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VOLVO ARTICULATED HAULERS

PERFORMANCE MANUAL
HOW TO CALCULATE PERFORMANCE ED 11
Performance Manual Performance Manual Performance Manual Performance Manual
Vo lvo Articu la te d H a u le rs Vo lvo Articu la te d H a u le rs Vo lvo Articu la te d H a u le rs Vo lvo Articu la te d H a u le rs
E d itio n 1 1
1
1 P u rp o s e a n d la yo u t o f th e b o o k .................. 4
2 P ro fita b ility in b u lk tra n sp o rt o f m a te ria ls 5
3 Vo lu m e s a n d d e n s itie s ..................................... 6
3.1 Bank, loose and compacted volumes ..............6
3.2 Density .....................................................................7
3.3 Swell ........................................................................8
3.4 Table of different material weights ....................9
4 C a lcu la tio n o f lo a d vo lu m e ...........................1 0
5 E xca va tio n cla s s e s ............................................1 1
6 O p e ra tin g co n d itio n s .......................................1 2
6.1 Rolling resistance ...............................................12
6.2 Rolling resistance table ....................................12
6.3 Grades ..................................................................13
6.4 Total resistance ..................................................13
6.5 Measuring grades...............................................15
6.6 Curves ..................................................................15
6.7 Ground structure ................................................17
6.8 Hauling long stretches downhill ......................21
6.9 Traction .................................................................22
6.10 Load-bearing capacity of the ground .............23
Lowest acceptable ground-bearing capacity. 26
7 C a lcu la tio n o f m a ch in e p e rfo rm a n ce ......2 7
7.1 Work cycle of transport machines ..................27
7.2 Loading .................................................................28
7.3 Work at loading area .........................................28
7.4 Traveling loaded .................................................29
7.5 Traveling unloaded .............................................32
7.6 Maneuvering to dump and dumping ..............36
7.7 Maneuvering for loading ...................................38
7.8 Productive time ...................................................39
7.9 Production ...........................................................40
7.10 Production calculation ......................................40
7.11 The right number of transport machines .......43
7.12 Hourly cost ..........................................................44
7.13 Example of hourly cost calculation .................49
7.14 Calculation of cost per production unit .........51
8 M a n e u ve rin g tim e s ...........................................5 3
8.1 Time needed for maneuvering at
loading area .........................................................53
8.2 Time needed for maneuvering at
dump area and dumping ..................................54
8.3 Turning around in tunnels .................................56
9 L o a d in g tim e fo r d iffe re n t
lo a d in g e q u ip m e n t ........................................... 5 7
9.1 Loading times for wheel loaders .................... 58
9.2 Loading times for hydraulic excavators ......... 59
9.3 Loading times for hydraulic excavators,
front shovels ........................................................ 61
9.4 Loading times for crawler loaders .................. 62
9.5 Loading times for draglines ............................. 63
1 0 C h o ice o f cra wle r d o ze r a t
d u m p in g a re a ...................................................... 6 4
1 1 T a b le s ..................................................................... 6 6
11.1 Material weights and swell factor ................... 66
11.2 Excavation classes ............................................ 67
11.3 Ground structure classes ................................. 67
11.4 Rolling resistance and coefficient of
traction for different surfaces .......................... 67
11.5 Load-bearing capacity of the ground ............ 68
11.6 Grade conversion table .................................... 68
11.7 Measurement units and conversion ............... 69
11.8 Transformation between travel time
and speed ........................................................... 70
1 2 F o rm u la s ............................................................... 7 1
1 4 A2 5 D S p e cifica tio n a n d P e rfo rm a n ce .... 7 3
14.1 Dimensions, Volvo A25D 4x4, unloaded ..... 73
14.1 Dimensions, Volvo A25D 6x6, unloaded
with 23.5R25 tires ............................................. 74
14.2 Weights ............................................................... 75
14.3 Body ..................................................................... 75
14.4 Body volumes .................................................... 76
14.5 Ground pressure and cone index .................. 77
14.6 Drive ...................................................................... 77
14.7 Transmission ....................................................... 77
14.8 Travel speed ....................................................... 77
14.9 Steering system ................................................. 77
14.10 Frame and bogie ................................................ 77
14.11 Engine .................................................................. 78
14.12 Brakes .................................................................. 78
14.13 Cab ....................................................................... 78
14.14 Traversability at different coefficients of
traction and total resistance ........................... 79
14.15 Operating on slopes ......................................... 79
14.16 Diagram................................................................. 80
Rimpull - Retardation ........................................ 84
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Performance Manual Performance Manual Performance Manual Performance Manual
1 5 A3 0 D S p e cifica tio n a n d P e rfo rm a n ce .... 8 7
15.1 Dimensions, Volvo A30D with tires 750/65R25,
unloaded 87
15.2 Weights ................................................................88
15.3 Body ......................................................................88
15.4 Body volumes ......................................................89
15.5 Ground pressure and cone index ...................90
15.6 Drive ......................................................................90
15.7 Transmission .......................................................90
15.8 Travel speed ........................................................90
15.9 Steering system ..................................................90
15.10 Frame and bogie ................................................90
15.11 Engine ...................................................................91
15.12 Brakes ...................................................................91
15.13 Cab ........................................................................91
15.14 Traversability at different coefficients of
traction and total resistance..............................92
15.15 Operating on slopes ..........................................92
15.16 Diagram.................................................................93
Rimpull - Retardation .......................................97
1 6 A3 5 D S p e cifica tio n a n d P e rfo rm a n ce .... 9 9
16.1 Dimensions, Volvo A35D with
tires 26.5R25, unloaded....................................99
16.2 Weights .............................................................100
16.3 Body ...................................................................100
16.4 Body volumes ...................................................101
16.5 Ground pressure and cone index ................102
16.6 Drive ...................................................................102
16.7 Transmission ....................................................102
16.8 Travel speed .....................................................102
16.9 Steering system ...............................................102
16.10 Frame and bogie .............................................102
16.11 Engine ................................................................103
16.12 Brakes ................................................................103
16.13 Cab .....................................................................103
16.14 Traversability at different coefficients of
traction and total resistance...........................104
16.15 Operating on slopes .......................................104
16.16 Diagram..............................................................105
Rimpull - Retardation ......................................109
1 7 A4 0 D S p e cifica tio n a n d P e rfo rm a n ce . 1 1 1
17.1 Dimensions, Volvo A40D with
tires 29.5R25, unloaded.................................111
17.2 Weights ..............................................................112
17.3 Body ....................................................................112
17.4 Body volumes ...................................................113
17.5 Ground pressure and cone index .................114
17.6 Drive ....................................................................114
17.7 Transmission .....................................................114
17.8 Travel speed ......................................................114
17.9 Steering system ................................................114
17.10 Frame and bogie ..............................................114
17.11 Engine .................................................................115
17.12 Brakes ................................................................115
17.13 Cab .....................................................................115
17.14 Traversability at different coefficients of
traction and total resistance............................116
17.15 Operating on slopes .......................................116
17.16 Diagram...............................................................117
Rimpull - Retardation .......................................121
C -m o d e l D ia g ra m s ................................................. 1 2 3
18.16 A25C Diagrams ...............................................123
18.16 A30C Diagrams ................................................127
18.16 A35C Diagrams ................................................131
18.16 A40 Diagrams....................................................135
S p e cia l Ve h icle s ..................................................... 1 4 0
19.1 A25D-A30D Terrain Chassis, Dimensions 140
20.1 A25D-A30D Twin Steer, Dimensions...........143
21.1 A25D Container Hauler, Dimensions...........145
22.1 A35D Container Hauler, Dimensions...........147
Articu la te d H a u le rs in U n d e rg ro u n d M in in g /
T u n n e lin g ............................................................ 1 4 9
3
4
1 11 1 Purpose and layout of the book Purpose and layout of the book Purpose and layout of the book Purpose and layout of the book
This book is intended as an aid for planners, estimators and
machine owners in forecasting the cycle time, production
and cost for performing bulk movement of materials with
Volvo articulated haulers.
The result gained by using the book can be regarded as
fully reliable, providing that the nature of the ground and
other factors are correctly evaluated and that the operator is
of normal competence.
Since working conditions vary so widely between different
operating sites, it has not been possible to take into
account all the factors affecting performance and cost;
therefore, we cannot accept responsibility for any
differences that may arise between calculations and actual
results.
To make proper use of this book, a certain amount of
experience in the planning of bulk movement of materials,
time studies and technical terms occurring in the business
is necessary.
Metric units of measure are in normal type, followed by U.S.
units of measure in bold type face.
In this publication decimals are indicated with a point (.)
and comma (,) is used to divide thousands.
5
2 22 2 Profitability in bulk transport of materials Profitability in bulk transport of materials Profitability in bulk transport of materials Profitability in bulk transport of materials
Many different types of machines can be used for the bulk
transport of materials, the hauling distance generally being
of decisive importance. The existence of, or proposed road
network, load carrying capacity of the ground, availability of
suitable base courses, the amount of material to be
transported and the loading equipment are factors which
rule the choice of machine for carrying out the work most
efficiently and profitably.
Articu la te d h a u le rs a re m o st p ro fita b le wh e re :
Operating conditions call for good negotiability.
The haul route is good, but the loading or dump areas
become so soft and slippery in wet weather that other
types of haulers get bogged down.
The load or dump areas are so restricted that on high-
way dumptrucks and rigid haulers have to turn or back-
up for long distances.
The road is so narrow that on highway dumptrucks, rigid
haulers and scrapers are only able to pass each other at
special passing points, while the articulated haulers can
meet and pass everywhere, using the terrain beside the
road.
O n h ig h wa y d u m p tru ck s a re m o s t p ro fita b le
wh e re :
Public roads are used for distances of more than 500 m
1650 ft. The loading and dump areas are level and suffi-
ciently large to permit turning around without loss of
time, and that loading and dumping can continue with-
out periodical interruption by inclement weather condi-
tions.
R ig id h a u le rs a re m o st p ro fita b le wh e re :
Quantities in excess of 500,000 Bm
3
650,000 Byd
3

have to be moved on the same road. The road must be
built on firm ground and have a width of 2.2 times that of
the machine. Furthermore, the distance should exceed
1000 m 3300 ft. in one way direction, and the loading
time should be less than 1.5 minutes. Operation must be
possible in wet weather.
S cra p e rs a re m o st p ro fita b le wh e re :
The ground is dry, has a high bearing capacity but is
easy to excavate and free from stones and boulders.
The excavation is made in a cut, and the dumping is per-
formed on an embankment.
The transported volume is large, at least 500,000 Bm
3

650,000 Byd
3
.
The material is such that sufficient traction is available for
scrapers to load themselves.
To obtain maximum profitability in the bulk transport of
materials, it is necessary to match the correct loading
equipment and optimum number of transport machines
with the desired transport volume per unit of time and the
total volume of material to be transported. If a quantity of
less than 10,000 Bm
3
13,000 Byd
3
has to be transported
a short distance of about 200 m 650 ft., this can generally
be done in a shorter time with a couple of articulated
haulers. If no road exists and the ground has sufficient load-
bearing capacity, it is usually cheaper not to build a special
road for this short job but instead to run slowly off-road and
use one or two additional articulated haulers.
If the quantity of more than 10,000 Bm
3
13,000 Byd
3
has
to be transported over a long distance of approximately
1,000 m 3,300 ft., it is usually cheaper to build a special
road and keep it in good condition. This allows the
transport machines to run at high speed and means that
fewer are needed. Part of the total cost will then be
reflected by the road and road maintenance instead of by
machines and operators.
This book enables an estimate to be made of the
performance of Volvo articulated haulers under different
conditions.
By calculating different alternatives and estimating the cost
of the alternatives offered, it is possible to make
theoretical calculations for the optimum combination of
loading equipment, transport machines, road and road
maintenance.
By fully utilizing the specific properties of the articulated
hauler it is possible to:
reduce costs for building and maintaining loading areas
reduce costs for building dump areas
reduce the need for dozers at the dump areas
reduce costs for building and maintaining haul roads
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3 33 3 Volumes and densities Volumes and densities Volumes and densities Volumes and densities
3 .1 B a n k , lo o s e a n d co m p a cte d
vo lu m e s
In the earthmoving industry, volumes can be expressed in
different ways, depending on which stage of excavation the
material is in. In this section the most common ones; bank,
loose and compacted volume will be explained.
Bank volume (Bm
3
, Byd
3
) is the undisturbed material in
the ground, before excavation. Note that the volume that is
actually excavated often is somewhat larger than the one
calculated from drawings.
Loose volume (Lm
3
, Lyd
3
) is the volume of the material
when it is loaded on the transport machine. The loose
volume is larger than the bank volume since the material
expands when excavated. This difference is called swell.
Compacted volume (Cm
3
, Cyd
3
) is the volume of the
material after leveling and compaction on the site. This
volume is smaller than the loose and can be either larger or
smaller than the bank volume depending on the material
properties. As for bank volumes, it is important to note that
the actual filled volume often is larger than the volume
calculated from drawings.
The graph below shows an example of how the volume of
material can vary during excavation and transport (Fig. 2).
Fig. 1
Compacted volume
Loose volume
Bank volume
Fig. 2 Volume variation during excavation and transport
Volume
Blasting
Loading
Bank
Loose
Compacted
Leveling and compaction
Transport
Swell
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3 .2 D e n s ity
The relationship of the weight of a material to its volume is
called density.
Density =
Density is expressed in kg/m
3
Ib/ yd
3
.
Density of the same material may be different depending on
whether it is in the bank, loose or compacted form. The
difference is noted by using the same abbreviations as for
volumes, e.g. 1700 kg/Lm
3
2870 lb/ Lyd
3
means that one
loose cubic yard (meter) of the material weighs 1700 kg
2870 lb.
Density and swell of a material vary with grain size and
moisture content. To make an accurate determination of
density and swell, measurements have to be made on the
site, but rough estimates can be made from table 3.4.
The graph below shows an example of how the density of a
material can vary during excavation and transport (Fig. 3).
Weight
Volume
-----------------------
Density
Bank
Blasting
Leveling and compaction
Compacted
Loose
Loading
Fig. 3 Density variation during excavation and transport
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3 .3 S we ll
When soil and rock materials are loaded into a dumper, the
volume increases due to expansion of the material. This
increase is called swell. This is usually expressed as a
swell-factor which is the loose volume divided by the bank
volume, see below, but it can also be expressed as a
percentage. For conversions between bank and loose
forms the following formulas are used:
Swell =
Vo lu m e ch a n g e s:
Loose volume =Bank volume x Swell
Bank volume =
D e n sity ch a n g e s:
Loose density =
Bank density =Loose density x Swell
Loose volume
Bank volume
Loose volume
Swell
Bank density
Swell
EXAMPLE:
Dry clay has a bank density of 1700 kg/Bm
3
2870 lb/ Byd
3

and the swell-factor 1.3 (it swells 30%).
What is the weight of 1 Lm
3
1 Lyd
3
?
Loose density = =1308 kg/Lm
3
2208 lb/ Lyd
3
What is the weight of a full load in a 16.5 m
3
21.6 yd
3
dumper body?
Load weight =Load volume xLoose density
=16.5 Lm
3
x1308 kg/Lm
3
=21,600 kg
= 21.6 Lyd
3
x 2208 lb/ Lyd
3
= 47,726 lbs
If 75,000 Bm
3
98,100 Byd
3
are to be excavated, how many
Lm
3
Lyd
3
are to be transported?
Loose volume =75,000 Bm
3
x1.3 =97,500 Lm
3

98,100 Byd
3
x 1.3 = 127,530 Lyd
3
1700
1.3
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3 .4 Ta b le o f d iffe re n t m a te ria l we ig h ts
These weights are only approximate. The densities vary with
moisture content, grain size, etc.
Tests must be carried out to determine exact material
characteristics
MATERIAL lb/ Byd
3
kg/bm
3
lb/ Lyd
3
kg/lm
3
Swell
Ashes, soft coal with slagg 10101520 600900 8401350 500800 1.1
Bauxite 3200 1900 2360 1400 1.3
Brick 27003200 16001900
Cement 2950 1750 2440 1450 1.2
Caliche 3790 2250 2110 1250 1.8
Clay: dry 2870 1700 2190 1300 1.3
wet 3790 2250 2700 1600 1.4
+gravel, dry 2870 1700 2360 1400 1.2
+gravel, wet 3030 1800 2530 1500 1.2
compacted 3370 2000 2870 1700 1.2
Coal: anthracite 21902610 13001550 16902020 10001200 1.3
bitumous 1850 1100 1350 800 1.4
ignite 2110 1250 1520 900 1.4
Concrete: dry 32004210 19002500 23603030 14001800 1.4
wet 3620 2150
Copper ore 3200 1900 2700 1600 1.2
Earth: dry 2870 1700 2190 1300 1.3
wet 3200 1900 2700 1600 1.2
+sand and gravel 3030 1800 2700 1600 1.1
+25% stone 3370 2000 2700 1600 1.2
loam 2530 1500 2110 1250 1.2
Granite 43805060 26003000 27803030 16501800 1.6
Gravel: dry 2870 1700 2530 1500 1.1
moist, wet 3710 2200 3370 2000 1.1
Gypsum: blasted 4890 2900 2700 1600 1.8
crushed 5230 3100 3030 1800 1.7
Iron ore: Hematite 47206570 28003900 38805390 23003200 1.2
Limonite 860011800 51007000 38805390 23003200 1.7-2.2
Magnetite 47206570 28003900 38805390 23003200 1.2
Kaolin 2870 1700 2190 1300 1.3
Lime 1350 800
Limestone: blasted 4380 2600 2700 1600 1.6
loose, crushed 2530 1500
marble 4550 2700 2700 1600 1.7
Mud: dry (close) 37105060 22003000 30304210 18002500 1.2
wet (moderately comp.) 50605900 30003500 42104890 25002900 1.2
Rock: hard well blasted 4800 2850 2850 1700 1.7
+stone crushed 4800 2850 2850 1700 1.7
Sandstone 4210 2500 2530 1500 1.7
Sand: dry 3200 1900 2870 1700 1.1
wet 3540 2100 3200 1900 1.1
+gravel, dry 3200 1900 2870 1700 1.1
+gravel, wet 3710 2200 3370 2000 1.1
Shale: soft rock 3030 1800 2190 1300 1.4
riprock 2950 1750 2110 1250 1.4
Slag 5060 3000 2950 1750 1.7
Slate 4720 2800 3540 2100 1.3
Top soil 2360 1400 1690 1000 1.4
Traprock 5060 3000 3370 2000 1.5
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4 44 4 Calculation of load volume Calculation of load volume Calculation of load volume Calculation of load volume
The load capacity is expressed in tons sh ton. The load is
expressed in m
3
yd
3
, struck load SAE and heaped load
SAE. (SAE Standard 3741a.)
The struck load volume of a hauler body represents the
actual volume enclosed within the walls of the load space
as restricted by a straight line running along the upper
edges of the sides. The struck load volume is expressed in
m
3
yd
3
to one decimal place.
For a hauler body open at one end, the volume at this end
is restricted by a line running from the lower rear edge of
the open end at an upward and inward slope of 1:1.
The heaped load volume of a hauler body represents the
sum of the struck load volume and the volume enclosed by
four surfaces at an inward and upward slope of 2:1 from
the upper edges of the sides and ends and their load
carrying extensions. For a hauler body with an open end,
the slope of 2:1 for heaped load volume originates from the
upper edge of the 1:1 slope as used for determining the
struck load volume.
For a load space having a struck load volume of less than
10 m
3
10 yd
3
, the heaped load volume is given to the
nearest half m
3
yd
3
. For a load space having a struck load
volume of 10 m
3
10 yd
3
or more, the heaped load volume
is given to the nearest whole m
3
yd
3
.
Fig. 4
11
5 55 5 Excavation classes Excavation classes Excavation classes Excavation classes
Different materials have different excavation characteristics
and therefore require a varying amount of power and time in
order to loosen them for digging. To determine the
performance of the loading machine, it is necessary to
assess the excavation characteristics of the material to be
moved.
Classification guidance table:
S o il typ e s ca n b e g ro u p e d in five e xca va tio n
cla sse s:
Class 1 = little resistance to loosening and high degree of
bucket filling, i.e. high performance of loading equipment.
Class 5 = high resistance to loosening and small degree of
bucket filling, i.e. low performance of loading equipment,
under normal conditions. Blasting or ripping is required for
excavation of class 5 material.
CLASS
1 Easy digging unpacked earth, sand-gravel, ditch cleaning.
2 Medium digging packed earth, tough dry clay, soil with less than 25% rock content.
3 Medium to hard digging hard packed soil with up to 50% rock content well blasted.
4 Hard digging shot rock or tough soil with up to 75% rock content.
5 Tough digging sandstone, caliche, shale, certain limestone, hard frost.
12
6 66 6 Operating conditions Operating conditions Operating conditions Operating conditions
6 .1 R o llin g re s is ta n ce
When operating the hauler, energy is absorbed by the
deformation of tires and ground. An example of this is
rutting. The restraining effect this has on the machine is
called rolling resistance.
6 .2 R o llin g re s is ta n ce ta b le
(The table is appropriate for Volvo articulated haulers.)
The rolling resistance is affected by several factors, such
as:
type of soil
condition of the ground
moisture content
tire load
diameter and width of the wheel
Tables are used for practical assessment of the rolling
resistance of the traveling surface, where the rolling
resistance is shown as a percentage of the Gross Machine
Weight (GMW).
Type of traveling surface
Rolling resistance
%
Sinkage of tires
cm in.
Coefficient of
traction
Concrete, dry 2 0.8 1.0
Asphalt, dry 2 0.7 0.9
Macadam 3 0.5 0.7
Gravel road, compacted 3 0.5 0.7
Dirt road, compacted 3 4 1.6 0.4 0.6
Dirt road, firm rutted 5 6 2.4 0.3 0.6
Stripped arable land, firm, dry 6 8 3.2 0.6 0.8
Soil backfill, soft 8 10 4.0 0.4 0.5
Stripped arable land, loose, dry 12 15 6.0 0.4 0.5
Woodland pastures, grassy banks 12 15 15 18 6 7 0.6 0.7
Sand or gravel, loose 15 30 18 35 7 14 0.2 0.4
Dirt road, deeply rutted, porous 16 20 8.0 0.1 2.0
Stripped arable land, sticky wet 10 20 12 25 5 10 0.1 0.4
Clay loose, wet 35 40 16 0.1 0.2
Ice 2 0.1 0.2
13
6 .3 G ra d e s
Grade resistance is caused by the fact that as the machine
moves forward it is also lifted to a higher level. Calculation
of the necessary rimpull is done by splitting the force of
gravity into vectors. See Fig. 5.
The resistance is usually expressed as a percentage of the
GMW. In order to run uphill, therefore, a tractive effort
corresponding to the grade percentage times the GMW is
needed.
Since the grade resistance is shown as a percentage of the
GMW in the same way as the rolling resistance, both
values can be added together or subtracted from each
other.
6 .4 To ta l re sista n ce
Total resistance =rolling resistance +grade resistance
The grade resistance is positive (+) uphill and negative ()
downhill.
In our example, the Site Summary, we are describing
positive grade with , negative grade with and flat
ground with
Uphill Downhill
Grade resistance = 2% 2%
Rolling resistance = 8% 8%
Total resistance = 10% 6%
By adding the rolling resistance and grade resistance and
using a graph showing the time needed for traveling at
different total resistance, it is possible to calculate how
long it will take to cover a particular distance with loaded or
unloaded machines.
Note: There is one graph for a loaded machine and
another one for an unloaded machine.

Force Gross machine
Resistance to grade
weight (GMW) normal to ground
Fig. 5
EXAMPLE:
A fully loaded Volvo A25D has to travel up a hill 200 m 656
ft. with a grade of 2%. The rolling resistance is 8%. How
long will it take?
Start from 200 m 656 ft. in the graph (Fig. 6), follow a verti-
cal line until intersecting the 10% line. Then follow a horizon-
tal line and read off the traveling time axis, which gives a time
of 0.90 minutes.
Return trip (unloaded):
Start from 200 m 656 ft. in the graph (Fig. 7), follow a verti-
cal line until intersecting the 6% line. Then follow a horizontal
line and read off the traveling time axis, which gives a time of
0.22 minutes.
14
Tra ve lin g tim e a t d iffe re n t to ta l re sista n ce a n d g ro u n d stru ctu re Vo lvo A2 5 D , lo a d e d .
0
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
0 300 600
0.5
30%
28%
26%
24%
22%
20%
18%
16%
14%
12%
10%
8%
6%
4%
2%
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.00.4
40% 35%
0 300 600
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
1.4
40% 35% 1.0
30%
28%
26%
24%
22%
20%
18%
16%
14%
12%
0.8
10%
8%
4%-6%
2%
0.4
0.00.2
0.6
Tra ve lin g tim e a t d iffe re n t to ta l re sista n ce a n d g ro u n d stru ctu re Vo lvo A2 5 D , u n lo a d e d .
Time in min.
Distance
in m
in ft.
Time in min.
Distance
in m
in ft.
Fig. 7
Total resistance
Ground structure
Fig. 6
15
6 .5 M e a s u rin g g ra d e s
Grades are measured by means of an inclinometer. Any
attempt to estimate grades without some form of accurate
measurement usually results in large errors; so a suitable
instrument should always be used.
There are several different instruments on the market which
register the grades in percentage and degrees. One
example is shown in Figure 8. This particular instrument is
used as follows:
Stand at the bottom of the grade and look through the
instrument. Have an assistant whose height at eye level is
almost the same as your own stand at the top of the hill.
Sight the instrument as shown in the sketch and read the
percentage scale off the instrument at the index mark.
6 .6 C u rve s
Curves can be taken at different speeds depending on the
radius. When taking a curve, the speed of the machine
should not be higher than that which permits ground grip
and lateral acceleration to stay well within the limits of
stability and comfort.
To determine the traveling time through a particular curve, it
is necessary to know the curve radius and arc length. From
the graph (Fig. 10) it is possible to read off the time
required to negotiate curves of different radius and arc
lengths.
Fig.8
Fig. 9
EXAMPLE:
Arc length: 50 m 164 ft.
Radius: 20 m 66 ft.
Travel time: 0.19 min.
Use the graph in Fig. 10: Total time through curves with dif-
ferent arc length and radius.
Follow a vertical line from 50 m164 ft. on the distance
axis up to line 3, radius 20 m R65.6 ft.
Follow a horizontal line from this intersection to the time
axis and read off the time needed for passing the curve.
The time = 0.19 min.
16
To ta l tim e th ro u g h cu rve s with d iffe re n t a rc le n g th a n d ra d iu s.
C a lcu la tio n o f ra d iu s
In cases when the radius is unknown, use the following
formula for calculation (Fig. 9:1).
1 2 3 4 5 6
Time in min.
Distance
in m
in ft.
LINE RADIUS
Fig. 10
r = radius in m
b = arc length in m
= angle in degrees
= 3.14
360 xb
r =
x2
Fig. 9:1
EXAMPLE:
Arc length: 70 m 229 ft.
Angle: 100
Travel time: 0.18 min.
Use the graph in Fig. 10: Total time through curves with differ-
ent arc length and radius.
Follow a vertical line from 70 m 229 ft. on the distance axis
up to line 5 radius 40 m 131 ft.
Follow a horizontal line from this intersection to the time axis
and read off the time needed for passing the curve.
The time =0.18 min.
360 xb
r =
x2
=
360 x70
100 x(2 x3.14)
=40.1 m
17
6 .7 G ro u n d stru ctu re
It is not always the rolling resistance, gradient or sharpness
of curves that determine the speed of the machine.
Roughness of the surfaces of the loading area, haul route
and dump area also affect how the speed of the vehicle
can be utilized.
The roughness does not have to be particularly severe to
subject both operator and machine to high stresses due to
shaking and vibration.
The operator instinctively adapts the speed to a level which
is easy on both the machine and himself. This speed varies
with the roughness of the surface and comfort and safety of
different machines.
Depending on the size and nature of the obstacles, the
running surface can be classified in the following ground
structure class:
.
D e scrip tio n o f g ro u n d stru ctu re cla sse s
The photographs indicate the ground structure class, the
length of the test surfaces (5 m =5.5 yd) and the wheel
track spacing (2.5 m =8.2 ft).
G ro u p 1 H a rd g ro u n d with so lid o b sta cle s
The traveling surface is hard and stony, e.g. a gravel or dirt
road of such a nature that the obstacles are not greatly
affected and retain their original size.
G ro u p 2 S o ft g ro u n d with so ft o b sta cle s
The traveling surface is of soft nature, e.g. clay, backfill, dirt
road or similar, where the traffic has compacted the
material. Underlying stones, rocks, etc. form ridges and
ruts, and due to its construction and characteristics, the
machine can also form pot holes and obstacles itself. The
nature of such a traveling surface may vary from time to time
during the work.
Group Max. distance between obstacles, 5 m 16 ft.
Ground structure class
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
1. Hard ground with solid obstacles
i.e. gravel road
Size of obstacles in cm in.
0 2
0 0.8
2 3
0.8 1.2
3 4
1.2 1.6
4 6
1.6 2.4
6 10
2.4 4.0
10 30
4 12
2. Soft ground with soft obstacles
i.e. wet clay
Size of obstacles in cm in.
0 3
0 1.2
3 4
1.2 1.6
4 6
1.6 2.4
6 10
2.4 4.0
10 30
4 12
30 40
12 16
18
G ro u p 1 H a rd g ro u n d with so lid o b sta cle s
C la s s 0 .0
Height or depth of obstacles =02 cm 00.8 in.
Max. distance between obstacles 5 m 5.5 yd.
Surface size of obstacles affect the wheel and are not
swallowed by the tire or stuck in the tire tread, e.g.
small stones and similar.
C la s s 0 .2
Height or depth of obstacles =23 cm 0.81.2 in.
Max. distance between obstacles 5 m 5.5 yd.
C la s s 0 .4
Height or depth of obstacles =34 cm 1.21.6 in.
Max. distance between obstacles 5 m 5.5 yd.
C la s s 0 .6
Height or depth of obstacles =46 cm 1.62.4 in.
Max. distance between obstacles 5 m 5.5 yd.
C la s s 0 .8
Height or depth of obstacles =610 cm 2.44.0 in.
Max. distance between obstacles 5 m 5.5 yd.
C la s s 1 .0
Height or depth of obstacles =1030 cm 412 in.
Max. distance between obstacles 5 m 5.5 yd.
19
G ro u p 2 S o ft g ro u n d with so ft o b sta cle s
C la s s 0 .0
Height or depth of obstacles =03 cm 01.2 in.
Max. distance between obstacles 5 m 5.5 yd.
Surface size of obstacles affect the wheel and are not to
be swallowed by the tire or stuck in the tire tread.
C la s s 0 .2
Height or depth of obstacles =34 cm 1.21.6 in.
Max. distance between obstacles 5 m 5.5 yd.
C la s s 0 .4
Height or depth of obstacles =46 cm 1.62.4 in.
Max. distance between obstacles 5 m 5.5 yd.
C la s s 0 .6
Height or depth of obstacles =610 cm 2.44.0 in.
Max. distance between obstacles 5 m 5.5 yd.
C la s s 0 .8
Height or depth of obstacles =1030 cm 412 in.
Max. distance between obstacles 5 m 5.5 yd.
C la s s 1 .0
Height or depth of obstacles =3040 cm 1216 in.
Max. distance between obstacles 5 m 5.5 yd.
20
Volvo articulated haulers can run over solid obstacles with a
height or depth of 40 cm 16 in. without causing damage to
the machine. However, it is recommended that the height of
solid obstacles should not exceed 30 cm 12 in.
To determine the time it takes to run a Volvo A25D over
different surface structure classes, use the graphs in Fig. 6
or 7. These graphs also show the traveling time needed to
pass different total resistances.
EXAMPLE:
On a stretch of hard gravel road, you have estimated the height
of the obstacles to be 6 10 cm 2.4 4.0 in. spaced at less
than 5 m 5.5 yd. The stretch is 200 m 656 ft. long. How much
time does it take a loaded Volvo A25D 6x6 to cover this stretch?
1. Surface structure class for obstacles
6-10 cm 2.4 4.0 in. =0.8.
2. Stretch length =200 m 656 ft.
3. Use the graph in Fig. 6. Follow a vertical line from 200 m
656 ft. on the distance axis to the 0.8 line (dashed). Then
follow a horizontal line fromthis intersection to the travel
time: 0.42 minutes, on the time axis.
It takes 0.42 minutes for a loaded Volvo A25D 6x6 to cover this
stretch if the total resistance is below 5%.
Fig.11
30 cm
12 in.
21
6 .8 H a u lin g lo n g s tre tch e s d o wn h ill
When operating on downhill grades, you can be forced to
keep the total speed down by using the retarder system.
This especially applies to stretches longer than 50100 m
150300 ft. where the wheelbrakes could experience fad-
ing due to overheating.
To determine the travel time on such a stretch, use the
graph Travel time at different negative total resistance.
The graph is used as follows:
1. Find the gear that can be used in the table.
2. Enter the graph at the distance. Go vertically to the line
of the chosen gear, and from this intersection move hori-
zontally to the desired travel time axis.
3. Check if the surface structure on the stretch gives a
longer travel time.
Tra ve l tim e a t d iffe re n t n e g a tive to ta l re sista n ce Vo lvo A2 5 D with h yd ra u lic re ta rd e r a n d
e xh a u s t b ra k e
EXAMPLE:
A 280 m 919 ft. long stretch with a 15% grade and 3% rolling resistance with a loaded Volvo A25D. The surface structure is 0.6.
How long is the required traveling time?
1. 15% grade and 3% rolling resistance gives 12% total resistance. The table in, Fig. 12, shows that we follow line 3 in the
graph.
2. We enter the graph at 200 m 656 ft. on the distance axis and follow a line vertically to the line marked 3. From this point, go
horizontally to the time axis and read off the traveling time: 0.73 minutes. Enter the time graph at 80 m 264 ft. and go vertically to
line 3. Go left to the time axis and read of the traveling time: 0.27 minutes. The total traveling time for 280m 920 ft. is 0.73 +0.27
=1.0 minutes.
3. We check the travel time needed to drive 280 m over ground structure 0.6 in Fig. 6 and find this shorter.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
0
1.6
1.8
2.0
1
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
26%
26% 14%
14% 10%
10% 7%
7% 5%
5%
30%
30% 21%
21% 15%
15% 12%
12%
300 100 200 600 400 500
Time in min.
Distance
in m
in ft.
LOADED UNLOADED LINE
Fig.12
22
6 .9 Tra ctio n
The tractive force of the machine is transmitted to the
ground by the wheels. The limit of the tractive force
transmitted by a wheel is set by the ground conditions, the
design, condition and inflation of the tire and the load on
the wheel. The traversability of the complete machine is
also affected by weight distribution, differential locks and
the number of driven wheels or the number of wheels with
ground contact at the moment.
As a measure of the highest possible traction a wheel can
transmit to the ground, the coefficient of traction is used.
This is defined as the highest possible tractive force
divided by the load of the wheel.
A coefficient of traction around 0.10.2 corresponds to a
surface of very slippery wet clay or wet ice, and 0.70.9
corresponds to an asphalt surface.
A table of traction coefficients can be found in Section 6.2.
Tra ve rsa b ility a t d iffe re n t co e fficie n ts o f tra ctio n a n d to ta l re sista n ce .
EXAMPLE:
What total resistance can a Volvo articulated hauler negotiate if the coefficient of traction is 0.2? See Fig. 13. Draw a vertical line
from coefficient of traction 0.2 until it intersects the diagonal line in the graph. Read out the total resistance on the resistance scale,
in this example 20%.
Fig. 13
0
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Total resistance
All-wheel drive differential locks.
Coefficient of traction
Loaded/ unloaded.
23
6 .1 0 Lo a d -b e a rin g ca p a city o f th e g ro u n d
The method described below for determining the load-
bearing capacity of the ground can only serve as a guide. It
is possible to establish certain important factors, but
experience and judgement must determine whether a
machine is able to cross a particular stretch of ground or if
it is possible to choose another route or take other
preliminary actions such as clearing obstacles, reinforcing
the riding surface, etc.
The load-bearing capacity of the ground varies for different
types of soils and depends on weather conditions, ground
moisture content, etc. and represents a function for the
ability of the ground to resist shearing forces. This can be
determined by means of a cone penetrometer (see Fig. 14)
and is expressed as the cone index of the ground. This can
alter depending on the loading or the extent to which the
ground is disturbed during use.
Alterations in weather conditions naturally cause wide
variations in the load-bearing capacity of the ground and
thereby its negotiability. In wet weather fine-grained soils
absorb a lot of moisture, thereby making it more fluid,
reducing the load-bearing capacity.
Cone penetrometer values obtained on a particular
occasion only apply to that specific occasion or to similar
conditions and cannot be used under other circumstances
or for other stretches of land.
Depending on the cone index of the ground, its load-
bearing capacity can be divided into five classes, where
class 1 represents very good load-bearing capacity and
class 5 very poor.
The cone index of most interest lies between 50 and 70
(ground with moderate load-bearing capacity). Only the
most traversable machines, such as wide-tracked crawler
tractors, can run on ground with cone indexes as low as
3050 (ground with poor load-bearing capacity). Rigid
dump trucks require cone a index above 90 (ground with
very good load-bearing capacity).
The cone penetrometer is an instrument used for
determining the traversability of the soil. It consists of a
round rod with a 30 tapered point, a coil spring and a
graduated scale. When the point is pressed into the
ground the coil spring is compressed proportionately to the
force needed to overcome the resistance of the ground.
The force needed for the point to sink down slowly through
the surface layer of the ground is thus directly proportional
to the resistance and tenacity of the soil and can be read
off on the scale. This value indicates the strength of the
ground and is known as its cone index.
The cone penetrometer described here is obtainable from
Volvo Articulated Haulers, Vxj, Sweden, and the values
mentioned herein always refer to this particular cone
penetrometer.
CLASS Cone index value
Very good bearing capacity >90
Good bearing capacity 7090
Moderate bearing capacity 5070
Poor bearing capacity 3050
Very poor bearing capacity <30
Fig. 14
Volvo cone penetrometer
24
N o rm a l g ro u n d p ro file
In normal ground the cone index readings will be more or
less the same in different places. The measurements are
taken at a 25 cm 10 in. depth.
Ab n o rm a l g ro u n d p ro file
An abnormal ground profile is characterized by big
differences in cone index values.
The lowest cone index is used to estimate the traversability
of the area.
The measurements are taken at a 25 cm 10 in. depth.
G ro u n d with a so ft su rfa ce la ye r a n d h a rd
su b -stru ctu re
The resistance of the sub-structure layer and the soft
surface layer together must not give a larger sinkage than
the ground clearance of the machine. If a large sinkage
occurs, the machine will only be able to move along very
slowly, meaning an increase in fuel consumption, tire wear
and costs, as well as a decrease in performance.
The cone index is measured in the harder soil under the
soft layer.
Fig. 14:1
Fig. 15
15 25 cm
6 10 in.
25
G ro u n d with a h a rd su rfa ce la ye r a n d so ft
su b -stru ctu re
The upper layer of the ground usually has a covering of
vegetation which contributes to the load-bearing capacity,
or a fairly hard and compacted surface which has the same
effect. If the top layer can be kept during continuous
hauling, the cone index is measured in this. If not, it is
measured in the sub-structure, see Fig. 16.
If there is sufficient space, you can, by changing the path,
increase the possible number of crossings. As the rolling
resistance is reduced when changing the path, a higher
velocity is thus ensured.
It is only necessary to take a few readings on areas with a
cone index of more than 70. If the readings come within
5070, it is necessary to make several measurements to
guarantee that the area is fully covered. At least three
readings should be taken at each measuring point. If the
cone index is lower than 50, measurements need only be
made to establish the limits of the area concerned.
In all cases, the traction of the traveling surface must be
sufficient to permit the machine to move.
.
F ro ze n g ro u n d
The cone penetrometer cannot be used for assessing the
load-bearing capacity of frozen ground, but the frost in the
ground contributes to a high load-bearing capacity.
If the cone index for a particular level area is greater than
that of the machine, it is possible to make repeated runs
without much risk. On the other hand, if the index is less
than that of the machine there will be a danger of the
machine getting bogged down even after a few runs.

Fig. 16
15 25 cm
6 10 in.
Load-bearing classes of ground
5 Very Poor 4 Poor 3 Moderate 2 Good 1 Very good
No movement of materi-
als recommended with-
out ground
reinforcement.
No movement of mate-
rials recommended
without ground rein-
forcement.
About 1 15 runs with
a fully-loaded dump
truck in the same tracks
without reinforcement.
About 15 100 runs
with a fully-loaded dump
truck in the same tracks
without reinforcement.
More than 100 runs
with a fully-loaded
dump truck in the same
tracks without rein-
forcement.
Cone index
<30
Cone index
3050
Cone index
5070
Cone index
7090
Cone index
>90
26
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27
7 77 7 Calculation of machine performance Calculation of machine performance Calculation of machine performance Calculation of machine performance
7 .1 Wo rk cycle o f tra n sp o rt m a ch in e s
It is always possible to divide a work cycle that is
continuously repeated during the work day into the
following stages:
Loading
Traveling loaded
Maneuvering for dumping
Dumping
Traveling unloaded
Maneuvering for loading
When calculating the performance of transport machines,
the time needed for each of the steps is first calculated.
After which the times are added together, thereby giving
the time required for the total work cycle.
Fig. 17
Loading
Traveling loaded
Maneuvering
Dumping
Maneuvering
Traveling unloaded
28
7 .2 Lo a d in g
When calculating the number of buckets that can be
loaded on the transport machine, it is first necessary to
know the excavation class of the material and the load
volume of the transport machine. The tables under Section
9 show the most suitable bucket volumes for different
loading equipment. The volumes are shown in Lm
3
Lyd
3
,
i.e. the volume the material has when loaded on the
transport machine.
When it is known how many buckets are required on the
dumper, it is possible to calculate the loading time.
The loading time of the articulated hauler is measured from
when it has stopped under the loader bucket, until travel
begins.
7 .3 Wo rk a t lo a d in g a re a
When hauler B has received its last bucket, hauler A should
be standing as shown in the sketch. Hauler B starts
traveling loaded, while the loader fills the first bucket.
Hauler B then passes by dumper A, which is reversed into
position for loading.
Hauler A stops immediately before the position for loading
and waits until the loader has moved with the loaded
bucket raised to where the loader operator wishes the
hauler to stand. Hauler A then reverses under the bucket.
The time for loading the first bucket is measured from when
the hauler has stopped until the first bucket has been
emptied. The time is 0.1 minute for wheeled loaders,
crawler loaders and excavators and 0.2 minute for
draglines.
For subsequent bucket loads, the hauler has to stand for a
time corresponding to the cycle time of the loader, times
the remaining number of buckets.
.
EXAMPLE:
A contractor and a quarry owner have an A25D articulated hauler with a body volume of 15 Lm
3
19.6 Lyd.
3
The machine is to be
loaded with wet earth, material of excavation class 1. A Volvo EC 460 excavator is used for the loading.
To find the appropriate excavator bucket volume for different material class, see section 9.2, Fig. 47. Follow the line across to the col-
umn Loaded volume Lm
3
Lyd
3
per cycle in excavation class. Under class 1, it is found that the average volume per bucket load in
this material with the machine fully utilized is 2.9 Lm
3
3.8 Lyd
3
(this volume is used in Fig. 21 as an example of practical bucket vol-
ume). The number of buckets that can be loaded in the dumper body can now be calculated as follows:

Although the volume is not quite right, as soon as the excavator operator has learned to estimate how much the dump truck can
negotiate, he will adapt the bucket load so that 6 passes give a full load.
15
2.9
=5.2
EXAMPLE:
In the preceding example it was found that with a Volvo EC 460,
sixbucket loads in earth-moving class 1 gave a full dumper load.
How long will the loading time be?
Looking again at the table on fig. 47, follow the line opposite EC
460 across to the column headed Cycle time in minutes in
excavation class, it is found under class 1 that the time for filling
a full bucket load is 0.28 minutes.
The loading time can now be calculated as follows:
Bucket load 1 =0.10 Min.
Bucket load 2 =0.28 Min.
Bucket load 3 =0.28 Min.
Bucket load 4 =0.28 Min.
Bucket load 5 =0.28 Min.
Bucket load 6=0.28 Min.
Loading time =1.5 Min.
This loading time is used in the example in Fig. 21.
The loading time for wheel loaders, crawler loaders and drag-
lines is calculated in a similar manner, see tables under Sec. 9.
Fig. 18
A
B
11 m
29
7 .4 Tra ve lin g lo a d e d
The time needed for traveling loaded naturally depends on
the speed that can be maintained throughout the whole
distance. As mentioned in Section 6, the speed depends
on the various terrain factors, such as ground structure,
rolling resistance, gradients and curves.
The speed can also be restricted by other activities on the
site, such as other machines or narrow passages.
In order to calculate the travel time, it is first necessary to
describe the total travel distance and divide it into sections
with regard to the various terrain factors. A special form,
Site Summary, can be used for this purpose, see Fig. 20.
Other general information concerning the jobsite is also
entered on the form, including space for a sketch. The form
can also be used for calculating the necessary travel time.
The methods used for measuring the various terrain factors
and for calculating the time required for covering stretches
of different length have previously been explained in
Section 6. The time needed for covering each strech of the
route is now calculated, and by adding these times
together, the total time for running loaded can be obtained.
Fig. 19 The total travel distance is divided into sections
30

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31
EXAMPLE:
A haul route consists of four streches as shown in Fig. 21. How
long will it take to cover the whole distance with a fully-loaded
Volvo A25D?
From the graph in Fig. 22, it can be seen that the coefficient of
traction will not cause any problems on any of the sections. On
the other hand, it cannot be clearly seen whether it is the gradient
plus rolling resistance, ground structure class or curves that
restrict the speed on the sections. It is therefore necessary to cal-
culate the time for all these factors and then choose the longest
one.
S tre ch A B
Length =305 m 1001 ft.
Total resistance =13%
Ground structure class =0.4
From graph in Fig. 23, travel time loaded:
At 13% resistance =1.7 min.
(200+105 gives 1.1+0.6 =1.7 min.)
At ground structure class 0.4 =0.40 min.
The longest time is used
Travel time for strech A B loaded is 1.7 min.
S tre ch B C
Length =400 m 1312 ft.
Total resistance =2% (read off at the lowest resistance in the
graph)
Ground structure class =0.2
From graph in Fig. 23, travel time loaded:
At 2% total resistance =0.50 min.
(200+200 gives 0.25+0.25 =0.50 min.)
At ground structure class 0.2 =0.45 min.
The longest time is used
Travel time for strech B C loaded is 0.50 min.
S tre ch C D
Length =20 m 66 ft.
Total resistance =2%
Ground structure class =0.2
From graph in Fig. 23, travel time loaded:
At 2% total resistance =0.03 min.
At ground structure class 0.2 =0.02 min.
Curve radius =10 m 33 ft.
From graph in Fig. 25, travel
time due to curve radius =0.11 min.
The longest time is used
Travel time for strech C D loaded is 0.11 min.
S tre ch D E
Length =90 m 295 ft.
Total resistance =13%
Ground structure class =0.8
From graph in Fig. 23, travel time loaded:
At 13% total resistance =0.50 min.
At ground structure class 0.8 =0.20 min.
The longest time is used
Travel time for strech D E loaded is 0.50 min.
Total travel time loaded:
Strech Time
A B 1.70 min.
B C 0.50 min.
C D 0.11 min.
D E 0.50 min.
2.81 min.
32
7 .5 Tra ve lin g u n lo a d e d
The time needed for traveling unloaded is calculated in a
similar manner as for traveling loaded.
Remember that uphill stretches will now be downhill and
vice versa if the same route is used for the return trip. If a
different route is used, it will be necessary to make a new
description for the return trip.
EXAMPLE:
Using the same example as shown in Fig. 21, how long will it take
to cover the whole distance with an unloaded Volvo A25D?
S tre ch E D
Length =90 m 295 ft.
Total resistance =7%
Ground structure class =0.8
From graph in Fig. 24, travel time unloaded:
At 7% total resistance =0.15 min.
At ground structure class 0.8 =0.28 min.
The longest time is used
Traveling time for strech E D unloaded is 0.28 min.
S tre ch D C
Length =20 m 66 ft.
Total resistance =2%
Ground structure class =0.2
From graph in Fig. 24, travel time unloaded:
At 2% total resistance =0.03 min.
At ground structure class 0.2 =0.02 min.
Curve radius =10 m 11 yd.
Fromgraph in Fig. 25, travel time due to curve radius =0.11
min.
The longest time is used
Travel time for strech D C unloaded is 0.11 min.
S tre ch C B
Length =400 m 1312 ft.
Total resistance =4% (read off at the
lowest resistance in the graph)
Ground structure class =0.2
From graph in Fig. 24, travel time unloaded:
At 4% resistance =0.48 min.
(200+200 gives 0.24+0.24 =0.48 min.)
At ground structure class 0.2 =0.45 min.
The longest time is used
Travel time for strech C B unloaded is 0.48 min.
S tre ch B A
Length =305 m 1001 ft.
Total resistance =1%
Ground structure class =0.4
From graph in Fig. 24, travel time unloaded:
At 1% total resistance (read off at the lowest
total resistance in the graph) =0.34 min.
(200+105 gives 0.22+0.12 =0.34 min.)
At ground structure class 0.4 =0.48 Min.
(200+105 gives 0.32+0.16 =0.48 min.)
The longest time is used
Travel time for strech B A unloaded is 0.48 min.
Total travel time unloaded:
Strech Time
E D 0.28 min.
D C 0.11 min.
C B 0.48 min.
B A 0.48 min.
1.35 min.
Note 1: There may be other factors apart from the
terrain that restricts the running speed. On a confined construction
site with a large number of people and machines, this has to be taken
into consideration when calculating the travel time. This can be not-
ed in the Note column.
Note 2: The graphs include a time allowance for acceleration and
braking. Therefore it is not necessary to pay particular attention to
the entry and exit speeds on the various sections when calculating the
travel time for the whole distance.
33

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34
Tra ve rsa b ility a t d iffe re n t co e fficie n ts o f tra ctio n a n d to ta l re sista n ce .
Tra ve l tim e a t d iffe re n t to ta l re sista n ce a n d g ro u n d stru ctu re Vo lvo A2 5 D , lo a d e d .
0
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Total resistance
All-wheel drive with diffrential locks.
Loaded/ unloaded.
Coefficient of traction
Fig. 22
0
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
0 300 600
0.5
30%
28%
26%
24%
22%
20%
18%
16%
14%
12%
10%
8%
6%
4%
2%
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.00.4
40% 35%
Time in min.
Distance
in m
in ft.
Total resistence
Ground structure
Fig. 23
35
Tra ve l tim e a t d iffe re n t to ta l re sista n ce a n d g ro u n d stru ctu re Vo lvo A2 5 D , u n lo a d e d .
Tra ve l tim e th ro u g h cu rve s with d iffe re n t le n g th a n d ra d iu s.
0 300 600
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
1.4
40% 35% 1.0
30%
28%
26%
24%
22%
20%
18%
16%
14%
12%
0.8
10%
8%
4%-6%
2%
0.4
0.00.2
0.6
Time in min.
Total resistence
Ground structure
Distance
in m
in ft.
Fig. 24
1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0 50 100 150 200 250
0 150 300 450 600 750
0.4
0.5
1
2
3
4
5
6
5 m
10 m
20 m
30 m
40 m
50 m
16 ft.
33 ft.
66 ft.
98 ft.
131 ft.
164 ft.
Time in min.
Distance
in m
in ft.
LINE RADIUS
Fig. 25
36
7 .6 M a n e u ve rin g to d u m p a n d d u m p in g
Since the working cycle steps turning and maneuvering for
dump and dumping take place immediately after each
other, they can be combined under the heading dumping
and given a total time for both operations.
Dumping can be done in different ways, but the quickest
one should naturally be used to achieve the highest
possible production.
Time requirements for the different cases are found in
Section 8.
C a s e 1
The sketch shows the most common dumping procedure.
The time is counted from when the hauler has stopped at
A until return travel begins.
C a s e 2
The hauler can be used for compacting loose materials in
wet conditions. The operator reverses straight into the
material and then dumps the load. The advantage of this
method is that a large amount of material can be deposited
on a relatively small surface. If necessary, final leveling of
the material can be carried out when dry. A tailgate can be
used if the material is free from large stones.
Fig. 26
A
Fig. 27
37
C a s e 3
If a dozer is used for leveling the dump area, the material
should be deposited in a pile, as shown in the sketch.
Normally the operator of the dozer indicates where the load
is to be spotted. The dump area is normally flat.

C a s e 4
Thanks to their good off-road traveling characteristics,
Volvo articulated haulers can be utilized for dumping as
shown here. The advantage of this method is that a narrow
embankment can be built up quickly since there are no
haulers blocking the area while maneuvering to dump. This
method allows a high flow of machines and gives a short
dumping time.

Fig. 28
Fig. 29
38
7 .7 M a n e u ve rin g fo r lo a d in g
C a s e 1
Normally the articulated hauler is turned and reversed to the
loading area. Due to their off-road mobility, Volvo haulers
can drive through slopes and ditches to carry out this
maneuver.
The articulated hauler frame steering enables the machine
to turn to one side to make room for the loaded hauler to
leave.
C a s e 2
If the available space at the load area is large and loading is
done with a hydraulic excavator or dragline, it should be
arranged in such a way that the haulers can drive around.
Due to their articulated frame steering, Volvo haulers can
be lined up next to the hydraulic excavator.
11 m
Fig. 30
Fig. 31
39
7 .8 P ro d u ctive tim e
Productive time is the actual time the transport unit works
effectively during every hour. This time is important because
from this time the machine performance is estimated, see
Section 7.9.
If the transport unit were to work at 100% efficiency, then it
would be working 60 minutes every hour throughout the
working day. However, it is not possible to work with a
machine with such efficiency due to unavoidable factors
like occasional waiting in front of the loader, supervisory
conversations, machine breakdown, machine service,
maintenance and other delays of varying duration. The
amount of unavoidable job delays is of course to a certain
extent depending on how the jobsite is planned and
organized.
The productive time is usually expressed as the average
number of minutes per hour the machine works.
Estimation of the productive time can be achieved by
carrying out work studies on the site concerned. This
estimation will be relatively accurate as all the factors
involved in the production will be measured.
If the job has not yet started, and the operation is still in the
planning stage, the productive time has to be estimated
using experience gained from previous similar applications
and by using the following formula.
FORMULA T = x 60 (min/h)
T (min/hour) is the productive time the transport unit works
on average every hour.
t is the cycle time of one transport unit, including load time
+haul time +dumping time +return time +maneuvering
time +planned activities.
Planned activities should include such items as weighing
the load and other delays that occur every cycle, i.e. when
using a single track haul route with selected passing
places.
U is the unavoidable, irregular job delays expressed in
minutes per machine cycle. This includes time for
occasional waiting in front of the loader, supervisory
conversations and other work on the site which may affect
the performance of the transport unit. This also includes
time for service and maintenance when these occur during
the actual working shift.
Note: The unavoidable job delays do not account for
longer delays due to weather, major overhauls or repairs.
You must account for such factors based on experience
and local conditions.
Operating time F =cycle time +unavoidable delays.
U =unavoidable job delays.
Operating hours/years =operating hour/day x working
days/year.
t
t +U
EXAMPLE:
In the following example the load has to be weighed, but no ticket
is required. The transport unit is driven onto the weigh-bridge,
weighed with load and driven off. The estimated time being 0.30
minutes.
Cycle time (t) will be:
Load time 1.50
Haul time 2.81
Maneuvering to dump and dumping 0.50
Return time 1.35
Maneuvering for loading 0.40
Planned activity 0.30
Total cycle time 6.86
The estimated cycle time (t) will be 6.86 min.
Unavoidable job delays can only be estimated. We estimated
total unavoidable job delays to be 1.75 minutes per cycle. Pro-
ductive time per hour will be:
T = x60 min/h
t =6.86 min.
U =1.75 min.
T = x 60 min/h
T =48
Estimated productive time per hour T =48 min/h.
t
t +U
6.86 min.
6.86 min. +1.75 min.
40
7 .9 P ro d u ctio n
Having estimated the number of minutes per hour
productive time a transport unit works every hour, it is now
possible to estimate the hourly performance of a transport
unit, or any number of transport units, assuming that they all
have identical load volumes, productive times and cycle
times.
The production is estimated using the formula:
P =Q x
P the production per hour expressed in Bm
3
Byd
3
or
Lm
3
Lyd
3
or tonnes tons.
Q load volume or weight.
T the productive time in minutes/hour (refer to Section 7.8).
t the cycle time, including load time +haul time +
dumping time +return time +maneuvering time +planned
activities.
=the number of cycles/h.
7 .1 0 P ro d u ctio n ca lcu la tio n
We will now finish calculating the example started in
Section 7.4 and at the same time continue to fill in the
calculation form.
I n fo rm a tio n co n ce rn in g co m p a n y, m a te ria l
a n d lo a d in g e q u ip m e n t
On the top and left side of the calculation form (see Fig.
32) there is some general information regarding the jobsite,
material and loading equipment. This starts with the name
of the company and jobsite and then the total amount of
material to be moved, which is usually given in bank
volume. Fill in the type of material Earth wet, density 1900
kg/Bm
3
3200 lb/ Byd
3
, swell factor 1.2 and excavation
class 1 (already filled in).
In order to calculate the loading time, it is necessary to
indicate the type of loading equipment, bucket volume and
cycle time of the loading equipment.
I n fo rm a tio n co n ce rn in g tra n sp o rt m a ch in e
On the top right side of the calculation form, fill in the date
and name of the person filling in the form. This is followed
by the type of transport machine and its body volume. Then
the load volume, both bank and loose, and the load weight.
Finally fill in the number of hours in each shift and the
productive time in min/h.
T
t
T
t
EXAMPLE:
What would the estimated production of one transport unit be when the load volume is 15 Lm
3
19.6 Lyd
3
, the hourly productive time
is 48 minutes and the cycle time is 6.86 min?
P =15 x P =105
The estimated hourly production of the transport unit will be 105 Lm
3
/h 137 Lyd
3
/ h.
48
6.86
41
S k e tch o f jo b site
In the middle of the form at the top, there is space for a
sketch showing details of the jobsite. This should indicate
the extent of the transport route and how it is divided into
various subsections. It should also indicate how to turn and
maneuver when loading and dumping.
D e scrip tio n o f h a u l ro u te
On the bottom left side of the form a description is given of
the haul route strech, where the length, grade, rolling
resistance, total resistance, coefficient of traction, curve
radius and ground structure class are shown for each
strech. The note column is used for noting (e.g.) other site
activities which could limit the travel speed.
A description of the various terrain factors and how they are
assessed is given in Section 6.
C a lcu la tio n o f tra ve l tim e a n d p ro d u ctio n
When all of the above information has been filled in, start
calculating the travel time and eventually finish with the
production section located on the bottom right part of the
form.
Lo a d in g tim e
From Sections 7.2 and 7.3 we have the number of buckets
to load the hauler and the loading time. The loading time is
1.50 min., which we filled in earlier.
Tra ve lin g with lo a d
The time for traveling loaded was fully explained for each
strech of the route in Section 7.4. It is necessary to check
the coefficient of traction and other factors to make sure
that the machine can, in any case, traverse the section
concerned. If not, the transport route must be altered or
some other suitable measure taken.
Any terrain factors likely to limit the travel speeds must be
considered and the travel time calculated using the graphs
in Fig. 23-25. The travel times over the various route
sections are then added together. The times have already
been entered both under the column Travel time min.
loaded in the middle of the form and in the production
summary on the right.
M a n e u ve rin g to d u m p a n d d u m p in g
The time needed for turning and maneuvering to dump and
dumping is estimated to be 0.50 minutes (Section 8.2,
Case 1). Here we do not distinguish between the two sub-
operations but enter 0.50 minutes on the form.
Tra ve lin g u n lo a d e d
The time for traveling unloaded is calculated in the same
way as for traveling loaded (Section 7.5).
M a n e u ve rin g fo r lo a d in g
The time needed for turning around and maneuvering for
loading is estimated to 0.40 minutes (Section 8.1, Case 1).
P la n n e d a ctivitie s
The planned activites are estimated to be 0.30 minutes per
cycle.
C ycle tim e
The times for sub-operations are then added.
Loading time =1.50 min.
Traveling loaded =2.81 min.
Maneuvering to dump and dumping =0.50 min.
Traveling unloaded =1.35 min.
Maneuvering for loading =0.40 min.
Planned activities =0.30 min.
C ycle tim e = 6 .8 6 m in .
P ro d u ctio n
P =Q x
If the productive time is 48 minutes per hour worked,
we obtain:
complete cycles per hour.
By multiplying the number of cycles per hour by the load
volume and load weight, we obtain the transported volume
and weight per hour.
Lo a d vo lu m e
Bank volume = = =12.5 Bm
3
Lo a d m a s s
Bank volume x Bank density
12.5 Bm
3
x 1900 kg/Bm
3
=23.8 t 26.4 sh ton.
P e rfo rm a n ce
12.5 Bm
3
x 7/h =88 Bm
3
/h 115 Byd
3
/h
15 Lm
3
x 7/h =105 Lm
3
/h 137 Lyd
3
/h
23.8 t. x 7/h =167 t/h 185 sh ton/ h
N u m b e r o f h a u le rs
To find the right number of haulers, we are refering to
section 7.11.
N = = =4.1
T
t
T
t
48
6.86
= =7.0
Loose volume
Swell factor
15
1.2
t (Transp)
n x t (Load)
6.86
6 x 0.28
42

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43
7 .1 1 T h e rig h t n u m b e r o f tra n s p o rt
m a ch in e s
How do you find the number of transport machines that
matches the size of the loading equipment? It is very rare
that the production of the transport machines and the
loading equipment is exactly the same. Usually one of the
cases below occurs.
O ve rsize d tra n sp o rt e q u ip m e n t
This will result in transport machines waiting at the loading
area. This is followed by a decreased work pace as the
operators find it better to drive a little bit slower instead of
waiting at the loading area. If there is a shortage of time,
this might still be the best choice since the overall
production is somewhat higher in this case.
O ve rsize d lo a d in g e q u ip m e n t
This is preferred as it gives the loading unit time to do
clean-up work at the loading area, and it is possible for the
transport units to keep a high pace if the loader is always
waiting with the bucket raised when they return to be
loaded. This is also more economical since only one unit is
not fully utilized instead of the whole fleet of transport
machines.

C a lcu la tio n o f th e n u m b e r o f tra n sp o rt
m a ch in e s
The number of transport machines that matches the
loading equipment is calculated with the formula:
N =
N =the number of transport units
t (transp) =the cycle time of the transport units
n =the number of buckets on a load
t (load) =the cycle time of the loader
Instead of comparing transport unit cycle time with loading
time, we can get the same result if we compare loader
production with production of one transport unit using this
formula:
N =
N =number of transport units
P (loader) =loader production per hour
P (transp) =production per hour for one transport unit
EXAMPLE:
In our example in Fig. 32
t (transp) =6.86 min.
n =6 buckets
t (load) =0.28 min.
The suitable number of machines is:
N = = =4.1
As we prefer to have the loading equipment (EC 460) a bit over-
sized, we choose four A25Ds.
t (transp)
n x t (load)
6.86
6 x 0.28
t (transp)
n x t (load)
P (loader)
P (transp)
44
7 .1 2 H o u rly co st
Two forms are used in calculating the hourly cost of the
machine, Hourly cost calculation (Fig. 33-34).
The hourly cost arrived at by this calculation represents a
net cost for the machine which must be added to
management and administration costs. An addition must
also be made for the machine owners profit.
A new cost calculation, adjusted for the local conditions
and with up-to-date prices etc., is made for every new
contract.
We will now go through the forms step-by-step to show
how the calculation is made.
Form Hourly cost calculation Fig. 33.
This example is for representation only.
C o n d itio n s
Enter the type of work and whether payment is made by the
hour or piecework, etc.
M a ch in e typ e
Apart from showing the type of machines, a note should
also be made if the machine is provided with any extra
equipment. Such extra equipment increases the purchase
price of the machine and also the hourly cost.
a ) P u rch a se p rice
The delivery price paid by the customer.
b ) P u rch a se p rice e xclu d in g tire s
Since tire wear is regarded as a separate cost item, the
purchase price of a set of tires is deducted from the
purchase price of the machine. The purchase price of a set
of tires is entered under item n.
c) D e p re cia tio n tim e
This largely depends on how hard the machine is to be
used. Machines used in normal work are usually
depreciated in 8,00010,000 hours, which in a single-shift
operation represents 67 years.
d ) R e sid u a l va lu e
This is the value of the machine at the end of the
depreciation time, i.e. the price which could be obtained for
it if sold. Here local conditions must be considered, as
used equipment values vary widely around the world.
Factors which have great influence on residual value are the
number of hours on the machine at the time of sale or
trade, the type of jobs and the operating conditions in
which it worked and the physical condition of the machine.
e ) D e p re cia tio n co st
This is the yearly drop in value of the machine during the
depreciation time. The total drop in value represents the
purchase price excluding tires (b), minus the residual value
(d), divided by the number of years in which the machine is
depreciated (c).
f) I n te re s t
The interest obtainable if the money had been otherwise
invested.
g ) I n te re st co st
For the sake of simplicity, this is taken as being the average
yearly interest during the depreciation time. It is calculated
as the interest on the purchase price plus the residual value
divided by two, which must be added to the interest on the
remaining value. The interest cost for borrowed money has
to be calculated separately.
h ) M a ch in e ta x
Enter the annual machine tax.
Note: Articulated haulers can be operated legally on-road in
some European countries only.
i) I n su ra n ce
Enter the total annual insurance premiums paid for the
machine.
j) F u e l co st
The price per liter/gallon paid for fuel.
k ) F u e l co n su m p tio n
The fuel consumption in liters/gallons per hour. Note that
the fuel consumption varies depending on the type of work
and how hard the machines are run.
l) O il co st
This is the average price which has to be paid for different
types of oils, grease and filters.
m ) O il co n su m p tio n
This includes consumption per hour of all oils, grease and
filters.
45
n ) T ire s
Enter the cost of a complete set of tires.
o ) L ife tim e o f tire s
This is shown in hours. The lifetime of tires can vary
considerably with differences in haul road, speed etc.
Material conditions are critical in estimating the lifetime of
the tires, particularly when working in rock or other abrasive
materials. As an optimum, the lifetime for a set of radial tires
is 7000 hours and 9000 hours for a set of low profile tires.
These figures, however, have to be reduced depending on
the operating conditions.
p ) R e p a ir a n d m a in te n a n ce
Repair costs include the cost of spare parts, mechanics
wages and shop costs. Maintenance costs include
washing down, daily inspections and periodic service.
Repair and maintenance costs can vary considerably
depending on the type of work, operating method and age
of the machine. The best way to arrive at these costs is to
keep accurate statistics. These costs are normally
calculated as a percentage of the purchase price during
the depreciation period.
The following model for estimation of the maintenance
costs is based upon purchase price and gives the total
maintenance cost during the depreciation period.
The model is recommended when making rough
calculations in connection with machine purchases and
prognosis of machine cost. It should be used carefully, as
the purchase price in some countries can be strongly
affected by transport costs, duties and taxes, etc.

Factors for assessing the life of tires on transport
machines
Wheel position
Drive axle:
Continuous four wheel drive (6x4)
Continuous sixwheel drive (6x6)
1.0
0.9
Inflation pressure
Pressure recommended for given load
With 10% under inflation
1.0
0.9
Load
No overload
10% overload
20% overload
1.0
0.9
0.8
Speed (average)
16 km/h 10 mph
32 km/h 20 mph
1.0
0.9
Operators experience
More than 6 months
Less than 6 months
1.0
0.9
Terrain or site road condition
Well-maintained site road with smooth gravel
Poorly-maintained site road with ungraded gravel
Scattered blasted rock
1.0
0.9
0.7
Maintenance of loading and unloading areas
Excellent
Poor
1.0
0.9
Curves
None or smooth
Sharp
1.0
0.9
Grades
Continuous four wheel drive (6x4)
No exceeding 6%
Exceeding 6%
Continuous sixwheel drive (6x6)
0.9
1.0
0.9
1.0
EXAMPLE:
A Volvo A25D is equipped with radial tires.
What is the expected life time of the tires on the driving wheels?
Recommended inflation pressure
Overload 10%
Poorly maintained site road with ungraded gravel
Poorly maintained loading and unloading areas
Smooth curves
Grades not exceeding 6%
Average speed about 32 km/h 20 mph
Skilled operator
This gives the following equation:
0.9 x 1.0 x0.9 x0.9 x 0.9 x1.0 x1.0 x0.9 x1.0 =0.59
On this operation, the expected lifetime of the tires will be
0.59 x7000 =4130 hours.
46
q ) O p e ra to r co st
This includes all costs for the operator during the year such
as base wages, travel expenses, employee benefits and
insurance contributions.
r) O p e ra tin g h o u rs p e r ye a r
Operating hours per year =the no. of operating hours per
shift x the no. of shifts per year.
M o d e l fo r ca lcu la tio n o f m a in te n a n ce co st
EXAMPLE:
A quarry owner is going to buy a Volvo A25D. What mainte-
nance cost should our contractor and quarry owner calculate
with, assuming that he mainly uses the machine in the quarry.
He uses experienced operators, maintains his machines
according to recommendations and has a service organization
of his own. The depreciation period is 12,000 hours.
The purchase price is 1,500,000.
The percentage the quarry owner must calculate with is:
34 x 1.2 x1.0 x1.0 x 1.05 =42.8
The total maintenance cost is: 0.428 x1,500,000 =642,000 or
if spread out per operating hour: 642,000/12,000 =53.50
Repair and maintenance cost during the depreciation
period in percent of the purchase price
Depreciation time, hours
Repair and maintenance
cost, % of purchase price
C-series D-series
4000
6000
6
12
4
8
8000
10000
20
35
13
25
12000
14000
48
65
34
46
Correction factors
Jobsite
Very good conditions
Good conditions; mixed hauling clay, sand
Normal conditions; gravel pits, road building
Difficult conditions; mines, quarries
Very difficult conditions
0.75
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.5
Operator
Operator experience: more than 1 year
6 months to 1 year
less than 6 months
1.0
1.1
1.2
Daily maintenance
D-series, no daily maintenace
Recommended
Poor
Very poor
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.3
Repair and maintenance
Service contract with authorized VCE workshop
Authorized VCE workshop
Own service organization
Use of other outside shop facilities
0.9
1.0
1.05
1.15
47
H o u rly co st ca lcu la tio n

Conditions:
Machine type:
a Purchase price
b Purchase price excluding tires
c Depreciation time years
d Residual value
e Depreciation
cost
per year
f Interest %
g Interest
cost
per year
h Machine tax
i Insurance per year
j Fuel price per l per gal
k Fuel consumption l/h gph
l Oil price per l per qt
m Oil consumption l/h qt per hour
n Cost of a set of tires
o Lifetime of tires h
p Repairs and maintenace per year
q Operator cost per year
r Operating hours per year
b d
c
--------------
f
100
-----------
a d +
2
--------------
x
Fig. 33
48
H o u rly co st ca lcu la tio n
Fixed cost, i.e. the total cost of the machine whether its
working or not.
The depreciation cost per hour is obtained by dividing
the yearly depreciation cost (e) by the number of operating
hours per year (r).
The interest per hour is obtained by dividing the yearly
interest cost (g) by the number of operating hours per year
(r).
The tax and insurance costs are obtained in a similar
manner by dividing the yearly taxes (h) and yearly insurance
premiums (i) by the number of operating hours per year.
Variable costs depend on how much the machine is run
and how hard it is used.
The fuel cost per hour is calculated by multiplying the
price (j) by the consumption (k).
The oil cost per hour is calculated by multiplying the price
(l) by the consumption (m).
The tire cost is obtained by dividing the price of a set of
tires (n) by the lifetime of the tires (o).
Repair and maintenance costs are obtained by dividing
the yearly cost (p) by the number of operating hours (r).
The operator cost is obtained by dividing the yearly cost
(q) by the number of operating hours (r).
By adding all these costs we obtain the cost of the
machine per hour.
As previously mentioned, this cost does not include
administration costs or the machine owners profit.
Machine type:
A Fixed cost per hour
Depreciation
Interest cost
Machine tax
Insurance
Total fixed cost
B Variable cost per hour
Fuel
Oil grease and filters
Tires
Repair and maintenance
Total variable cost
C Operator cost per hour
Total costs per hour A+B+C
e
r
---
g
r
---
h
r
---
i
r
--
j k
l m
n
o
---
p
r
---
q
r
---
Fig. 34
49
7 .1 3 E xa m p le o f h o u rly co st ca lcu la tio n
H o u rly co st ca lcu la tio n


Conditions: Earthmoving in road construction
Machine type: A25D
a Purchase price 1,500,000
b Purchase price excluding tires 1,405 000
c Depreciation time years 7
d Residual value 300,000
e Depreciation
cost
per year 158,000
f Interest % 10
g Interest
cost
per year 90,000
h Machine tax 20,000*
i Insurance per year 5000
j Fuel cost per l per gal 2.50
k Fuel consumption l/h gph 20
l Oil cost per l per qt 15
m Oil consumption l/h qt per hour 0.3
n Cost of a set of tires 95,000
o Lifetime of tires h 4130
p Repairs and maintenance per year 85,600
q Operator cost per year 320,000
r Operating hours per year 1600
b d
c
--------------
f
100
-----------
a d +
2
--------------
x
Fig. 35
*Articulated Haulers can be used legally on-road only in some European contries.
50
Hourly cost calculation
The hourly cost of one hauler is 502. In our example, we
needed 4 haulers, so the total hourly cost of the haulers is
4 x 502 =2008.
The hourly cost of the excavator is calculated in the same
way. To avoid repeating ourselves, we assume that the
result of this calculation was 900 for the Volvo EC 460.
The total hourly cost for our fleet is then 2008 +900 =
2908.
Note in Fig. 36 those items that are important when
calculating the total hourly cost and those that have
less significance:
Depreciation and interest are heavy items, but since the
depreciation time and interest rate are generally fixed at the
time of purchase, it is difficult to influence these costs
afterwards.
Fuel consumption and tire wear largely depend on the type
of work the machine is used for, but much can be gained
by running the machine correctly and using the correct type
of tires.
Repair and maintenance are heavy items which demand
particular attention. Repair and maintenance costs can be
reduced by using proper operating methods, conscientious
daily maintenance and periodical service. This also reduces
unexpected and expensive breakdown times as well as
increasing the service life of the machine.
Repair costs increase with the age of the machine.
Machine type: A25D
A Fixed cost per hour
Depreciation 98.75
Interest cost 56.25
Machine tax 12.50
Insurance 3.10
Total fixed cost 170.60
B Variable cost per hour
Fuel 50.00
Oil grease and filters 4.50
Tires 23.00
Repair and maintenance 75.60
Total variable cost 131
C Operator cost per hour 200.00
Total costs per hour A+B+C 501.60
e
r
---
g
r
---
h
r
---
i
r
--
j k
l m
n
o
---
p
r
---
q
r
---
Fig. 36
51
7 .1 4 C a lcu la tio n o f co s t p e r p ro d u ctio n u n it
We must now coordinate the performance calculation
described in Section 7.10 with the hourly cost calculation
in Section 7.13. It is not sufficient to only look at the
performance or the hourly cost. We have to look at the cost
of the work performed, i.e. cost per transported unit.
A calculation can have different purposes. It concerns:
Machine purchase. By comparing alternative machine
types, it is possible to choose the most suitable
machines for carrying out the work.
Machine distribution. A large contractor may have
several different machine types and different types of
work to be performed. By suitable calculation he can
decide which machines should be placed on which jobs
so the total cost of the job can be reduced to a mini-
mum.
Cost forecast. Before starting a job it is desirable to
calculate how much it will cost, as it may form the basis
for a bid.
Whatever the purpose, the calculation procedure is always
the same:
Production calculation
Hourly cost calculation
Coordination of production and hourly cost to arrive at a
cost for the work to be performed.
For the sake of simplicity, we disregard that there are
sometimes limiting factors which mean that a certain type
of machine must be chosen even though it may not be the
most profitable one.
However, in the majority of cases, it is the profitability
expressed in cost per production unit which is the decisive
factor in choosing types of machines for a particular job:
The cost per produced unit is calculated from the following
formula:
K =
where:
K =the cost per unit
C =the hourly cost
P =the production per hour
C
P
52

EXAMPLE:
We assume the production example in Section 7.10 applies to the same hourly cost example in Section 7.13.
Production per hour:
352 Bm
3
(4 haulers x88 Bm
3
)
460 Byd
3
(4 haulers x 115 Byd
3
)
The total hourly cost for our fleet: 2908
The cost per Bm
3
: K = =8.26/Bm
3
The cost per Byd
3
: K = = 6.32/ Byd
3
We are trying to estimate the cost of a contract that includes transporting 75,000 Bm
3
98,040 Byd
3
.
The results of the production and hourly cost calculations can now be summarized in a table:
This summary shows how much the whole operation will cost and how
long it will take. It is assumed that the transport machines do not inter-
fere with each other, and that the loading capacity is matched to the
number of machines used.
Type of machine Volvo A25D Volvo EC 460 Total system
Number of machines 1 4 1 5
Performance Bm
3
/h
Byd
3
/h
88
115
352
460
352
460
352
460
Cost per hour 502 2 008 900 2 908
Cost per Bm
3
Byd
3
5.70
4.36
5.70
1)
4.36
2.56
2)
1.95
8.25
6.31
Total cost 619,500
3)
Duration of work, hours 213
4)
2908
352
2908
460
2 008
352
1)
2)
3)
4)
=5.70
900
352
=2.56
75,000 x8.26 =619,500
75,000
352
=213
Fig. 37
Note: Values are rounded off
53
8 88 8 Maneuvering times Maneuvering times Maneuvering times Maneuvering times
8 .1 T im e n e e d e d fo r m a n e u ve rin g a t lo a d in g a re a
C a s e 1
The time includes 10 m 33 ft. reversing from point A (stop
before reversing) to point B (loading position). For a
reversing distance of more than 10 m 33 ft. additional
allowance should be made for each meter yard.

C a s e 2
If the available space at the loading area is large and
loading is done with a hydraulic excavator or dragline, it
should be arranged so that the haulers can drive into
loading position without stopping and reversing.
With its articulated frame steering, the hauler can position
itself next to the excavator, eliminating the maneuvering
time.
Type
Needed time
from A to B,
in minutes
Extra allowance for
each additional meter
(yard), in minutes
A25D 0.40 0.01
A30D 0.40 0.01
A35D 0.40 0.01
A40D 0.40 0.01
11 m
Fig. 38
Fig. 39
54
8 .2 T im e n e e d e d fo r m a n e u ve rin g a t d u m p a re a a n d d u m p in g
C a s e 1
The operation includes 10 m 33 ft. reversing from where
the hauler has stopped at A, to the dump location (B), and
until the return transport begins.
Due to its good off-road characteristics and
maneuverability, the hauler can generally be turned around
directly on the dump area. Should the road be so narrow
that the machine has to be reversed for a longer distance,
an additional allowance must be made for each meter yard
exceeding the first 10 m 33 ft.
C a s e 2
The time includes 10 m 33 ft. reversing from where the
hauler has stopped at A, to the dump location (B), and until
return transport begins.
Type
Needed time from
A to B including
dumping, in minutes
Extra allowance for
each additional meter
(yard), in minutes
A25D 0.50 0.01
A30D 0.50 0.01
A35D 0.50 0.01
A40D 0.50 0.01
Type
Needed time from
A to B including
dumping, in minutes
Extra allowance for
each additional
meter (yard), in minutes
A25D 0.50 0.01
A30D 0.50 0.01
A35D 0.50 0.01
A40D 0.50 0.01
Fig. 40
A
B
Fig. 41
A
B
55
C a s e 3
This time is calculated from when the hauler stops for
dumping until the return transport begins.
.
C a s e 4
This time is calculated from when the hauler stops for
dumping until the return transport begins.
.
Type
Needed time,
in minutes
A25D 0.25
A30D 0.25
A35D 0.25
A40D 0.25
Fig. 42
Type
Needed time,
in minutes
A25D 0.30
A30D 0.30
A35D 0.30
A40D 0.30
Fig. 43
56
8 .3 Tu rn in g a ro u n d in tu n n e ls
In the table below you find the time needed to turn around
Volvo articulated haulers in tunnels.
Turning time in minutes and number of reversals.
.
Tunnel width
13 m 43 ft. 12 m 39 ft. 11 m 36 ft. 10 m 33 ft. 9.5 m 31 ft.
Time
Minutes
No. of
reversals
Time
Minutes
No. of
reversals
Time
Minutes
No. of
reversals
Time
Minutes
No. of
reversals
Time
Minutes
No. of
reversals
A25D 4x4 0.5 1 0.7 2
A25D 4x4
with turn-around
equipment
0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
A25D 6x6 0.5 1 0.9 2
A30D 6x6 0.5 1 0.9 2
A35D 6x6 0.9 2 1.2 3
A40D 6x6 0.9 2
Fig. 44
.
Fig. 44b
57
9 99 9 Loading time for different loading Loading time for different loading Loading time for different loading Loading time for different loading
equipment equipment equipment equipment
When calculating the number of bucket loads which can
be accomplished on the transport machine, it is first neces-
sary to know the excavation class of the material and the
load volume of the transport machine. The following tables
show the most suitable bucket volumes for different loading
equipment.
The volumes are shown in Lm
3
Lyd
3
, i.e. the volume the
material has when loaded on the transport machine.
58
9 .1 Lo a d in g tim e s fo r wh e e l lo a d e rs
Assumptions:
Loading with wheel loader carried out as shown in
sketch.
Jobsite level and smooth.
Skilled operator.
Fig. 45
13 ft.
20 23 ft.
10 16 ft.
19 33 ft.
4 m
6 7 m
3 5 m
3 10 m
Wheel
loader
Basic
bucket
m
3
yd
3
Output
SAE 1349
net kW
hp
Weight
kg lbs.
Loaded volume Lm
3
Lyd
3
per
cycle in excavation class:
Cycle time in minutes
(6 seconds 0.1 minutes) in
excavation class:
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
L50D 1.2
1.6
71
96
8,500
18,739
1.4
1.8
1.2
1.6
1.2
1.6
0.35 0.43 0.55
L70D 1.6
2.1
90
122
11,000
24,250
1.9
2.5
1.8
2.3
1.6
2.1
0.35 0.43 0.52
L90D 2.2
2.9
113
154
15,000
33,069
2.7
3.5
2.5
3.3
2.4
3.1
2.2
2.9
0.37 0.45 0.57 0.67
L120E 3.3
4.3
165
224
19,000
41,888
3.7
4.8
3.4
4.4
3.4
4.3
3.3
3.9
0.38 0.45 0.53 0.62
L150E 3.8
5.0
199
270
24,000
52,910
4.0
5.2
3.8
5.0
3.8
5.0
3.8
4.6
0.38 0.43 0.52 0.58
L180E 4.4
5.7
221
300
27,000
59,525
4.8
6.3
4.6
6.0
4.6
5.75
4.4
5.5
0.38 0.43 0.52 0.58
L220E 4.9
6.4
259
352
31,300
69,004
5.4
10.5
5.2
9.0
4.9
8.6
4.6
8.6
0.38 0.45 0.52 0.58
L330E 6.5
8.5
370
503
51,000
112,435
8.0
10.5
6.6
9.0
6.6
8.6
6.6
8.6
0.43 0.48 0.58 0.67
59
9 .2 Lo a d in g tim e s fo r h yd ra u lic e xca va to rs
Assumptions:
Excavation depth is roughly equal
to the length of the dipper arm.
A skilled operator.
Excavator and haulers
are well matched.
Exc. class Fill factor
1 1.2
2 1.0
3 0.8
4 0.6
2 4 m
45
5 12 ft.
Fig. 46
Slew angle 45 degrees Hauler placed below the excavator
Excavator
Excavator weight
t sh t
Bucket
m
3
yd
3
Loaded volume Lm
3
Lyd
3
per
cycle in excavation class:
Cycle time in minutes
(6 seconds 0.1 minutes)
in excavation class:
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
EC 210B 20.5 21.9
22.8 24.3
1.0
1.3
1.2
1.6
1.0
1.3
0.8
1.0
0.6
0.8
0.17 0.18 0.21 0.23
EC 240B 23.5 24.9
25.5 27.6
1.2
1.6
1.4
1.9
1.2
1.6
1.0
1.3
0.7
0.9
0.18 0.20 0.23 0.25
EC 290B 27.8 29.6
31.0 32.9
1.5
2.0
1.8
2.4
1.5
2.0
1.2
1.6
0.9
1.2
0.20 0.22 0.24 0.27
EC 360B 35.1 38.1
39.0 42.3
1.7
2.2
2.0
2.7
1.7
2.2
1.4
1.8
1.0
1.3
0.22 0.23 0.27 0.30
EC 460B 44.3 46.0
49.2 51.5
2.4
3.1
2.9
3.8
2.4
3.1
1.9
2.5
1.4
1.9
0.23 0.25 0.28 0.32
EC 650
Not in production
64.9 66.8
72.3 74.2
3.3
4.3
4.0
5.2
3.3
4.3
2.6
3.4
2.0
2.6
0.23 0.27 0.30 0.35
EC 650 ME
Not in production
64.9 66.8
72.0 74.2
4.4
5.7
5.3
6.9
4.4
5.7
3.5
4.6
2.6
3.4
0.25 0.27 0.30 0.35
60
Assumptions:
Excavation depth is roughly equal
to the length of the dipper arm.
A skilled operator.
Excavator and haulers
are well matched.
Excavation
class
Fill factor
1 1.2
2 1.0
3 0.8
4 0.6
2 4 m
90
5 12 ft.
Fig. 47
Slew angle 90 degrees Hauler placed on the same level as the excavator
Excavator
Excavator weight
t sh t
Bucket
m
3
yd
3
Loaded volume Lm
3
Lyd
3
per
cycle in excavation class:
Cycle time in minutes
(6 seconds 0.1 minutes)
in excavation class:
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
EC 210B 20.5 21.9
22.8 24.3
10
1.3
1.2
1.6
1.0
1.3
0.8
1.0
0.6
0.8
0.23 0.24 0.27 0.29
EC 240B 23.5 24.9
25.5 27.6
1.2
1.6
1.4
1.9
1.2
1.6
1.0
1.3
0.7
0.9
0.24 0.26 0.28 0.31
EC 290B 27.8 29.6
31.0 32.9
1.5
2.0
1.8
2.4
1.5
2.0
1.2
1.6
0.9
1.2
0.25 0.27 0.30 0.32
EC 360B 35.1 38.1
39.0 42.3
1.7
2.2
2.0
2.7
1.7
2.2
1.4
1.8
1.0
1.3
0.27 0.28 0.32 0.35
EC 460B 44.3 46.0
49.2 51.5
2.4
3.1
2.9
3.8
2.4
3.1
1.9
2.5
1.4
1.9
0.28 0.30 0.33 0.37
EC 650
Not in production
64.9 66.8
72.3 74.2
3.3
4.3
4.0
5.2
3.3
4.3
2.6
3.4
2.0
2.6
0.28 0.30 0.33 0.38
EC 650 ME
Not in production
64.9 66.8
72.0 74.2
4.4
5.7
5.3
6.9
4.4
5.7
3.5
4.6
2.6
3.4
0.28 0.30 0.33 0.38
61
9 .3 Lo a d in g tim e s fo r h yd ra u lic e xca va to rs , fro n t s h o ve ls
Assumptions:
Loading with front shovel carried out as shown in sketch.
Jobsite level and smooth.
Skilled operator.
10 16 ft.
90 180
3 5 m
Fig. 48
Front shovel
output SAE
kW hp
Approx. weight
kg lbs
Loaded volume Lm
3
Lyd
3
per
cycle in excavation class:
Cycle time in minutes
(6 seconds 0.1 minutes)
in excavation class:
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
190
260
40,000
88,180
2.7
3.5
2.7
3.5
2.5
3.3
2.5
3.3
0.35 0.37 0.40 0.47
280
380
60,000
132,280
3.8
5.0
3.8
5.0
3.5
4.6
3.5
4.6
0.39 0.41 0.44 0.53
300
410
40,000
154,380
4.5
5.9
4.5
5.9
4.0
5.2
4.0
5.2
0.41 0.43 0.45 0.54
430
585
40,000
242,510
6.5
8.5
6.5
8.5
6.0
7.8
6.0
7.8
0.42 0.44 0.47 0.56
640
870
40,000
396,830
10.0
13.1
10.0
13.1
9.0
11.8
9.0
11.8
0.46 0.48 0.51 0.60
62
9 .4 Lo a d in g tim e s fo r cra wle r lo a d e rs
Assumptions:
Loading with crawler loader carried out as shown in
sketch.
Jobsite level and smooth.
Skilled operator.
3 5 m
10 16 ft.
Fig. 49
Crawler loader
output SAE
kW hp
Approx. weight
kg lbs
Loaded volume Lm
3
Lyd
3
per
cycle in excavation class:
Cycle time in minutes
(6 seconds 0.1 minutes)
in excavation class:
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
75
102
12,000
26,400
1.5
2.0
1.4
1.8
1.3
1.7
1.2
1.6
0.43 0.45 0.47 0.58
100
136
16,000
35,270
1.9
2.5
1.7
2.2
1.6
2.1
1.4
1.8
0.43 0.45 0.47 0.58
150
204
22,000
48,500
2.7
3.5
2.5
3.3
2.4
3.1
2.1
2.75
0.43 0.45 0.47 0.58
200
272
35,000
77,160
4.1
5.4
3.8
5.0
3.6
4.7
3.2
4.2
0.43 0.45 0.47 0.58
63
9 .5 Lo a d in g tim e s fo r d ra g lin e s
Assumptions:
Loading with dragline carried out as shown in sketch.
Skilled operator.
10 16 ft.
90 180
10 20 m
3 5 m
33 66 ft.
Fig. 50
Dragline
output SAE
kW hp
Approx. weight
kg lbs
Loaded volume Lm
3
Lyd
3
per
cycle in excavation class:
Cycle time in minutes
(6 seconds 0.1 minutes)
in excavation class:
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
66
90
18,000
39,680
0.8
1.0
0.7
0.9
0.40 0.40
66
90
16,000
35,270
0.8
1.0
0.7
0.9
0.40 0.40
112
152
26,000
57,320
1.6
2.1
1.4
1.8
0.45 0.45
64
10 10 10 10 Choice of crawler dozer at dumping area Choice of crawler dozer at dumping area Choice of crawler dozer at dumping area Choice of crawler dozer at dumping area
If the dump area is to be leveled, a crawler dozer is used. A
crawler dozer can also be used at the loading site to loosen
and move the material to the loader.
Here we only deal with crawler dozers and articulated
haulers at the dump area. The dozing distance can be kept
short since the articulated haulers are able to transport the
material to the edge of the site even if it is soft. This means
that the work of the crawler dozer is principally to move the
material a short distance over the edge of the fill, while at
the same time leveling the spoil bank.
Voids and ruts in the area can also be filled in if the load is
placed where the roughness starts and then leveled off with
the crawler dozer. The graph (Fig. 51) shows how the
performance of the crawler dozer varies with the dozing
distance.
The performance also varies depending on the skill of the
operator. In the graph, it is assumed that the machine is
operated by an experienced person.
The performance also varies depending on the type of
material. Broken rock with large fragmentation is more
difficult to move than round stones of medium size.
The performance when moving broken rock with large
fragmentation is therefore read at the lower part of the
respective shaded areas opposite the appropriate moving
distance. Wet clay is more difficult to move than slightly
moist clay, so the performance is also read at the lower part
of the shaded area.
Note that three different machine sizes are given on the
graph so you can decide which one is the most suitable.
If the material is moved downhill, the performance is read at
the upper part of the shaded area. If conditions are judged
to be normal, the performance is read in the middle of the
shaded area.
The graph is plotted on the assumption that the working
time is 60 min/h.
Fig. 51
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Lm
3
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
Lyd
3
Crawler dozer
Total weight approx.
22.5 t 25 sh ton
Crawler dozer
Total weight approx. 6.3 t 7 sh ton
Crawler dozer
Total weight approx.
17 t 19 sh ton

ft.
m
65
EXAMPLE:
Material is to be moved to form a spoil bank and pushed over the edge of the bank. The amount to be transported is
128 Bm
3
167 Byd
3
or 154 Lm
3
201 Lyd
3
. On the average, the material is to be dumped 5 m 16 ft. from the edge.
The material consists of gravel.
Using the graph in Fig. 51, we can now choose the most suitable size of crawler dozer. Looking at the graph: at a transport distance
of 5 m 16 ft. we follow vertically upwards to the shaded area Crawler dozer. Total weight approx. 6.3 t 7 sh ton.
The material to be moved is easily handled, and the dump area is level so we look at the upper edge of the shaded area. Then running
horizontally to the left, we can read a value of 260 Lm
3
340 Lyd
3
.
This represents the performance of the machine in this material when used effectively for 60 minutes per hour. In our example, it is
assumed that the machine is used effectively for 50 minutes per hour.
Performance = =216
This means that the performance of the crawler dozer will be 216 Lm
3
282 Lyd
3
/ h.
Since the amount to be transported is 154 Lm
3
201 Lyd
3
/ h a 6.3 t 7 sh ton crawler dozer can be utilized.
260 x50
60
66
11 11 11 11 Tables Tables Tables Tables
1 1 .1 M a te ria l we ig h ts a n d s we ll fa cto r
MATERIAL lb/ Byd
3
kg/bm
3
lb/ Lyd
3
kg/lm
3
Swell
Ashes, soft coal with clinkers 10101520 600900 8401350 500800 1.1
Bauxite 3200 1900 2360 1400 1.3
Brick 27003200 16001900
Cement 2950 1750 2440 1450 1.2
Caliche 3790 2250 2110 1250 1.8
Clay: dry 2870 1700 2190 1300 1.3
wet 3790 2250 2700 1600 1.4
+gravel, dry 2870 1700 2360 1400 1.2
+gravel, wet 3030 1800 2530 1500 1.2
compacted 3370 2000 2870 1700 1.2
Coal: anthracite 21902610 13001550 16902020 10001200 1.3
bitumous 1850 1100 1350 800 1.4
ignite 2110 1250 1520 900 1.4
Concrete: dry 32004210 19002500 23603030 14001800 1.4
wet 3620 2150
Copper ore 3200 1900 2700 1600 1.2
Earth: dry 2870 1700 2190 1300 1.3
wet 3200 1900 2700 1600 1.2
+sand and gravel 3030 1800 2700 1600 1.1
+25% stone 3370 2000 2700 1600 1.2
loam 2530 1500 2110 1250 1.2
Granite 43805060 26003000 27803030 16501800 1.6
Gravel: dry 2870 1700 2530 1500 1.1
moist, wet 3710 2200 3370 2000 1.1
Gypsum: blasted 4890 2900 2700 1600 1.8
crushed 5230 3100 3030 1800 1.7
Iron ore: Hematite 47206570 28003900 38805390 23003200 1.2
Limonite 860011800 51007000 38805390 23003200 1.7-2.2
Magnetite 47206570 28003900 38805390 23003200 1.2
Kaolin 2870 1700 2190 1300 1.3
Lime 1350 800
Limestone: blasted 4380 2600 2700 1600 1.6
loose, crushed 2530 1500
marble 4550 2700 2700 1600 1.7
Mud: dry (close) 37105060 22003000 30304210 18002500 1.2
wet (moderately comp.) 50605900 30003500 42104890 25002900 1.2
Rock: hard well blasted 4800 2850 2850 1700 1.7
+stone crushed 4800 2850 2850 1700 1.7
Sandstone 4210 2500 2530 1500 1.7
Sand: dry 3200 1900 2870 1700 1.1
wet 3540 2100 3200 1900 1.1
+gravel, dry 3200 1900 2870 1700 1.1
+gravel, wet 3710 2200 3370 2000 1.1
Shale: soft rock 3030 1800 2190 1300 1.4
riprock 2950 1750 2110 1250 1.4
Slag 5060 3000 2950 1750 1.7
Slate 4720 2800 3540 2100 1.3
Top soil 2360 1400 1690 1000 1.4
Traprock 5060 3000 3370 2000 1.5
These weights are only approximate. The densities vary with moisture content, grain size, etc. Tests must be carried out to determine
exact density.
67
1 1 .2 E xca va tio n cla ss e s
1 1 .3 G ro u n d s tru ctu re cla s se s

1 1 .4 R o llin g re s is ta n ce a n d co e fficie n t o f tra ctio n fo r d iffe re n t s u rfa ce s
CLASS
1 Easy digging unpacked earth, sand-gravel, ditch cleaning.
2 Medium digging packed earth, tough dry clay, soil with less than 25% rock content.
3 Medium to hard digging hard packed soil with up to 50% rock content, well blasted.
4 Hard digging shot rock or tough soil with up to 75% rock content.
5 Tough digging sandstone, caliche, shale, certain limestone, hard frost.
Group Max. distance between obstacles, 5 m 16 yard
Ground structure class
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
1. Hard ground with solid obstacles, i.e.
gravel road. Size of obstacles in cm in.
0 2
0 0.8
2 3
0.8 1.2
3 4
1.2 1.6
4 6
1.6 2.4
6 10
2.4 4.0
10 30
4 12
2. Soft ground with soft obstacles, i.e. wet
clay. Size of obstacles in cm in.
0 3
0 1.2
3 4
1.2 1.6
4 6
1.6 2.4
6 10
2.4 4.0
10 30
4 12
30 40
12 16
Type of surface
Rolling resistance
%
Sinkage of tires
cm in.
Coefficient of
traction
Concrete, dry 2 0.8 1.0
Asphalt, dry 2 0.7 0.9
Macadam 3 0.5 0.7
Gravel road, compacted 3 0.5 0.7
Dirt road, compacted 3 4 1.6 0.4 0.6
Dirt road, firm rutted 5 6 2.4 0.3 0.6
Stripped arable land, firm, dry 6 8 3.2 0.6 0.8
Earth backfill, soft 8 10 4.0 0.4 0.5
Stripped arable land, loose, dry 12 15 6.0 0.4 0.5
Woodland pastures, grassy banks 12 15 15 18 6 7 0.6 0.7
Sand or gravel, loose 15 30 18 35 7 14 0.2 0.4
Dirt road, deeply rutted, porous 16 20 8.0 0.1 2.0
Stripped arable land, sticky wet 10 20 12 25 5 10 0.1 0.4
Clay, loose, wet 35 40 16 0.1 0.2
Ice 2 0.1 0.2
68
1 1 .5 Lo a d -b e a rin g ca p a city o f th e g ro u n d
The cone indices of most interest come between 50 and
70 (ground with moderate load-bearing capacity). Only the
most traversable dozers such as wide-tracked crawler
dozers can run on ground with a cone index between 30-
50 (ground with poor load-bearing capacity).
Rigid haulers require cone indices above 90 (ground with
very good load-bearing capacity).
1 1 .6 G ra d e co n ve rs io n ta b le
.

Grade
% slope angle % slope angle
0.5 1:2000 0.27 30 1:3.3 16.7
1 1:100 0.6 31 1:3.2 17.2
2 1:50 1.2 32 1:3.1 17.7
3 1:33.3 1.7 33 1:3 18.2
4 1:25 2.3 34 1:3 18.8
5 1:20 2.9 35 1:2.9 19.3
6 1:16.7 3.4 36 1:2.8 19.8
7 1:14.3 4 37 1:2.7 20.2
8 1:12.5 4.6 38 1:2.6 20.6
9 1:11.1 5.2 39 1:2.5 21.2
10 1:10 5.7 40 1:2.5 21.8
11 1:9.1 6.3 41 1:2.4 22.2
12 1:8.3 6.8 42 1:2.4 22.8
13 1:7.7 7.4 43 1:2.3 23.2
14 1:7.3 8 44 1:2.3 23.8
15 1:6.7 8.5 45 1:2.2 24.2
16 1:6.25 9.1 56 1:2.2 24.7
17 1:5.9 9.7 57 1:2.1 25.2
18 1:5.6 10.2 48 1:2.1 25.6
19 1:5.3 10.8 49 1:2 26.1
20 1:5 11.3 50 1:2 26.6
21 1:4.8 11.9 55 1:1.8 28.8
22 1:4.6 12.4 60 1:1.7 31
23 1:4.3 12.9 65 1:1.5 33
24 1:4.2 13.3 70 1:1.4 35
25 1:4 14 75 1:1.3 36.8
26 1:3.8 14.6 80 1:1.25 38.7
27 1:3.7 15.1 85 1:1.2 40.3
28 1:3.6 15.6 90 1:1.1 42
29 1:3.4 16.2 95 1:1.1 43.5
100 1:1 45
CLASS Cone index value
Very good bearing capacity >90
Good bearing capacity 70 90
Moderate bearing capacity 50 70
Poor bearing capacity 30 50
Very poor bearing capacity <30
EXAMPLE:
5
1
20% = 1:5 = 11.3
11.3
69
1 1 .7 M e a su re m e n t u n its a n d
co n ve rsio n
Multiply By To obtain
mile, statute (m) 1.609 km
yard (yd) 0.9144 m
foot (ft) 0.3048 m
inch (in) 0.0254 m
sq mile 2.590 km
3
acre 0.4047 ha
ft
2
0.0929 m
2
in
2
6.452 cm
2
yd
3
0.765 m
3
ft
3
0.0283 m
3
in
2
0.0164 l
mile/h 1.61 km/h
US gallon 3.785 l
Imp. gallon 4.5455 l
long ton (lg ton) 1.016 t
short ton (sh
ton)
0.907 t
pound (lb) 0.4536 kg
ounce (oz) 28.35 g
fluid oz (fl oz) 29.57 cm
3
lb/in
2
0.0703 kg/cm
2
0.0689 bar
horsepower (hp) 1.014 PS, hk, cv
0.7457 kW
lb/yd
3
0.5929 kg/m
3
lb/sq in (psi) 6897.228 Pa
1 mile = 1760 yd 1 fl oz = 1.80 in
3
1 yd = 3 ft 1 sh ton = 2000 lb
1 pie = 12 in 1 lg ton = 2240 lb
1 sq mile = 640 acres 1 lb = 16 oz, avdp
1 acre = 43.560 ft
2
1 ft
2
= 144 in
2
1 ft
3
= 7.48 gal liq
1 gal = 231 in
3
1 ps = 550 ft lb/s
4 quarts liq
1 quart = 32 fl oz 1 atmosph = 14.7 lb/in
2
70

F
i
g
.

5
2
S
I
T
E

S
U
M
M
A
R
Y
0
0
.
5
1
.
0
1
.
5
2
.
0
2
.
5
3
.
0
3
.
5
0
1
0
0
2
0
0
3
0
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
0
3
0
0
6
0
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9
0
0
1
2
0
0
1
5
0
0
4
.
0
4
.
5
5
.
0
2
3
4
5
6

k
m
/
h
7891
0
1
2
1
4
1
6
1
8
2
0
2
5
3
0
3
5
4
0
5
0
456781
0
1
2
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
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8



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s
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t
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t
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71
12 12 12 12 Formulas Formulas Formulas Formulas
We ig h t a n d d e n sitie s
R e s is ta n ce
P ro d u ctio n ca lcu la tio n s
C a lcu la tio n o f ra d iu s
Density =
Swell =
Loose volume =Bank volume x Swell
Bank volume =
Loose density =
Bank density =Loose density x Swell
Actual payload =Loose density x Load volume
Weight
Volume
Loose volume
Bank volume
Loose volume
Swell
Bank density
Swell
Total resistance =Rolling resistance +grade resistance
The grade resistance is: +uphill
downhill
Rimpull =
GMV x total resistance
100
The number of buckets per load:
Productive time:
Production formula:
The number of transport machines that match the
loading equipment:
Cost per unit:
Load volume
Bucket volume
n =
t
t +U
T = x 60
t
t +U
T = x 60
T (transp)
n x t (load)
N =
P (loader)
P (transp)
or N =
t
K =
T
Cases when the radius is unknown. Use the following
formula for calculation:
r =radius in m
b =arc. length in m
=angle in degrees
=3.14
360 x b
r =
x 2
Where:
C =the cost per hour
K =the cost per unit
N =the ideal number of transport mchines relative
to the loading equipment
n =number of buckets per load
P =production per hour
Q =load volume or weight
T =productive time in minutes per hour
t =cycle time in minutes
t (load) =loader cycle time in minutes
t (transp) =transport machine cycle time in minutes
U =unavoidable job delays in minutes per cycle
72
14 A25D Specification and Performance
1 4 .1 D im e n s io n s , Vo lvo A2 5 D 4 x4 , u n lo a d e d ............ 7 3
1 4 .1 D im e n sio n s, Vo lvo A2 5 D 6 x6 , u n lo a d e d with
2 3 .5 R 2 5 tire s ..................................................................... 7 4
1 4 .2 We ig h ts ................................................................................ 7 5
1 4 .3 B o d y ...................................................................................... 7 5
Wear plates (option) (A)...............................................................75
Underhung tailgate (A25D 6x6 option)* (B).............................75
Overhung tailgate (A25D 6x6 option)* (C)...............................75
Overhung tailgate wire-operated (A25D 6x6 option)* (D) ....75
Exhaust gas heating (option) .......................................................76
Side extensions (option)...............................................................76
1 4 .4 B o d y vo lu m e s ................................................................. 7 6
Body volume A25D 6x6................................................................76
1 4 .5 G ro u n d p re s s u re a n d co n e in d e x .......................... 7 7
1 4 .6 D rive ...................................................................................... 7 7
Volvo A25D 6x6..............................................................................77
Volvo A25D 4x4..............................................................................77
1 4 .7 T ra n s m iss io n .................................................................... 7 7
1 4 .8 T ra ve l s p e e d ...................................................................... 7 7
1 4 .9 S te e rin g s ys te m .............................................................. 7 7
1 4 .1 0 F ra m e a n d b o g ie ............................................................. 7 7
1 4 .1 1 E n g in e ................................................................................... 7 8
1 4 .1 2 B ra k e s .................................................................................. 7 8
1 4 .1 3 C a b ......................................................................................... 7 8
1 4 .1 4 T ra ve rsa b ility a t d iffe re n t co e fficie n ts o f tra ctio n
a n d to ta l re s is ta n ce ....................................................... 7 9
1 4 .1 5 O p e ra tin g o n s lo p e s ..................................................... 7 9
1 4 .1 6 D ia g ra m ............................................................................... 8 0
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A25D, loaded.......................................................................80
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A25D, unloaded..................................................................81
Travel time through curves with different length and radius
Volvo A25D......................................................................................82
Travel time at different negative total resistance Volvo A25D
with retarder and exhaust brake..................................................83
R im p u ll - R e ta rd a tio n .................................................... 8 4
73
14 14 14 14 A25D Specification and Performance A25D Specification and Performance A25D Specification and Performance A25D Specification and Performance
1 4 .1 D im e n s io n s , Vo lvo A 2 5 D 4 x4 , u n lo a d e d
Pos Metric Imp.
A 8 939 mm 29'4''
A
1
4 954 mm 16'3''
A
2
4 558 mm 14'11''
B 4 219 mm 13'10''
C 3 470 mm 11'5''
C
1
3 332 mm 10'11''
C
2
1768 mm 5'10''
D 2766 mm 9'1''
E 1210 mm 4'0''
F 4254 mm 13'11''
H 1919 mm 6'4''
I 495 mm 1'7''
J 2794 mm 9'2''
K 2416 mm 7'11''
L 773 mm 2'6''
M 5176 mm 17'0''
N 7092 mm 23'3''
N
1
3197 mm 10'6''
O 3130 mm 10'3''
P 2930 mm 9'7''
R 637 mm 2'1''
R
1
664 mm 2'2''
U 3317 mm 10'11''
V 2374 mm 7'9''
W 3117 mm 10'3''
X 461 mm 1'6''
X
1
585 mm 1'11''
X
2
886 mm 2'11''
Y 2258 mm 7'5''
Z 2859 mm 9'5''
a
1
23,1 23.1
a
2
59
a
3
45
Unloaded machine with 23.5R25 /
29.5R25 tires
74
1 4 .1 D im e n s io n s, Vo lvo A 2 5 D 6 x6 , u n lo a d e d with 2 3 .5 R 2 5 tire s
Pos Metric (mm) Imperial (Feet)
A25D A30D A25D A30D
A 10 220 10 297 33'6'' 33'9''
A
1
4 954 4 954 16'3'' 16'3''
A
2
5 764 6 002 18'11'' 19'8''
B 5 152 5 339 16'11'' 17'6''
C 3 428 3 428 11'3'' 11'3''
C
1
3 318 3 318 10'11'' 10'11''
C
2
1 768 1 768 5'10'' 5'10''
C
3
3 760 3 834 12'4'' 12'7''
D 2 764 2 764 9'1'' 9'1''
E 1 210 1 210 3'12'' 3'12''
F 4 175 4 175 13'8'' 13'8''
G 1 670 1 670 5'6'' 5'6''
H 1 610 1 688 5'3'' 5'6''
I 608 608 1'12'' 1'12''
J 2 778 2 856 9'1'' 9'4''
K 2 102 2 181 6'11'' 7'2''
L 677 686 2'3'' 2'3''
M 6 559 6 592 21'6'' 21'8''
N 8 105 8 105 26'7'' 26'7''
N
1
4 079 4 037 13'5'' 13'3''
O 2 700 2 900 8'10'' 9'6''
P 2 490 2 706 8'2'' 8'11''
R 512 513 1'8'' 1'8''
R
1
634 635 2'1'' 2'1''
U 3 257 3 310 10'8'' 10'10''
V 2 258 2 216 7'5'' 7'3''
V* - - - - - 2 258 - - - - - 7'5''
W 2 859 2 941 9'5'' 9'8''
W* - - - - - 2 859 - - - - - 9'5''
X 456 456 1'6'' 1'6''
X
1
581 582 1'11'' 1'11''
X
2
659 659 2'2'' 2'2''
Y 2 258 2 216 7'5'' 7'3''
Y* - - - - - 2 258 - - - - - 7'5''
Z 2 859 2 941 9'5'' 9'85''
Z* - - - - - 2 859 - - - - - 9'5''
a
1
23,5 23,5 23.5 23.5
a
2
74 70 74 70
a
3
45 45 45 45
A25D: Unloaded machine with 23.5R25
A30D: Unloaded machine with 750/65R25
* A30D with optional 23.5R25 tires
75
1 4 .2 We ig h ts
1 4 .3 B o d y
The body can be used for forced loading of rock and other
abrasive materials. If the fragmentation partly exceeds 1 m
3

1 yd
3
, we do not recommend the use of loading equipment
that fills the body in less than four buckets. The loading of
such material is to be done with care to avoid impact
shocks that can damage the body.
We a r p la te s (o p tio n ) (A )
If the body is to be used for continuous forced loading of
rock or other abrasive material only, wear plates should be
used.
Weight A25D 6x6: 950 kg 2100 lbs.
Weight A25D 4x4: 1230 kg 2712 lbs.
U n d e rh u n g ta ilg a te (A2 5 D 6 x6 o p tio n )* (B )
An underhung tailgate with operating mechanism which
automatically opens the tailgate is available as option.
O ve rh u n g ta ilg a te (A2 5 D 6 x6 o p tio n )* (C )
On machines provided with an underhung tailgate, it is
possible to fit an overhung tailgate.
This overhung tailgate is intended for use when carrying
gravel, sand and loose clay material. The design of the
tailgate does not permit handling of large rocks and solid
clay. On such occasions, it should be removed.
O ve rh u n g ta ilg a te wire -o p e ra te d (A 2 5 D 6 x6
o p tio n )* (D )
The overhung tailgate is activated by wires connected to
the frame on the load unit. The tailgate does not permit
handling of large stones or solid clay. On such occasions, it
should be removed.
* The tailgates cannot be used together with the body
extensions fitted in some markets.
All weights
in kg lbs.
Volvo A25D 4x4
(23.5/ 29.5R25 tires)
Volvo A25D 6x6
(23.5R25 tires)
Operating weight, unloaded
Front 12,400 27,337 12,160 26,808
Rear 7,070 15,587 9,400 20,723
Total 19,470 42,924 21,560 47,531
Payload
Front 3,250 7,165 1,980 4,365
Rear 20,750 45,746 22,020 48,545
Total 24,000 52,910 24,000 52,910
Total weight
Front 15,650 34,502 14,140 31,173
Rear 27,820 61,333 31,420 69,268
Total 43,470 95,835 45,560 100,441
Fig. A
Fig. B
Fig. C
Fig. D
76
E xh a u st g a s h e a tin g (o p tio n )
By means of this equipment, exhaust gases are conducted
from the muffler through a hose to exhaust channels in the
body. Heating prevents excavated material from freezing in
a solid mass.
S id e e xte n sio n s (o p tio n )
Make it possible to utilize the maximum allowable load
capacity when hauling light material. May only be used for
material that gives a maximum load of 24,000 kg 52,911
lb. (A25D 6x6).
1 4 .4 B o d y vo lu m e s
B o d y vo lu m e A 2 5 D 6 x6
Depending on side extension.
Acc. to SAE 2:1 in m
3
yd
3
Volvo A25D
4x4
Volvo A25D
6x6
Standard body:
struck 9.5 12.4 11.7 15.3
heaped 13.0 17.0 15.0 19.6
with underhung tailgate:
struck - - 12.0 15.7
heaped - - 15.3 20.0
with overhung tailgate:
struck - - 12.1 15.8
heaped - - 15.6 20.4
Body volume (cbm)
Metr. ton per m
3
Side extension (mm)
14
15
17
19
20
0 100 200 300 400 500
1.20
1.26
1.33
1.41
1.50
18
1.60
1.71
16
UH+OH Tailgate
UH Tailgate
Std. body
77
1 4 .5 G ro u n d p re s s u re a n d co n e in d e x
Ground pressure of a loaded machine at 15% sinkage of
unloaded wheel radius.
1 4 .6 D rive
Vo lvo A2 5 D 6 x6
Continuous 6x4 drive in all gears. 100% locking differential
locks longitudinal and transverse in all drive axles. The third
axle (6x6 drive) is engaged with a dog clutch when the
longitudinal differential is locked. The 6x6 drive can be
used in all gears.
Vo lvo A2 5 D 4 x4
Continuous 4x4 drive in all gears. 100% locking differential
locks longitudinal in drop box and transversal in both axles.
1 4 .7 Tra n sm iss io n
Electronically-controlled, six-gear, fully-automatic planetary
transmission. Torque converter with automatic lock-up.
Hydraulic retarder as standard.
1 4 .8 Tra ve l s p e e d
1 4 .9 S te e rin g s ys te m
Hydromechanical articulated steering with mechanical
feedback and hydraulically damped steering stops.
Supplementary steering as standard.
1 4 .1 0 F ra m e a n d b o g ie
Separate frames for front unit and rear unit, joined at a
bearing to permit full freedom of rotational movement
between the front unit and the trailer without causing
torsional stresses on the frame members.
The bogie permits a freedom of wheel movement of about
40 cm 16 in. without subjecting any of the bogie parts to
torsional stresses.
The suspension on the front unit consists of one rubber
spring and two shock absorbers on each side. The design
permits the wheels to move independently.
Volvo A25D 4x4 Volvo A25D 6x6
Unloaded Loaded Unloaded Loaded
Front 125 kPa
18.2 psi
159 kPa
23.1 psi
123 kPa
17.9 psi
144 kPa
20.9 psi
Rear 49 kPa
7.2 psi
194 kPa
28.1 psi
47 kPa
6.9 psi
159 kPa
23.1 psi
Cone index
80 70
Forward
km/h mile/h
Reverse
km/h mile/ h
A25D 6x6 and 4x4 53 33 13 8
78
1 4 .1 1 E n g in e
Volvo high-performance, low-emission, direct-injected,
turbocharged, intercooled 6-cylinder diesel engine.
* NAFTA / ** EU
1 4 .1 2 B ra k e s
Service brakes: Two circuit air-over-hydraulic dry disc
brakes.
Parking brake: Spring-actuated disc brake on propeller
shaft.
Hydraulic retarder as standard.
1 4 .1 3 C a b
Approved ROPS and FOPS cab. Sound and heat-
insulated. Fan and heater, filtered ventilation. Air-
conditioning as an option.
Manufacturer Volvo
Model D10BADE2** D10BACE2*
Engine output
SAE J1995 Gross
SAE J1349 Net
33.3 r/s 2000 rpm
228 kW 310 hp
227 kW 309 hp
Max torque at
SAE J1995 Gross
SAE J1349 Net
22.5 r/s 1350 rpm
1375 Nm 1014 lb ft
1365 Nm 1007 lb ft
Cylinder volume 9.6 l 586 in3
Fuel consumption
Low
Medium
High
l/h US gal/ h
13 17 3.4 4.5
17 23 4.5 6.1
23 29 5.8 7.6
Fuel consumption load factor guide
High: Long haul times with frequently adverse grades. Contin-
uous use on poorly maintained haul roads with high rolling
resistance.
Medium: Average loading zone conditions and frequently
maintained haul roads. Normal hauling times and several
adverse grades. Some areas of high rolling resistance.
Low: Large amounts of idling. Short to medium hauls on well-
maintained level haul roads. Minimum total resistance.
79
1 4 .1 4 Tra ve rs a b ility a t d iffe re n t co e fficie n ts o f tra ctio n a n d to ta l re s is ta n ce
1 4 .1 5 O p e ra tin g o n s lo p e s
Only in exceptional cases should a Volvo A25D be
operated up or down grades steeper than 2030%. The
absolute limit uphill is approximately 45% for a Volvo A25D
6x6/4x4, and downhill the Volvo A25D can negotiate 50%,
but other factors such as the available traction makes it
hazardous to work under such conditions.
Only in exceptional cases should the machine be operated
on lateral slopes of more than 15%. The maximum limit for
the machine to travel on lateral slopes is 30%, but other
factors such as roughness of the ground can cause the
machine to tip over before this limit is reached.
0
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Total resistance
Coefficient of traction
All-wheel drive with differential locks.
Loaded/ unloaded.

45%
15%
80
Diagram Volvo A25D
1 4 .1 6 D ia g ra m
0
1
.
0
1
.
5
2
.
0
2
.
5
3
.
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2
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4
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6
0
8
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
4
0
1
6
0
1
8
0
2
0
0
0
3
0
0
6
0
0
0
.
5
3
0
%
2
8
%
2
6
%
2
4
%
2
2
%
2
0
%
1
8
%
1
6
%
1
4
%
1
2
%
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0
%

8
%

6
%

4
%

2
%
1
.
0
0
.
8
0
.
6
0
.
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4
4
0
%
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%
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81
Diagram Volvo A25D
4
0
%
3
5
%
3
0
%
2
8
%
2
6
%
2
4
%
2
2
%
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.
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2
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.
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3
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3
.
5
0
1
0
0
2
0
0
3
0
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
0
3
0
0
6
0
0
9
0
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1
2
0
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1
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0
0
4
.
0
4
.
5
5
.
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0
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0

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.
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6
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%
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%
8
%
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82
Diagram Volvo A25D

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a
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l

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e

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1
2
3
4
5
6
0
0
.
1
0
.
2
0
.
3
0
5
0
1
0
0
1
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0
2
0
0
2
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0
0
1
5
0
3
0
0
4
5
0
6
0
0
7
5
0
0
.
4
0
.
5
123456
5

m
1
0

m
2
0

m
3
0

m
4
0

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5
0

m
1
6

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3
3

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6

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83
Diagram Volvo A25D
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
1
.
2
1
.
4
0
1
.
6
1
.
8
2
.
0
1
0
2
0
4
0
6
0
8
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
4
0
1
6
0
1
8
0
2
0
0
2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4 5 6
2
6
%

2
6
%


1
4
%
1
4
%


1
0
%
1
0
%




7
%


7
%




5
%


5
%

3
0
%

3
0
%


2
1
%
2
1
%


1
5
%
1
5
%


1
2
%
1
2
%

3
0
0
1
0
0
2
0
0
6
0
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
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84
Diagram Volvo A25D
R im p u ll - R e ta rd a tio n
A25D
RETARDATION PERFORMANCE (Hydraulic and exhaust retarders)
1. Braking effort in metric ton. 2. Speed in km/h. 3. Machine weight in metric ton. 4. Grade in % rolling resistance in %.
Instructions
Diagonal lines represent total resistance (grade % rolling resistance %). Charts based on 0% rolling resistance, standard tires and gearing, unless otherwise stated.
A. Find the diagonal line with the appropriate total resistance on the right-hand edge of the chart.
B. Follow the diagonal line downward until it intersects the actual machine weight line, NMW or GMW.
C. Draw a new line horizontally to the left from the point of intersection until the new line intersects the rimpull or retardation curve.
D. Read down for vehicle speed.
RIMPULL
1. Rimpull in metric ton. 2. Speed in km/h. 3. Machine weight in metric ton. 4. Grade in % + rolling resistance in %.
Rimpull
Max. retarding performance
Continuous
85

86
15 A30D Specification and Performance
1 5 .1 D im e n sio n s, Vo lvo A3 0 D with tire s 7 5 0 /6 5 R 2 5 ,
u n lo a d e d ............................................................................. 8 7
1 5 .2 We ig h ts ................................................................................ 8 8
1 5 .3 B o d y ...................................................................................... 8 8
Wear plates (option) (A)...............................................................88
Underhung tailgate (option) (B) ..................................................88
Overhung tailgate (option) (C) ....................................................88
Exhaust gas heating (option) .......................................................88
Side extensions (option)...............................................................88
1 5 .4 B o d y vo lu m e s ................................................................... 8 9
Body volumes..................................................................................89
1 5 .5 G ro u n d p re s s u re a n d co n e in d e x .......................... 9 0
1 5 .6 D rive ...................................................................................... 9 0
1 5 .7 T ra n s m iss io n .................................................................... 9 0
1 5 .8 T ra ve l s p e e d ...................................................................... 9 0
1 5 .9 S te e rin g s ys te m .............................................................. 9 0
1 5 .1 0 F ra m e a n d b o g ie ............................................................. 9 0
1 5 .1 1 E n g in e ................................................................................... 9 1
1 5 .1 2 B ra k e s .................................................................................. 9 1
1 5 .1 3 C a b ......................................................................................... 9 1
1 5 .1 4 T ra ve rsa b ility a t d iffe re n t co e fficie n ts o f tra ctio n
a n d to ta l re s is ta n ce ....................................................... 9 2
1 5 .1 5 O p e ra tin g o n s lo p e s ..................................................... 9 2
1 5 .1 6 D ia g ra m ............................................................................... 9 3
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A30D, loaded.......................................................................93
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A30D, unloaded..................................................................94
Travel time through curves with different length and radius
Volvo A30D......................................................................................95
Travel time at different negative total resistance Volvo A30D
with retarder and exhaust brake..................................................96
R im p u ll - R e ta rd a tio n ................................................. 9 7
87
15 15 15 15A30D Specification and Performance A30D Specification and Performance A30D Specification and Performance A30D Specification and Performance
1 5 .1 D im e n s io n s , Vo lvo A 3 0 D with tire s 7 5 0 /6 5 R 2 5 , u n lo a d e d
Pos Metric (mm) Imperial (Feet)
A25D A30D A25D A30D
A 10 220 10 297 33'6'' 33'9''
A
1
4 954 4 954 16'3'' 16'3''
A
2
5 764 6 002 18'11'' 19'8''
B 5 152 5 339 16'11'' 17'6''
C 3 428 3 428 11'3'' 11'3''
C
1
3 318 3 318 10'11'' 10'11''
C
2
1 768 1 768 5'10'' 5'10''
C
3
3 760 3 834 12'4'' 12'7''
D 2 764 2 764 9'1'' 9'1''
E 1 210 1 210 3'12'' 3'12''
F 4 175 4 175 13'8'' 13'8''
G 1 670 1 670 5'6'' 5'6''
H 1 610 1 688 5'3'' 5'6''
I 608 608 1'12'' 1'12''
J 2 778 2 856 9'1'' 9'4''
K 2 102 2 181 6'11'' 7'2''
L 677 686 2'3'' 2'3''
M 6 559 6 592 21'6'' 21'8''
N 8 105 8 105 26'7'' 26'7''
N
1
4 079 4 037 13'5'' 13'3''
O 2 700 2 900 8'10'' 9'6''
P 2 490 2 706 8'2'' 8'11''
R 512 513 1'8'' 1'8''
R
1
634 635 2'1'' 2'1''
U 3 257 3 310 10'8'' 10'10''
V 2 258 2 216 7'5'' 7'3''
V* - - - - - 2 258 - - - - - 7'5''
W 2 859 2 941 9'5'' 9'8''
W* - - - - - 2 859 - - - - - 9'5''
X 456 456 1'6'' 1'6''
X
1
581 582 1'11'' 1'11''
X
2
659 659 2'2'' 2'2''
Y 2 258 2 216 7'5'' 7'3''
Y* - - - - - 2 258 - - - - - 7'5''
Z 2 859 2 941 9'5'' 9'85''
Z* - - - - - 2 859 - - - - - 9'5''
a
1
23,5 23,5 23.5 23.5
a
2
74 70 74 70
a
3
45 45 45 45
A25D: Unloaded machine with 23.5R25
A30D: Unloaded machine with 750/65R25
* A30D with optional 23.5R25 tires
88
1 5 .2 We ig h ts
1 5 .3 B o d y
The body can be used for forced loading of rock and other
abrasive materials. If the fragmentation partly exceeds 1m
3

1 yd
3
, we do not recommend the use of loading equipment
that fills the body in less than four buckets. The loading of
such material is to be done with care to avoid impact
shocks that can damage the body.
We a r p la te s (o p tio n ) (A)
If the machine is transporting rock constantly, we
recommend wear plates.
Weight: 1000 kg 2200 lbs.
U n d e rh u n g ta ilg a te (o p tio n ) (B )
An underhung tailgate with an operating mechanism which
automatically opens the tailgate is available as option.
O ve rh u n g ta ilg a te (o p tio n ) (C )
The overhung tailgate is activated by wires connected to
the frame on the load unit. The tailgate does not permit
handling of large stones or solid clay. On such occasions, it
should be removed.
E xh a u st g a s h e a tin g (o p tio n )
By means of this equipment, exhaust gases are conducted
from the muffler through a hose to exhaust channels in the
body. Heating prevents excavated material from freezing in
a solid mass.
S id e e xte n sio n s (o p tio n )
Make it possible to utilize the maximum allowable load
capacity when hauling light material. May only be used for
material that gives a maximum load of 28,000 kg 61,728
lbs.
All
weights in
kg lbs.
Volvo A30D 6x6
750(30)/ 65R25 tires
Volvo A30D 6x6
23.5R25 tires
Operating weight, unloaded
Front 12,500 27,557 12,300 27,116
Rear 10,560 23,280 10,160 22,398
Total 23,060 50,837 22,460 49,514
Payload
Front 4,940 10,891 4,740 10,450
Rear 23,060 50,837 22,660 49,956
Total 28,000 61,728 27,400 60,405
Total weight
Front 14,990 33,047 14,790 32,606
Rear 36,070 79,519 35,670 78,637
Total 51,060 112,556 50,460 111,245
Fig. A
Fig. B
Fig. C
89
1 5 .4 B o d y vo lu m e s
B o d y vo lu m e s
Depending on side extension.
According to SAE 2:1 in m
3
yd
3
Standard body:
Struck 13.6 17.8
Heaped 17.5 22.9
with underhung tailgate:
Struck 13.8 18.0
Heaped 18.0 23.5
with overhung tailgate:
Struck 14.0 18.3
Heaped 18.1 23.7
17
18
20
22
23
0 100 200 300 400 500
1.21
1.27
1.33
1.40
1.47
21
1.56
1.64
19
Body volume (cbm)
Metr. ton per m
3
Side extension (mm)
UH+OH Tailgate
UH Tailgate
Std. body
90
1 5 .5 G ro u n d p re s s u re a n d co n e in d e x
Fully-loaded machine at 15% sinkage of unloaded wheel
radius.
1 5 .6 D rive
Continous 6x4 drive in all gears. 100% locking differential
locks longitudinal and transverse in all drive axles. The third
axle (6x6 drive) is engaged with a dog clutch when the
longitudinal differential is locked. The 6x6 drive can be
used in all gears.
1 5 .7 Tra n sm is s io n
Electronically-controlled, six-gear, fully-automatic planetary
transmission. Torque converter with automatic lock-up in all
gears. Single stage design dropbox. Hydraulic retarder with
variable retarder power is standard.
1 5 .8 Tra ve l s p e e d
Forward: 53 km/h 33 mph
Reverse: 13 km/h 8 mph
1 5 .9 S te e rin g s ys te m
Hydromechanical articulated steering with mechanical
feedback and hydraulically damped steering stops.
Supplementary steering is standard.
1 5 .1 0 F ra m e a n d b o g ie
Separate frames for front unit and rear unit are joined at a
bearing to permit full freedom of rotational movement
between the front unit and the trailer without causing
torsional stress on the frame members.
The bogie permits a freedom of movement of the wheels of
about 40 cm 16 in. without subjecting any of the bogie
parts to torsional stress.
The suspension on the front unit consists of one rubber
spring and two shock absorbers on each side. The design
permits the wheels to move independently.
Volvo A30D 6x6
Tires 23.5R25 750(30)/ 65R25
Unloaded Loaded Unloaded Loaded
Front 124.8 kPa 18.0 psi 150.0 kPa 21.8 psi 101 kPa 14.6 psi 121 kPa 17.5 psi
Rear 51.5 kPa 7.4 psi 181.0 kPa 26.3 psi 43 kPa 6.2 psi 146 kPa 21.2 psi
Cone index 70 60
91
1 5 .1 1 E n g in e
Volvo high-performance, low-emission, direct-injected,
turbocharged, intercooled 6-cylinder diesel engine.
* NAFTA / ** EU
1 5 .1 2 B ra k e s
Service brakes: Two circuit air-over-hydraulic dry
disc brake system.
Parking brake: Spring-actuated disc brake on
propeller shaft.
Hydraulic retarder integrated in the transmission.
1 5 .1 3 C a b
Approved ROPS and FOPS cab. Sound and heat
insulated. Fan and heater, filtered ventilations. Air-
conditioning as an option.
Manufacturer Volvo
Model D10BABE2** D10BAAE2*
Engine output
SAE J1995 Gross
SAE J1349 Net
33.3 r/s 2000 rpm
242 kW 329 hp
241 kW 328 hp
Max torque at
SAE J1995 Gross
SAE J1349 Net
22.5 r/s 1350 rpm
1420 Nm 1047 lbf ft
1410 Nm 1040 lbf ft
Cylinder volume 9.6 l S586 in
3
Fuel consumption
Low
Medium
High
l/h US gal/ h
16 20 l/h 4.2 5.3
20 25 l/h 5.3 6.6
26 32 l/h 6.6 8.5
Lo a d fa cto r g u id e
High: Long haul times with frequently adverse grades. Contin-
uous use on poorly maintained haul roads with high rolling
resistance.
Medium: Average loading zone conditions and frequently
maintained haul roads. Normal hauling times and several
adverse grades. Some areas of high rolling resistance.
Low: Large amounts of idling. Short to medium hauls on well-
maintained level haul roads. Minimum total resistance.
92
1 5 .1 4 Tra ve rs a b ility a t d iffe re n t co e fficie n ts o f tra ctio n a n d to ta l re s is ta n ce
1 5 .1 5 O p e ra tin g o n s lo p e s
Only in exceptional cases should a Volvo A30D be
operated up or down grades steeper than 2030%. The
absolute limit uphill is approximately 45%, and downhill the
Volvo A30D can negotiate 50%, but other factors such as
the available traction makes it hazardous to work under
such conditions.
Only in exceptional cases should the machine be operated
on lateral slopes of more than 15%. The maximum limit for
the machine to travel on lateral slopes is 30%, but other
factors such as roughness of the ground can cause the
machine to tip over before this limit is reached.
0
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Total resistence
Coefficient of traction
All-wheel drive with differential locks.
Loaded/unloaded.
45%
15%
93
Diagram Volvo A30D
1 5 .1 6 D ia g ra m
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94
Diagram Volvo A30D
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95
Diagram Volvo A30D
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96
Diagram Volvo A30D
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97
Diagram Volvo A30D
R im p u ll - R e ta rd a tio n
RIMPULL
1. Rimpull in metric ton. 2. Speed in km/h. 3. Machine weight in metric ton. 4. Grade in % + rolling resistance in %.
Rimpull
RETARDATION PERFORMANCE (Hydraulic and exhaust retarders)
1. Braking effort in metric ton. 2. Speed in km/h. 3. Machine weight in metric ton. 4. Grade in % rolling resistance in %.
Instructions
Diagonal lines represent total resistance (grade % rolling resistance %). Charts based on 0% rolling resistance, standard tires and gearing, unless otherwise stated.
A. Find the diagonal line with the appropriate total resistance on the right-hand edge of the chart.
B. Follow the diagonal line downward until it intersects the actual machine weight line, NMW or GMW.
C. Draw a new line horizontally to the left from the point of intersection until the new line intersects the rimpull or retardation curve.
D. Read down for vehicle speed.
Max. retarding performance
Continuous
98
16 A35D Specification and Performance
1 6 .1 D im e n sio n s, Vo lvo A3 5 D with tire s 2 6 .5 R 2 5 ,
u n lo a d e d ............................................................................. 9 9
1 6 .2 We ig h ts .............................................................................. 1 0 0
1 6 .3 B o d y .................................................................................... 1 0 0
Wear plates (option) (A)............................................................ 100
Overhung tailgate (option) (B).................................................. 100
Exhaust gas heating (option) .................................................... 100
Side extensions (option) (C)..................................................... 100
1 6 .4 B o d y vo lu m e s ................................................................. 1 0 1
1 6 .5 G ro u n d p re s s u re a n d co n e in d e x ........................ 1 0 2
1 6 .6 D rive .................................................................................... 1 0 2
1 6 .7 T ra n s m iss io n .................................................................. 1 0 2
1 6 .8 T ra ve l s p e e d .................................................................... 1 0 2
1 6 .9 S te e rin g s ys te m ............................................................ 1 0 2
1 6 .1 0 F ra m e a n d b o g ie ........................................................... 1 0 2
1 6 .1 1 E n g in e ................................................................................. 1 0 3
1 6 .1 2 B ra k e s ................................................................................ 1 0 3
1 6 .1 3 C a b ....................................................................................... 1 0 3
1 6 .1 4 T ra ve rsa b ility a t d iffe re n t co e fficie n ts o f tra ctio n
a n d to ta l re s is ta n ce ..................................................... 1 0 4
1 6 .1 5 O p e ra tin g o n s lo p e s ................................................... 1 0 4
1 6 .1 6 D ia g ra m ............................................................................ 1 0 5
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A35D, loaded.................................................................... 105
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A35D, unloaded............................................................... 106
Travel time through curves with different length and radius
Volvo A35D................................................................................... 107
Travel time at different negative total resistance Volvo A35D
with hydraulic retarder and VEB engine brake...................... 108
R im p u ll - R e ta rd a tio n .................................................. 1 0 9
99
16 16 16 16 A35D Specification and Performance A35D Specification and Performance A35D Specification and Performance A35D Specification and Performance
1 6 .1 D im e n s io n s , Vo lvo A 3 5 D with tire s 2 6 .5 R 2 5 , u n lo a d e d
D F G
I
H
L
K
M
J
a
2
B
C
C
1
a
1 X
2
E
X
1
X
Y
Z
C
2
V
R
1
R
O
W
P
N
1
N
a
3
A
A
2
Pos Metric (mm) Imperial (feet)
A35D A40D A35D A40D
A 11 167 11 310 36'6'' 37'1''
A
2
6 224 6 428 20'4'' 19'8''
B 5 527 5 730 16'9'' 21'1''
C 3 681 3 746 12'1'' 12'3''
C
1
3 560 3 626 11'7'' 11'9''
C
2
1 768 1 768 5'8'' 5'8''
C
3
3 987 4 093 13'1'' 13'4''
D 3 101 3 100 10'2'' 10'2''
E 1 276 1 279 4'2'' 4'2''
F 4 501 4 451 14'8'' 14'6''
G 1 820 1 940 6'0'' 6'4''
H 1 757 1 823 5'8'' 6'0''
I 728 646 2'39'' 2'12''
J 2 912 3 075 9'6'' 10'0''
K 2 302 2 492 7'6'' 8'2''
L 915 906 3'0'' 2'97''
M 7 242 7 384 23'8'' 24'2''
N 8 720 8 863 28'6'' 29'1''
N
1
4 397 4 238 14'4'' 13'9''
O 3 103 3 268 10'2'' 10'7''
P 2 870 3 078 9'4'' 10'1''
R 584 654 1'92'' 2'15''
R
1
670 751 2'2'' 2'46''
U 3 528 3 590 11'6'' 11'8''
V 2 515 2 636 8'3'' 8'7''
V* 2 625 - - - - - 8'6'' - - - - -
W 3 208 3 432 10'5'' 11'3''
W *)** 3 410 3 570 11'2'' 11'7''
X 572 617 1'88'' 2'02''
X
1
606 639 1'99'' 2'1''
X
2
720 765 2'36'' 2'51''
Y 2 515 2 636 8'3'' 8'7''
Y* 2 625 - - - - - 7'4'' - - - - -
Z 3 208 3 432 10'5'' 11'3''
Z*)** 3 410 3 570 11'2'' 11'7''
a
1
23 25 23 25
a
2
70 70 70 70
a
3
45 45 45 45
A35D: Unloaded machine with 26.5R25
A40D: Unloaded machine with 29.5R29
*) A35D with optional 775/65R29 tires
**) A40D with optional 875/65R29 tires
100
1 6 .2 We ig h ts
1 6 .3 B o d y
The body can be used for forced loading of rock and other
abrasive materials. If the fragmentation partly exceeds 1 m
3

1 yd
3
, we do not recommend the use of loading equipment
that fills the body in less than four buckets. The loading of
such material is to be done with care to avoid impact
shocks that can damage the body.
We a r p la te s (o p tio n ) (A)
If the machine is transporting rock constantly, we
recommend wear plates.
Weight: 1200 kg 2645 lbs.
O ve rh u n g ta ilg a te (o p tio n ) (B )
The overhung tailgate is activated by wires connected to
the frame on the load unit. The tailgate does not permit
handling of large stones or solid clay. On such occasions, it
should be removed.
E xh a u st g a s h e a tin g (o p tio n )
This equipment directs exhaust gases from the muffler
through a hose to exhaust channels in the body. Heating
prevents excavated material from freezing to the body and
keeps clay from sticking.
S id e e xte n sio n s (o p tio n ) (C )
Make it possible to utilize the maximum allowable load
capacity when hauling light material. May only be used for
material that gives a maximum load of 32,500 kg 71,650
lbs.

All weights in kg lbs. Volvo A35D 6x6
Service weight
Front 15,320 33,774
Rear 12,980 28,616
Total 28,300 62,390
Payload
Front 2,380 5,401
Rear 30,050 66,247
Total 32,500 71,649
Total weight
Front 17,770 39,175
Rear 43,030 94,863
Total 60,800 134,038
Fig. A Fig. B Fig. C
101
1 6 .4 B o d y vo lu m e s
Body volumes A35D Depending on side extension.
.
Body volumes according to SAE 2:1 in m
3
yd
3
Standard body:
Struck 15.2 19.9
Heaped 20.0 26.1
with overhung tailgate:
Struck 15.5 20.3
Heaped 20.7 27.1
19
20
21
22
24
25
26
0 100 200 300 400 500
27
1.27
1.32
1.38
1.43
1.5
1.57
1.65
23
Body volume (cbm)
Metr. ton per m
3
Tailgate
Std. body
Side extension (mm)
102
1 6 .5 G ro u n d p re s s u re a n d co n e in d e x
Fully-loaded machine at 15% sinkage of unloaded wheel
radius.
1 6 .6 D rive
Continuous 6x4 drive in all gears. 100% locking differential
locks longitudinal and transverse in all drive axles. The third
axle (6x6 drive) is engaged with a dog clutch when the
longitudinal differential is locked. The 6x6 drive can be
used in all gears.
1 6 .7 Tra n sm iss io n
Electronically-controlled, six-gear, fully-automatic planetary
transmission. Torque converter with automatic lock-up.
High and low range in dropbox. Hydraulic retarder is
standard.
1 6 .8 Tra ve l s p e e d
Forward: 56 km/h 35 mph
Reverse: 14 km/h 9 mph
1 6 .9 S te e rin g s ys te m
Hydromechanical articulated steering with mechanical
feedback and hydraulically damped steering stops.
Supplementary steering is standard.
1 6 .1 0 F ra m e a n d b o g ie
Separate frames for front unit and rear unit joined at a
bearing to permit full freedom of rotational movement
between the front unit and the trailer without causing
torsional stress on the frame members.
The bogie permits a freedom of movement of the wheels of
about 40 cm 16 in. without subjecting any of the bogie
parts to torsional stress.
The suspension on the front unit consists of two rubber
springs and two shock absorbers on each side. The design
permits the wheels to move independently.
Volvo A35D 6x6
Tires 26.5R25 775/ 65R29
Unloaded Loaded Unloaded Loaded
Front 128 kPa 18.6 psi 149 kPa 21.6 psi 110 kPa 15.9 psi 128 kPa 18.6 psi
Rear 54 kPa 7.8 psi 180 kPa 26.1 psi 46 kPa 6.6 psi 153 kPa 22.2 psi
Cone index 75 65
103
1 6 .1 1 E n g in e
Volvo high-performance, low-emission, direct-injected,
turbocharged, intercooled 6-cylinder diesel engine with
Volvo Engine Brake, VEB.
* NAFTA / ** EU
1 6 .1 2 B ra k e s
Service brakes: Two-circuit, dry-disc brake system.
Parking brake: Spring-actuated disc brake on propeller
shaft.
Hydraulic retarder and VEB is standard.
1 6 .1 3 C a b
Approved ROPS cab. Sound and heat insulated. Fan and
heater, filtered ventilations. Air-conditioning as an option.
Manufacturer Volvo
Model D12C ADE2** D12C ABE2*
Engine output
SAE J1349 Net
30 r/s 1800 rpm
289 kW 393 hp
Max torque at
SAE J1349 Gross
20 r/s 1200 rpm
1950 Nm 1438 lbf ft
Cylinder volume 12 l 732 in
3
Fuel consumption
Low
Medium
High
l/h US gal/ h
18 24 l/h 4.7 6.3
24 31 l/h 6.3 8.2
31 41 l/h 8.2 10.8
Load factor guide
High: Long haul times with frequently adverse grades. Con-
tinuous use on poorly maintained haul roads with high rolling
resistance.
Medium: Average loading zone conditions and frequently
maintained haul roads. Normal hauling times and several
adverse grades. Some areas of high rolling resistance.
Low: Large amounts of idling. Short to medium hauls on
well-maintained level haul roads. Minimum total resistance.
104
1 6 .1 4 Tra ve rs a b ility a t d iffe re n t co e fficie n ts o f tra ctio n a n d to ta l re s is ta n ce
1 6 .1 5 O p e ra tin g o n s lo p e s
Only in exceptional cases should a Volvo A35D be
operated up or down grades steeper than 2030%. The
absolute limit uphill is approximately 45%, and downhill the
Volvo A35D can negotiate 50%, but other factors such as
the available traction makes it hazardous to work under
such conditions.
Only in exceptional cases should the machine be operated
on lateral slopes of more than 15%. The maximum limit for
the machine to travel on lateral slopes is 30%, but other
factors such as roughness of the ground can cause the
machine to tip over before this limit is reached.
0
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Coefficient of traction
All-wheel drive with differential locks.
Loaded/ unloaded.
Resistance total
45%
15%
105
Diagram Volvo A35D
1 6 .1 6 D ia g ra m
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106
Diagram Volvo A35D
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107
Diagram Volvo A35D
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108
Diagram Volvo A35D
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109
Diagram Volvo A35D
R im p u ll - R e ta rd a tio n
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
mph
l
b
x
1
0
0
0
lb x 1000
km/h
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
kg x 1000
NMW GMW
k
p
x
1
0
0
0
1
2 3
4
30 40 50 60 20 70
60
40
30
10
0
70
90
20
50
80
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 110 50 70 90 130 150
A35D / D12
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
mph
l
b
x
1
0
0
0
lb x 1000
km/h
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
kg x 1000
NMW GMW
k
p
x
1
0
0
0
1
2 3
4
30 40 50 60 20 70
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 110 50 70 90 130 150
60
40
30
10
0
70
20
50
A35D
RETARDATION PERFORMANCE (Hydraulic retarder and VEB)
1. Braking effort in metric ton. 2. Speed in km/h. 3. Machine weight in metric ton. 4. Grade in % rolling resistance in %.
Instructions
Diagonal lines represent total resistance (grade % rolling resistance %). Charts based on 0% rolling resistance, standard tires and gearing, unless otherwise stated.
A. Find the diagonal line with the appropriate total resistance on the right-hand edge of the chart.
B. Follow the diagonal line downward until it intersects the actual machine weight line, NMW or GMW.
C. Draw a new line horizontally to the left from the point of intersection until the new line intersects the rimpull or retardation curve.
D. Read down for vehicle speed.
RIMPULL
1. Rimpull in metric ton. 2. Speed in km/h. 3. Machine weight in metric ton. 4. Grade in % + rolling resistance in %.
Rimpull
Continuous
Low range Max. retarding performance
High range Max. retarding performance
110
17 A40D Specification and Performance
1 7 .1 D im e n sio n s, Vo lvo A4 0 D with tire s 2 9 .5 R 2 5 ,
u n lo a d e d ........................................................................... 1 1 1
1 7 .2 We ig h ts .............................................................................. 1 1 2
1 7 .3 B o d y .................................................................................... 1 1 2
Wear plates (option) (A)............................................................ 112
Overhung tailgate (option) (B).................................................. 112
Exhaust gas heating (option) .................................................... 112
Side extensions (option) (C)..................................................... 112
1 7 .4 B o d y vo lu m e s ................................................................. 1 1 3
1 7 .5 G ro u n d p re s s u re a n d co n e in d e x ........................ 1 1 4
1 7 .6 D rive .................................................................................... 1 1 4
1 7 .7 T ra n s m iss io n .................................................................. 1 1 4
1 7 .8 T ra ve l s p e e d .................................................................... 1 1 4
1 7 .9 S te e rin g s ys te m ............................................................ 1 1 4
1 7 .1 0 F ra m e a n d b o g ie ........................................................... 1 1 4
1 7 .1 1 E n g in e ................................................................................. 1 1 5
1 7 .1 2 B ra k e s ................................................................................ 1 1 5
1 7 .1 3 C a b ....................................................................................... 1 1 5
1 7 .1 4 T ra ve rsa b ility a t d iffe re n t co e fficie n ts o f tra ctio n
a n d to ta l re s is ta n ce ..................................................... 1 1 6
1 7 .1 5 O p e ra tin g o n s lo p e s ................................................... 1 1 6
1 7 .1 6 D ia g ra m ......................................................................... 1 1 7
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A40D, loaded.................................................................... 117
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A40D, unloaded............................................................... 118
Travel time through curves with different length and radius
Volvo A40D................................................................................... 119
Travel time at different negative total resistance Volvo A40D
with hydraulic retarder and VEB engine brake...................... 120
R im p u ll - R e ta rd a tio n .................................................. 1 2 1
111
17 17 17 17 A40D Specification and Performance A40D Specification and Performance A40D Specification and Performance A40D Specification and Performance
1 7 .1 D im e n s io n s , Vo lvo A4 0 D with tire s 2 9 .5 R 2 5 , u n lo a d e d
D F G
I
H
L
K
M
J
a
2
B
C
C
1
a
1 X
2
E
X
1
X
Y
Z
C
2
V
R
1
R
O
W
P
N
1
N
a
3
A
A
2
Pos Metric (mm) Imperial (feet)
A35D A40D A35D A40D
A 11 167 11 310 36'6'' 37'1''
A
2
6 224 6 428 20'4'' 19'8''
B 5 527 5 730 16'9'' 21'1''
C 3 681 3 746 12'1'' 12'3''
C
1
3 560 3 626 11'7'' 11'9''
C
2
1 768 1 768 5'8'' 5'8''
C
3
3 987 4 093 13'1'' 13'4''
D 3 101 3 100 10'2'' 10'2''
E 1 276 1 279 4'2'' 4'2''
F 4 501 4 451 14'8'' 14'6''
G 1 820 1 940 6'0'' 6'4''
H 1 757 1 823 5'8'' 6'0''
I 728 646 2'39'' 2'12''
J 2 912 3 075 9'6'' 10'0''
K 2 302 2 492 7'6'' 8'2''
L 915 906 3'0'' 2'97''
M 7 242 7 384 23'8'' 24'2''
N 8 720 8 863 28'6'' 29'1''
N
1
4 397 4 238 14'4'' 13'9''
O 3 103 3 268 10'2'' 10'7''
P 2 870 3 078 9'4'' 10'1''
R 584 654 1'92'' 2'15''
R
1
670 751 2'2'' 2'46''
U 3 528 3 590 11'6'' 11'8''
V 2 515 2 636 8'3'' 8'7''
V* 2 625 - - - - - 8'6'' - - - - -
W 3 208 3 432 10'5'' 11'3''
W *)** 3 410 3 570 11'2'' 11'7''
X 572 617 1'88'' 2'02''
X
1
606 639 1'99'' 2'1''
X
2
720 765 2'36'' 2'51''
Y 2 515 2 636 8'3'' 8'7''
Y* 2 625 - - - - - 7'4'' - - - - -
Z 3 208 3 432 10'5'' 11'3''
Z*)** 3 410 3 570 11'2'' 11'7''
a
1
23 25 23 25
a
2
70 70 70 70
a
3
45 45 45 45
A35D: Unloaded machine with 26.5R25
A40D: Unloaded machine with 29.5R29
*) A35D with optional 775/65R29 tires
**) A40D with optional 875/65R29 tires
112
1 7 .2 We ig h ts
1 7 .3 B o d y
The body can be used for forced loading of rock and other
abrasive materials. If the fragmentation partly exceeds
1m
3
1 yd
3
, we do not recommend the use of loading
equipment that fills the body in less than four buckets. The
loading of such material is to be done with care to avoid
impact shocks that can damage the body.
We a r p la te s (o p tio n ) (A)
If the machine is transporting rock constantly, we
recommend wear plates.
Weight: 1800 kg 3970 lbs.
O ve rh u n g ta ilg a te (o p tio n ) (B )
The overhung tailgate is activated by wires connected to
the frame on the load unit. The tailgate does not permit
handling of large stones or solid clay. On such occasions, it
should be removed.
E xh a u st g a s h e a tin g (o p tio n )
This equipment directs exhaust gases from the muffler
through a hose to exhaust channels in the body. Heating
prevents excavated material from freezing to the body and
keeps clay from sticking.
S id e e xte n sio n s (o p tio n ) (C )
Make it possible to utilize the maximum allowable load
capacity when hauling light material. May only be used for
material that gives a maximum load of 37,000 kg 81,571
lbs.

All weights in kg lbs. A40D 6x6
Service weight
Front 16,300 33,935
Rear 14,970 33,003
Total 31,270 68,938
Payload
Front 2,870 8,327
Rear 34,130 75,242
Total 37,000 81,570
Total weighl
Front 19,170 42,262
Rear 49,100 108,245
Total 68,270 150,507
Fig. A Fig. B Fig. C
113
1 7 .4 B o d y vo lu m e s
Body volumes A40D Depending on side extension.
Body volumes according to SAE 2:1 in m
3
yd
3
Standard body:
Struck 16.9 22.1
Heaped 22.5 29.4
with overhung tailgate:
Struck 17.2 22.5
Heaped 23.2 30.3
22
23
24
25
27
28
29
0 100 200 300 400 500
30
1.28
1.32
1.37
1.42
1.48
1.54
1.61
26
Body volume (cbm)
Metr. ton per m
3
Side extension (mm)
Tailgate
Std. body
114
1 7 .5 G ro u n d p re s s u re a n d co n e in d e x
Fully-loaded machine at 15% sinkage of unloaded wheel
radius.

1 7 .6 D rive
Continuous 6x4 drive in all gears. 100% locking differential
locks longitudinal and transverse in all drive axles. The third
axle (6x6 drive) is engaged with a dog clutch when the
longitudinal differential is locked. The 6x6 drive can be
used in all gears.
1 7 .7 Tra n sm iss io n
Electronically-controlled, six-gear, fully-automatic planetary
transmission. Torque converter with automatic lock-up.
High and low range in dropbox. Hydraulic retarder is
standard.
1 7 .8 Tra ve l s p e e d
Forward: 55 km/h 34 mph
Reverse: 14 km/h 9 mph
1 7 .9 S te e rin g s ys te m
Hydromechanical articulated steering with mechanical
feedback and hydraulically damped steering stops.
Supplementary steering is standard.
1 7 .1 0 F ra m e a n d b o g ie
Separate frames for front unit and rear unit joined at a
bearing to permit full freedom of rotational movement
between the front unit and the trailer without causing
torsional stress on the frame members.
The bogie permits a freedom of movement of the wheels of
about 40 cm 16 in. without subjecting any of the bogie
parts to torsional stress.
The suspension on the front unit consists of two rubber
springs and three shock absorbers on each side. The
design permits the wheels to move independently.
Volvo A40D 6x6
Tires 29.5R25 875/ 65R29
Unloaded Loaded Unloaded Loaded
Front 115 kPa 16.7 psi 135 kPa 19.6 psi 100 kPa 14.5 psi 118 kPa 17.1 psi
Rear 53 kPa 7.7 psi 172 kPa 24.9 psi 47 kPa 6.8 psi 150 kPa 21.7 psi
Cone index 71 60
115
1 7 .1 1 E n g in e
Volvo high-performance, low-emission, direct-injected,
turbocharged, intercooled 6-cylinder diesel engine with
Volvo Engine Brake, VEB.
* NAFTA / ** EU
1 7 .1 2 B ra k e s
Service brakes: Two-circuit, multiple wet-disc brake
system. The brake system is
continuously force cooled by an
external cooling system with separate
oil.
Parking brake: Spring-actuated disc brake on
propeller shaft.
Hydraulic retarder and VEB is standard.
1 7 .1 3 C a b
Approved ROPS cab. Sound and heat insulated. Fan and
heater, filtered ventilation. Air-conditioning as an option.
Manufacturer Volvo
Model D12C ACE2** D12C AAE2*
Engine output
SAE J1349 Net
30 r/s 1800 rpm
313 kW 420 hp
Max torque at
SAE J1349 Gross
20 r/s 1200 rpm
2100 Nm 1549 lbf ft
Cylinder volume 12 l 732 in
3
Fuel consumption
Low
Medium
High
l/h US gal/ h
19 26 5.0 6.9
26 34 6.9 9.0
34 48 9.0 12.7
Load factor guide
High: Long haul times with frequently adverse grades. Contin-
uous use on poorly maintained haul roads with high rolling
resistance.
Medium: Average loading zone conditions and frequently
maintained haul roads. Normal hauling times and several
adverse grades. Some areas of high rolling resistance.
Low: Large amounts of idling. Short to medium hauls on well-
maintained level haul roads. Minimum total resistance.
.
116
1 7 .1 4 Tra ve rs a b ility a t d iffe re n t co e fficie n ts o f tra ctio n a n d to ta l re s is ta n ce
1 7 .1 5 O p e ra tin g o n s lo p e s
Only in exceptional cases should a Volvo A40D be
operated up or down grades steeper than 2030%. The
absolute limit uphill is approximately 45%, and downhill the
Volvo A40D can negotiate 50%, but other factors such as
the available traction makes it hazardous to work under
such conditions.
Only in exceptional cases should the machine be operated
on lateral slopes of more than 15%. The maximum limit for
the machine to travel on lateral slopes is 30%, but other
factors such as roughness of the ground can cause the
machine to tip over before this limit is reached.
Coefficient of traction
0
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
All-wheel drive with differential locks.
Loaded/ unloaded.
Total resistance
45%
15%
117
Diagram Volvo A40D
1 7 .1 6 D ia g ra m
0
1
.
0
1
.
5
2
.
0
2
.
5
3
.
0
0
2
0
4
0
6
0
8
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
4
0
1
6
0
1
8
0
2
0
0
0
3
0
0
6
0
0
4
0
%
3
5
%
0
.
5
3
0
%
2
8
%
2
6
%
2
4
%
2
2
%
2
0
%
1
8
%
1
6
%
1
4
%
1
2
%
1
0
%

8
%

6
%

4
%

2
%
1
.
0
0
.
8
0
.
6
0
.
0

0
.
4
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118
Diagram Volvo A40D
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
1
.
2
0
2
0
4
0
6
0
8
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
4
0
1
6
0
1
8
0
2
0
0
0
3
0
0
6
0
0
1
.
4
4
0
%
3
5
%
1
.
0
3
0
%
2
8
%
2
6
%
2
4
%
2
2
%
2
0
%
1
8
%
1
6
%
1
4
%
1
2
%
0
.
8
1
0
%
8
%
4
%
-
6
%
2
%
0
.
4
0
.
0

0
.
2
0
.
6
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119
Diagram Volvo A40D
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A
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I
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120
Diagram Volvo A40D
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
1
.
2
1
.
4
0
2
0
4
0
6
0
8
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
4
0
1
6
0
1
8
0
2
0
0
0
3
0
0
6
0
0
1
.
6
1
.
8
2
.
0
2
H
2
L

-

1
H
3
L
4
L

-

3
H
5
L

-

4
H
6
L

-

5
H
6
H
1

l
o
w
2

l
o
w
/
1

h
i
g
h
2

h
i
g
h
3

l
o
w
4

l
o
w
/
3

h
i
g
h
5

l
o
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/
4

h
i
g
h
6

l
o
w
/
5

h
i
g
h
6

h
i
g
h
3
3
%

2
3
%


3
3
%
1
8
%


2
3
%
1
3
%


1
8
%
1
1
%


1
3
%


8
%


1
1
%


6
%




8
%


0
%




6
%
4
0
%

3
0
%


4
0
%
2
4
%


3
0
%
1
8
%


2
4
%
1
3
%


1
8
%


0
%


1
3
%
1
L
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E
B

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e
121
Diagram Volvo A40D
R im p u ll - R e ta rd a tio n
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
mph
l
b
x
1
0
0
0
lb x 1000
km/h
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
kg x 1000
NMW GMW
k
p
x
1
0
0
0
1
2 3
4
30 40 50 60 20 70
60
40
30
10
0
70
90
20
50
80
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 110 50 70 90 130 150
A40D / D12
RIMPULL
1. Rimpull in metric ton. 2. Speed in km/h. 3. Machine weight in metric ton. 4. Grade in % + rolling resistance in %.
Rimpull
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
mph
l
b
x
1
0
0
0
lb x 1000
km/h
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
kg x 1000
NMW GMW
k
p
x
1
0
0
0
1
2 3
4
30 40 50 60 20 70
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 110 50 70 90 130 150
60
40
30
10
0
70
20
50
A40D
RETARDATION PERFORMANCE (Hydraulic retarder and VEB)
1. Braking effort in metric ton. 2. Speed in km/h. 3. Machine weight in metric ton. 4. Grade in % rolling resistance in %.
Instructions
Diagonal lines represent total resistance (grade % rolling resistance %). Charts based on 0% rolling resistance, standard tires and gearing, unless otherwise stated.
A. Find the diagonal line with the appropriate total resistance on the right-hand edge of the chart.
B. Follow the diagonal line downward until it intersects the actual machine weight line, NMW or GMW.
C. Draw a new line horizontally to the left from the point of intersection until the new line intersects the rimpull or retardation curve.
D. Read down for vehicle speed.
Continuous
Low range Max. retarding performance
High range Max. retarding performance
122
Specification and Performance Specification and Performance Specification and Performance Specification and Performance
C -m o d e l D ia g ra m s ..................................................................... 1 2 3
1 8 .1 6 A2 5 C D ia g ra m s .............................................................. 1 2 3
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A25C, loaded.................................................................... 123
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A25C, unloaded............................................................... 124
Travel time through curves with different length and radius
Volvo A25C .................................................................................. 125
Travel time at different negative total resistance Volvo A25C
with retarder and exhaust brake............................................... 126
1 8 .1 6 A3 0 C D ia g ra m s .............................................................. 1 2 7
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A30C, loaded.................................................................... 127
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A30C, unloaded............................................................... 128
Travel time through curves with different length and radius
Volvo A30C .................................................................................. 129
Travel time at different negative total resistance Volvo A30C
with retarder and exhaust brake............................................... 130
1 8 .1 6 A3 5 C D ia g ra m s .............................................................. 1 3 1
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A35C, loaded.................................................................... 131
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A35C, unloaded............................................................... 132
Travel time through curves with different length and radius
Volvo A35C .................................................................................. 133
Travel time at different negative total resistance Volvo A35C
with retarder and exhaust brake............................................... 134
1 8 .1 6 A4 0 D ia g ra m s ................................................................. 1 3 5
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A40, loaded....................................................................... 135
Travel time at different total resistance and ground structure
Volvo A40, unloaded.................................................................. 136
Travel time through curves with different length and radius
Volvo A40...................................................................................... 137
Travel time at different negative total resistance Volvo A40
with retarder and exhaust brake............................................... 138
S p e cia l Ve h icle s ........................................................................... 1 4 0
1 9 .1 A2 5 D -A3 0 D T e rra in C h a ssis, D im e n sio n s ....... 1 4 0
19.2 Weights............................................................................. 142
19.5 Ground pressure............................................................. 142
2 0 .1 A 2 5 D -A 3 0 D T win S te e r, D im e n s io n s ................ 1 4 3
20.2 Weights............................................................................. 144
20.4 Body volumes................................................................... 144
20.5 Ground pressure............................................................. 144
2 1 .1 A2 5 D C o n ta in e r H a u le r, D im e n s io n s ................. 1 4 5
21.2 Weights............................................................................. 146
21.5 Ground pressure............................................................. 146
2 2 .1 A3 5 D C o n ta in e r H a u le r, D im e n s io n s ................. 1 4 7
21.2 Weights............................................................................. 148
21.5 Ground pressure............................................................. 148
Articu la te d H a u le rs in U n d e rg ro u n d
M in in g /T u n n e lin g ......................................................... 1 4 9
123
C -m o d e l D ia g ra m s
1 8 .1 6 A 2 5 C D ia g ra m s
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Diagram Volvo A25C

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Diagram Volvo A25C
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126
Diagram Volvo A25C
1
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127
Diagram Volvo A30C
1 8 .1 6 A 3 0 C D ia g ra m s
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Diagram Volvo A30C
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Diagram Volvo A30C
1
2
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4
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Diagram Volvo A30C
0
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6
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23456
123456
2
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2
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1
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1
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9
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1
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1
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131
Diagram Volvo A35C
1 8 .1 6 A 3 5 C D ia g ra m s
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Diagram Volvo A35C
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133
Diagram Volvo A35C
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a
n
d

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a
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V
o
l
v
o

A
3
5
C
134
Diagram Volvo A35C
L
o
a
d
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d

T
i
m
e

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n

m
i
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.
i
n

f
t
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C

w
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b
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135
Diagram Volvo A40
1 8 .1 6 A 4 0 D ia g ra m s
T
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e

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n

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.
D
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V
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,

l
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136
Diagram Volvo A40
T
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e

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.
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V
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l
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4
0
,

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n
l
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d
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137
Diagram Volvo A40
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
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i
n

f
t
i
n

f
t
T
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V
o
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v
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A
4
0
138
Diagram Volvo A40
L
o
a
d
e
d

T
i
m
e

i
n

m
i
n
.
i
n

f
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0

w
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a
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139

140
S p e cia l Ve h icle s
1 9 .1 A 2 5 D -A3 0 D Te rra in C h a s sis, D im e n s io n s
F G
H
I
C
C
1
a
1
A
X
2
K
B
E
L
B
1
141
Pos A25D TC Unloaded machine with 23.5R25 A25D TC Unloaded machine with 650/65R25
TC42 TC50 TC52 TC54 TC59 TC42 TC50 TC52 TC54 TC59
A 9 410 10 210 10 410 10 610 11 110 9 356 10 156 10 356 10 556 11 056
A
1
4 420 5 220 5 420 5 620 6 120 4 420 5 220 5 420 5 620 6 120
B 4 520 5 320 5 520 5 720 6 220 4 520 5 320 5 520 5 720 6 220
B
1
170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170
B
2
500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500
C 3 428 3 428 3 428 3 428 3 428 3 381 3 381 3 381 3 381 3 381
C
1
3 318 3 318 3 318 3 318 3 318 3 271 3 271 3 271 3 271 3 271
C
2
1 768 1 768 1 768 1 768 1 768 1 768 1 768 1 768 1 768 1 768
D 2 764 2 764 2 764 2 764 2 764 2 764 2 764 2 764 2 764 2 764
E 1 210 1 210 1 210 1 210 1 210 1 210 1 210 1 210 1 210 1 210
F 4 175 4 975 5 175 5 375 5 875 4 175 4 975 5 175 5 375 5 875
G 1670 1670 1670 1670 1670 1670 1670 1670 1670 1670
H 410 450 455 465 475 410 450 455 465 475
I 835 835 835 835 835 835 835 835 835 835
J 1 444 1 444 1 444 1 444 1 444 1 444 1 444 1 444 1 444 1 444
K 1 400 1 400 1 400 1 400 1 400 1 353 1 353 1 353 1 353 1 353
L 940 940 940 940 940 940 940 940 940 940
M 365 365 365 365 365 315 315 315 315 315
N 7 980 9 110 9 390 9 670 10 360 7 995 9 125 9 405 9 685 10 375
N
1
4 070 4 870 5 070 5 270 5 770 4 055 4 855 5 055 5 255 5 755
V 2 258 2 258 2 258 2 258 2 258 2 258 2 258 2 258 2 258 2 258
V
1
974 974 974 974 974 974 974 974 974 974
V
2
720 720 720 720 720 705 705 705 705 705
W 2 859 2 859 2 859 2 859 2 859 2 888 2 888 2 888 2 888 2 888
X
2
659 659 659 659 659 705 705 705 705 705
a
1
23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5
a
3
45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45
Pos A30D TC Unloaded machine with 750/65R25 A30D TC Unloaded machine with 23.5R25
TC42 TC50 TC52 TC54 TC59 TC42 TC50 TC52 TC54 TC59
A 9 410 10 210 10 410 10 610 11 110 9 410 10 210 10 410 10 610 11 110
A
1
4 420 5 220 5 420 5 620 6 120 4 420 5 220 5 420 5 620 6 120
B 4 520 5 320 5 520 5 720 6 220 4 520 5 320 5 520 5 720 6 220
B
1
170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170
B
2
500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500
C 3 428 3 428 3 428 3 428 3 428 3 428 3 428 3 428 3 428 3 428
C
1
3 318 3 318 3 318 3 318 3 318 3 318 3 318 3 318 3 318 3 318
C
2
1 768 1 768 1 768 1 768 1 768 1 768 1 768 1 768 1 768 1 768
D 2 764 2 764 2 764 2 764 2 764 2 764 2 764 2 764 2 764 2 764
E 1 210 1 210 1 210 1 210 1 210 1 210 1 210 1 210 1 210 1 210
F 4 175 4 975 5 175 5 375 5 875 4 175 4 975 5 175 5 375 5 875
G 1670 1670 1670 1670 1670 1670 1670 1670 1670 1670
H 410 450 455 465 475 410 450 455 465 475
I 835 835 835 835 835 835 835 835 835 835
J 1 444 1 444 1 444 1 444 1 444 1 444 1 444 1 444 1 444 1 444
K 1 400 1 400 1 400 1 400 1 400 1 400 1 400 1 400 1 400 1 400
L 1 005 1 005 1 005 1 005 1 005 1 005 1 005 1 005 1 005 1 005
M 380 380 380 380 380 365 365 365 365 365
N 8 021 9 151 9 431 9 711 10 401 7 980 9 110 9 390 9 670 10 360
N
1
4 029 4 829 5 029 5 229 5 729 4 070 4 870 5 070 5 270 5 770
V 2 216 2 216 2 216 2 216 2 216 2 258 2 258 2 258 2 258 2 258
V
1
974 974 974 974 974 974 974 974 974 974
V
2
615 615 615 615 615 720 720 720 720 720
W 2 941 2 941 22 941 2 941 2 941 2 859 2 859 2 859 2 859 2 859
X
2
659 659 659 659 659 659 659 659 659 659
a
1
23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5
a
3
45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45
142
1 9 .2 We ig h ts
1 9 .5 G ro u n d p re ssu re
Weights Ground Pressure
Operating weight includes all fluids and operator. At 15% sinkage of unloaded radius and
specified weights.
A25D TC42 A25D TC50 A25D TC52 A25D TC54 A25D TC59 A25D
Tires 23.5R25
650/65R25
23.5R25
650/65R25
23.5R25
650/65R25
23.5R25
650/65R25
23.5R25
650/65R25
Tires 23.5R25
650/65 R25
Operating weight unloaded Unloaded
Front 11 800 kg 11 980 kg 12 020 kg 12 070 kg 12 170 kg Front 123 kPa
Rear 5 540 kg 5 660 kg 5 690 kg 5 720 kg 5 800 kg Rear 48 kPa
Total 17 340 kg 17 640 kg 17 710 kg 17 790 kg 17 970 kg Loaded
Payload incl. superstructure 28 220 kg 27 920 kg 27 850 kg 27 770 kg 27 590 kg Front 144 kPa
Total weight Rear 159 kPa
Front 14 140 kg 14 140 kg 14 140 kg 14 140 kg 14 140 kg
Rear 31 420 kg 31 420 kg 31 420 kg 31 420 kg 31 420 kg
Total 45 560 kg 45 560 kg 45 560 kg 45 560 kg 45 560 kg
Weights Ground Pressure
Operating weight includes all fluids and operator. At 15% sinkage of unloaded radius and
specified weights.
A30D TC42 A30D TC50 A30D TC52 A30D TC54 A30D TC59 A30D TC
Tires 750/65R25 750/65R25 750/65R25 750/65R25 750/65R25 Tires 750/65R25
Operating weight unloaded Unloaded
Front 12 020 kg 12 2000 kg 12 240 kg 12 290 kg 12 390 kg Front 101 kPa
Rear 5 980 kg 6 100 kg 6 130 kg 6 1600 kg 6 240 kg Rear 43 kPa
Total 18 000 kg 18 300kg 18 370 kg 18 4500 kg 18 630 kg Loaded
Payload incl. superstructure 32 5300 kg 32 230 kg 32 160 kg 32 080 kg 31 900 kg Front 121 kPa
Total weight Rear 121 kPa
Front 14 990 kg 14 990 kg 14 990 kg 14 990 kg 14 990 kg
Rear 36 070kg 36 070kg 36 070kg 36 070kg 36 070kg
Total 51 060 kg 51 060 kgg 51 060 kg 51 060 kg 51 060 kg
Optional 23.5R25 tires, reduces weight /axle with 220 kg and increases payload with 660 kg.
143
2 0 .1 A 2 5 D -A3 0 D Twin S te e r, D im e n s io n s
Pos Metric (mm) Imperial (Feet)
A25D A30D A25D A30D
A 10 220 10 297 33'6'' 33'9''
A
1
4 954 4 954 16'3'' 16'3''
A
2
5 764 6 002 18'11'' 19'8''
B 5 152 5 339 16'11'' 17'6''
C 3 428 3 428 11'3'' 11'3''
C
1
3 318 3 318 10'11'' 10'11''
C
2
1 768 1 768 5'10'' 5'10''
C
3
3 760 3 834 12'4'' 12'7''
D 2 764 2 764 9'1'' 9'1''
E 1 210 1 210 3'12'' 3'12''
F 4 175 4 175 13'8'' 13'8''
G 1 670 1 670 5'6'' 5'6''
H 1 610 1 688 5'3'' 5'6''
I 608 608 1'12'' 1'12''
J 2 778 2 856 9'1'' 9'4''
K 2 102 2 181 6'11'' 7'2''
L 677 686 2'3'' 2'3''
M 6 559 6 592 21'6'' 21'8''
N 8 105 8 105 26'7'' 26'7''
N
1
4 079 4 037 13'5'' 13'3''
O 2 700 2 900 8'10'' 9'6''
P 2 490 2 706 8'2'' 8'11''
R 512 513 1'8'' 1'8''
R
1
634 635 2'1'' 2'1''
U 3 257 3 310 10'8'' 10'10''
V 2 258 2 216 7'5'' 7'3''
V* - - - - - 2 258 - - - - - 7'5''
W 2 859 2 941 9'5'' 9'8''
W* - - - - - 2 859 - - - - - 9'5''
X 456 456 1'6'' 1'6''
X
1
581 582 1'11'' 1'11''
X
2
659 659 2'2'' 2'2''
Y 2 258 2 216 7'5'' 7'3''
Y* - - - - - 2 258 - - - - - 7'5''
Z 2 859 2 941 9'5'' 9'85''
Z* - - - - - 2 859 - - - - - 9'5''
a
1
23,5 23,5 - - - - - - - - - -
a
2
74 70 - - - - - - - - - -
a
3
45 45 - - - - - - - - - -
A25D: Unloaded machine with 23,5R25
A30D: Unloaded machine with 750/65R25
* A30D with optional 23,5R25 tires
144
2 0 .2 We ig h ts
2 0 .4 B o d y vo lu m e s
2 0 .5 G ro u n d p re ssu re
Weights Ground Pressure Load Capacity
Operating weight includes all fluids and operator. At 15% sinkage of unloaded radius and specified weights. Body volume according to SAE 2:1.
A25D A30D A25D A30D A25D A30D
Tires 23.5R25 750/65R25 Tires 23.5R25 750/65R25 23.5R25
Operating weight unloaded Unloaded Std. Body
Front 12 160 kg 12 500 kg Front 123 kPa 101 kPa 127 kPa Load capacity 24 000 kg 28 000 kg
Rear 9 400 kg 10 560 kg Rear 48 kPa 43 kPa 54 kPa Body, struck 11,7 m
3
13,6
m
3
Total 21 560 kg 23 060 kg Loaded Body, heaped 15,0 m
3
17,5 m

3
Payload 24 000 kg 28 000 kg Front 144 kPa 121 kPa 152 kPa With underhung tailgate
Total weight Rear 159 kPa 146 kPa 183 kPa Body, struck 12,0 m
3
13,8 m
3
Front 14 140 kg 14 990 kg Body, heaped 15,3 m
3
18,0 m
3
Rear 31 420 kg 36 070 kg With overhung tailgate
Total 45 560 kg 51 060 kg Body, struck 12,1 m
3
14,0 m
3
Body, heaped 15,6 m
3
18,1 m
3
With over and under hung tailgate
Body, struck 12,1 m
3
- -
Body, heaped 15,6 m
3
- -
145
2 1 .1 A 2 5 D C o n ta in e r H a u le r, D im e n s io n s
D
E
F
X
2
a
1
G H
M
B
C
C
1
L
K
a
2
a
3
N N
1
A
Pos Metric
(mm)
Imperial
(feet)
A25D A25D
A 11 153 36'7''
B 6 058 19'11''
C 3 428 11'3''
C * 3 373 11'1''
C
1
3 318 10'11''
C
1*
3 263 10'8''
C
2
1 768 5'10''
D 2 764 9'1''
E 1 210 3'12''
F 4 975 16'4''
G 1 670 5'6''
H 1 744 5'9''
K 1 790 5'10''
K * 1 684 5'6''
L 578 1'11''
L * 510 1'8''
M 6 594 21'8''
M * 6 429 21'1''
N 9 110 29'11''
N
1
4 870 16'0''
O 2 566 8'5''
V 2 258 7'5''
W 2 859 9'5''
X 456 1'6''
X * 412 1'4''
X
1
581 1'11''
X
1*
537 1'9''
X
2
659 2'2''
X
2*
615 2'0''
Y 2 258 7'5''
Z 2 859 9'5''
a
1
23,5 23.5
a
2
60 60
a
2
* 57,5 57.5
a
3
45 45
Unloaded machine with 23.5R25
* Low version with 650/65R25
V
W
O
Y
Z
X
1
X
146
2 1 .2 We ig h ts
2 1 .5 G ro u n d p re ssu re
Weights Ground Pressure Load Capacity
Operating weight includes all fluids and operator. At 15% sinkage of unloaded radius and specified weights. * Total weight including container.
A25D A25D A25D
Tires 23.5R25 Tires 23.5R25
Operating weight unloaded Unloaded ISO Container 20ft
Front 12 160 kg Front 123 kPa Load capacity* 24 000 kg
Rear 9 400 kg Rear 48 kPa
Total 21 560 kg Loaded
Payload 24 000 kg Front 144 kPa
Total weight Rear 159 kPa
Front 14 140 kg
Rear 31 420 kg
Total 45 560 kg
147
2 2 .1 A 3 5 D C o n ta in e r H a u le r, D im e n sio n s
V
W
R
1
R
O
D
E
F
X
2
L
K
a
1
G H
M
B
C
C
1
I
C
2
X
1
X
Y
Z
N
a
3
N
1
A2
A
Pos Metric (mm) Imperial
(feet)
A 11 167 36'6''
A
2
6 224 20'4''
B 5 527 16'9''
C 3 681 12'1''
C
1
3 560 11'7''
C
2
1 768 5'8''
D 3 101 10'2''
E 1 276 4'2''
F 4 501 14'8''
G 1 820 6'0''
H 1 757 5'8''
I 728 2'39''
K 2 302 7'6''
L 915 3'0''
M 7 242 23'8''
N 8 720 28'6''
N
1
4 397 14'4''
O 3 103 10'2''
R 584 1'92''
R
1
670 2'2''
V 2 515 8'3''
V* 2 625 8'6''
W 3 208 10'5''
W * 3 410 11'2''
X 572 1'88''
X
1
606 1'99''
X
2
720 2'36''
Y 2 515 8'3''
Y* 2 625 7'4''
Z 3 208 10'5''
Z* 3 410 11'2''
a
1
23 23
a
2
49 49
a
3
45 45
A35D: Unloaded machine with 26.5R25
*) A35D with optional 775/65R29 tires
148
2 1 .2 We ig h ts
2 1 .5 G ro u n d p re ssu re
Weights Ground Pressure Load Capacity
Operating weight includes all fluids and operator. At 15% sinkage of unloaded radius and specified weights.
A35D A35D A35D
Tires 26.5R25* Tires 26.5R25 775/65R29
Operating weight unloaded Unloaded ISO Container 20 ft
Front 15 120 kg Front 128 kPa 107 kPa Load capacity 32 500 kg
Rear 10 830 kg Rear 46kPa 38 kPa
Total 25 950 kg Loaded
Payload 32 500 kg Front 139kPa 116 kPa
Total weight Rear 178 kPa 148 kPa
Front 16 440 kg
Rear 42 000 kg
Total 58 400 kg
*) A35D with tires 775/65R29, add 200 kg /axle.
149
Articu la te d H a u le rs in U n d e rg ro u n d M in in g /Tu n n e lin g
150
151
Under our policy of continuous product development and improvement, we reserve the right to change specifications and design
without prior notice. The illustrations do not necessarily show the standard version of the machine.
Ref. No. 21 3 669 5024
Printed in Vxj 2003.03