o6er n"ut.
A&&o6 so%e t%e 'or the unt to rea!h stead# state !ondton
Note the s"e!%en te%"erature )T
2
*T
-
*T
/
*T
0
, and note do6n the n&et te%"erature
)T
1
, and out&et te%"erature )T
1
,
Note a%%eter and +o&t%eter readn(.
Re"eat the "ro!edure and ta?e - sets o' readn(s
:a&!u&ate the theoret!a& and a!tua& heat trans'er !o;eA!ent usn( the (+en
'or%u&a
TABULATION
Io&t%et
er
Readn(
n +o&ts
A%%eter
Readn(
n
a%"ere
K P
II
6att
s
Ther%o!ou"&e readn(s A!tua&
heat
trans'er
!o;
eA!ent
Theoret!a&
heat
trans'er
!oeA!ent
T
1
T
2
T
-
T
/
T
0
T
1
R
T
21
RESULT
Thus the theoret!a& and a!tua& heat trans'er !o;eA!ent usn( natura& !on+e!ton
a""aratus are !a&!u&ated.
E$.NO% H
STUDY OF FREE #ET
AIM
To ana&#Fe the !hara!terst!s o' 'ree .et.
APPARATUS RE'UIRED
J&o6er
Free .et a""aratus
Mano%eter
DESCRIPTION%
A 'ree .et s used 'or the !a&!u&aton o' the 6nd +e&o!t# 'ro% 7.1 !% da%eter
ho&e 6h!h s !onne!ted to a b&o6er. Measure d#na%! "ressure and +arous &o!atons n
the 2a6 usn( a "&ot tube or %ono%eters. Fro% d#na%! "ressure deter%ne the ?.e
"er unt +o&u%e on the &o!a& s"eed.
A "&ot tube stat! tube to de+!e used to %easure the &o!a& 2ud +e&o!t# s the
dHeren!e stat! and sta(naton.
FORMULA USED%
+P2(h
IORKING%
22
Ar 2o6s to a so&d tube and s !ontro&&ed b# a +a&+e a =rst tube s !onne!ted to an
n!&ned tube %ono%eter 6h!h %easures sta(naton "ressure and !an be %o+ed
a$a&&# and rada&&#. State "ressure s %easured b# "ressure ta" n a 6a&& boundn( the
2o6 ar b# a s%a&& ho&e on the outer !r!u%'eren!e o' a !o;a%%eter tube. Sta(naton
"ressure s obtaned 6hen the 2ud s 'r!ton&ess a!!e&erated to rest.
TABULATION
GRAPH%
A (ra"h 6th dstan!e +9s +e&o!t# has been dra6n.
RESULT%
The !hara!terst! o' 'ree .et ha+e been ana&#Fed.
2-
S.N
O
<ISTAN:E
)M,
G
1
G2 <IFFEREN:E IP2GG )M9S,
E$.NO% J
STUDY OF IALL #ET
AIM
To ana&#Fe the !hara!terst!s o' 6a&& .et.
DESCRIPTION
A 6a&& .et e$st a noFF&e or tube nto a statonar# and %o+n( 2ud 6a&& .et has ts
a""&!aton a!!ordn( to (as turbne en(nes &@ud and so&d %otor.
FORMULA%
IP2(h
APPARATUS RE'UIRED
J&o6er
Da&& .et a""aratus
Mano%eter
IORKING%
Ar 2o6s throu(h a rada& tube and ts b&o6er tan(enta&&# E !ontro&&ed b# a +a&ue
a "&ot tube s !onne!ted to an n dned tube %ono%eter 6h!h %easure sta(naton
"ressure and !an be %o+ed a$a&&# and rada&&#. Stat! "ressure s %easured b# a
"ressure ta" n a 6a&& boundar# the 2o6 or b# a s%a&& ho&e on the outer !r!u%'eren!e
2/
o' a !o;annu&ar tube. Sta(naton "ressure s obtaned 6hen the 2ud s 'r!ton&ess
a!!e&erated to rest.
TABULATION
GRAPH%
A (ra"h 6th dstan!e +s +e&o!t# has been "&atted.
RESULT%
The !hara!terst!s o' a 6a&& .et ha+e been ana&#Fed.
E$.NO 60. R:. K/1 /08,0/

A,.%
T) 21+93 1=/ 5:.K/1 /08,0/ A)5;,08 -5,0<,-(/
O-/5:1,)0%
A 5:.K/1* so%et%es re'erred to as a F3,08 21)?/-,-/* or an :1=)939 6h!h s
an abbre+aton o' :ero 1=er%)93na%! 9u!t* s a 'or% o' AIBEAT,IN% -ET
EN%INE usn( the en(neCs 'or6ard %oton to !o%"ress n!o%n( ar* 6thout a rotar#
!o%"ressor. Ra%.ets !annot "rodu!e thrust at Fero ars"eed* thus the# !annot %o+e an
ar!ra't 'ro% a standst&&.
20
S.N
O
<ISTAN:
E
)M,
G1 G2 <IFFERENTIAL
LENGTG )G,
IP2GG )M9S,
COMPONENTS:
INLET
Ra%.ets tr# to e$"&ot the +er# h(h d#na%! "ressure 6thn the ar a""roa!hn( the
nta?e &". An eA!ent nta?e 6&& re!o+er %u!h o' the 'reestrea% sta(naton "ressure*
6h!h s used to su""ort the !o%buston and e$"anson "ro!ess n the noFF&e.
Most ra%.ets o"erate at su"erson! 2(ht s"eeds and use one or %ore !on!a& )or
ob&@ue, sho!? 6a+es* ter%nated b# a stron( nor%a& sho!?* to s&o6 do6n the ar2o6 to
a subson! +e&o!t# at the e$t o' the nta?e. Further dHuson s then re@ured to (et the
ar +e&o!t# do6n to a sutab&e &e+e& 'or the !o%bustor.
Subson! ra%.ets do not need su!h a so"hst!ated n&et sn!e the ar2o6 s
a&read# subson! and a s%"&e ho&e s usua&&# used. Ths 6ou&d a&so 6or? at s&(ht&#
su"erson! s"eeds* but as the ar 6&& !ho?e at the n&et* ths s neA!ent.
The n&et s d+er(ent* to "ro+de a !onstant n&et s"eed o' Ma!h 7.0.
COMBUSTOR
As 6th other .et en(nes* the !o%bustorCs .ob s to !reate hot ar* b# burnn( a 'ue& 6th
the ar at essenta&&# !onstant "ressure. The ar2o6 throu(h the .et en(ne s usua&&#
@ute h(h* so she&tered !o%buston Fones are "rodu!ed b# usn( C2a%e ho&dersC to
sto" the 2a%es 'ro% b&o6n( out.
Sn!e there s no do6nstrea% turbne* a ra%.et !o%bustor !an sa'e&# o"erate
atsto!ho%etr! 'ue&Bar ratos* 6h!h %"&es a !o%bustor e$t sta(naton
te%"erature o' the order o' 2/77 K 'or ?erosene. Nor%a&&#* the !o%bustor %ust be
!a"ab&e o' o"eratn( o+er a 6de ran(e o' thrott&e settn(s* 'or a ran(e o' 2(ht
s"eeds9a&ttudes. Usua&&#* a she&tered "&ot re(on enab&es !o%buston to !ontnue 6hen
the +eh!&e nta?e under(oes h(h #a69"t!h durn( turns. Other 2a%e stab&Faton
te!hn@ues %a?e use o' 2a%e ho&ders* 6h!h +ar# n des(n 'ro% !o%bustor !ans to
s%"&e 2at "&ates* to she&ter the 2a%e and %"ro+e 'ue& %$n(. O+er'ue&&n( the
21
!o%bustor !an !ause the nor%a& sho!? 6thn a su"erson! nta?e s#ste% to be "ushed
'or6ard be#ond the nta?e &"* resu&tn( n a substanta& dro" n en(ne ar2o6 and net
thrust.
NO//LES
The "ro"e&&n( noFF&e s a !rt!a& "art o' a ra%.et des(n* sn!e t a!!e&erates e$haust
2o6 to "rodu!e thrust.
For a ra%.et o"eratn( at a subson! 2(ht Ma!h nu%ber* e$haust 2o6 s a!!e&erated
throu(h a !on+er(n( noFF&e. For a su"erson! 2(ht Ma!h nu%ber* a!!e&eraton s
t#"!a&&# a!he+ed +a a !on+er(ent;d+er(ent noFF&e.
E$P NO %"
STUDY OF #ET ENGINE
INTRODUCTION
A K/1 /08,0/ s a rea!ton en(ne that ds!har(es a 'ast %o+n( .et o' 2ud to
(enerate thrust n a!!ordan!e 6th Ne6tonCs thrd &a6 o' %oton. Ths broad de=nton
o' .et en(nes n!&udes turbo.ets* turbo'ans* ro!?ets* ra%.ets* "u&se .ets and "u%";.ets*
but n !o%%on usa(e* the ter% (enera&&# re'ers to a (as turbne Jra#ton !#!&e en(ne*
an en(ne 6th a rotar# !o%"ressor "o6ered b# a turbne* 6th the &e'to+er "o6er
"ro+dn( thrust. 8et en(nes are so 'a%&ar to the %odern 6or&d that (as turbnes are
so%et%es %sta?en&# re'erred to as a "art!u&ar a""&!aton o' a .et en(ne* rather than
the other 6a# around. Most .et en(nes are nterna& !o%buston en(nes but non
!o%bustn( 'or%s e$st a&so.
8et en(nes are "r%ar&# used b# .et ar!ra't 'or &on( dstan!e tra+e&. The ear&# .et
ar!ra't used turbo.et en(nes 6h!h 6ere neA!ent. Modern .et ar!ra't usua&&# use
h(h;b#"ass turbo'an en(nes 6h!h he&" (+e h(h s"eeds as 6e&& as* o+er &on(
dstan!es* better 'ue& eA!en!# than %an# other 'or%s o' trans"ort. A &ar(e "ro"orton
o' the 6or&ds o& !onsu%"ton )about 3.2] n 277/, s burnt n .et en(nes.
MA#OR COMPONENTS OF A #ET ENGINE AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
23
The %a.or !o%"onents o' a .et en(ne are s%&ar a!ross the %a.or dHerent t#"es o'
en(nes* a&thou(h not a&& en(ne t#"es ha+e a&& !o%"onents.
C)(9 S/<1,)0%
o A,5 ,01:;/ I0(/1! W The standard re'eren!e 'ra%e 'or a .et en(ne s the ar!ra't
tse&'. For subson! ar!ra't* the ar nta?e to a .et en(ne "resents no s"e!a&
dA!u&tes* and !onssts essenta&&# o' an o"enn( 6h!h s des(ned to %n%Fe
dra(* as 6th an# other ar!ra't !o%"onent. Go6e+er* the ar rea!hn( the
!o%"ressor o' a nor%a& .et en(ne %ust be tra+e&n( be&o6 the s"eed o' sound*
e+en 'or su"erson! ar!ra't* to sustan the 2o6 %e!han!s o' the !o%"ressor and
turbne b&ades. At su"erson! 2(ht s"eeds* sho!?6a+es 'or% n the nta?e s#ste%
and redu!e the re!o+ered "ressure at n&et to the !o%"ressor. So so%e
su"erson! nta?es use de+!es* su!h as a !one or ra%"* to n!rease "ressure
re!o+er#* b# %a?n( %ore eA!ent use o' the sho!? 6a+e s#ste%.
o C).-5/22)5 or F:0 W The !o%"ressor s %ade u" o' sta(es. Ea!h sta(e
!onssts o' +anes 6h!h rotate* and stators 6h!h re%an statonar#. As ar s
dra6n dee"er throu(h the !o%"ressor* ts heat and "ressure n!reases. Ener(# s
der+ed 'ro% the 1+5@,0/ )see be&o6,* "assed a&on( the 2=:B1.
C)..)0%
o S=:B1 W The sha't !onne!ts the 1+5@,0/ to the <).-5/22)5* and runs %ost o'
the &en(th o' the en(ne. There %a# be as %an# as three !on!entr! sha'ts*
rotatn( at nde"endent s"eeds* 6th as %an# sets o' turbnes and !o%"ressors.
Other ser+!es* &?e a b&eed o' !oo& ar* %a# a&so run do6n the sha't.
H)1 2/<1,)0%
o C).@+21)5 or C:0 or F(:./ =)(9/52 or C).@+21,)0 C=:.@/5 W Ths s a
!ha%ber 6here 'ue& s !ontnuous&# burned n the !o%"ressed ar.
o T+5@,0/ W The turbne s a seres o' b&aded ds!s that a!t &?e a 6nd%&&* (ann(
ener(# 'ro% the hot (ases &ea+n( the <).@+21)5. So%e o' ths ener(# s used
to dr+e the <).-5/22)5* and n so%e turbne en(nes ).e. turbo"ro"* turbo
sha't or turbo'an en(nes,* ener(# s e$tra!ted b# addtona& turbne ds!s and
used to dr+e de+!es su!h as "ro"e&&ers* b#"ass 'ans or he&!o"ter rotors. One
t#"e* a B5// 1+5@,0/* s !on=(ured su!h that the turbne ds! dr+n( the
!o%"ressor rotates nde"endent&# o' the ds!s that "o6er the e$terna&
!o%"onents. Re&at+e&# !oo& ar* b&ed 'ro% the !o%"ressor* %a# be used to !oo&
the turbne b&ades and +anes* to "re+ent the% 'ro% %e&tn(.
24
o AB1/5@+50/5 or 5/=/:1 )!he2# UK, W )%an&# %&tar#, Produ!es e$tra thrust b#
burnn( e$tra 'ue&* usua&&# neA!ent&#* to s(n=!ant&# rase NoFF&e Entr#
Te%"erature at the /4=:+21. O6n( to a &ar(er +o&u%e 2o6 ).e. &o6er denst#, at
e$t 'ro% the a'terburner* an n!reased noFF&e 2o6 area s re@ured* to %antan
sats'a!tor# en(ne %at!hn(* 6hen the a'terburner s a&(ht.
o E4=:+21 or N)CC(/ W hot (ases &ea+n( the en(ne e$haust to at%os"her!
"ressure +a a noFF&e* the ob.e!t+e ben( to "rodu!e a h(h +e&o!t# .et. In %ost
!ases* the noFF&e s !on+er(ent and o' =$ed 2o6 area.
o S+-/52)0,< 0)CC(/ W ' the NoFF&e Pressure Rato )NoFF&e Entr#
Pressure9A%bent Pressure, s +er# h(h* to %a$%Fe thrust t %a# be 6orth6h&e*
des"te the addtona& 6e(ht* to =t a !on+er(ent;d+er(ent )de La+a&, noFF&e. As
the na%e su((ests* nta&&# ths t#"e o' noFF&e s !on+er(ent* but be#ond the
throat )s%a&&est 2o6 area,* the 2o6 area starts to n!rease to 'or% the d+er(ent
"orton. The e$"anson to at%os"her! "ressure and su"erson! (as +e&o!t#
!ontnues do6nstrea% o' the throat* 6hereas n a !on+er(ent noFF&e the
e$"anson be#ond son! +e&o!t# o!!urs e$terna&&#* n the e$haust "&u%e. The
'or%er "ro!ess s %ore eA!ent than the &atter.
The +arous !o%"onents na%ed abo+e ha+e !onstrants on ho6 the# are "ut to(ether
to (enerate the %ost eA!en!# or "er'or%an!e. The "er'or%an!e and eA!en!# o' an
en(ne !an ne+er be ta?en n so&atonO 'or e$a%"&e 'ue&9dstan!e eA!en!# o' a
su"erson! .et en(ne %a$%Fes at about %a!h 2* 6hereas the dra( 'or the +eh!&e
!arr#n( t s n!reasn( as a s@uare &a6 and has %u!h e$tra dra( n the transon!
re(on. The h(hest 'ue& eA!en!# 'or the o+era&& +eh!&e s thus t#"!a&&# at Ma!h
^7.40.
For the en(ne o"t%Faton 'or ts ntended use* %"ortant here s ar nta?e des(n*
o+era&& sFe* nu%ber o' !o%"ressor sta(es )sets o' b&ades,* 'ue& t#"e* nu%ber o'
e$haust sta(es* %eta&&ur(# o' !o%"onents* a%ount o' b#"ass ar used* 6here the
b#"ass ar s ntrodu!ed* and %an# other 'a!tors. For nstan!e* &et us !onsder des(n o'
the ar nta?e.
TYPES, DESCRIPTION, ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF #ET ENGINES
There are a &ar(e nu%ber o' dHerent t#"es o' .et en(nes* a&& o' 6h!h a!he+e
"ro"u&son 'ro% a h(h s"eed e$haust .et.
T3-/ D/2<5,-1,)0 A9?:01:8/2 D,2:9?:01:8/2
25
I:1/5 K/1
S@urts 6ater out
the ba!? throu(h a
noFF&e
:an run n sha&&o6
6ater* "o6er'u&* &ess
har%'u& to 6&d&'e*
)ndeed used b# s@ud,
:an be &ess eA!ent than a
"ro"e&&er* %ore +u&nerab&e
to debrs
M)1)5 K/1
Most "r%t+e ar
breathn( .et
en(ne. Essenta&&#
a su"er!har(ed
"ston en(ne 6th
a .et e$haust.
G(her e$haust +e&o!t#
than a "ro"e&&er*
oHern( better thrust at
h(h s"eed
Gea+#* neA!ent and
under"o6ered
T+5@)K/1
Gener! ter% 'or
s%"&e turbne
en(ne
S%"&!t# o' des(n*
eA!ent at su"erson!
s"eeds )^M2,
A bas! des(n* %sses
%an# %"ro+e%ents n
eA!en!# and "o6er 'or
subson! 2(ht* re&at+e&#
nos#.
T+5@)B:0
Frst sta(e
!o%"ressor (reat&#
en&ar(ed to "ro+de
b#"ass ar2o6
around en(ne
!ore* and t
"ro+des s(n=!ant
a%ounts o' thrust.
Most !o%%on 'or%
o' .et en(ne n use
toda#; used n
ar&ners &?e the
Joen( 3/3 and
%&tar# .ets* 6here
an a'terburner s
o'ten added 'or
su"erson! 2(ht.
Kueter due to (reater
%ass 2o6 and &o6er
tota& e$haust s"eed*
%ore eA!ent 'or a
use'u& ran(e o'
subson! ars"eeds 'or
sa%e reason* !oo&er
e$haust te%"erature.
Greater !o%"&e$t#
)addtona& du!tn(* usua&&#
%u&t"&e sha'ts,* &ar(e
da%eter en(ne* need to
!ontan hea+# b&ades. More
sub.e!t to FO< and !e
da%a(e. To" s"eed s
&%ted due to the "otenta&
'or sho!?6a+es to da%a(e
en(ne.
R)<;/1 :arres a&&
"ro"e&&ants and
o$dants on;board*
e%ts .et 'or
Ier# 'e6 %o+n( "arts*
Ma!h 7 to Ma!h 20Q*
eA!ent at +er# h(h
s"eed )_ Ma!h 17.7 or
Needs &ots o' "ro"e&&ant;
+er# &o6 s"e!=! %"u&se W
t#"!a&&# 177;/07 se!onds.
E$tre%e ther%a& stresses
-7
"ro"u&son
so,* thrust96e(ht rato
o+er 177* no !o%"&e$
ar n&et* h(h
!o%"resson rato* +er#
h(h s"eed )h#"erson!,
e$haust* (ood
!ost9thrust rato* 'ar&#
eas# to test* 6or?s n a
+a!uu%;ndeed 6or?s
best e$oat%os"her!
6h!h s ?nder on
+eh!&e stru!ture at
h(h s"eed* 'ar&# s%a&&
sur'a!e area to ?ee"
!oo&* and no turbne n
hot e$haust strea%.
o' !o%buston !ha%ber
!an %a?e reuse harder.
T#"!a&&# re@ures !arr#n(
o$dFer on;board 6h!h
n!reases rs?s.
E$traordnar&# nos#.
R:.K/1
Inta?e ar s
!o%"ressed
entre&# b# s"eed
o' on!o%n( ar
and du!t sha"e
)d./er0ent,
Ier# 'e6 %o+n( "arts*
Ma!h 7.4 to Ma!h 0Q*
eA!ent at h(h s"eed
)_ Ma!h 2.7 or so,*
&(htest o' a&& ar;
breathn( .ets
)thrust96e(ht rato u"
to -7 at o"t%u%
s"eed,* !oo&n( %u!h
easer than turbo.ets as
no turbne b&ades to
!oo&.
Must ha+e a h(h nta&
s"eed to 'un!ton*
neA!ent at s&o6 s"eeds
due to "oor !o%"resson
rato* dA!u&t to arran(e
sha't "o6er 'or
a!!essores* usua&&# &%ted
to a s%a&& ran(e o' s"eeds*
nta?e 2o6 %ust be s&o6ed
to subson! s"eeds* nos#*
'ar&# dA!u&t to test*
=n!?# to ?ee" &t.
T+5@)-5)-
T+5@) 2=:B1
2,.,(:5!
Str!t&# not a .et at
a&& W a (as turbne
en(ne s used as
"o6er "&ant to
dr+e "ro"e&&er
sha't )or rotor n
the !ase o' a
he&!o"ter,
G(h eA!en!# at &o6er
subson! ars"eeds
)-77 ?nots "&us,* h(h
sha't "o6er to 6e(ht
L%ted to" s"eed
)ar"&anes,* so%e6hat
nos#* !o%"&e$
trans%sson
-1
P5)-B:0LU09+
<1/9 F:0
Turbo"ro" en(ne
dr+es one or %ore
"ro"e&&ers. S%&ar
to a turbo'an
6thout the 'an
!o6&n(.
G(her 'ue& eA!en!#*
"otenta&&# &ess nos#
than turbo'ans* !ou&d
&ead to h(her;s"eed
!o%%er!a& ar!ra't*
"o"u&ar n the 1547s
durn( 'ue& shorta(es
<e+e&o"%ent o' "ro" 'an
en(nes has been +er#
&%ted* t#"!a&&# %ore
nos# than turbo'ans*
!o%"&e$t#
P+(2/K/1
Ar s !o%"ressed
and !o%busted
nter%ttent&#
nstead o'
!ontnuous&#. So%e
des(ns use +a&+es.
Ier# s%"&e des(n*
!o%%on&# used on
%ode& ar!ra't
Nos#* neA!ent )&o6
!o%"resson rato,* 6or?s
"oor&# on a &ar(e s!a&e*
+a&+es on +a&+ed des(ns
6ear out @u!?&#
P+(2/
9/1)0:1,)0
/08,0/
S%&ar to a
"u&se.et* but
!o%buston o!!urs
as a detonaton
nstead o' a
de2a(raton* %a#
or %a# not need
+a&+es
Ma$%u% theoret!a&
en(ne eA!en!#
E$tre%e&# nos#* "arts
sub.e!t to e$tre%e
%e!han!a& 'at(ue* hard to
start detonaton* not
"ra!t!a& 'or !urrent use
A,57
:+8./01/9
5)<;/1
Essenta&&# a ra%.et
6here nta?e ar s
!o%"ressed and
burnt 6th the
e$haust 'ro% a
ro!?et
Ma!h 7 to Ma!h /.0Q
)!an a&so run
e$oat%os"her!,* (ood
eA!en!# at Ma!h 2 to
/
S%&ar eA!en!# to ro!?ets
at &o6 s"eed or
e$oat%os"her!* n&et
dA!u&tes* a re&at+e&#
unde+e&o"ed and
une$"&ored t#"e* !oo&n(
dA!u&tes* +er# nos#*
thrust96e(ht rato s
s%&ar to ra%.ets.
S<5:.K/1 S%&ar to a ra%.et
6thout a dHuserO
ar2o6 throu(h the
entre en(ne
re%ans su"erson!
Fe6 %e!han!a& "arts*
!an o"erate at +er#
h(h Ma!h nu%bers
)Ma!h 4 to 10, 6th
(ood eA!en!es
U0V
St&& n de+e&o"%ent
sta(es* %ust ha+e a +er#
h(h nta& s"eed to
'un!ton )Ma!h _1,* !oo&n(
dA!u&tes* +er# "oor
thrust96e(ht rato )^2,*
-2
e$tre%e aerod#na%!
!o%"&e$t#* ar'ra%e
dA!u&tes* testn(
dA!u&tes9e$"ense
T+5@) 5)<;/1
A turbo.et 6here an
addtona& o$dFer
su!h as o$#(en s
added to the ar
strea% to n!rease
%a$%u% a&ttude
Ier# !&ose to e$stn(
des(ns* o"erates n
+er# h(h a&ttude* 6de
ran(e o' a&ttude and
ars"eed
Ars"eed &%ted to sa%e
ran(e as turbo.et en(ne*
!arr#n( o$dFer &?e LOX
!an be dan(erous. Mu!h
hea+er than s%"&e
ro!?ets.
The %oton %"u&se o' the en(ne s e@ua& to the ar %ass %u&t"&ed b# the s"eed at
6h!h the en(ne e%ts ths %assB
I P % !
6here % s the ar %ass "er se!ond and ! s the e$haust s"eed. In other 6ords* the
"&ane 6&& 2# 'aster ' the en(ne e%ts the ar %ass 6th a h(her s"eed or ' t e%ts
%ore ar "er se!ond 6th the sa%e s"eed. Go6e+er* 6hen the "&ane 2es 6th !ertan
+e&o!t# +* the ar %o+es to6ards t* !reatn( the o""osn( ra% dra( at the ar nta?eB
% +
Most t#"es o' .et en(ne ha+e an ar nta?e* 6h!h "ro+des the bu&? o' the (as e$tn(
the e$haust. :on+entona& ro!?et %otors* ho6e+er* do not ha+e an ar nta?e* the
o$dFer and 'ue& both ben( !arred 6thn the ar'ra%e. There'ore* ro!?et %otors do
not ha+e ra% dra(O the (ross thrust o' the noFF&e s the net thrust o' the en(ne.
:onse@uent&#* the thrust !hara!terst!s o' a ro!?et %otor are !o%"&ete&# dHerent 'ro%
that o' an ar breathn( .et en(ne.
The ar breathn( en(ne s on&# use'u& ' the +e&o!t# o' the (as 'ro% the en(ne* !* s
(reater than the ar"&ane +e&o!t#* +. The net en(ne thrust s the sa%e as ' the (as
6ere e%tted 6th the +e&o!t# !;+. So the thrust s a!tua&&# e@ua& to
S P % )!;+,
--
Turbo"ro"s ha+e a 6de rotatn( 'an that ta?es and a!!e&erates the &ar(e %ass o' ar
but b# a re&at+e&# s%a&& a%ount. Ths &o6 s"eed &%ts the s"eed o' an# "ro"e&&er
dr+en ar"&ane. Dhen the "&ane s"eed e$!eeds ths &%t* "ro"e&&ers no &on(er "ro+de
an# thrust )!;+ [ 7,.
turbo.ets and other s%&ar en(nes a!!e&erate a %u!h s%a&&er %ass o' the ar and
burned 'ue&* but the# e%t t at the %u!h h(her s"eeds "ossb&e 6th a de La+a& noFF&e.
Ths s 6h# the# are sutab&e 'or su"erson! and h(her s"eeds.
Lo6 b#"ass turbo'ans ha+e the %$ed e$haust o' the t6o ar 2o6s* runnn( at dHerent
s"eeds )!1 and !2,. The thrust o' su!h en(ne s
S P %1 )!1 ; +, Q %2 )!2 ; +,
6here %1 and %2 are the ar %asses* ben( b&o6n 'ro% the both e$hausts. Su!h
en(nes are eHe!t+e at &o6er s"eeds* than the "ure .ets* but at h(her s"eeds than the
turbo sha'ts and "ro"e&&ers n (enera&. For nstan!e* at the 17 ?% atttude* turbo sha'ts
are %ost eHe!t+e at about 7./ %a!h* &o6 b#"ass turbo'ans be!o%e %ore eHe!t+e at
about 7.30 %a!h and true .ets be!o%e %ore eHe!t+e as %$ed e$haust en(nes 6hen
the s"eed a""roa!hes 1 %a!h ; the s"eed o' sound.
Ro!?et en(nes are best suted 'or h(h s"eeds and a&ttudes. At an# (+en thrott&e* the
thrust and eA!en!# o' a ro!?et %otor %"ro+es s&(ht&# 6th n!reasn( a&ttude
)be!ause the ba!?;"ressure 'a&&s thus n!reasn( net thrust at the noFF&e e$t "&ane,*
6hereas 6th a turbo.et )or turbo'an, the 'a&&n( denst# o' the ar entern( the nta?e
)and the hot (ases &ea+n( the noFF&e, !auses the net thrust to de!rease 6th
n!reasn( a&ttude. Ro!?et en(nes are %ore eA!ent than e+en s!ra%.ets abo+e
rou(h&# Ma!h 10.
For a&& .et en(nes the "ro"u&s+e eA!en!# )essenta&&# ener(# eA!en!#, s h(hest
6hen the en(ne e%ts an e$haust .et at a s"eed that s the sa%e as the ar"&ane
+e&o!t#.
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EXP NO B1
STUDY OF PERFORMANCE OF PROPELLER
AIM
To stud# the "er'or%an!e o' the "ro"e&&er
BASIC PROPELLER PRINCIPLE
The ar!ra't "ro"e&&er !onssts o' t6o or %ore b&ades and a !entra& hub to 6h!h
the b&ades and are atta!hed. Ea!h b&ade s essenta&&# o' rotatn( 6n(. As a resu&t o'
ther !onstru!ton* "ro"e&&er b&ade "rodu!e 'or!es9thrust to "u&& or "ush the aero"&ane
throu(h ar.
Po6er to rotate the "ro"e&&er b&ades s 'urnshed b# the en(nes. Lo6 "o6ered
en(ne "ro"e&&er s %ounted on the "ro"e&&er sha't and that s (eared to the en(ne
!ran? sha't.

PROPELLER NOMENCLATURE
In order to e$"&an the theor# and !onstru!ton o' "ro"e&&ers t s ne!essar# =rst
to de=ne the "arts o' +arous t#"es o' "ro"e&&ers and (+e the no%en!&ature asso!ated
6th the "ro"e&&er.
The !ross se!ton o' a "ro"e&&er b&ade s sho6n n the =(ure the &eadn( ed(e o'
the b&ade tra&n( ed(e* the !a%bered sde* or ba!? and the 2at sde or 'a!e. The b&ade
has an aero'o& sha"e s%&ar to that o' an aero"&ane 6n(O t s throu(h that t s a s%a&&
6n(O 6h!h has been redu!ed n &en(th* 6dth and th!?ness )s%a&& 6n( sha"e,. Dhen
the b&ade start rotatn(* ar2o6s around the b&ade 'ast as t 2o6s around the 6n( o' an
aero"&ane and b&ade s &'ted 'or6ard
The no%en!&ature o' an ad.ustab&e "ro"e&&er s &&ustrated n the =(ure. Ths s
%eta& "ro"e&&er 6th t6o b&ades !&a%"ed nto a stee& hub asse%b&#. The hub asse%b&#
s su""ortn( unt 'or the b&ades* and t "ro+des %ountn( stru!ture n 6h!h "ro"e&&er
s atta!hed to the en(ne "ro"e&&er sha't. The "ro"e&&er hub s s"&t on a "&ane "ara&&e&
-0
to the "&ane o' rotaton o' the "ro"e&&er to a&&o6 'or the nsta&&aton o' the b&ades. The
se!tons o' the hubs are he&d n "&a!e b# %eans o' !&a%"n( rn(s se!ured b# %eans o'
bo&ts.

NOMENCLATURE FOR A CROUND AD#USTABLLE PROPELLER

The =(ure sho6s t6o +e6s o' +arous !ross se!tons o' "ro"e&&er b&ades. The
b&ade shan? s that "orton o' the b&ade near the butt o' the b&ade t s usua&&# %ade
th!? to (+e ts stren(th* and t s !#&ndr!a& 6here t =ts the hub barre&* but the
!#&ndr!a& "orton o' the shan? !ontrbutes &tt&e or no thrust. In order des(ns* the aero
'o& sha"e s !arred to the hub b# %eans o' b&ade !uHs 6h!h are thn sheet %eta&s and
t 'un!ton &?e !o6&n(.
BLADE ELEMENT THEORY
The theor# 'or the des(n o' ar!ra't "ro"e&&er 6as ?no6n as b&ade e&e%ent
theor#. IT Is so%e t%e re'erred to as the <RLE DIE:KI theor# as the "o&sh s!entst
na%e s <RLE DIE:KI.
The theor# assu%es to the t" o' the b&ade s d+ded nto +arous %a&&*
rud%entar# aero'o& se!tons. For e$a%"&e ' a "ro"e&&er b&ade s 0/ n!h &on( and !an
be d+ded nto 0/ one;nto aero'o& se!tons. F(ure sho6s one o' these aero'o& se!tons
&o!ated at radus MrN* the !hord M!N 6&& de"end on the "&an 'or% or (enera& sha"e o' the
b&ade.
A!!ordn( to the b&ade e&e%ent theor#* %an# aero'o& se!tons or e&e%ents ben(
.oned to(ether sde b# sde* unt to 'or% an aero'o& )the b&ade, that !an !reate thrust
6hen re+o&+n( n a "&ane around !entra& a$s.
The thrust de+e&o"ed b# a "ro"e&&er s n a!!ordan!e. Dth Ne6tonNs thrd &a6 o'
%oton. In the !ase o' "ro"e&&er the =rst a!ton s a!!e&eraton o' a %ass o' ar to rear o'
the aero"&ane. Ths %eans that ' "ro"e&&er s e$ertn( a 'or!e o' 277 "ounds n
a!!e&eratn( a (+en %ass o' ar* t s the sa%e t%e e$ertn( at a 'or!e o' 2777 "ounds
n "u&&n( the aero"&ane n the dre!ton o' o""oste that n 6h!h the aero"&ane s
"u&&ed 'or6ard. The @uanttat+e rea&Faton s&" a%on( %ass* a!!e&eraton* and 'or!e
!an be deter%ned b# the use o' 'or%u&a Ne6tonNs se!ond &a6.

FP%`a
True "t!h "ro"e&&er s one that %a?es use o' the b&ade. E&e%enta& theor#. Ea!h
e&e%ent o' the b&ade tra+e&s at dHerent rates o' s"eed that s t" se!ton tra+e&s 'aster
than the se!ton !&oser to the hub.
BLADE STATION
J&ade statons are des(nated dstan!es n n!hes %easured a&on( the b&ade 'ro%
the !entre o' the hub the =(ure sho6s the &o!aton o' a "ont on the b&ade at the /2
-1
n!hes n ea!h staton ths d+son o' b&ade nto staton "ro+des a !on+enent %eans o'
ds!ussn( the "er'or%an!e o' the "ro"e&&er b&ade &o!atn( b&ade %ar?n( and da%a(e
=ndn( the "ro"er "ont 'or %easurn( the b&ade an(&e and &o!atn( ant;(&are areas
BLADE ANGLE
J&ade an(&e s de=ned as the an(&e bet6een the !hord "art!u&ar b&ade se!ton
and the "&ane o' rotaton
BLADE PITCH
J&ade "t!h s the dstan!e ad+an!ed b# the "ro"e&&er n one re+o&uton
GEOMETRIC PITCH
The "ro"e&&er 6ou&d ha+e been ad+an!ed n one re+o&uton
E$PERIMENTAL MEAN PITCH
The dstan!e tra+e&ed b# the "ro"e&&er n one re+o&uton 6thout "rodu!n( thrust
EFFECTIVE PITCH
A!tua& dstan!e ad+an!ed b# the "ro"e&&er n one re+o&uton
PITCH DISTRIBUTION
The an(&e (radua&&# de!reases to6ards the t" and to6ards the shan?
ANGLE OF ATTACK
Ths s the an(&e 'or%ed bet6een the !hord o' the b&ade and dre!ton o' re&at+e
ar 2o6
PROPELLER SLIP
S&" s de=ned as dHeren!e bet6een the (eo%etr! "t!h and the eHe!t+e "t!h
FORCES ACTING ON A PROPELLER
Thrust 'or!e
:entr'u(a& 'or!e
Torson or t6stn( 'or!e
Aerod#na%! t6stn( 'or!e
Aerod#na%! t6stn( %o+e%ent )ATM,
:entr'u(a& t6stn( %o+e%ent ):TM,
THRUST FORCE
Thrust 'or!e s a thrust &oad that tends to bend "ro"e&&er b&ade 'or6ard as the
ar!ra't s "u&&ed throu(h the ar
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE
:entr'u(a& 'or!e s the "h#s!a& 'or!e that tends to thro6 the rotatn( "ro"e&&er
b&ades a6a# 'ro% the hub
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TORSION OR TIISTING FORCE
Torson 'or!e s the 'or!e o' ar resstan!e tends to bend the "ro"e&&er b&ade n a
dre!ton that s o""oste to the dre!ton o' rotaton
AERODYNAMIC TIISTING FORCE
It s the 'or!e that tends to turn the b&ade to h(her b&ade an(&e
AERODYNAMIC TIISTING MOMENT
It s the 'or!e that tends to turn the b&ade an(&e to6ards &o6 b&ade an(&e
PROPELLER EFFICIENCY
Pro"e&&er eA!en!# has been a!he+ed b# use o' ths aero'o& se!ton near the t"s
o' the "ro"e&&er b&ades and +er# shar" &eadn( and tra&n( ed(e
.
Pro"e&&er eA!en!# d !a&!u&ated P thrust horse"o6er 9 tor@ue horse "o6er
Its s the rato o' thrust horse "o6er to the tor@ue horse "o6er. Thrust horse
"o6er s the a!tua& a%ount o' horse "o6er that an en(ne "ro"e&&er trans'or%s $ thrust
PROPELLER CHART
For a (+en "t!h an(&e J* the eA!en!# o' the "ro"e&&er s a 'un!ton o'
d%enson&ess @uantt# T* the ad+an!e rato su!h as a "&ot 'or a 'a%&# o' "t!h an(&e
that s +a&uab&e n a "ro"e&&er !an be "&otted. Ths s !a&&ed the "ro"e&&er !hart.
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