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DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION AND OPTIMISATION OF

CDMA NETWORKS (RF PLANNING)
DEEPRA BHATTACHERJEE, ABHRA MAZUMDAR, EEE 06
Project Guide: Ashok R!"s#$%, EEE De&t'
CDMA stands for "Code Division Multiple Access." It is a form of spread-
spectrum, an advanced digital wireless transmission technique. Instead of using
frequencies or time slots, as do traditional technologies, it uses mathematical codes to
transmit and distinguish between multiple wireless conversations. Its bandwidth is much
wider than that required for simple point-to-point communications at the same data rate
because it uses noise-lie carrier waves to spread the information contained in a signal of
interest over a much greater bandwidth. !owever, because the conversations taing place
are distinguished b" digital codes, man" users can share the same bandwidth
simultaneousl".
#$ %&A''I'( deals with the air interface between the )A*+ ,#A'*C+I-+#
*,A,I.' / the M.)I&+ 0'I,. It also involves designing and optimi1ing the networ
in order to provide a high qualit" service to customers.
,he ob2ective of the pro2ect is to plan, design / optimi1e a cell site at BA(GARPET'
,he main purpose of the planning is fewer base stations per networ, greater s"stem
efficienc" and capacit", improved voice qualit" and a reduction or elimination of drop
outs and multi path problems. All of which result in improved services and greatl"
reduced networ cost.
THE VARIOUS STAGES INVOLVED IN CDMA RF
PLANNING & OPTIMISATION
3. MAR)ET *UR+E,: Depending on the mareting feedbac, a thorough surve" is
conducted to define the area of coverage / potential candidate sites are listed out. ,he
maret surve" also gives the area morpholog"-terrain and clutter information. ,he
purpose of the maret anal"sis is to collect all the information from the maret that
affects the design of the #$ 'etwor. ,he following information is gathered4
a5 Classification of various t"pes of morphologies in the area
b5 Ma2or points of interest
,he e6act locations of the important places of the town were recorded using a (&.)A&
%.*I,I.'I'( *7*,+M 8I, as shown below.
-titude -o!"itude-octio!
39.:;<=< >;.3<;<?#ailwa" Crossing I
39.:;<@ >;.3>=<>(as Agenc"
39.:;;3@ >;.3>@>?#ailwa" Crossing II
.' C/(T0(U/U* 1A+E TE*T4 Initiall", the signal propagation is studied in the
proposed area transmitting a CA signal. ,he signal propagation is done using an omni
directional antenna placed at the center of the proposed clutter
2' PRE3A(A-,*0*4 All the data collected b" the CA test is anal"1ed using a special
pre-anal"sis software tool. ,,& uses a tool called %&A'+, +- provided b" MA#C.'I.
It is used to design / evaluate networ problems. It provides with a comprehensive set of
coverage and interference anal"ses of different cell sites.
$I(0#+ 3. )A'(A#%+, %#.%.*+D *I,+ C.-+#A(+ CA&C0&A,I.' 0*I'(
%&A'+, +-
After Clutter classification is done, the location of the cell site is derived based on the
information gathered. )ased on the information collected, design process is carried out
as shown4
$I(0#+ 9. D+*I(' %#.C+** B%#+ A'A&7*I*5
,he penetration median losses, standard deviations, and fade margins calculated on this
basis below are taen directl" to the lin budgets to be used in later cell planning.
C/MP/*0TE PR/BAB0-0T, /4 *ER+0CE
CA&C0&A,I'( #+C0I#+D $AD+ MA#(I'
+'-I#.'M+',
,7%+
BDM.#%!.&.(7E5
)0I&DI'(
%+'+,#A,I.'
.0,D..# C.M%.*I,+ ,.,A&
M+DIA'
&.**,D)
*,D.
D+-.
F,
D)
*,D.
D+-.
F, D)
A#+A
A-AI&I)I&I,7
,A#(+,,G
$AD+
MA#(I'
BD)5
D+'*+ 0#)A'
)&D(.
9= ; ; :=GH>?GI+D(+ >.<
0#)A' )&D(. 3? ; ; :=GH>?GI+D(+ >.<
*0)0#)A' )&D( 3= ; ; :=GH>?GI+D(+ >.<
#0#A& )&D(. 3= ; ; :=GH>?GI+D(+ >.<
,7%ICA&
-+!IC&+
; @ ; :=GH>?GI+D(+ >.<
Link Engineering (LINK UDGET)
(Values are not shown )
!" Re#er$e Link %&ge' V(i)e
P*r*+e'er Uni'$ U SU
RBS Receiver Sensitivity dBm
Subscriber Maximum Transmit Power Watts
Subscriber Maximum Transmit Power dBm
% MS Power used or R! Pilot %
Reverse Pilot "verhead Penalty dB
MS #ntenna $ain dBi
MS Total %iRP dBm
MS T&' %iRP dBm
Buildin( Penetration !oss dB
Body !oss dB
Probability o cell ed(e covera(e %
Slow )adin( Std* +eviation dB
)ade Mar(in dB
RBS #ntenna $ain dBi
RBS Rx,Tx &able and &onnector !oss dB
Sot-'ando $ain dB
#nt +iversity $ain dB
&+M# Traic !oadin( %ect %
&+M# Traic !oadin( %ect dB
Maximum #llowable Path !oss dB
CDMA P,*nner-$ MAPL
(ant (ain calculated in ant .attern ile)
MS total %/RP dBm
MS #ntenna $ain dBi
)ade Mar(in dB
Buildin( Penetration !oss dB
Re.%ire& MS EIRP (MEIRP P,(')
NOTE/ (&0 ,($$ & SHO 1*)'(r i$ )*,)%,*'e& in
$i+%,*'i(n (MEIRP)
,he antenna selection is done from the data base provided b" various vendor companies.
,he antenna is a cross polar antenna with !-beam of JJ degrees / --beam of JJ
degrees along with a gain of JJ.JJ d)d operating at the JJJ Mh1 range. ,he antenna
plots are as follows4
$I(0#+ K. !.#IL.',A& %&.,
$I(0#+ @. -+#,ICA& %&.,
$I(0#+ ?4 )A'(A#%+, A'A&.( %#+DIC,I.' B,#IA&5
CDMA re5erse 6i!k !6%sis: ,he +- reverse lin anal"sis computes the probabilit"
that a mobile user , with the abilit" to transmit at the ma6 +#% specified b" "ou, is able
to close the reverse lin. #everse lin closure is computed as the probabilit" of receiving
a mobile unitMs signal at the serving siteBs5
Aith sufficient mobile unit traffic channelBreverse lin target5 +bH't for acceptable call
qualit". ,he reverse lin anal"sis incorporates the statistical nature of the processes and
computes the probabilit" of closing the lin for each handoff t"pe.
Closing the reverse lin in no handoff is predicted in terms of a single
probabilit". Ahile the various DsoftE handoff configurations are computed in terms of
2oint probabilities that at least one of the contributing entities will receive adequate
signal.
CDMA 4or#rd 6i!k !6%sis4 ,his anal"sis verifies that the specified threshold
B,NADD or ,ND#.% specified for each cellHsector5 for pilot channel coverage has been
met or e6ceeded before a cellHsector is considered to be a valid contributor. ,he hand-off
contributors are based on the strongest pilot signals at each bin.
7' R4 0MP-EME(TAT0/(: .nce the proposed cell site has been finali1ed, #$
implementation team swings into action wherein the proposed cell site is ph"sicall"
implemented.
$I(0#+ <. ,.A+# C.'*,#0C,+D A, )A'(A#%+,
8' (ET1/R) PER4/RMA(CE M/(0T/R0(G: .nce the base station is set up, its
performance is continuousl" monitored. ,his process is called drive testing. ,he tool is
called ,+M* I'-+*,I(A,.# from +#IC**.'. ,he drive test s"stem is placed in a
vehicle / driven throughout the coverage area of potential site. It actuall" gives a
subscriberMs point of view of the networ. It can evaluate call - processing operations,
perform call processing functions and signal qualit" of received base station signal.
Dri5e test 9or $ode6 c6i:rtio!: A significant number of t"pical sites are evaluated
using the test transmitter / receiver to determine signal deca" rates and to get a fairl"
accurate understanding of the effects of t"pical clutter in the area. ,ests are also
conducted to evaluate the additional attenuation which the signal suffers during
penetration of t"pical buildings and vehicles. ,he focus is on developing models
generall" applicable to the area, not on performance of specific individual sites.
Dri5e test 9or site e56utio!: Although propagation models for an area alread" have
been refined coverage of a particular site is so critical, or its environment so variable due
to urban clutter that it is essential to actuall" measure the coverage and interference it will
produce. ,he focus is on this specific site.
CDMA Per9or$!ce 0!dictors:
0!dictor ;<: 4ER =$#AM+ +#A*0#+ #A,+5
 .' forward channel Breali1ed at handset5
 .' reverse channelBreali1ed at base station5
 $+# is e6cellent call qualit" Dsummar"E statistic
$+# is the end Oresult of the whole transmission lin.
• If $+# is good then an" other problems arenMt having much effect
• If $+# is bad thatMs not the problem-- it is the end result of the problem
• Ae must investigate other indicators to get a clue what is going on.
0(D0CAT/R ;.: Ec>0o OAhat does it meanP
Ah" canMt we 2ust use the handsetMs received power level to guide handoffsP
 )ecause it is a simple total #$ power measurement, the total of all sectors
reaching the mobile. Ae need a wa" to measure the signal strength of each sector
individuall", / we must be able to measure it quicl" / simpl". ,he solution is to use
each sectorMs pilot BAalsh =5 as a test signal to guide handoffs.
 At the mobile, if the pilot of a certain sector is ver" strong / clean, that means we
also should be able to hear a traffic channel on that sector, so handoff would be a good
idea.
 If the pilot of a certain sector is wea, then we probabl" wonMt be able to get much
benefit from using a traffic channel on that sector.
6' P/*T A(A-,*0*4 ,he drive test data is loaded into a post anal"sis tool. It assesses
the end-to-end performance of the networ infrastructure. It can be used to anal"1e the
benchmar drive data to compare the performance of their own networ with those of
competitors. ,,& uses ,+M* D+*8CA, as the post anal"sis tool. Ae get the following
parameters4 +cHIo, ,6 power, #6 power and $+#.
$I(0#+ >4 CDMA %A#AM+,+#* $#.M ,+M* I'-+*,I(A,.#
$I(0#+ ;4 +CHI. %&.,
Starting optimization on a new system
R4 co5er"e co!tro6
 ,r" to contain each sectors coverage, avoiding gross spillover into other
sectors.
 Too6s 4 %' plots, !andoff state plots, mobile ,6 plots.
(ei"h:or 6ist tu!i!"
 ,r" to groom each sectorMs neighbor to onl" those necessar" but be alert to
special needs due to topograph" / traffic.
 ,ools4 %*MM data from mobilesQ propagation prediction.
*erch #i!do# setti!"s
 $ind best settings for *#C!NAI'NA,N',N#
 +speciall" optimi1e *#C!NAI'NA per sector using collected finger
separation dataQ has ma2or impact on pilot search speed.
ACCE** 9i6ures, dro&&ed c66 !6%sis
 $inall", iterative corrections until within numeric goals.
35 %erformance monitoringHgrowth management
95 )enchmar e6isting performance
K5 Identif" problem cells / clusters
@5 &oo for signs of overload
?5 ,raffic trending / pro2ection
,hese steps must be continuousl" applied to guide needed growth.
CONCLUSION
,he construction of the cell site at )angarpet was completed. ,he site became full"
operational in the first wee of APR0-, .006' ,he pro2ect wor is carried out for ,A,A
,elecom.
PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH
VOLTAGE CALE TERMINATIONS
A#0' 80MA#, )!A#A,.(, *0MI, 80MA#, +++ =<
%ro2ect (uide4 Asho #angaswam", +++ Department
Due to recent advances in cable manufacturing technolog" it has been generall"
recogni1ed that the %D in cable insulation itself is no longer a ma2or threat. Consequentl",
attention has been paid to the cable accessories such as cable 2ointsHterminations where
the comple6 structure and the construction can cause potential ha1ard to the whole
s"stem. Ahen cable 2oints are sub2ected to !- testing, it is observed that the wea points
in the insulation lie void, crac and other imperfections lead to partial discharges in the
insulation. %artial discharge is defined as locali1ed discharge process in which the
distance between two electrodes is onl" partiall" bridged that is the insulation between
the electrodes is partiall" punctured. %artial discharge B%D5 measurements are universall"
accepted as a technique giving some indication of the state of the insulation in high-
voltage apparatus. Cable end users are een to adopt %D monitoring during assembl" and
commissioning of s"stems.
,his pro2ect is aimed in setting up the partial discharge tester with the sensitivit" in the
order of pico coloumbs, stud"ing the problems in partial discharge measurement, charting
out calibration procedure and the stud" of %D testing for the !- cable industr".
P*r'i*, &i$)2*rge in HV )*3,e 'er+in*'i(n
Ahen !- cable terminations are sub2ected to !igh voltages in surve"s ,it is observed that
the wea points in the insulation such as void, cracs / other material imperfection leads
to partial discharge in the insulation which is catastrophic in nature.
As per the standard BI+C <=9>=5, the partial discharge in cable terminations are measured
in broad band frequenc" range / required sensitivit" level of whole measuring s"stem
should be less than or equal to ? %ico coulombs.
%artial discharges are, in general, a consequence of local electrical stress concentrations
in the insulation or on the surface of the insulation. (enerall", such discharges appears as
pulses having a duration of much less than 3 micro secRI+C<=9>=S.R3S
%artial discharge measurement in !- cable terminations is an important step for
demonstrating the qualit" of electrical insulators. 0ntil the %D measurement of cable
terminations are less than %ico coulomb, the" can not put into service.
$I(0#+ 3. ,+*, C7C&+ .$ A' +&+C,#ICA& !.-. +C0I%M+',
PD Me*$%re+en' Se'4%5
,he abilit" to measure low levels of partial discharge is referred to as sensitivit".
,()k4Di*gr*+
$I(0#+ 9. )&.C8 DIA(#AM .$ %D ,+*,+# *+,0%
Manuacturin(
Shi..in(
#ssembly
Runnin(
Time
Runnin(
Time
%nd o
!ie-cycle
Ty.e
Test
Routine
Test
Sam.le
Test
PD Te$'
"n-!ine
Monitorin(
"-!ine
Monitorin(
"n-!ine
Monitorin(
M*n%1*)'%rer
On4$i'e
!- AC
*uppl"
AC *uppl"
Control
%D
Detector
)locing
Capacitor
,est
.b2ect
Calibration
In2ector
Capacitor
$I(0#+ K4 +C0I-A&+', CI#C0I, $.# %D M+A*0#+M+',
,he above figure shows a simple arrangement in which a gas filled void is present. ,he
partial discharge in the void will tae place due to difference in electrical stress. Due to
geometr" of the material the various capacitances are formed. $lu6 lines starting from
electrode A and terminating at the void will form one capacitance C
b3
and similarl" C
b9
between electrode ) and the cavit". C
c
is the capacitance of the void. *imilarl" C
a3
and
C
a9
are the capacitance of the health" portions of the dielectric on the two sides of the
void. In the above figure
C
a
TC
a3
UC
a9
VV.. Beq.35
C
b
T
9 3
9 W 3
Cb Cb
Cb Cb
+
VV.. Beq.95
Closing of the switch * is equivalent to simulating partial discharge in the void as the
voltage -
c
across the void reaches breadown voltage resulting into a current I
c
Bt5 to
flow. #esistor #
c
simulates the finite value of current I
c
Bt5.
TE*T *ET3UP
It is used for measuring the magnitude of partial discharge
$I(0#+ @4 ,+*, *+, 0%
R ,+. - ,est ,ransformer, C
m
- Measuring Capacitor, C

- Coupling Capacitor, % - ,est
.b2ect,A8--D - Measuring Impedance, D,M - %D MeterS
&
a0
V
&
a
&
b
&
c
R
c
/
c
S
&
b0
&
c
&
b1
&
a0
P
&
2
+TM
#3V-+
&
m
T%"
Power
Su..ly
Me*$%re+en' Pr()e&%re
$igure K depicts ph"sical model and equivalent circuit of a dielectric with internal void as
a source of partial discharges. ,he model comprises of the following elements4
C
c
O Capacitance of defect
C
b
O Capacitance of health" dielectric in series with the defect
C
a
O Capacitance of the specimen
# O #esistance of the discharge path
If the alternating voltage uBt5 is applied to the specimen and the gap does not brea down,
the voltage u
3=
Bt5 appears across the gap
u
3=
Bt5 T
5 Bt u
C C
C
b c
b
+
VVV
Beq.K5
if the gap breas down at constant, polarit" independent voltage u
1
Bdischarge inception
voltage5 and the discharge e6tinction voltage is 1ero, a pulse lie voltage u
3
Bt5 appears
across the defect. At the same time, a pulse-lie current is developed in the circuit as a
result of discharging capacitance C
c
through the gap resistance #. the amount of charge
developed at the void is
Xq
i
T

BC
c
U C
b
5u
1
VVVBeq.@5
and the apparent charge, i.e. the charge measurable at the sample terminal is
Xq T C
b
u
1
VVV Beq.?5
which leads

to
Xq
i
T Xq
b
b c
C
C C +
T Xq

B3U
5
b
c
C
C
VV
Beq.<5
*ince the ratio C
c
H C
b
is unnown Bthe defect has unnown location and geometr"5 there is
alwa"s the uncertaint" about the conclusions drawn from the discharge magnitude and
pattern measured at the specimen terminals. 'onetheless, the simple equivalent circuit
allows the following observation4
Ba5 %D current pulses appear as pulse train of alternating polarit"
Bb5 ,he number of discharges increases with increasing test voltage whereas their
amplitude remains nearl" the same
Bc5 ,he amount of charge released in a void is not identical with that measurable
at the specimen terminals as apparent charge
Although the equivalent circuit is well suited to the e6planation of principles of partial
discharge development it proves inadequate for modeling practical %D phenomena. ,here
are a number of difficulties which arise
• ,he discharge inception voltage, 0
1
, ma" not be identical for positive and negative
polarities of the e6citation voltageQ it ma" not be also identical from one pulse to the
ne6t
• ,he discharge e6tinction voltage ma" not be 1ero, not identical for positive and
negative polarities of the e6citation voltage or even from pulse to pulse
• %h"sics of discharge phenomena at the interface dielectricHdefect are not well
understood to mention a few more general ones. As the result, identification of partial
discharges in power apparatus is based on empirical methods.
%ower suppl" is given to &- side of test transformer and the !- side is connected to the
test ob2ect with the help of coupling capacitor and measuring capacitor as shown above.
,he partial discharge meter is connected across the measuring impedance.
,here are several variations of a commonl" adopted %D measuring circuit. .ne of them is
shown in the figure below. ,he specimen C
6
is in series with input unit. ,he input unit
contains a current transformer whose primar" side is connected to terminals A and + and
the secondar" sides to terminals Amp and ) of the unit. ,he current transformer provides
means for electrical isolation of the test circuit, e6posed to high voltage, from the
electronic circuitr" of the measurement set. ,he input unit also contains an #&C filter.
,he current transformer together with the #&C filter form the detection impedance which
shapes the signal sent to the detector amplifier. ,he amplifier can have a bandwidth of 3=
8!1 O ?== 8!1. ,his bandwidth is designed for good re2ection of ?=!1 signal as well as
e6ternal high frequenc" interference.
Calibration of Partial Discharge Measurement
Accurac" of measurement depends on the accurac" of calibrators and we have to carr"
out operational test. ,hese tests have to be carried out because of determination and
eeping of characteristics of calibrators.
It is of the following t"pes4
• %D meter calibration
• Charge in2ection calibration
• Aindow setting
• *tandard specimen calibration
&oad on %ower suppl" to
%D ,ester
)efore Calibration After Calibration
Aithout light 33.> pc 33.= pc
Aith light <.9 pc ?.? pc
&alibration
P+ Meter
&alibration
&har(e /n4ection
&alibration
Window Settin(
Standard S.ecimen
&alibration
,A)&+ 3. M+A*0#+D DA,A
N(i$e in PD D*'*
A ma2or bottlenec encountered with %D measurement is the ingress of e6ternal
interferences Busuall" of ver" high amplitude comparable to %D signal5 that directl"
affects the sensitivit" and reliabilit" of the acquired %D data. Ma2or e6ternal interferences
encountered during %D measurement and their sources are4
• Discrete spectral interferences BD*I5 from radio transmissions and power line
carrier communication s"stems
• %eriodic pulse shaped interferences from power electronics or other periodic
switching
• *tochastic pulse shaped interferences from arching between ad2acent metallic
contacts, %D and corona from the power s"stem which can get coupled to the
apparatus under test
• #andom or white noise from components
• !armonics from main suppl"R9S.
INDPNDN! COMPONN! "N"L#SIS $IC"%
ICA is a new class of neural networ algorithm, with actual wor starting onl" as late as
late3::=Ms. *ince then it has found its worth in a variet" of applications, mostl" dealing
with blind source separation and feature e6traction. %resentl" it is one of the most sought
after topic for research in fields lie digital signal processing and neural networs. Its
main assumption is that the individual signals are nongausssian. ,his is one of the main
reasons for its dela"ed birth, prior to which all random signals with (aussian distribution
was taen as a standard.
,he woring principle of ICA is to find the demi6ing matri6 of a set of mi6ed signals, b"
estimating the mi6ing matri6 from the observed mi6ture and taing its inverse to get bac
the demi6ed signals. It e6ploits the statistical correlation in the observed mi6ed signal to
estimate the mi6ing matri6. ,he code was developed and simulated in matlab.
*tart
C is the Covariance matri6 of mi6ed signals.
V is the matri6 of +igen vectors of C.
Y is the Diagonal matri6 of +igen values of C.
Ahitening4
x V x
T / -
~
9 3
Λ =
*
+igen Decomposition4
p=3 and k==
Choose initial random weight vector
5 = B w
p
with norm 3.
B is the null matri6 of si1e of N
N Tnumber of independent components
5 = B
5 = B
5 = B
5 = B 5 = B 5 = B
p
p
p
p
T
p p
w
w
w
w BB w w
=
− =
) / (-u ) u ( (u) g
) / (-u u (u) G g(u)
9 e6p 3
9 e6p
9 9
9
− = ′
= ′ ∆
A
A

6 B5 w u
,
p
=
{ } { } (k) w (u) g E - g( u) x E ) (k w
p p
′ = +3
5 3 B w
5 3 B w
5 3 B w
+
+
= +
k
k
k
p
p
p
5 3 B
5 3 B
5 3 B
5 3 B 5 3 B 5 3 B
+
+
= +
+ − + = +
k w
k w
k w
k w BB k w k w
p
p
p
p
T
p p
5 B w 5 3 B w k k r
p p
− + =
ε ≤ r
3 + = k k
Re.lace the .th column o B with wp (k50)*
#ter whitenin(6 add wp (k50)
T
as the .th row o W*
Then /ncrement . to .50
*top
N p ≤
,rue
$alse
,rue
$alse
F*$' ICA A,g(ri'2+
$igure ?.3 4 *ource signal B*35 and 'oise source B*95
$igure ?.9 Mi6ed signals from *3, *9 B0nnown mi6ing ratio5
$igure ?.K +stimated signals 73,79 from mi6ed signals using $ast ICA
%lease note that the non linear function (auss B"We6pB-"Z9H955 is used for the simulation.
$rom the simulation, it is observed that $ast ICA algorithm can be considered as potential
candidate for the noise removal from %D source signal, which is the long standing
problem in the !- engineering industr". $ast ICA algorithm, as e6plained in RKS, was
implemented using MA,&ab. $urther stud" of ICAMs application in !- engineering ma"
be carried out, after careful observation of the theor" and limitations of Independent
Component anal"sis concept, which can be found elsewhere.
CONCLUSION
,hus %artial discharge B%D5 measurements are universall" accepted as a technique
giving some indication of the state of the insulation in high-voltage apparatus. ,he stud"
on partial discharge measurement for !- cable terminations were successfull" carried
out at ,7C. electronics and the partial discharge tester has been installed in association
with the !- sphere gap testing unit. Calibration on the testing equipment was done as per
the calibration procedure, described in RKS. Initial testing was carried out over the samples
given at the industr" and was found e6ternal interference Bnoise5 as the prominent
bottlenec in the deplo"ment of %D testing in the product test c"cle of !- cable
termination assembl". ,he application of filter circuits to the main suppl" of %D tester
was of little use to solve this problem. After careful literature surve", we found that
wavelet anal"sis of %D data was shown as successful simulation techniques in separation
of partial noise from %D signal. Ae also found that a concept nown as Independent
component anal"sis found similar applications in other areas such as #adar s"stems,
astroph"sics, +C( and M#I. After sufficient understanding of the algorithm, we tried to
simulate the popular $ast ICA algorithm over %D lie data and found satisfactor" initial
results. !ence, we recommend the further stud" of Independent Component Anal"sis in
the area of !- +ngineering, for more interesting results. ,he same was recommended to
,7C. +lectronics officials for further stud" in future.
RE4ERE(CE*:
3. D%artial discharge measurementsE- I+C %ublication 9>= B3:;35 M.Massanori et al,
*tud" on Application of wavelet anal"sis of degradation diagnosis of partial
discharge in -oid, I+++ ?
th
intern Conf. on Conduction and )readown in solid
dielectrics, pp K>3-K>?, 3::?.
9. I+C %ublication <=9>= 3:;3 Partial Dic!arg" #"aur"$"nt %nd "diti&n'
K. %ro2ect #eport on D%A#,IA& DI*C!A#(+ M+A*0#+M+', $.# !I(!
-.&,A(+ CA)&+ ,+#MI'A,I.'*E, Department of +lectrical and
+lectronics +ngineering, CM# Institute of ,echnolog"- )angalore, 9==<.