VOORSANGER COLLECTION

OF TH E

SEMITIC LIBRARY
OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
GIFT OF

REV.

JACOB VOORSANGER,
1906

D.D.

LOWERS OF ZION

BY

AARON FRIEDENWALD,
OF BALTIMORE, MD.

M. D.

ADDRESS DELIVERED BEFORE THE M2KVE ISRAEL ASSOCIATION OF PHILADELPHIA

DECEMBER

23, 1894

PUBLISHED BY

THE ZION ASSOCIATION
OF BALTIMORE

Since affairs in Russia assumed a state which compelled thousands upon thousands of its Jewish inhabitants to seek
in other parts of the world, the love for Zion, that has accompanied Israel throughout the dispersion, has acquired a fresh intensity; this has inaugurated a movement, full of richest promise. This movement has the lofty aspira-

homes

tion of

making the Hebrew language again

.the

language of

the Hebrews, and of establishing a home for Israelites in that land which was the home of their ancestors. It shall

be the purpose of the lecture which I have the honor to deliver, by your kind invitation, to present the motives which have led to the organization of the Chovevi Zion, to outline >its progress, and to consider the possibilities which it indicates.

The world has greatly marveled at the unexpected preservation of the Jews. When Rome finally triumphed over the Holy City and Israel was carried into captivity, everything pointed to the total annihilation of the Jews as a Little did the historian of that day dream, that the people.
historian of nearly twenty centuries later would speak of them as the only living relic of antiquity; as a people, which,

under the most adverse conditions, had made the long journey from ancient to modern times; as a people, fully preserving its identity, and still adhering to that religion for which it had unceasingly to suffer, from the time of the
its nationality to the present day. But it is not the simple survival of the Jews of which history has to take account. It must accord them recognition not only

destruction of

having preserved themselves, in spite of having been subjected to persecutions such as have been the lot of no other people, but also for much that they have preserved for the world. They were the media, through which largely the intellectual achievements of the East reached the West
for

320222

during the middle ages; and to them, furthermore, must be accorded no mean share in the progress the world has made since that time. During that long period in which the whole of Europe was steeped in ignorance and the continuous clash of arms was the expression of a vile brutality, the Jews, proscribed at every step by those in power, subjected to the contumely of vulgar mobs, insecure in the possession of what was tangible, with no place that they could call a home, cultivated a spiritual life and an intellectin moments of peace within their four walls their forms would assume the dignity of self-respect crouching and they would look down upon the degradation of their persecutors with contempt, were they slaves, or were they

ual

life; "and

Conscious of a sacred mission which they were deskings. tined to fulfill, feeling their responsibility as custodians of the Law and animated by the hope of the restoration of their
life, they became the heroes of an unequaled marconsecrated to the glory of God. Through many tyrdom centuries they were the witnesses of the instability of material

national

grandeur among the many nations. While they were kept alive by the inspiration of a holy faith, they saw one power
tors.

succumb to another, each in turn becoming their persecuOver and over again they were robbed of all their
earthly possessions,

cheated of their
sides,

faith.

but they took good care not to be Though pressed as they were on all

peace and honor were regarded as worthless currency
offered

when
their

them

in

exchange for that gem inherited from

treated as aliens everywhere, they held this up as the insignia of becoming a blessing to
forefathers;

although

all

mankind.

When

at last the light of
its

modern times began

to illumine

the world, and under

benign influence man was gradually led from serfdom into citizenship, and despotism had to yield to representative government, the Jew could not altogether be excluded from the benefits which were brought about by the salutary changes. In those countries which
led in the advance, the

Jew was granted equal

rights.

It

if an era had been established in the world's hiswhich there could be no step backward in the conception of the principle of equal rights for all men. The general proposition, that any law which denied the rights

seemed

as

tory, in

of any special class of men, carried with it the condition that the rights of all men would be rendered insecure, was too clear to be disregarded. No class of men, therefore,

struggle for liberty, could demand rights for themselves which they would deny to others; and so the
in the great

Jew came in for his share, although, the inference that it was not always ungrudgingly awarded.
It

is justified

seemed further that the intimate intercourse among the marked the age, would bring them rapidly nearer to each other in their sympathies, and that the memorable political regeneration which had so greatly changed the complexion of Western Europe could not long be barred
nations which

out of

its

Eastern empires.
auspices, the

Under these favorable new activity. The long passed, came very much

Jew entered upon a

discipline through which he had to his aid in the various fields in

which he was now permitted to move, and it was not long before he attracted attention for the distinction which he attained. It was not remarkable that he succeeded so well
of commerce, for even with the under which he had previously labored, his disadvantages aptitude in this direction had fully manifested itself. He now assumed a conspicuous part in the work to be done in other fields. He had suffered under the unjust accusation that he had no ambition except for gain, but he soon appeared as an earnest competitor in every avenue which led to honorable fame. In the arts and in the sciences, in literature and in politics, he contributed names which will remain illustrious for all time. Having always been loyal to the state, even when he had to suffer from unkind discriminations, his pride in full citizenship knew no bounds; and he was not loath to rid himself of characteristics, some of which were not to his disin the various branches

credit, in order to thoroughly provide against the continuance of social distinctions between him and other citizens.

He

plunged into the current of the times and

his course

indicated that he sought his welfare in directions in which he drifted farther and farther from his Jewish interests. He

though he had just been born, and as had died. He felt sure that though he was now standing upon firm ground, and that no occasion could arise that would render his rights insecure.
lived his
life

new

as

at his birth his history

History, however, has often

repeated

itself

in the testi-

mony which

it

has recorded in regard to unexpected in-

terruptions in the onward march of civilization; and so in our day, the long-cherished hope that the benign influence

which had developed in Western Europe would travel eastward and reach the Jews where they were most in need of was doomed to meet a sad disappointment. It was a it, most bitter irony of fate, when the storm came from whence the refreshing zephyr was expected. In that country foremost among the advanced in high culture and in the development of general intelligence, an intolerance asserted itself which on account of its anomalous character had to assume " a new name, " antisemitism this, the lamented Frederick " III. (then Crown Prince) denounced as Ein Schmach des
;

Jahrhunderts."
that

More

thian

this,

its

contagion spread to

1

mighty empire, its close neighbor, whose institutions were formed in the mould of the dark ages, and there it

incited a cruel persecution, which, in the intensity of its barbarism, could only be equaled by events which disgraced mediaeval times. Antisemitism spread from Germany to Austria, and even secured for itself some foothold in republican

France.

stand, the

ment.

provide a basis upon which it could was confronted by a remarkable arraignJew "He pushed himself forward and secured positions

To

which others should occupy." " He sent too many of his " He filled too youth to higher institutions of learning."

many

chairs in the universities."
in

a factor

the press."

He became too potent These were some of the charges

"

preferred against him.
tion

The intelligence, energy and ambiwhich enabled him to elevate himself, and which would have been commended in any one else, subjected him to a relentless hatred. He was denounced as a parasite upon the nation, although he was an inhabitant of Germany before Christianity was brought there, and here, as has been his lot almost everywhere else, had been systematically robbed during many centuries whenever it was worth while doing so. He was charged with being governed by a low standard of honor in his dealings with all men, and this by the party which sent Ahlwardt to the Reichstag, even after he had been disgraced in a court of law. Every possible distortion of statistics was made available to place him -in
a false light before the world, to justify the cruel ostracism
to which -he at once was subjected, and to .offer a plea upon which eventually, the abrogation of his rights under the law could be consummated. Humiliating as this condition of affairs was to the Jew in Germany, against whom it was specially directed, it made no less a profound impression

upon his unfortunate brother was in the way on account
as he could not be

in Russia.

In Russia the Jew

made

of his religion, and inasmuch to desert his faith, he must be

gotten rid of. In Germany ,no one objected to his religion, so it was said, but his race, as a component part of the nation,

would

vitiate

the

ethical

well-being

of

the " Germanen-

thum"; and he had to be degraded, so that he might be made harmless. The persecution in Russia, terrible as it was, could be more readily understood than antisemitism born in Germany. The former was the outcome of the crime of one man, in a country whose people could not claim rights; the latter is the sin of a nation, whose instituon the theory that all men have rights, to assail which is a crime. Everywhere the relation of the Jew to the rest of the world has been and is being busily dis" cussed, and there has arisen what has been termed the Jewto contemplate Those who have been forced ish Question."
tions are based

expatriation with

all

the hardships necessarily attending

it,

felt

that they

would come.
the

would be unwelcome guests wherever they It has become more and more evident, that

more or less hated everywhere. The prejudice against him has gone through so many generations, has been made legitimate by the example of so many high in
Jew
is

the church and in the state, that it has finally impressed itself as a perverted social instinct, to eradicate which will

require a very extended period of time and a higher moral development than the world has yet attained. One who has come into possession of wealth by inheritance would be
it on the ground that it had originbeen dishonestly acquired, especially on the allegation ally of one who was known not to have enjoyed the friendship of the testator; and so will one generation inheriting a social prejudice from previous generations be disinclined to give it up in behalf of one who has been considered an outsider

rather loath to renounce

in untold

number

of generations.

The

efforts of the

Jews themselves and of

their friendly

advocates to place their cause in a true light before the world have not met with much success. The hideous caricature
in

which the Jew has so long been maliciously represented,

made such a lasting impression upon the mental vision of his enemies, that no matter in what form he appears, he assumes the repugnant picture in which he has
has finally

become

familiar.

So

far,

there

is

no indication that can

encourage us to hope that any speedy change will take
place in this morbid condition. The restoration of healthy function in a perverted sense, that has passed through generations as a hereditary infirmity, is an extremely slow proIn concrete cases the Jew will succeed by life-long cess.
to

reputation for integrity, by special talents, or rare genius, win due recognition, but the friendship which it may

bring him will not benefit any other Jew; on the contrary, when one Jew brings himself into discredit, the Jews as a

embraced in the condemnation which follows. The antagonism which is directed against the Jew everywhere proceeds from the same cause, its expression varies only
class are

according to the state of civilization in the respective counIt is very unfortunate, therefore, that tries in which it exists. the geographical distribution of the Jews is such, that but a comparatively small number live in the more highly devel-

Western Europe, while probably more than their number are to be found aggregated in rather a small area of Eastern Europe, where the harshest
oped
states of
all

one-half of

conditions prevail. It would be a sad mistake to continue to suffer and to

wait for that period

been

the brotherhood of man shall have and those enmities based upon differfully established, ences in descent and belief shall have ceased. But what shall we do? The Chovevi Zion has given an answer to

when

It is based upon the conviction that the question. of the dignity of the Jewish people all over preservation

this

upon the revival of the national idea. This will bind them closer to their Jewish interests; and this is gradually to secure for a portion of those imbued

the world depends

now suffering from the deinfluence prevailing within the overcrowded pale pressing of settlement, a life such as their ancestors led, amid the
with the national sentiment,
scenes of their ancient history. Here the peace in a simpler and more natural life.

Jew

is

to find
in freer

Here,

movements,
strength.

regain his physical Here, under the inspiration of a glorious past,
in
air,
is

fresher

he

to

to the land
shall

Jewish thought is to find its richest spontaneity. Here, where once milk and honey flowed, the Jew

the waste,

come from his latest expatriation to redeem worn as the badge of mourning for the
by the ancient
exile.

it

from

children

carried off

This sentiment led to the organization of Chovein Zion Association in Russia in 1882, shortly after the outbreak of the persecution which has become so memorable; but

from the nature of things
in secret, until

in that empire,
it

it

continued to exist

1890,

when
it

received the sanction of the
its

government.

While

still

receives

largest support in

Russia, similar associations have been established in

Aus-

tria,

Germany, England, France, and I am glad to add, in Twenty-four colonies have thus far been country. The established, embracing a population of over 4000 souls.
this

progress

of

these

colonies

has

made

it

clear

that

the
is

project of repopulating Palestine by Jews in this It is true that these colonies are perfectly feasible.

way
still

far

from having reached full prosperity, but the increasing reward which has attended the persistent labor of the earnest colonists, warrants the assumption that it will not be long before they will be able to rely entirely upon themselves. The " Chovevi Zion " will then be enabled to devote its means to the gradual organization of new colonies. It must be mentioned here that a part of the money contributed to the older colonies has already been returned to the association.

lected

Very important data relating to the colonies, colby Mr. Adam Rosenberg of New York, during a
"

visit in

October, 1891, were published in the Palestina," a quarterly journal in the interest of the Chovevi Zion in England. There have been considerable changes since this

report was made, but it is sufficiently recent to furnish very " important information. This, with an article from Jordan," an annual publication by the Zion Association in Vienna,
in 1893,
details

by Dr. Nathan Birnbaum, form the basis of some which I shall now give.

COLONIES IN JUDEA.
Mikveh
ter in
Israel, the oldest of the colonies,
is

1869,

situated

prises over

colonies,

3000 acres. being the agricultural
It is

founded by Netone mile south of Jaffa. It comIt is not to be classed with other
school
in

of

the

Alliance

Israelite Universelle.

prominent

being the pioneer to

suits.

suggest the return of Jews in Palestine to agricultural purThose who have been educated in this school, have

rendered valuable services in organizing the later colonies.

One hundred and

twenty pupils are

now

receiving instruc-

years, three of
practical

tion in this institution, whose curriculum extends over six which are devoted to theory, and three to its
application.

Among

its

products are almonds,

peaches, apricots, oranges, citrons, granates and apples, but the principal yield is derived from its extensive wine culture.

In 1891, its income reached 20,000 francs. Rishon r Zion, situated five miles south of Jaffa, is the first colony to grow out of the modern Zion movement. It
i i6s. per acre; 240 acres which there are about 15,000 almond trees, 700 granates, 16,000 mulberries and a large number of trees bearing nuts. 600 'acres are planted with Other parts of the land are assigned to 1,150,000 vines. cereals. This colony was founded in 1882 under great difficulties, which have now, through the patient persistence of the colonists and the timely aid of Baron Edmund de Rothschild, been fully overcome. Silk culture has been added to the enterprises of this colony. The length of the village from east to west is 540 metres, its breadth, north and south, 150 metres. There are about 50 houses built of The four streets are lined stone, and a population of 400. on both sides with mulberry trees. Satisfactory irrigation is maintained by steam power and a network of Upon pipes.

embraces 2000

acres,

bought

at

are planted in fruit trees, of

is

the highest elevation in the colony its beautiful synagogue located. The colony has the advantage of a well-organized school. The more advanced boys and girls are already

availing themselves of Hebrew as the language of conversation. The prospects of this community are most gratifying. Waad el Chanin was founded by Reuben Lehrer, of Russia,

in 1883.

It is

about four miles

in

a southeasterly direc-

comprises 400 acres, which were bought i 45. per acre. at Here, again, the munificence of Baron de Rothschild came to the rescue by a loan of 12,000 francs.
tion
Jaffa. It

from

There are 30,000 grape vines and 10,000 fruit trees. The colonists number 30. They are still in want of sufficient funds, but their lot has greatly improved and they are full of encouragement. The wine which they manufactured was

10
sold to the baron.

Honey

has been a profitable product;

300 hives have yielded about 20 francs each, per annum. Ekron, founded in 1882, is about 20 miles south of Jaffa.
After a severe struggle in the beginning, it came under the protection of the baron and has made such satisfactory
progress, that as early as 1886, its settlers were able to dispense with further aid. It embraces noo acres purchased
at

from

i 1

123. to

i

i6s.

per acre.

The

population, con-

6 families and laborers, numbers 150 souls. There are planted 12,000 apricot, 300 olive, 700 orange and 800 Grain and vegetables are among the products of fig trees. this colony. looo acres are under cultivation. The colony has been provided with a synagogue for the past 8 years, with a school, an 'apothecary and a good road to Jaffa. Gadrah owes its organization, in 1882, to Russian Jewish students, in whom there awoke a new love for Zion and the national sentiment, and who in their enthusiasm turned their These settlers had to undergo great steps toward 'Palestine. which they bore with commendable heroism. privations, They finally were accorded aid by the Chovevi Zion Association in Odessa. It is situated eight miles west of Ekron and has 900 acres of land, to which 400 acres are shortly to be added. Gadrah numbers 91 souls, and has well-built houses. One-half of the land is devoted to the raising of grain and the rest to fruit trees and vines. They have ploughing machines drawn >by six horses. The soil is well adapted to vine culture. In the summer of 1888, quite an exciting battle occurred between the colonists and thievish 1 fellahin, of whom one was captured; since then they have not been molested. Kustinyeh was colonized in 1888, by 25 families from Bessarabia, and acquired by them at a cost of 25,000 rubles, and now mostly farm-let to fellahin; only three of the original families remained. The baron bought up the whole land and maintains a few orchards and vineyards. Several
sisting of
1

Native peasants.

II

of the original

settlers

are

now among

the colonists of

Rishon

1'Zion.

Rechovoth, about two miles distant from Ramleh, is on the road between Jaffa and Jerusalem and was founded upon a new plan. Since 1889, societies have been formed all over Russia, and even in Palestine, in France and in

America; the members, by monthly payments of larger or smaller amounts, in the course of a number of years, secure a home in Palestine upon land which is adequate to support a family. Such an association in Warsaw, called " Menucha w'nachla" (Peace and Possession), purchased, in 1890, a neglected fellah village, which now has been converted into a prosperous colony. This colony of 3000 acres presents a
beautiful landscape. Its population is 200. It has 170,000 vines. number of laborers find employment here large

A

wages; they sleep in a large woodshed, or in the open field, or find lodging in Waad el Chanin, or in Ramleh, a distance of three-quarters of an hour's walk. The eucalyptus has been planted here in large numbers for its sanitary
at fair

influence.

Tikveh (Gate of Hope) is 8 miles north of and includes 3600 acres. This colony was really Jaffa founded as early as 1878 by Jews from Jerusalem, by whom the enterprise was abandoned in 1882. Its recolonization Russian Jews took place in 1885, having at this time by

Pethach

by the acquisition of the contiguous This colony has good land for the raiscolony, Jehudiyeh. ing of grain, which has been its important interest, but 200,000 vines have also been planted. Containing considerable marshy land, a larger number of eucalyptus have been
enlarged
its

territory

raised.

The colony

Jewish laborers.

consists of 95 families and a number of ^ 700 acres of the land is the property of

the baron, through whose generosity the colony has been enriched by a beautiful park. 300 acres are owned by a

Mr. Lachman of Berlin, and managed by

his agent, Mr. Frankel, in the interest of the school of the colony. Chedera, about 50 miles south of Haifu, was established

12

in

1890 by a Russian-Jewish society. It contains 8000 acres and 150,000 vines. At first there arose difficulties, the
authorities not granting the privilege to build houses; these, however, have been removed. great deal of work was

A

required on account of draining the soil, which the prevalence of malaria demanded. The number of the colonists

thus far

is

small.

GALILEE AND SYRIA.
Those enumerated above embrace the colonies of Judea, and we now come to consider what has been done in Galilee and Syria.
Sichron
Shevaye,
Jacob)

Em
8s.

with its daughter colonies, Samarin, Jemal and Tantura, forms the largest Jewish
It contains altogether
i

v

45. per acre, and 5000 This colony has now a population of about 2000. It is located about 30 miles northwest of Pethach Tikveh. This settlement was inaugurated by 70 Roumanian Jews in 1882, as Samarin, who encountered the greatest hardships and privations, but who were rescued by the generosity of Baron Edmund de Rothschild. The chief

agricultural settlement in Palestine. 8200 acres, 3200 acres having cost

acres

i

per acre.

interest of this

colony
is

is

amount

of grain

raised.

vine culture, although a considerable The colony possesses a fine park,

a good water supply, wine cellar and petroleum storehouse. It has synagogue, hospital, school and kindergarten. The
smaller colonies are from 2 to 5 miles from the main colony. Tantura is the harbor of the colony and is close to the seashore; through the efforts of the baron, a glass factory has been established here. Much attention has been paid to
the raising of roses, acacia, anise, etc., which are already utilized for the manufacture of perfumery to a considerable
extent, and it is intended that this industry shall hereafter be largely increased. Rosh Pinah, founded by Russian Jews in 1882, is situated three miles south of Safed. It embraces noo acres with

13

200,000 vines and has been very successful in the culture of citron (ethrogim). It has a population of 240, 50 houses, a synagogue with boys' choir and a school. This colony,

which was also aided by the generous baron, has been enabled to dispense with outside assistance since 1889. Yesod Hamalah is situated on the eastern side of Lake

Meron, 8 miles east of Rosh Pinah. This colony was founded by Russian Jews from Meseritz in 1883. It has a
large vine culture, large plantation school, extensive culture of acacia, roses, anise, etc., for the manufacture of perfumes.
It

has excellent irrigation.

The water supply

is

effected

by

elevated works, run by horse power, close to the lake, and distributed to all parts of the colony by means of hewn stone

aqueducts. Among its products, wheat, oats, maize and beans must be mentioned. Mishmar ajarden. This colony is about five minutes walk from the Jordan Stone Bridge, one mile south of Yesod Hamahah. It was founded by Lebowsky, a former resident of New York, in 1884, and for four years let to fellahin, but now cultivated by Yehudim of Safed and former colonists of Rosh Pinah and Yesod Hamalah. It " received support from the " Esra society of Berlin, but is now reported to be self-sustaining. The land of this colony consists of 600 acres, bought at i to i\ 45. per acre. Ain Sejthim and Mechnayim. Founded in 1890, 2800 acres, I mile northwest of Safed, reported to have made sat-

H

isfactory progress.

Miron and P'Kyn, 6

to 8 miles southeast of Safed, have

540 acres, with 24,000 olive trees. Miron is renowned for being the burial place of Shimon ben Jochai, Hillel, Shamai, and other tenaim. FKyn is an old settlement of Sephardic
Jews,

who

live the life of the fellahin.

There are a number of other

colonies,

of being very small or of too recent date, need not be tioned here.

which on account men-

The good effects flowing from the colonies have been varied and manifold, and not restricted altogether to the

colonists; for example, the skilled physicians who are attached to them have rendered aid to other inhabitants who

had previously been in sad need in this respect. In Rosh Pinah a factory is now being established for spinning silk, in which 60 persons will be employed. We see from this that besides redeeming the land from barrenness, the colonists are inaugurating an activity in the Holy Land by
introducing

new

industries.

Some

of the colonies are not

yet fully equipped, and have to express the juice from the grapes in a primitive way. On this account many of the

grapes cannot be utilized for the manufacture of wine. To avoid the sale of the fruit at too low a price, the manufacture

cognac has been resorted to quite extensively. Stores have been opened in CoYistantinople, Beyrout, Saffa, and Jerusalem. During the last three years the Chovevi Zion of Russia contributed the sum of 120,000 rubles towards the support of these colonies, and from indications, the average amount, in the present year, will be greatly increased. The executive committee has established dairy farms in Pethach Tikveh and Chedera, and both in these colonies and in others, stock-raising has been begun on a small scale. The Chovevi Zion, recognizof
for the sale of this article

ing the importance of proper educational facilities to the colonization schemes, besides looking to the provision for schools in the respective colonies, have established a model
school in Jaffa, embracing a preparatory and an advanced grade, which is to form the basis of an institution modeled
after the pattern of the

German Gymnasium.

In the school,

6 teachers male department and 115 pupils and 5 teachers in the female department in the advanced grade; and 6 teachers in the preparatory grade. The languages taught embrace Hebrew, Arabic and French. The instruction in the Hebrew is conducted with the view of making it the language
as
it is

now

constituted, there are 146 pupils, with

in the

of conversation.

Wisotsky of Moscow has donated 10,000

francs for the development of a department for the education of teachers, and Weinstein of Odessa has contributed

14,000 francs for providing

good buildings

for schools.

15

The scheme

Jews from the West to the Holy Land.

in Palestine

for the rehabilitation of a large number of does not design to favor a general stampede

Those who

desire to

enter into combinations for the organization of new colonies will have to furnish evidence of their fitness for the under-

and are made thoroughly familiar with the difficulwhich await them. Under the arrangements governing the formation of colonies, they cannot be made up of such adventurers Who leave their homes where they have nothing to lose, in the expectation of alighting somewhere where
taking,
ties

something favorable may turn up.

Not only
which they

are they
will

made

familiar with the conditions

by

be surrounded, but they must manifest their willingness to submit to the discipline of such conditions,

by contributing some means
these combinations.

to entitle

them

to enter in

portant movement,
it is

it

In contemplating this new and immust constantly be borne in mind that

led

and encouraged by the national sentiment, and that
its

in maintaining

activity in full

harmony with
it

this senti-

ment
of

its

growth may be slow, but

certainly will

be con-

tinuous.

Even

if

affairs in

Russia shall take a turn in favor

our brethren

in that

Empire, under the new Czar, of which
indication, the

there seems to be

some

movement

will

go

on.

The

progress which the colonies will no doubt continue to make, will be a potent factor in spreading this sentiment

in every part of the world. There is already one private combination in this country forming for this purpose, having negotiated for a large tract of land in Palestine; this temporarily had to be abandoned on account of

among Jews

difficulties

presented in the

way

of securing the

title

in the

name

A

of those representing the combination directly. large tract of land has likewise been acquired
it is

by the

proposed that the colonists that shall settle upon this land will come from that country. The Chovevi Zion of New York, likewise, has secured considerable land which is reserved for future settlers. The idea has taken deep root, that the Jews shall acquire

Chovevi Zion of England, and

i6

a

home

that shall be their
lived

their ancestors
will

own, and which shall be where and received that inspiration which

remain imperishable.

Under the influence of this sentiment, a new and quite extensive Hebrew literature has been produced. Throughout the development of the Chovevi Zion, the acquisition of a home in Palestine and a revival of the Hebrew language

have been inseparably interwoven. It is due to the faithful laborers whose enthusiasm has enabled them to contribute to Hebrew literature a new and valuable treasure, that their work should be made more generally known, and I regard it as a part of the task that I have undertaken to give a summary of what has been
accomplished in
I.

this direction.

LITERATURE REFERRING TO THE " LOVE OF ZION" AND JEWISH COLONIZATION IN PALESTINE. (ORIGINAL.)

Chemdo (The Coveted Land). Sokolov. Eretz Israel (The Land of Israel). Ben Yehuda. Doresh L'Zion (Study of Zion). Kramer.
Eretz

Jerusalem (Magazine).

Luntz.
(If I will

Massa L'Eretz Hakdosho (Travels

Im Ain Any

Li,

Me

Li?

Bachrach. in the Holy Land). not help myself, who will ?). Zitron.

Eretz Hatzvi (The Land of Beauty) Eilbaum. Befrosa Pro-oth (In the time of rioting). Eisman. Yosef Chain (Adding Grace). Friedland.

Yesod Hamaalo (Foundation of L'Eretz Avothann (To the Land

Greatness).

Brill.

of our Fathers).

Levantin.

Mevassereth Zion (Tidings from Zion). Mahr. Naitzach Israel (The Strength of Israel). Friedman. Eitzo Vetusheao (Advice and Lessons). Meyrowitz. Shivath Zion (Return of Zion). Slutzky. Free Ho-oretz (The Fruit of the Land). Jawetz.

Am

Olam (The Everlasting Nation). Smolensky. Kavereth (Bee Hive Magazine). Rohnitzky. Ho-oretz (The Country). Jawetz. Gaon-Ho-oretz (The Greatness of the Land). Jawetz. Me-Jerushalaim (From Jerusalem). Jawetz. Charosheth Hamaase Vehamischor B'Eretz Israel (Industry and Commerce in Palestine). Judelowitz.

The

salem, by Meyrowitz

Colonist, Magazine for Agriculture, in & Lutz.

Hebrew, published

in Jeru-

II.

LITERATURE CONCERNING JEWS AND JUDAISM FROM THE NATIONAL POINT OF VIEW AND IN ITS SPIRIT. (ORIGINALS

AND TRANSLATIONS.)
of Israel). S. P. Robinowitz. Pardess (Garden). Robnitzky. Achiosof (Comp. of Compilers). Achiosof. Memizroch Umimarov (From East and West). Brynin. Nais Lagoim (Tankred).

Kenesseth Israel (Assembly

Banner to the Nations (Translation). Daniel Deronda (Translation). Achrith Jerushulaym (The End of Jerusalem),

A

Lando. Bar Kuchba. Lando. Herod. Lando. Koreth Hayehudim Besphard (History of the Jews in Spain).
berg.

Fried-

Metzoy Golah (Exodus into Exile). S. P. Robinowitz. Dibre Hayomim L'Bue Israel (History of the Jews). Jawetz. Dibre Yemai Hoamim (History of the Nations.) Jawetz.
(Olden Times). Yehallel. Hetzoath Ben Abigdor (The Publications of Ben Abigdor). 43 original novels taken from Jewish life. Palestine, by Munk, being translated. Encyclopedia of Judaism, being compiled by the friends of Wisotzky. Many educational works by Jawetz, Klatzka, Gruzowsky, etc.
III.

Yomim Mekedem

RECENT AND OLDER LITERATURE WHICH HAS BEEN REPUBLISHED ON ACCOUNT OF THE SPREAD OF THE HEBREW LANGUAGE.
(ORIGINAL AND TRANSLATIONS.)
Translated from Gratz by

Dibre Yomai Israel (History of the Jews).
S. P.

Robinowitz.

Ho-osif. Magazine, published by Sokolof. Beth-Otzar Hasafros (Treasure of Literature). Magazine, by Graber. Knesseth Hagdolah (Great Assembly). Magazine.

Hakerem (Vineyard). Magazine. Gan Prochim (Garden of Flowers). Magazine. Dor Dor Vedorshov (Generations and their
ers).

representatives or lead-

Weiss.

Second Edition.
to the

More Nebuchay Hazman (Guide
Krochmal.

perplexed of the times).

2nd Edition.

Koll Shire, Y. L. Gordon (All the poems of Gordon). Gordon. Koll Kithvey, Y. L. Gordon (All the writings of Gordon). Gordon. Koll Kithvey, Peretz Smolensky (All the writings of Smolensky).

About

10 books.

Koll Shire, A. B. Gottlober (All the poems).

Gottlober.

i8

Hebrew

Dictionary, by

Ben Yehuda,

Natural Philosophy, (Translation), Bernstein.
Ethics, (Translation), Spinoza. Education, etc., (Translation), Spencer. Evolution of Man, (Translation), Lipfert.

History of Modern Philosophy, Miser. Translations of works of Keyserling, Josephus, Karpeles, Zunz. New Editions of the works of Mapu, Ginsburg, Slominsky, Weisel,

New

Levinson. Editions of the works of Yehuda Halevy, Eben Ezra, Alcharizi, Eben Gabirol, Maimonides, Rav Hai Gaon, Dunash ben Labratt,
etc., etc.

Translations of the works of Auerbach, Philipson, Dickens, Levanda, Oryeshke. Some of the works of Shakespeare, Lessing, Schiller.

The
and
will
is

nifies that

creation of a literature like this, unmistakably sigthe national idea has taken new and deep root
it

not likely to prove an ephemeral growth, but that
stronger.

become stronger and

The

return of thous-

ands of Jews, in a few years, to agricultural pursuits, out of which they had been driven by the unfriendly fate of twenty centuries, under conditions demanding such brave resolution, evidences an earnestness of purpose which points to
Palestine was peopled by Israel and great possibilities. sustenance to millions. It was wrested from Israel yielded
to

and remained despoiled. Fertility is again to be restored it by Jewish hands. In the deserted places Jewish villages shall arise. The vine-clad hills shall again recount the story of happy Jewish homes. The peaceful valleys

testimony of renewed Jewish life. The cities shall be redeemed from degeneracy through Western culture, which the exile shall bring with him. He who was a medium through which civilization reached the West during the dark ages, will appropriately become the bearer of enlightenment through which the Orient is destined to be regenerated. Institutions are to be reared which shall become
shall give

the laboratories of Jewish thought. The Jew is again to rise to his full dignity and show the world how much light Juda-

ism has shed, and is yet capable of shedding upon all mankind. This is the grand ideal which thousands upon thousands hope for and are willing to work and to suffer for.

V

But the
to those
Palestine.

influence of this

who

have, or

movement is who are willing

not to be restricted
to cast their lot in

It is to

take a strong hold
is still

upon the Jew every-

suffering from the formidable to be the great hope .that shall sustain him persecution through his trial. To him who has been elevated to full

where.

To him who
it is

made an alien by the social deand elsewhere, it shall afford that selfGermany emancipation which is to shield him from the allurements of the hour and fit him for the purposes of a high destiny. Throughout the great struggle, which eventually is to establish the brotherhood of man, in which we all are to lend our best efforts, the great fellowship which hitherto has embraced In the Jew of every land, is inviolably to be maintained. with the antipathy which assails him because he is dealing a Jew, he is to think, to live and to act in a renewed realizacitizenship cree, as in

by the

law, but

is nothing so sure to contribute to his happiwhich is Jewish. He is to stop bartering away his old treasures for flimsy novelties. He is not to borrow from others, while he is in possession of an inheritance by which the whole world can be enriched. This is how the " Jewish Question " is to be answered for the Jew. Not in a cringing spirit, but animated in the pride of having descended from a noble ancestry, to whom the whole world is indebted for having been the bearers of a message which was the first to publish the lessons of justice and humanity.

tion that there

ness

a's

that

all

In the revival of the national idea it Jews shall be settled in Palestine.

is

If

not proposed that those who have

but enter into the

been honored by citizenship in the more favored lands, will spirit which underlies the movement, they
can promote the cause by reviving the study of the

Hebrew

language, by forming societies of Chovevi Zion, as has been done in England and in Germany, and by living consistently the life of a Jew; and in promoting the cause in this way they will honor themselves, and fortify themselves to assume an attitude against which the shafts of Antisemitism
will

prove unavailing.

20
"

The eminence,

capability of .being stirred

the nobleness of a people, depends on its by memories, and for striving for

what we

call spiritual

ends

ends which consist not in im-

mediate material possession, but in the satisfaction of a great feeling that animates the collective body as with one soul."

These are the encouraging words which came from George
Eliot.

The Jew

is

confronted by the alternative, either to

make

a brave resistance against the

modern

influences

which con-

spire to bring about his disintegration, and come out of the fight with a new victory to add to his glorious record; or, being misled by the false meaning of assimilation to sur,

render to what he
the ignominious

is

made

to believe is inevitable,

and

suffer

doom

of the forgotten.

fire the Jewish heart to cast out the idols from It was not Israel that sold his birthright for the sanctuary. a mess of pottage. It was his to struggle and to win.

But Israel arise anew to

will

not surrender!

A

Maccabean

spirit will

-~5SSks
i^lubV'!

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