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PUMP HEAD

Understanding pump head and NPSH



201022503 권유진
200722120 김민수


Contents

1. Pump head
• Head
• Suction head, Discharge head
• Total head
• Friction head
• Operating point

2. NPSH
• Cavitation
• NPSH

Head
• The height at which a pump can raise water up.
Head
• The height at which a pump can raise water up.
• Head is affected by suction condition.
: Head is proportional to suction level
Head
• Capacity to do a job. (Compared in the same suction level)
• Independent of the type of fluid.
(When viscosity is relatively low and similar to water)

Head
H = 2.31 × p ⁄ SG
H : head(ft)
P : pressure(psi)
SG : Specific gravity of fluid being pumped
Suction head, Discharge head
• Suction head
: vertical distance between the pump datum and the
liquid surface in suction well.

• Discharge head
: vertical distance between the pump datum point and
the liquid surface in the receiving tank. (or Discharge
pipe)
Suction head, Discharge head
Total head
• Vertical distance between the level of the source of the
supply and the surface of the discharge liquid.
• Manufacturers use this term to show the performance of
their product.
• Total head = Discharge head – Suction head

Total head
• When the liquid level is below the pump datum, then
suction head has a negative value.
• In the case, suction head is also called ‘suction lift’.
• Total head = Hd + Hs
Friction head
loss of head that occurs in pipe flow due to viscous effect.
No flow With flow
Total head = Hd – Hs + Friction head
Operating point
• Performance curve
: total head vs flow

• System curve
: total of friction head losses vs flow

• Operating point
: The point where two curves intersect.



 : Pump cannot work without adjusting
system.

 : Pump capacity is bigger than system
requirement

Cavitation
• Formation of gas bubbles
in a flowing liquid.

• Occurs when the pressure
in the pump inlet drops
below the vapor pressure
of the liquid.

Cavitation
• Loud noise
• Loss of capacity
• Damage
NPSH
• Net Positive Suction Head.
• Must be calculated before using pump to prevent
cavitation.
• NPSHa and NPSHr

NPSHr and NPSHa
NPSHr
• Required
• Minimum pressure
required at the suction
port of the pump to keep
the pump from cavitating.
• Depends on the pump.
• Given.
NPSHa
• Available
• Absolute pressure at the
suction port of the pump.
• Depends on the system.
• CALCULATE.
• NPSHa > NPSHr × 1.3
NPSHa : calculation
• NPSHa = Ha ± Hz – Hf – Hvp
Term Definition
Ha Absolute pressure on the surface of the liquid in the supply tank
Hz Vertical distance between the surface of the liquid in the supply tank
and the centerline of the pump
Hf Friction losses in the suction piping
(Values can be found at the friction chart)
Hvp Absolute vapor pressure of the liquid at the pumping temperature
(Liquid types and temperature of the system should be considered)
NPSHa : example & selection of pump
• Given
Ha : 10m
Hz : 3m
Hvp : 0.2m
Hf : 0.5m

• NPSHa = 10+3-0.2-0.5
= 6.3
• 6.3 / 1.3 = 4.85


Thus, we need a pump with
the NPSHr smaller than 4.85