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 In simple words, CBM is a preventive maintenance carried out
at irregular intervals based on actual condition of the
machine.

 Carried out by monitoring the health and condition of
machines regularly by observing, checking, measuring certain
parameters and signals.

 CBM a.k.a Equipment Health Monitoring(EHM).
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 M/c produces 2 types of signals: Primary and Secondary.
 Primary signals are used to assess the performance of the
m/c like production rate, product quality etc. Monitoring
of primary signal- Performance trend monitoring.
 Signals like vibration, sound, thermal, chemical and
physical changes are called secondary signals.
 The secondary signals are the main causes for loss of
output.
 Therefore, monitoring of these secondary signals are
inevitable.
 70% of the damages can be found out using sec. signal.
 Secondary signals are classified into two:
 Dynamic signal- Vibration, sound, leakage, heat etc.
 Tribological signal- Friction and wear characteristics,
lubricant contamination and chemical changes.
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 CM is not a life extending activity, it only provides information on failure before there is
a breakdown.
 Done “Off line” or “On line”
 Offline
 Monitoring equipment is used in parallel to the equipment to be monitored.
 Can be Periodic or continuous.
 In offline periodic, the monitoring equipment can be made switch on and off
whenever needed (eg: for taking readings).
 In offline continuous, the monitoring equipment monitors as long as the machine
to be monitored operates (eg: record readings)
 Online
 In series.
 Generally continuous online systems are used,
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 Performance monitoring
 Visual, tactile and aural monitoring
 Vibration Monitoring
 Lubricant Monitoring
 Temperature monitoring
 Crack Monitoring
 Corrosion Monitoring
 Sound Monitoring etc..

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 Performance monitoring is used to:
 Measure variation in production rate

 Measure variation in product quality

 Efficiency

 Power in and out.
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 Direct methods
 Eye, ear
 Optical probes
 Microscope, stroboscope
 Indirect
 Radiograph
 X ray
 Thermograph
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 Most equipment operate in ambient temperature.

 Wear, friction can cause heating of m/c parts.

 Difference between ambient temperature and that of equipment
operating under load is the temperature rise, and this is monitored
to detect any fault.

 Thermometers, Pyrometers, Thermocouples, Thermistors,
Thermography (Infrared radiation scanner), etc…
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Thermography or Infrared Camera
 Many application: medical fields, inspections, environmental
studies, etc…
 Thermographic camera or infrared camera is a device that
forms an image (temperature profile) using infrared radiation,
similar to a common camera that forms an image using visible
light.
 All objects emit a certain amount of radiation as a function of
their temperatures. Higher the temperature, the more IR
emitted.
 EM radiations having wavelength btw 0.75 to 1000 microns is
called IR radiation.

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Thermography or Infrared Camera





 IR thermal imaging is a technique of producing 2D
images of temperature in a matter of seconds.

 No contact has to be made .
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 Factors affecting:
 Obstruction b/w sensor and target
 Background radiation from objects other than target
 Low emissivity
 Advantages
 Non contact
 Safe
 Cost effective
 Quick problem detection without interrupting service
 Prevention of premature failure and extension of life
 Can monitor target in motion
 Temperature profiles can be recorded and displayed easily.
 Wide temperature range can be measured
 Application:
 Detecting fault in electrical panels, insulators, wirings,
transformers etc.
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 Vibration- Heartbeat of machines.

 Includes vibration measurement / collection and analysis program

 The response is measured by a transducer and is passed to the
analyzer.

 The result is then downloaded to the software and further analysis
is made.

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 Vibration is rotating/ oscillating of m/c parts, back and forth
from its position of rest.
 M/c vibration is very complex consisting of numerous
frequencies due to the vibration of many components.
 So it will be very difficult to pinpoint a fault.
 Plot of amplitudes and frequencies of all individual vibrating
components of a machine is known as VIBRATION SIGNATURE.
 Signature are characteristics of the machine.
 Change in this is an indication of impending failure and its location.
 Also known as VIBRATION SPECTRUM.




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 Vibration transducers: converts vibration i/p to electrical o/p
 Eg: Accelerometers, Velocity transducers , PZT actuators…
Accelerometer
 o/p is directly proportional to acceleration forces.
 o/p created by applying force to piezoelectric crystal.
 The electrical signal is amplified & displayed as a time waveform.
Velocity Transducer
 o/p is directly proportional to velocity of measured unit.
 Eg: velocity pickup used for monitoring velocity of rotating machinery.
 Consist of magnet suspended on a coil surrounded by a conductive coil.
 Movement of transducer induces movement in magnet and results in
generation of electric current
 The electrical signal is amplified & displayed as a time waveform.

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 PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) Actuators:
 Is a type of piezoelectric material that changes
dimension when an electric field is applied.
 The change in dimension is directly proportional to the
applied electric field.
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a. Fluid Properties Analysis- viscocity, additivies etc
b. Fluid contamination analysis-dirt, soot, water etc
c. Fluid wear debris analysis (Wear particle analysis or Wear Debris
analysis)- worn out metals in lubricants
Types of contaminants:
 Rubbing wear particles: Normal wear, small flakes of metals.
 Fatigue chunks: Large chunk of metal due to fatigue damage
 Sliding wear particles
 Cutting wear
 Laminar wear
 Oxides , rusts etc.
Sources of contaminants:
 Built- in contaminants: occur during running of machines
 Internally generated contaminants: Wear debris from gears, bearings.
 Ingressed contaminants: include moisture, acids etc.
 Contamination added during maintenance
 Biological contamination
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FERROGRAPHY
 Quantifies and examines wear particles suspended in lubricants.
 Wear debris present in the lubricant sample are taken on a glass substrate
which is viewed through microscope.
 Findings: wear mode, rate, severity and location.
 Two types: Direct reading and Analytical
 Direct Read Ferrography: quantitative analysis of ferrous particles present in
oil.
 Wear particle concentration (WPC)= DL + DS (DL = Density of large particle (>5microns) )
 Percentage of large particle = (DL – DS) / WPC
 Analytical Ferrography: qualitative analysis. Microscopic analysis to identify
the composition of material present.
 Powerful magnet is used to trap ferrous particles and analyzed based on metallic and non
metallic.

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SPECTROSCOPIC OIL ANALYSIS PROGRAM (SOAP)
 Most widely applied technique for lubricant debris monitoring.
 Procedure of extracting fluid samples from operating systems and analyzing
them spectroscopically to determine the concentration of key elements of
contaminants.
 Multi elemental analysis of wear debris in lubricating oil.
 Iron, Aluminum, chromium, copper, tin, lead, silver etc.. are detectable.
 4 independent basic operations:
 Sampling - Sampling methods, frequencies.
 Spectrometric analysis - Emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy
 Diagnosis – data interpretation
 Validation of the diagnosis
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1. Sampling
 Sample should be hot and well mixed with possible
contaminants after a running period.
 There are three methods of obtaining sample- sampling
valve, vacuum sampling and drain stream.
 Sampling valve- valve is fitted in oil line. No need to shut
down the m/c and wastage of oil is less.
 Vacuum sampling- involves a manually operated suction
gun to take oil.
 Drain stream- sample is taken when the oil is changed.
 Sampling frequency
 Importance of m/c, time since overhaul, operating
schedule, safety consideration, etc.
 Sampling precaution
 Clean, no contaminant, sampling should be done during
operation, sample should indicate the date, hours since
change, etc.
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2. Spectrometric analysis

 Two methods of spectrometric analysis:
 Emission spectrometry (electric spark) (ESS)

 Atomic absorption spectrometry (flame) (AAS)

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 Emission spectrometry:
 A HV(15000v) causes excitation of metallic particles in
the oil and emits radiations which is then spectrally
analysed.
 Spectrometer consists of a narrow slit , prism, exit slit,
photodetector and data processors.

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 Atomic absorption spectrometry:
 An energy source which emits light- a hollow cathode
discharge lamp.
 An energy source to transport and atomize metallic
elements- eg: an air-acetylene gas
 Slit, prism and exit slit.
 Photodetector
 Data processing
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 Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection (Zyglo Process)
 Used to detect small surface cracks and pores.
 Can be used for testing of both ferrous and non-ferrous parts.
 Surface of the part to be inspected is cleaned.
 Fluorescent is applied on the surface so that cracks are filled
with the applied fluorescent due to capillary action.
 The rate and extent of this penetration depends on surface
tension, viscosity etc..
 Surface is then washed with water to remove the penetrant
from surface not from the cracks.
 Developer is applied so as to enlarge the size of the area of
penetrant indication.
 Then the surface is viewed under Black Light (having
frequency between visible and U.V Light). Black Light causes
the penetrant to glow in dark.

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 Device which measures the size of any grains or particles found in a given
sample. It checks for size, shape, concentration and distribution of a
specific particle in an item.
 A common type is the "laser diffraction particle size analyzer".
 Application: Spray paint, so the paint spray nozzle will not clog.
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 When this is passed through lens, a
series of light rings emerge on the
focal plane, radius of which are
related to the size of the particles.
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 Laser particle size analyzer works according to the optic properties.
 Laser beam illuminates the particles distributed in the liquid, the diffraction
and scattering phenomenon take place.
 By using photodetectors on focal plane, diffraction and scattering signals
from the particles in different diameters are received.
 Signals are transferred to the computer through A/D conversion.