Table of Contents

1.0 2.0

INTRODUCTION BELT DRIVES 2.1 2.2 2.3 V-Belt Design Data Design Data for Neoprene and Buna Belts Design Data for Polyurethane Belts 468 468 469 476 477 478 478 480 481 481 481 482 484 467


CHAIN DRIVES 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Design Data for No. 25 Single Strand Roller Chain Drive Selection Sprocket Selection Recommendations Selection of Center Distances Chain Drive Selections for Very Slow Speeds Lubrication



A. MISCELLANEOUS BELT AND CHAIN DRIVES 1.0 INTRODUCTION Since it is our specialty to service the users of small commercial quality drive components, we will limit ourselves to design data up to 1 H.P. capacity. This should prove most useful to the designer of business machines, computer equipment, instrumentation and small automatic machinery of all kinds. This write up is divided Into the following categories: Belt Drives* • Flat Belts • Synchronous Belts • V-Belts • Variable Speed Pulleys • Round Belts Chain Drives • Roller 1. Standard Size 2. Miniature • Ladder • Bead Tensioning Mechanisms 2.0 BELT DRIVES (a) Flat Belts Flat belts find considerable usage in applications requiring small pulley diameters, high belt surface speeds, low noise levels, low weight and inertia. They cannot be used where absolute synchronization between pulleys must be maintained because they rely on friction for their proper functioning, All flat belts except the toothed type mentioned in the next data section are subject to creepage because of the relative motion between the pulley surface and the adjacent belt surface which is under load deformation from the combined tension and flexural stresses. Flat belts must be kept under tension to function and therefore require tensioning devices. Fractional H.P. belts are manufactured two ways. 1. Woven and 2. Film. Woven belts are usually made from Nylon or Dacron fibers and impregnated with rubber. Sometimes they are made from fiberglass for high temperature applications. They can operate at pulley speeds up to 140,000 R.P.M. and pulley diameters as small as 3/8 inch. Film type belts are made from Mylar. Annular rings are die cut from a basic Mylar sheet and subsequently formed into an endless belt. Belt thickness can be as small as .0005 inches, thus enabling operation over pulley diameters as small as .050 inches for tens of millions of cycles. Creep and pitch Pine variations are also small because of the thickness of the belt. Film type belts are finding considerable application in miniature and airborne tape recording equipment. (b) Synchronous Belts Synchronous belts, commonly known as timing belts, are basically flat belts with a series of evenly spaced teeth on the inside circumference, thereby combining the advantages of the flat belt with the _____________ *Reprinted with permission from Uniroyal Industrial Products Manual 181 and Browning Manufacturing Div. of Emerson Electric Co. Cat. No. 6. 468

positive grip features of chains and gears. There is no slippage or creep as with plain flat belts. Required belt tension is low, therefore producing very small bearing loads. Synchronous belts will not stretch and require no lubrication. Speed is transmitted uniformly because there is no chordal rise and fall of the pitch line as with roller chain. The tooth profile on timing belt pulleys is an involute curve similar to a spur gear. Unlike the spur gear however, the outside diameter of a timing pulley is manufactured smaller than its pitch diameter, thus creating an imaginary pitch diameter which is larger than the pulley itself. This is illustrated in Figure 1. Backlash between pulley and belt teeth is negligible. Synchronous timing belts are also available in double sided designs which offer an infinite number of new design possibilities on computer equipment, business machines, office equipment, textile machines and similar light duty applications. Belts with driving teeth on both sides make it possible to change the direction of rotation of one or more synchronized pulleys with only one belt. The inside and outside teeth are identical as to size and pitch and operate on standard diameter pulleys. Since this group of belts is extremely popular and their design and application is widespread, a separate section is devoted to them in this handbook. (C) V-Belts V-belts find frequent application where synchronization between shafts is not important. V-belts are easily installed and removed, quiet in operation, low in maintenance, and provide shock absorption between drive and driven shafts. Normally V-belt drives operate best at belt speeds between 1500 to 6500 feet per minute. Ideal speed (peak capacity) is approximately 4500 feet per minute. The maximum satisfactory speed ratio is approximately 7 to 1. V-belt drives operate at 90−98% efficiency. The limitations of V-belts are the following: a. Improper belt tension can reduce service life. b. Belt life at increased temperatures (above 180ºF) is significantly shortened. c. Centrifugal force prevents the use of belts above 10,000 feet per minute. Vbelts are made with a fiberglass reinforced neoprene core with a jacket of fabric impregnated neoprene which protects the interior and provides a wear-resistant surface for the belt. To facilitate interchangeability and ensure uniformity, manufacturers have developed industry standards for the various types of belts. Most of these standards were set by the AMA (Rubber Manufacturers Association) and the MPTA (Mechanical Power Transmission Association). A properly designed drive should take into consideration the following factors: 1. Horsepower, speed, and characteristics of the prime mover. 2. Required driven speed, and horsepower or torque characteristics of the driven unit. 3. Approximate center distance, including minimum and maximum allowable. 4. Space limitations on various driven components. 5. Type of operation (intermittent, steady) and number of cycles or hours of service. 6. Method of adjustment for tensioning and takeup. 7. Service conditions−heat, abrasive atmosphere, moisture, oil, chemical, etc. 8. Necessary shaft diameters, lengths, and keyways. 2.1 V-BELT DESIGN DATA Overload Service Factors Load and operating characteristics of both the driving and driven units must be considered thoroughly in the selection of FHP Drives. It is essential that all drives be designed for maximum load conditions to be encountered. Most drives will at some time be overloaded, perhaps only momentarily, and it is good practice to have predetermined drive capacity to handle this overload. For good design and satisfactory drive life all drives must be selected with careful consideration of two fundamental Conditions: 469

1. The motor must have greater capacity than the driven unit. 2. The drive must have greater capacity than the motor. The following are suggested overload service factors for various types of driven units: TABLE 1 Driven Unit Service Factors Driven Unit Agitators Liquid Semi-Liquid Compressor Centrifugal Reciprocating Conveyors and Elevators Package, Oven Belt Fans and Blowers Centrifugal, Calculating Exhausters Food Machinery Slicers Grinders, Mixers Generators Farm Lighting, Exciters Overload Factor 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.2 Driven Unit Heating and Ventilating Fans, Oil Burners Stokers Laundry Machinery Dryers, Ironers washers Machine Tools Home Workshop and Woodworking Pumps Centrifugal Reciprocating Refrigeration Centrifugal Reciprocating Worm Gear Speed Reducers, Input Side Overload Factor 1.2 2.4 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.0

In addition to the Overload Service Factors determined by the driven unit of a drive, there are certain types of driving units having starting or operating characteristics which call for increased capacity. If the driving unit is one of the following types, add 0.4 to the Driven Unit Service Factor: Frequent Starting and Stopping. High Starting Torque Motors. Gas Engines. Across the Line Starting. Multiply the combined Overload Service Factors by the horsepower rating of the driving unit to get the required normal rating of the drive. Example: 3/4 H.P. Gas Engine driving Generator. Suggested Overload Factor 1.2 plus .4 or 1.6. Normal rating of drive is 3/4 x 1.6 or 1.2 H.P. Drive Selection Charts for FHP Belts Always try to use the largest pulleys possible in any drive unit. Small pulleys are less efficient and greatly reduce belt life because of slippage and extreme flexing of the belt. Where small pulleys are a must and speed is high, select the lightest belt 2L. Table 2 shows the recommended minimum pulley diameters as shown in NEMA standards. It is a result of concern for bearing and shaft loading rather than belt flex life. TABLE 2 Belt type 2L 3L 4L Size of belt (in.) 1/4x1/8 3/8x7/32 1/2x5/16 Minimum pitch diameter Recommended Absolute 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 2.5 1.8 TABLE 3 RECOMMENDED MINIMUM PULLEY DIAMETERS (INCHES) FOR ELECTRIC MOTORS Motor horsepower 1/2 3/4 1 470 575 2 1/2 3 3 695 2 1/2 2 1/2 3 Motor rpm 870 1160 2 1/2 −− 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/2 1750 −− −− 2 1/4 3450 −− −− −−

Correction Factor for Loss in Arc of Contact The rated horsepower tables in the following pages are based on a 1 to 1 ratio with 180º of belt wrap around each pulley. When pulleys of different diameters are used there is a loss in tractive effort on the smaller pulley. The loss in arc of contact from 180º for different drives can be determined in the following manner: Loss in Arc of Contact (in degrees) = Where D = large pulley P.D. d = small pulley PD. C = center distance between shafts (inches) The correction factors for loss in Arc of Contact in degrees on small pulleys are: TABLE 4 Loss in Arc of Contact 0º 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Correction Factor 1.00 .99 .98 .96 .95 .93 .92 .89 .89 .87 Loss in Arc of Contact 50º 55 60 65 70 75 80 86 90 Correction Factor .86 .84 .83 .81 .79 .76 .74 .71 .69

Calculate Belt Length The belt length can be calculated by means of the formula given previously: L = 2C + 1.57(D + d) + When pulley pitch diameters are used, resultant is belt pitch length. When pulley outside diameters are used, resultant is belt outside circumference. The chart shown below is a rapid means of determining outside belt length and is accurate enough for most applications. Belt Size Standards Allowance must be made for manufacturing tolerances in belt width and length. This tolerance may be summarized by length, regardless of cross-section, as follows: TABLE 5 Nominal Outside Length 14"- 20" 21 - 60 61 - 79 80 -100 Outside Length Variation +1/8", −3/8 +1/4, − 5/8 +5/16,−11/16 +5/8, − 7/8

Allowance for Installation and Take-Up The center distance obtained from the Nomogram in Figure 1 or the belt length formula is that for a normal length belt under proper operating tension. Provision must be made in the drive for moving the pulley centers closer to permit mounting of the belts without forcing them over the pulleys. Also, the pulley centers must provide for adjustment beyond the nominal center distance to compensate 471

for belt stretch and wear. In addition, the manufacturing tolerance of the belts themselves must be considered. These various factors can be consolidated into terms of overall adjustment as follows: TABLE 6 Belt Size Range 6R12 − 3L110 − 3L240 3L250 − 3L370 3L380 − 3L610 4L170 − 4L370 4L380 − 4L600 4L610 − 4L790 4L800 − 4L1000 Minimum Recommended Adjustment 1 - 1/8" 1 - 1/4 1 - 1/2 1 - 1/4 1 - 3/4 2 - 1/4 2 - 3/4

The driving unit should be installed at approximately the mid-point of this recommended adjustment, thus allowing for mounting of belts and subsequent take-up. The application of proper tension is of extreme importance as insufficient tension can shorten belt life, cause slippage and even cause belt breakage. Excess tension can cause bearing wear and possible failure. Proper tension can usually be determined by pressing on the belt after installation. It should feel alive and springy. Keeping the belt at correct tension by periodic inspection will insure longer life and better service.


ldlers When it is impossible to provide sufficient center-distance adjustment for belt length take-up, an adjustable idler should be used. The idler should contact the slack side of the drive. It should be sufficiently adjustable to permit installation of the belts without forcing and to permit take-up for tensioning. On most V-belt installations having sufficient arc of contact, the best type of idler is a grooved pulley placed against the inside of the drive. Its diameter should not be smaller than the minimum listed pulley diameter. When the diameters of both the driver and driven pulley are appreciably larger than the listed minimums, it is desirable that the diameter of the idler be at least as large as the diameter of the small pulley. A flat idler pulley is not generally advisable for V-belt drives. If it is used, there must be no crown on the face. A flat idler positioned inside the drive against the bottom of the belts must be no smaller than the minimum pulley diameter. If used against the top of the belts, the flat idler diameter should be at least as large as the diameter of the small pulley. The 6Z9 series product group in the SDP catalog provides adjustable drive tighteners and idlers. To Calculate a Drive 1. Apply overload service factor in Table 1 2. Determine speed ratio and pulley diameters 3. Select belt sizes from Table 7, 8 and 9 4. Select belt length from Tables 10 and 11 or calculate from formula 5. Check power loss because of belt contact arc loss 6. Check belt speed Example−− A 1/3 H.P. Capacitor start A.C. motor is driving a reciprocating air compressor at 720 R.P.M. on approximately 12 inch centers. Maximum diameter of compressor pulley to be 8 inches pitch diameter. (a.) Overload factor is 1.8 (.4 for high starting torque motor plus 1.4 for reciprocating compressor). Normal rating of drive is .33 x 1.8 = .6 H.P. (b.) Speed ratio = Using the maximum allowable driven pulley pitch diameter, then the required motor pulley pitch dia. is = 3.35

(C.) Select the desired pulley from the product section and note that a 3.35 P.D. pulley has a 3.5 outside diameter. By inspection of Tables 5, 6 and 7 it is obvious that the 1/2 x 9/32 (4L, series) belt is the only one capable of handling the design requirements. It is rated at 1.05 H.P. at 1750 R.P.M. (d.) The center distance between pulleys can frequently be found by referring to Tables 10 and 11. In this particular problem, the ratio of 2.4:1 is not listed and must therefore be calculated. The belt length is determined by the formula L = 2C + 1.57(D + d) +

L = 24 + 1.57 (8.00 + 3.35) + L = 42.25 inches pitch length The nearest standard belt listed in the product pages is 42 inches pitch length. (e.) Remember that the above 1.06 H.P. rating is for a 1 to 1 ratio only. Calculate correction factor for loss of arc to make certain that the choice of pulley diameters and centerdistance does not derate the 1.06 H.P. value below the drive requirements. 473

Where D = Pitch diameter of large pulley d = Pitch diameter of small pulley C = center distance Correction factor from Table 12 for 22º is .94 therefore 1.06 x .94 = .99 H.P. which is still ample to carry the design load. (f.) Check that belt velocity does not exceed 5000 ft. per min Belt Velocity (feet/min.) = Pulley R.P.M. x Pitch Dia. x .262 = 3.35 x 1750 x .262 = 1550 feet/min., which is satisfactory TABLE 7 HORSEPOWER RATINGS FOR 1/4 x 1/8 (2L) SECT. V-BELTS







(d.) Variable Speed Pulleys A variable speed pulley is actually a pulley with a variable pitch diameter. This variation can be achieved through manual or automatic means depending on the design, by widening the space between the two pulley-halves. When it is used in conjunction with another fixed or variable pulley, an infinite number of speed ratios can be obtained within a range determined mainly by whether two or one variable pulleys are in the belt drive. Figure 2 illustrates a V-belt drive where both pulleys are variable, however one is spring loaded and the other is manually adjusted.

The driver and driven shafts are on fixed centers. Turning the control knob while the drive is running brings together the two faces of the controlling pulley, thus forcing the V-belt to ride at a greater pitch diameter. This forces the V-belt deeper into the spring loaded pulley and reduces its pitch diameter. The related increase and decrease in pulley diameters produces an exceptionally wide range of speed control. Correct speed is held by spring tension. There is no need for locking the adjusting screw. Stop nuts are provided to limit total adjust 475

ment if desired. This type of variable speed drive can only be adjusted while running. For limited range applications, the spring-loaded pulley can be used with a fixed pulley and adjustable motor base. Spring loaded and manually controlled pulleys as well as adjustable motor bases are available in the Product Section of the SDP catalog. (e.) Round Belts Round belts, also known as O-Rings, are used in numerous applications such as photographic projectors and slide changers, dictating recorders, tape recorders, electric typewriters. Round belts require no idlers or spring devices to keep tension. Round belts are well suited for serpentine drives, reverse bends, and 90º twists. Their inherent damping characteristics reduce noise and their elasticity effectively smooth out shock and vibration. The best materials for belt drives are Neoprene, Buna and polyurethanes. The product pages list round belts made from these materials, ranging from 1/16 to 5/16 cross-section diameter as well as pulleys specifically designed for these belts. The polyurethane belts listed in the catalog employ a unique design feature where the belt can be installed or removed without taking apart adjacent mechanism components which is sometimes unavoidable with endless solid belts. 2.2 Design Data for Neoprene and Buna Belts 1. Pulley diameters should be at least four times the cross-sectional diameter of the belt. For higher speeds (above 2500 R.P.M.) the 4:1 minimum ratio must be increased proportionately because of hysteresis heat build up in the frequent flexing around the pulleys. Belt life is inversely proportional to the 5th power of the pulley diameter. 2. Keep belt speeds below 4000 feet per minute. 3. Center distances should not exceed 4 to 5 times the larger pulley diameter. 4. Temperatures ranging from 0º to 150ºF will not affect serviceability. 5. While the belt is at rest, initial tension (or sketch) is distributed uniformly throughout the length of the belt. As load is applied, the tension in the tight strand of the belt increases, while tension in the loose strand decreases. Total tension in the belt remains constant. Effective tension is the difference between the tension in the tight strand and the tension in the loose strand. This effective tension is equal to the load being transmitted by the belt. Tension in the loose strand should be positive in order to prevent "looping" of the belt caused by centrifugal force. For this reason, total tension must be somewhat greater than minimum calculated effective tension. 6. Overall efficiency is approximately 80%. The following formulas and tables are useful in neoprene and Buna belt designs:


A W C D d E e G L1 L2 n P Te T1 T2 σ

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Nomenclature Cross-sectional area of 0-ring, sq. in. Cross-sectional diameter of belt in. Center distance, in. Diameter of larger pulley, in. Diameter of smaller pulley, in. Tension modulus, psi Elongation, per cent Shaft torque, lb-in. Free length of belt, in. Installed length of belt, in. Speed of smaller pulley, rpm Power transmitted by belt, hp Effective tension, lb T1 - T2 Tension of tight strand, lb. Tension of loose strand, lb. Unit belt stress, psi

TABLE 12 O-RING RATINGS Cord Diameter (in.) 0.070 0.103 0.139 0.210 0.275 Max Rating per 1000 fpm (hp) 1/50 1/20 1/10 1/5 1/3 Max Effective Tension (lb) 0.75 1.5 3 7 12

TABLE 13 TENSILE MODULI Material Neoprene 50 durometer 60 70 Modulus E, to 50% Elongation (psi) 50 180 400

Example: Determine a suitable O-Ring drive belt for a tape recorder with a 1/50 H.P.−−600 R.P.M. motor with a 1½" pulley driving a 3" pulley:

W = .199 Therefore, a standard 0.210 cross-section O-ring will be adequate to transmit the load when installed with a 10% stretch. 2.3 Design Data for Polyurethane Belts Polyurethane belting, listed under ROUNTHANE BELTS in the product catalog is a tabular extrusion designed so that the user can cut it to any desired length from a coil. The belt ends are then manually connected with a supplied aluminum insert that is short enough so as not to produce a slap or thump against the minimum pulley size recommended. DIMENSIONAL STABILITY−−Rounthane is exceptionally strong, and will maintain its original tension without idlers or springs. COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION−−Rounthane provides an excellent "pull" has a coefficient of friction from 0.5 to 0.7. FLEXIBILITY−−Rounthane's inherent flexibility permits its use in unusual configurations and limited spaces. It will perform well on dual or variable speed drives, reverse bends, radial twists and serpentines. CHEMICAL RESISTANCE−−Rounthane has an extremely high resistance to water absorption and is 477

virtually unaffected by weather, sunlight, oils, fuels, and most chemicals, as well as abrasive conditions. CLEANLINESS−−Rounthane will not attract lint or dust, will not absorb fats or greases, is easily cleaned with soap and water. TEMPERATURES−−Rounthane provides power or motion in a temperature range from − 40ºF to + 150ºF. LIMITATIONS−−Rounthane is designed primarily for fractional horsepower drives, conveyors and motion systems. It should not be used where slipping is required. Cross-drive applications should be individually evaluated. Belt hooks are not recommended. TENSIONS−−Belt tensions are acceptable up to8% for light duty Rounthane and up to 4.5% for heavy duty Rounthane. For best results, tensions should be experimented with on specific applications. This is easily done because Rounthane can be shortened and refastened in seconds. INSTALLATION DATA−−Pulley diameters should be at least 8 times belt cross-section diameter. A smaller diameter will tend to throw the belt away from the groove, particularly when tension is low. Under certain loading conditions, belt speed loss may vary up to 13% and efficiency may be reduced up to 20%. 3.0 CHAIN DRIVES Chain drives are often used where positive synchronization between shafts and transmission of substantial torque is required. This section will be devoted to chain drives under 1 horsepower. (a) Roller Chain 1. Standard size −− Roller chains used for fractional H.P. applications are almost always the ¼ pitch #25 single strand type. The only disadvantage inherent in roller chain is a phenomenon known as "chordal action" which produces a slight pulsation in the output sprocket and becomes less pronounced as the number of sprocket teeth are increased. Generally, the elasticity of the chain, the clearances among parts, and the oil films will damp much of the chordal action in chain drives with large sprockets. Figure 3 illustrates "chordal action" for a 9 tooth and 4 tooth sprocket. Notice the difference in chordal rise.

3.1 Design Data for No. 25 Single Strand Roller Chain The power transmission capacity of a Roller Chain Drive is a function of the speed and number of teeth on the smaller sprocket, and, other factors being equal, is in proportion to the pin-bushing bearing area of the chain. Determine Class of Service. Example: Determine a suitable 0-Ring drive belt for a tape recorder with a 1/50 H.P.−−600 R.P.M. motor with a 1½" pulley driving a 3" pulley: 478

Therefore, a Standard 0.210 cross-section 0-ring will be adequate to transmit the load when installed with a 10% stretch. TABLE 14 OVERLOAD SERVICE FACTORS

The Overload Service Factors in Table 14 are based on an 8 to 10 hour operating day and the driving unit one of the following types: a. Squirrel Cage Motors−−Normal Torque b. D.C. Motors c. Single Phase Motors If the driving unit is one of the following types, add 0.2 to the foregoing factors: a. Squirrel Cage Motors−−High Torque b. Wound Rotor (Slip Ring) Motors c. Synchronous Motors−−Normal Torque d. Line Shafts and Clutch Starting If the driving unit is one of the following types, add 0.4 to the foregoing factors: a. Synchronous Motors−−High Torque b. Gas, Diesel or Steam Engines For the following special drive conditions, add 0.2 to the foregoing factors: a. 10 to 16 Hour Service b. Speed-Up Drives c. Frequent Starting d. Excessive Moisture e. Abrasive Dust f. Infrequent Maintenance g. Excess Heat h. Centers less than 20 pitches For the following special drive conditions, add .4 to the foregoing factors: 479

a. b. c. d. e.

16 to 24 Hour Service Across the Line Starting Heavy Shock Load Heavy Starting Load Reversing Drives

The above factors which apply to a specific drive should be added together to get the total Overload Service Factor. The horsepower of the driver is then multiplied by this total Overload Service Factor to get the Normal Rating of the Drive. "Design Horsepower" Required Design horsepower is the normal horsepower to be transmitted, multiplied by the composite Service Factor selected from Table 14 and corrected with the above correction factor. 3.2 Drive Selection The most economical chain drive selection usually consists of a combination of: a. The shortest pitch single strand chain which has the required "design horsepower" rating when used with the desired size sprocket at the selected sprocket speed. b. The selection of a center-distance that insures a chain wrap of at least 120º (meshing with at least 1/2 of the teeth) on the smaller sprocket. Table 15 indicates the horsepower transmitting capacity of No. 25 single strand chain. These roller chain power transmission ratings are established for chain operation under the following conditions: 1. Service factor of 1. 2. Chain length of 100 pitches. 3. Use of recommended method of lubrication. 4. Two-sprocket drive arrangement. 5. Sprockets aligned and mounted on parallel horizontal shafts. A service life of approximately 15,000 hours may be expected when operated at full rated capacity under conditions as outlined above. TABLE 15 HORSEPOWER RATINGS−−SINGLE STRAND ROLLER CHAIN No. 25



MANUAL LUBRICATION. Oil applied periodically with brush or spout can. DRIP LUBRICATION. Oil applied between link plate edges from a drip lubricator. OIL BATH or OIL SLINGER. Oil level maintained in casing at predetermined height. OIL STREAM. Oil supplied by circulating pump inside chain

The limiting RPM for each lubrication type is read from the column to the right of the boundary lines shown. loop on lower span.

3.3 Sprocket Selection Recommendations Where smooth performance and long service life are desired, sprockets with 17 or more teeth, but less than 67, should be used. On slow speed and special purpose installations or where space limitations are a factor, sprockets with less than 17 teeth can be used. Use of sprockets with more than 67 teeth tends to reduce the normal service-life of the chain. Hardening the smaller sprocket teeth tends to equalize the rate of wear with the large sprocket in the drive. Sprockets should have hardened teeth when any of the following conditions prevail. 1. 2. Sprocket has less than 24 teeth and the rotative speed exceeds 600 R.P.M., or 1/8 of the maximum speed recommended for sprockets with that number of teeth, whichever is smaller. (See horsepower rating, Table 15). The chain speed is approximately 100 feet per minute or less and the chain loading is about 1/7 of the average tensile strength or greater.

General experience shows that a sprocket speed ratio between driver and driven sprockets should not exceed about 7:1. 3.4 Selection of Center Distances Quite often the center distance for a roller chain drive is determined within limitations by other machine components or considerations. Although it is not essential that the smaller sprocket have 1200 chain wrap for satisfactory operation and performance, it is recommended as good practice when conditions permit. Chain wrap on the smaller sprocket of a two-sprocket drive with ratio 3.5 to 1 or less, will always be 1200 or more. Chain wrap increases as center distance is increased. For an average application, a center distance of 30 to 50 pitches of chain represents good practice. For pulsating loads, shaft centers as short as 20 pitches of chain may be preferable when sprocket sizes permit. Close attention should be given to proper center distance for the chain length (preferably an "even" number of pitches). 3.5 Chain Drive Selections for Very Slow Speeds Where the linear speed of the chain is to be under 100 feet per minute and the installed chain length exceeds about 50 pitches, roller chains may be selected on the basis of their "endurance limit" and without regard for the customary horsepower ratings. Roller chains selected on this basis are considered primarily as "tension members." The "endurance limit" of a chain is the tensile load which it can accept for an infinite number of cycles without introduction of metal fatigue (failure). Although it is not directly related to the tensile strength, a reasonable approximation of linkplate "endurance limit" (allowable working load is 1/7 of the chain's average tensile strength.) The recommended "endurance limit" of chains with offset links and/or connecting links with slip-fit coverplates is 1/2 of the chain's average tensile strength. Because of their lower capacity, offset links and slip-fit coverplates should be avoided in high load applications, and connecting links with press-fit coverplates should be used. The tensile strength for the chains is given in the product pages as: #25 Hardened Steel−−925 lbs #25 Hardened Steel−−700 lbs 481

Chains selected on the basis of "endurance limit" should be well lubricated to provide satisfactory service life. Although the frequency of chain joint action in such drives is low, and joint wear due to articulation should be low, the lubrication is needed due to the higher loads and to prevent corrosion. Chain Length Calculations Chain Length may be calculated from the following formulae:


C1 = C2 = L N n P = = = =

Center distance in number of pitches (links) −− low ratios and long centers. Center distance in number of pitches (links) −− high ratios and short centers. Chain length in number of pitches (links). Number of teeth in large sprocket. Number of teeth in small sprocket. Chain pitch.

If the center distance is already fixed because of other factors, an idler sprocket may be used with not less than a three tooth wrap. When the idler is placed outside the closed span it should be placed nearer the small sprocket, and when inside the closed span it should be placed nearer the large sprocket The 6Z9 series product group in this catalog provides adjustable drive tighteners and idlers. 3.6 Lubrication Chain life will vary appreciably depending on the way the drive is lubricated. A properly lubricated chain can last more than 100 times as long as the same chain with poor lubrication. There are four basic types of lubrication for chain drives. Type l Type ll −− Manual Lubrication −− Oil should be applied periodically with a brush or spout can, preferably once every 8 hours of operation. −− Drip Lubrication −− Oil drops are to be directed between the linkplate edges from a drip lubricator at a rate of 5 to 20 drops per minute per strand of chain. The higher rate of flow should be applied to chains operating at rotative speeds approaching the limit for drip lubrication as shown on the horsepower rating tables. Precaution must be taken against misdirection of the drops by windage. −− Bath or Slinger Disc Lubrication −− With bath lubrication, the lower strand of chain runs through a sump of oil In the drive housing. The oil level should reach the pitch line of the chain at its lowest point while operating. With slinger disc lubrication, the chain operated above the oil level. The disc picks up oil from the sump and deposits it onto the chain, usually by means of a trough. The diameter of the disc should produce rim 482

Type lll

Type lV

speeds between 600 f.p.m. minimum and 8000 f.p.m. maximum. −− Oil Stream Lubrication −− the oil is sprayed across the lower strand of chain in a continuous stream by a circulating pump or a central lubricating system.

2. Miniature roller chains −− These chains are designed especially for use where space is limited, or where light weight is an important factor. The high strength-to-weight ratio, durability, and extreme dimensional accuracy make this chain ideal for positive power transmission or shaft synchronization where precision and compactness are important. Examples are: communications equipment, business machines, cameras, and other electronic or electro-mechanical devices. For chain speeds not exceeding 100 feet per minute, maximum load on chain should be no more than 20 pounds. For higher chain speeds, maximum chain loading should be reduced depending on the operating conditions: length of service required, sprocket size, number of sprockets in the drive, chain speed, and the length of chain. For sprockets with 20 teeth, or less, speeds should not exceed 15,000 R.P.M. Larger sprockets should be limited to reduce speeds. For example, the speed of 60 tooth sprockets should not exceed 6,000 R.P.M. Lubrication is desirable where high loads, speeds and service life are required. Miniature chain is available from stock and listed in the Product Section of the SDP catalog. (b) Ladder Chain Ladder chain links are fabricated from wire which has been formed so that each link interlocks with its adjacent links to form a continuous chain whose drive members appear as rungs on a ladder. Hence the name; Ladder Chain. Ladder Chain is inexpensive and easy to install. It finds wide use in household appliances, recorders, vending machines and in various timing and electrical devices. Ladder Chains are flexible enough so that in a 2 sprocket drive, one of the sprockets can be rotated well over 90 degrees with respect to the other sprocket plane provided of course that sufficient center distance is allowed. Thus offering a decided advantage over roller chain and timing belts in this regard. Ladder Chains are assembled manually by spreading the connecting loops on the end link slightly apart with a pair of needle nosed pliers, and retightening the loops after engaging the link from the other end of the chain. Table 16 indicates the approximate H.P. ratings of the various chain sizes and material combinations listed in the SDP product catalog. TABLE 16 Chain No. 14 17 18 19 Approx. H.P. Capacity @ 500 RPM Hi-Tensile Basic Brass Steel Steel 1 1/2 1/3 3/4 1/3 1/4 1/2 1/4 1/6 1/3 1/6 1/8

(C) Bead Chain Bead Chain consists of a series of hollow metal beads, linked together by dumbbell shaped wire links. Since the beads are free-to swivel, the chain can be easily-twisted, thus making it extremely versatile for unusual drives. Bead chain because of its construction should only be considered on a low speed or manual drives With low torque requirements. 483

4.0 TENSIONING MECHANISMS Correct operating tension is an important factor in the satisfactory performance and life of any V-bell or chain drive. As V-belts wear they seat themselves deeper in the sheave grooves. This seating, along with belt stretch lessens the initial tension. The result is slippage and loss in horsepower capacity unless some form of take up is used to restore and maintain original tension. As chains wear they elongate, which result in sway or slap and increased vibration. This puts undue shock into the drive and increases bearing wear. Both V-belt and chain drives wear at an increased rate if allowed to run with insufficient tension, Adjustment of center distance is the best method of maintaining proper tension. In cases of fixed centers, drive tighteners and idlers provide the necessary means of take up. Drive tighteners also provide a means of obtaining extra belt or chain wrap frequently needed for extremely high ratios, multiple shaft or serpentine drives. Drive tighteners and idlers are listed in the SDP catalog. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Too much tension in a drive causes excessive belt, chain and bearing wear. Too little tension in a drive allows belt slippage or chain vibration, resulting in loss of power and additional wear. All idlers should be used on the slack side of the drive. V-belt drive idlers should be used on the inside of the belt. Allowance should be made for horsepower loss due to the reduced arc of contact. Where necessary to use V-belt drive idlers on the outside of the belt, the reverse bending will reduce belt life. Flat face pulley idlers can be used on either inside or outside of the belt. Sprocket idlers should be used on the outside of chain drives, and with at least three teeth engaged in the chain. Idlers used on the inside of a drive should be located approximately 1/3 of the center distance from the large sheave, pulley or sprocket. Idlers used on the outside of a drive should be located approximately 1/3 of the center distance from the small sheave, pulley or sprocket.


Table of Contents B. 1.0 2.0 SYNCHRONOUS BELT DRIVES INTRODUCTION SYNCHRONOUS BELTS 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 Belt Construction Characteristics of Reinforcing Fibers Cord Twist and its Effect on the Drive Factors Contributing to Side Travel Characteristics of Belt Body Materials 480 486 488 489 491 493 493 493 498 498 500 503 516 522 529

BELT TOOTH CONFIGURATIONS PULLEY PITCH AND OUTSIDE DIAMETERS DESIGN AND INSTALLATION SUGGESTIONS STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO BELTS PULLEY DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES COMPARATIVE SIZES OF DIFFERENT PITCH PULLEYS DRIVE RATIO TABLES CENTER DISTANCE FACTOR TABLES DESIGN OF BELT DRIVES 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 Design Based on Horsepower Design Based on Allowable Torque for Optimum Life Drive Selection Procedure−−Based on Horsepower Drive Selection Procedure−−Based on Allowable Torque Example of Drive Design−−Based on Horsepower Example of Drive Design−−Based on Allowable Torque in Expectation of Optimum Life

599 600 600 621 622 623


B. SYNCHRONOUS BELT DRIVES 1.0 INTRODUCTION Synchronous drives represent an important category of drives. Characteristically these drives employ the positive engagement of two sets of meshing teeth. Hence, they do not slip and there is no relative motion between the two elements in mesh. Due to this feature different parts of the drive will maintain a constant speed ratio or even a permanent relative position. This is extremely important in applications such as automatic machinery in which a definite motion sequence and or indexing is involved. The positive nature of these drives makes them capable of transmitting large torques and withstanding large accelerations. Synchronous drives can be divided into the following categories: 1. Belt Drives* 2. Chain Drives 3. Gear Drives This section of the Handbook will encompass the first category only. The other categories have been dealt with in preceding chapters. Since it is directed primarily towards designers of smaller mechanisms and machinery we shall limit the tabulation of data to miniature and light belts and pulleys. Inasmuch as there is relatively limited information readily available for these belts, we have found it necessary to computerize the center-distance tables in order to cover the range of belts and pulleys carried in our catalog. Belt drives are particularly useful in applications where layout flexibility is important. They enable the designer to place components in more advantageous locations at larger distances without paying a price penalty. Motors, which are usually the largest heat source, can be placed away from the rest of the mechanism. Achieving this with a gear train would represent an expensive solution. 2.0 SYNCHRONOUS BELTS Synchronous belts, commonly known as timing belts, are basically flat belts with a series of evenly spaced teeth on the inside circumference, thereby combining the advantages of the flat belt with the positive grip features of chains and gears. There is no slippage or creep as with plain flat belts. Required belt tension is low, therefore producing very small bearing loads. Synchronous belts wilt not stretch and do not require lubrication. Speed Is transmitted uniformly because there is no chordal rise and fall of the pitch line as in the case of roller chains. The tooth profile of commonly known synchronous belts is of trapezoidal shape with sides being straight lines which generate an involute, similar to that of a spur gear tooth. As a result the profile of the pulley teeth are involute. Unlike the spur gear however, the outside diameter of a timing pulley is smaller than its pitch diameter, thus creating an imaginary pitch diameter which is larger than the pulley itself. This is illustrated in Figure 1. Backlash between pulley and belt teeth is negligible. Recently a new curvilinear tooth profile was developed which has many desirable and superior properties. Belts and pulleys of this construction have features protected by US. Patent Number 3,756,091. Advantages of this type of drive are as follows: • Proportionally deeper tooth; hence tooth jumping or loss of relative position is less probable. __________ * Credit for portions of this technical section are given to: Uniroyal Sales Engineering Dept., Rubber Manufacturers Association (RMA), International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 486

• Lighter construction, with correspondingly smaller centrifugal loss. • Smaller unit pressure on the tooth since area of contact is larger.

• Greater shear strength due to larger tooth cross section. • Lower cost since a narrower belt will handle larger load. • Energy efficient, particularly if replacing a "V" belt drive which incurs energy losses due to slippage. • Installation tension is small, therefore, light bearing loads.
On Figure 2 the photoelastic pattern shows the stress distribution within teeth of different geometry. There is a definite stress concentration near the root of the trapezoidal belt tooth, with very low strains elsewhere. For the Curvilinear tooth there is a uniform, nearly constant strain distribution across the belt. The load is largest in the direction of the tension member to which it is transferred. 487

Because of their superior load carrying capabilities the curvilinear belts are marketed under the name of HTD® * drives. This is an abbreviation of High Torque Drives, and they are usually offered in 8mm and 14mm pitches. The 3mm and 5mm curvilinear belts and pulleys will be referred to as Mini-HTD® * or TRUE METRIC® **, These drives are not necessarily used for high-torque applications, but their other superior properties make them an excellent choice for small drives. Timing belts are also available in double-sided designs, which offer an infinite number of new design possibilities on computer equipment, business machines, office equipment, textile machines and similar light-duty applications. Belts with driving teeth on both sides, make it possible to change the direction of rotation of one or more synchronized pulleys with only one belt. The inside and outside teeth are identical as to size and pitch and operate on standard pitch-diameter pulleys. Double-sided timing belts have teeth on both sides as shown in Figure 3. The outside teeth do not have nylon facing; hence, the horsepower rating of the outside teeth is only 45% of the total load For example: assuming the drive pulley and bet are capable of transmitting 1 horsepower, 0.55 hp can be transmitted from the inside teeth to pulley (A) and 0.45 hp can be transmitted by the outside teeth to pulley (B) for a total of 1 hp the rated capacity of the driver pulley.

2.1 Belt Construction The load-carrying element of the belts are the tension members built into the belts (see Figure 4 These tension members can be made of: a) Spirally wound steel wire b) Wound glass fibers c) Polyester cords d) Kevlar The tension members are embedded in neoprene or polyurethane. The neoprene teeth are protected by a nylon fabric facing which makes them wear resistant.

*Trademark of UNIROYAL, lnc. **Registered Trademark of SDP 488

The materials used for tension members as well as for the body of the belt itself have a profound effect on the life and usefulness of the drive for a particular application. We will limit ourselves to a description of characteristics of the materials used and leave the choice of the materials to the designer, who is best equipped to make the proper selection or compromise. 2.2 Characteristics of Reinforcing Fibers POLYESTER Tensile Strength Elongation at break Modulus (approx.) 160,000 lbs/ln2 14.0% 2,000,000 lbs/ln2

One of the main advantages of polyester cord over higher tensile cords is the lower modulus of polyester, enabling the belt to rotate smoothly over small diameter pulleys. Also, the elastic properties of the material enable it to absorb shock and dampen vibration. In more and more equipment, stepping motors are being used. Polyester belts have proven far superior to fiber glass or Kevlar reinforced belts in these applications. High-speed applications with small pulleys are best served by polyester belts under low load. KEVLAR Tensile Strength Elongation at break Modulus 400000 lbs/ln2 2.5% 18,000,000 lbs/ln2

High tensile strength and low elongation make this material very suitable for timing belt applications. Kevlar has excellent shock resistance and high load capability. FIBER GLASS Tensile strength Elongation at break Modulus 350,000 lbs/ln2 2.5 - 3.5% 10,000,000 lbs/ln2

The most important advantages are: 1.) High strength 2.) Low elongation or stretch 3.) Excellent dimensional stability 4.) Excellent chemical resistance 4.) Absence of creep, 100% elongation recovery Disadvantages: 1.) High modulus (difficult to bend) 2.) Brittleness of glass. Improper handling or installation can cause permament damage. 3.) Poor shock resistance. No shock absorbing quality when used in timing belts. Additional characteristics of tension members and their effect on the drive design are shown in tabulated form in Table 1. 489


2.3 Cord Twist and Its Effect on the Drive There is a specific reason for not applying the yarn directly in the form of untwisted filaments around the mold. If the filament would be applied continuously the top and bottom of the belt body would be prevented from being properly joined, and separation could result. See Figure 5.1.

Two strands each composed of several filaments are twisted around each other, thus forming a cord which is subsequently wound in a helical spiral around the mold creating a space between subsequent layers, which corresponds to the step of the helix. The two strands however can be twisted two ways, to create an "S" or a "Z" twist construction. See Figure 5.2.

The "S" twist is obtained if we visualize the two strands being held stationary with our left hand on one end, while a clockwise rotation is imparted by our right hand to the two strands, thus creating a twisted cord. The "Z" twist is obtained similarly if a counterclockwise rotation is imparted to the two strands. 491

Different type of cord twist will cause side thrust in opposite direction. The "S" twist will cause a lateral force direction which will obey the "Right Hand" rule as shown in Figure 5.3.

A "Z" type cord twist will produce a direction of lateral force opposite to that of "S" cord. Therefore in order to produce a belt with minimum lateral force standard belts are usually made with "S" and "Z" twist construction, in which alternate cords composed of strands twisted in opposite directions are wound in the belt. This is illustrated in Figure 6.

The lay of the cord is standard as shown on Figure 6, and It is wound from left to right with the cord being fed under the mold. The smaller the mold diameter and the fewer the strands of cord per inch, the greater will be the helix angle, and the greater the tendency of the lay of the cord to make the belt move to one side. In general a standard belt of S" and "Z" construction, as shown in Figure 6r will have a slight tendency to behave as a predominantly "S" twist belt, and will obey the "Right Hand" rule accordingly. 492

2.4 Factors Contributing To Side Travel The pulleys in a flat belt drive are crowned to keep the belt running true. Since crowned pulleys are not suitable for a timing belt, the belt will always track to one side. Factors contributing to this condition include: a) lN THE DRIVE 1. 2. 3. 4. Misalignment: Tensioning: Location of Plane: Belt width greater than O.D. of Pulley: 5. Belt length: A belt (any belt any construction) will normally climb to the high (or tight) side. In general, lateral travel can be altered or modified by changing tension. Vertical drives have a greater tendency to move laterally due to gravity. This condition creates an abnormal degree of lateral travel. The greater the ratio of length/width of the belt, the less the tendency to move laterally.

b) lN THE BELT 1. Direction of the lay of the cords in the belt (Figure 6.) 2. Twist of the strands In the cord (Figure 5.2.) 2.5 Characteristics of Belt Body Materials Basic characteristics of the three most often used materials are shown on Table 1a. The tabulated characteristics give rise to following assessment of these materials: NATURAL RUBBER • High resilience, excellent compression set, good molding properties • High coefficient of friction, does not yield good ground finish • High tear strength, low crack growth • Can withstand low temperatures • Poor oil and solvent resistance; usable for ketones and alcohol • Ozone attacks rubber, but retardants can be added NEOPRENER®

POLYURETHANE • Excellent wear resistance, poor compression set • Low coefficient of friction • Oil and ozone resistance good • Low-temperature flexibility good • Not suitable for high temperatures 3.0 BELT TOOTH CONFIGURATIONS There are several belt tooth configurations (Figure 7, Table 2) which are the result of different patented features, marketing and production considerations. 493

• High resilience, good compression set • Flame resistant • Aging good with some natural ozone resistance • Oil and solvent resistance fair

Inspection of Table 2 brings forth the following favorable characteristics of the 3mm an 5mm TRUE METRIC® belts:

• • • • • •

The jacket size (E) of the 3mm and 5mm belts is the same as the one used on the 3/8 pitch L belts. The reinforcing cord of the 3mm pitch belts is of the same diameter (.023) and winding density (26/inch) as the cord in the 1/5" pitch XL and 3/8" pitch L belts. The reinforcing cord of the 5mm pitch belts is nearly of the same diameter (.042 vs .050) as the one used in the 1/2" pitch H belts. The allowable working tension of the 3mm pitch belt is (60 lbs/inch) higher than that of the 3/8" pitch belts (55 lbs/inch). The allowable working tension of the 5mm pitch belt is (100 lbs/inch) nearly double that of the 3/8" pitch belts (55 lbs/inch). The relatively low centrifugal loss constants, Kc, indicate that the 3mm and 5mm belts are lighter; hence, centrifugal tension losses are smaller.

If the belt width is less than 1" the belt torque carrying capacity will decrease in a disproportionate manner as shown in Table 3. This is due to inefficiency of the tension members at the edge of the belt. The narrower the belt the smaller the ratio of full load carrying tension cords relative to the total number of cords in the belt. When desing data for 1" wide belts is applied to narrower belts a Width Factor multiplier is used which takes into account the data shown in Table 3. TABLE 1A COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT BELT BODY MATERIALS* Common Name Chemical Definition Durometer Range (Shore A) Tensile Range (P.S.I.) Elongation (Max. % Compression Set Resilience - Rebound Abrasion Resistance Tear Resistance Solvent Resistance Oil Resistance Low Temperature Usage (Fº) High Temperature Usage (Fº) Aging Weather - Sunlight Adhesion to Metals *Courtesy of Robinson Rubber Products 494 Natural Rubber Polyisoprene 20 - 100 500 - 3500 700 Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Poor -20º to -60º to 175º Poor Excellent Neoprene® Polychloroprene 20 - 95 500 - 3000 600 Good Excellent Excellent Good Fair Fair +10º to -50º to 250º Good Good to Excellent Urethene, Polyurethane Polyester/Polyether Urethane 35 - 100 500 - 6000 750 Poor Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Good -10º to -30º to 175º Excellent Fair to Good


TABLE 3 ALLOWABLE WORKING TENSION FOR DIFFERENT BELT WIDTHS (Ta in LBS. not corrected for centrifugal force loss)


*Smaller pulleys then shown under "Suggested Minimum" may be used if a corresponding reduction in belt life is satisfactory. Use of pulleys smaller than those shown will be at customers own responsibility for performance and belt life. 496

For the sake of completeness two additional belt profiles are shown on Figure 8. These belts are used in Europe and are sometimes found on machinery imported from Europe and Japan. They are not produced in the USA and are not covered by RMA standards. These belts are made of polyurethane and steel is usually used as the tension member.

Pulley and belt geometry as indicated in Figure 1 shows reference to a Pitch Circle which is larger than the pulley itself. Its size is determined by the relationship

where P is the belt tooth spacing (pitch) and N is the number of teeth on the pulley. The reinforcing cord centerline will coincide with the pulley pitch diameter while the belt is in contact with the pulley. At the same time the outside diameter of the pulley will be in contact with the bottom of the belt tooth. Hence, the distance "U" between the reinforcing cord centerline and the bottom of the belt tooth will determine the outside diameters of pulleys for different pitches. See Table 5. TABLE 5 BASIC BELT DIMENSIONS Distance from Pitch Line to Belt Tooth Bottom "U" Common Description Pulley OD = pd −− 2U

.010 inches .007 inches .010 inches .010 inches .015 inches 0.5 millimeters 1.0 millimeter .015 inches .0225 inches .027 inches

Minipitch 0.080 MXL 40 DP Minipitch .0816 1/5" XL 3/8" L "T5" (5mm) "T10" (10mm) 3mm Mini HTD 5mm Mini HTD 8mm HID


Due to the particular geometry of the 8mm HTD belts, some corrections are needed for small size pulleys only. Hence, consult pulley specification tables given later in this text pertaining to the 8mm HTD pulley. 4.0 PULLEY PITCH AND OUTSIDE DIAMETERS As previously noted the pitch and the number of teeth will determine the pitch diameter of the pulley, whereas its outside diameter will depend on the "U dimension (distance from tooth bottom to centerline of cord) as shown on Table 5. In order to provide fast reference the following tables show pitch and outside diameters of different pitch pulleys: Table Table Table Table Table Table 15: 16: 17: 18: 19: 20: 0.080 Minipitch and 0.0816-40 Diametral Pitch 1/5" - XL pitch 3/8" - L pitch 3mm pitch 5mm pitch 8mm pitch

5.0 DESIGN AND INSTALLATION SUGGESTIONS There are some general guidelines, which are applicable to all timing belts including miniature and double sided belts: 1. Drives should always be designed with ample reserve horsepower capacity. Use of overload service factors is important. Belts should be rated at only 1/15th of their respective ultimate strength. 2. For miniature pitch belts the smallest recommended pulley will have 10 teeth. For other pitches Table 4 should be used. 3. The pulley diameter should never be smaller than the width of the belt. 4. Belts with Fibrex-glass fiber tension members should not be subjected to sharp bends or rough handling, since this could cause breakage of the fibers. 5. In order to deliver the rated horsepower, a belt must have six or more teeth in mesh with the grooves of the smaller pulley. The number of teeth in mesh may be obtained by formula given in Design Theory Section. The shear strength of a single tooth is only a fraction of the belt break strength. 6. Because of a slight side thrust of synchronous belts in motion, at least one pulley in the drive must be flanged. When the center distance between the shafts is 8 or more times the diameter of the smaller pulley, or when the drive is operating on vertical shafts, both pulleys should be flanged. 7. Belt surface speed should not exceed 5500 feet per minute for larger pitch belts and 10,000 feet per minute for minipitch belts. For the TRUE METRIC® belts a speed of 6500 feet per minute (33.02 m/s) is permitted. 8. Belts are in general rated to yield a minimum of 3000 hours of useful life if all instructions are properly followed. 9. Belt drives are inherently efficient. It can be assumed that the efficiency of a synchronous belt drive is greater than 95%. 498


11. 12. 13.


Belt drives are usually a source of noise. The frequency of the noise level increases proportionally with the belt speed. The higher the initial belt tension, the greater the noise level. The belt teeth entering the pulleys at high speed act as a compressor and this creates noise. Some noise is the result of a belt rubbing against the flange, which in turn may be the result of the shafts not being parallel. If the drive is part of a sensitive acoustical or electronics sensing or recording device it is recommended that the back surfaces of the belt be ground to assure absolutely uniform belt thickness. For some applications no backlash between the driving and driven shaft is permitted. For these cases special profile pulleys can be produced without any clearance between the belt tooth and pulley. This may shorten the belt life but it eliminates backlash. Synchronous belts are often driven by stepping motors. These drives are subjected to continuous and large accelerations and decelerations. If the belt reinforcing fiber, i.e. tension member, as well as the belt material, have high tensile strength and no elongation, the belt will not be instrumental in absorbing the shock loads. This will result in sheared belt teeth. Therefore, take this into account when the size of the smallest pulley and the materials for the belt and tension member are selected. The choice of the pulley material (metal vs. plastic) is a matter of price, desired precision, inertia, color, magnetic properties, and above all personal preference based on experiences. Plastic pulleys with metal inserts or metal hubs represent a good compromise.

The following precaution should be taken when installing all timing belt drives: 1. Timing belt installation should be a snug fit, neither too tight nor too loose. The positive grip of the belt eliminates the need for high initial tension. Consequently, a belt, when installed with a snug fit (that is, not too taut), assures longer life, less bearing wear and quieter operation. Preloading (often the cause of premature failure) is not necessary. When torque is unusually high, a loose belt may "jump teeth" on starting. in such a case, the tension should be increased gradually until satisfactory operation is attained. A good rule of thumb for installation tension is as shown in Figure 9. The corresponding tensioning force is shown in Table 6. For widths other than shown increase force proportionally to the belt width.


2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Be sure that shafts are parallel and pulleys are in alignment. On a long center drive, it is sometimes advisable to offset the driven pulley to compensate, because of the tendency for the belt to run against one flange. On a long center drive, it is imperative that belt sag is not large enough to permit teeth on the slack side to engage the teeth on the tight side. It is important that the frame supporting the pulleys be rigid at all times. A non-rigid frame causes variation in center distance and resulting belt slackness. This in turn, can lead. to jumping of teeth −− especially under starting load with shaft misalignment. Although belt tension requires little attention after initial installation, provision should be made for some center distance adjustment for ease in installing and removing belts. Do not force belt over flange of pulley. Idlers, either of the inside or outside type, are not recommended and should not be used except for power take-off or functional use. When an idler is necessary, it should be on the slack side of the belt. Inside idlers must be grooved unless their diameters are greater than an equivalent 40-goove pulley. Flat idlers must not be crowned (use edge flanges). Idler diameters must exceed the smallest diameter drive pulley. Idler arc of contact should be held to a minimum. TABLE 6 BELT TENSIONING FORCE PITCH .080 (MXL) .080 (MXL) 1/5 (XL) 1/5 (XL) 3/8 (L) 3/8 (L) 3/8 (L) WIDTH 1/8" 1/4" 1/4" 3/8" 1/2" 3/4" 1" FORCE 1 oz 2 oz 2 1/2 oz 3 1/2 oz 7 oz 11 oz 1 lb PITCH 3mm 3mm 3mm 5mm 5mm 5mm 8mm (HTD) WIDTH 6mm 9mm 15mm 9mm 15mm 25mm 20mm FORCE 4 1/2-9 oz 7 1/2-15 oz 7/8-1 3/4 lbs 1-2 lbs 2-4 lbs 3 1/2-7 lbs 4 lbs

6.0 STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO BELTS Different belt tooth configurations are shown on Figure 7 and their characteristics are described in Table 2. Since synchronous belts are manufactured by several manufacturers, each has established individual standards. Subsequently the following general standards have been published: 1) Specifications by the Rubber Manufacturers Association for Drives using Synchronous Belts (IP-24-1978). 2) Synchronous Belt Drives −− Belts (ISO 5296-1978), specification by the International Organization for Standardization. Based on these, as well as standards developed by belt manufacturers, the following information is presented in this Handbook: Total measuring tension Standard belt widths and tolerances Pitch length tolerances 500 Table 7 Table 8a Table 8b

Length Measurement The pitch length of a synchronous belt is determined by placing the belt on a measuring fixture comprising two pulleys of equal diameter, of applying tension and of measuring the center distance between the two pulleys. One of the pulleys is fixed in position while the other is movable along a graduated scale. The fixture is shown schematically in Figure 9a. Any pair of equal-diameter pulleys of the proper pitch and manufactured to specifications may be used for measuring. The measuring tension is given in Table 7. In measuring the length of a synchronous belt, the belt should be rotated at least two revolutions to seat it properly and to divide the tension equally between the two strands. The pitch length is calculated by adding the pitch circumference of one pulley to twice the center distance:













TABLE 15 (Sheet 1 of 3)


TABLE 15 (Sheet 2 to 3)


TABLE 15(Sheet 3 of 3)


TABLE 16 1/5" (.200) Pitch −− For "XL" Belts


TABLE 17 3/8" (.375) Pitch −− For "L" Belts









Comparative sizes of different pitch pulleys can be of great help if the envelope dimensions of a drive are being evaluated. Furthermore, if a drive of a certain pitch is replaced by another pitch drive, these tables show the nearest available pulley sizes which will be of similar diameter. a) A 5:1 ratio. .200" pitch drive using 60 and 12 tooth pulleys is to be replaced by a 3mm pitch drive. From the table we see that the 60 tooth .200" pitch pulley has an outside diameter of 96.5mm. The closest 3mm pulley has 100 teeth and 94.7mm outside diameter. Accordingly a 100/20 teeth 3mm drive will fit within the same envelope as a 60/12 tooth .200" pitch drive. b) Miniaturize an existing 4:1 .200" pitch drive which uses a 20 and 80 tooth .200" pitch pulleys by using 3mm pitch components. From the Drive Ratio Tables we choose the smallest available pulleys which will be 10 and 40 teeth. Outside diameters will be 8.8 and 37.4mm. Minimum center distance will be:

Cmin 7.958 x 3mm = 23.87mm. Since the smallest available belt has 48 teeth NB − N1 = 48 − 40 = 8 and N1 − N2 = 40 − 10 = 30, from the center distance factor tables we obtain a center distance of 10.381 pitches or 31.14mm. 516

TABLE 21 517

TABLE 21 518

TABLE 21 519

In the design of belt drives, we usually know the speed ratio (transmission ratio) and we need to determine pulley sizes, center distance and belt length. These quantities are shown in Figure 10, for an open (uncrossed) belt. The transmission tables are designed to facilitate the determination of these quantities. They list the following information: N1/N2 = the transmission ratio obtained when the larger pulley (N1 teeth) is the input and the smaller pulley (N2 teeth) is the output. Given to 3 decimal places. N2/N1 = the transmission ratio obtained when the larger pulley (N1 teeth) is the output and the smaller pulley (N2 teeth) is the input. Given to 3 decimal places. (Note that N1/N2 is the reciprocal of N2/N1). N1 = number of teeth on larger pulley. N2 = number of teeth on smaller pulley. N1-N2 = difference between number of teeth on larger and smaller pulleys. This number is useful in center-distance determination. C MIN = The minimum center distance between pulleys for a belt of unit pitch. If the pitch is denoted by p, the actual minimum center distance is the product of C MIN and p. The minimum center distance is determined from the condition that at the minimum center distance, the pitch circles of the pulleys can be assumed to touch. This will generally give a satisfactory approximation to the practical minimum center distance. The table is based on the equation:

At the beginning of the table a list of standard pulley sizes is shown. The smallest pulley has 10 teeth and the largest 156 teeth. A standard size will be the most economical. If a nonstandard size is needed, however, please contact Stock Drive Products for assistance. 520

The use of the tables is best illustrated by means of examples. Example 1: For a transmission ratio of 1.067 find the number of teeth of the pulleys and the minimum center distance for a belt of 5mm pitch. When the transmission ratio is greater than unity, the larger pulley is the input and the smaller pulley is the output. That is to say, the transmission ratio is equal to N1/N2. The table is organized in order of increasing values of N1/N2 and decreasing values of N2/N1. Referring to the table we find at this value of N1/N2, we have the following entries: N1/N2 1.067 N2/N1 0.938 N1 16 32 N2 15 30 N1-N2 1 2 C MIN 4.934 9.868

Hence, there are 2 different pulley combinations for the given transmission ratio of 1.067. For each of these the minimum center distance is 5 x (C MIN) in mm. If the smaller pulley were driving, the transmission ratio would have been 0.938. The quantity (N1-N2) is needed in center-distance calculations, as described in the next Section. Example 2: Given a transmission ratio of 0.680, determine the pulley sizes. Since the transmission ratio is less than one, the smaller pulley is the input and the transmission ratio is given by N2/N1 = 0.680. Looking up this ratio in the table, we find N1 = 25, N2 = 17, N1-N2 = 8. In this case only one pulley combination is available. Example 3: Given a driving pulley of 48 teeth and a driven pulley of 19 teeth, find the minimum center distance for a belt pitch of 3mm. The transmission ratio is N1/N2 = 48119 = 2.526. Looking up this ratio in the table, we find C MIN = 10.663. The minimum center distance, therefore, is given by 3 x 10.663 or 31.989 mm. Example 4: Given a transmission ratio of 2.258, find the pulley sizes. Looking through the table, there is no entry at this value of the transmission ratio. The nearest entries are: N1/N2 2.250 2.273 N2/N1 0.444 0.440 N1 36 72 25 N2 16 32 11 N1-N2 20 40 14

Since the difference between the desired ratio and the nearest available ratios is only about 0.008, it is likely that the 2.250 or 2.273 ratios will be acceptable. If this is not the case, however, the design may require review, or a nonstandard pulley combination may be considered. 521


TABLE 22 Drive Ratio (Transmission Ratio) is the ratio of number of teeth of the input and output pulley. If the input pulley is larger than the output, the Drive Ratio will be larger than one and we have a step-up-drive. If the input pulley is smaller than the output pulley the Drive Ratio will be smaller than one and we have a step-down-drive. N1 Number of teeth of large pulley N2 Number of teeth of small pulley N1/N2 Step-up Drive ratio N2/N1 Step-down Drive ratio N1-N2 Pulley tooth differential needed for the Center Distance Table Cmin Minimum center distance for particular pulley combination expressed in belt pitches 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 28, 30, 32, 36, 40, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 120, 156 These pulley sizes reflect the preferred sizes per ISO Standard 5294 for synchronous belt drives−−Pulleys (First edition-1979-07-15).










l. Nomenclature and basic equations. Figure 11 illustrates the notation involved. The following nomenclature is used: C center distance, inches. = BL belt length, inches = PNB. = p circumferential pitch of belt, inches. = NB number of teeth on belt = LIP. = N1 number of teeth (grooves) on larger pulley. = N2 number of teeth (grooves) on smaller pulley. = one half angle of wrap on smaller pulley, radians. = φ

R1 R2 π

= = = =

=angle between straight portion of belt and line of centers, radians. pitch radius of larger pulley, inches =(N1)p/2π. pitch radius of smaller pulley, inches =(N2)p/2π. 3.14159 (ratio of circumference to diameter of circle).

The basic equation for the determination of center distance is: 2Csin φ = L− π(R1 + R2) − (π − 2φ) (R1 − R2) [1] where C cos φ = R1 − R2 [2] These equations can be combined in different ways to yield various equations for the determination of center distance. We have found the formulations which follow useful. 526

ll. Exact center distance determination −− unequal pulleys. The exact equation is as follows: C = (1/2)p [(NB − N1) + k(N1 − N2)] where k = (1/π)

[3] [4a]

and φ is determined from: (1/π) (tan φ − φ) = (NB−N1)/(N1−N2) = Q (say) [4b] The value of k varies within the range (1/π, 1/2) depending on the number of teeth on the belt. All angles in equations [3,4] are in radians. The procedure for center distance determination is as follows: 1. Select values of N1, N2(in accordance with desired transmission ratio) and NB. 2. Compute Q = (NB−N1)/(N1−N2). 3. Compute φ by solving equation [4b] numerically. 4. Compute k from equation. [4a]. 5. Compute C from equation [3]. lll. Exact center distance determination −− equal pulleys. For equal pulleys, N1 = N2 and equation [3] becomes [5] lV. Approximate center distance determination. Approximate formulas are used when it is desirable to minimize computation time and when an approximate determination of center distance suffices. An alternative to equation [1] for the exact center distance can be shown to be the following: [6] where S varies between 0 and 0.1416, depending on the angle of wrap of the smaller pulley. The value of S is given very nearly by the expression: S = (cos²φ)/12 [7] 527

In the approximate formulas for center distance, it is customary to neglect S and thus to obtain following approximation for C: [8] The error in equation [8] depends on the speed ratio and the center distance. The accuracy is greatest for speed ratios close to unity and for large center distances. The accuracy is least at minimum center distance and high transmission ratios. in many cases the accuracy of the approximate formula is acceptable. V. Number of teeth in mesh (TIM). It is generally recommended that the number of teeth in mesh be not less than 6. The number, TIM, teeth in mesh is given by: TIM = λ N2 [9] where λ = φ /(3.1416) when φ (see equation [4b]) is given in radians (See also the derivation given for TIM in this Handbook). Vl. Determination of belt size for given pulleys and center distance. Occasionally the center distance of a given installation is prescribed and the belt length is to be determined. For given pitch, number of teeth on pulleys and center distance, the number of teeth on the belt can be found from the equation: [10] where the arc sin is given in radians and lies between 0 and π /2. Since NB in general will not be a whole number, the nearest whole number less than NB can be used, assuming a slight increase in belt tension is not objectionable. An approximate formula can be used to obtain the belt length: [11]



Table Number 1 1a 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Located On Page 490 494 495 496 496 497 500 501 502 503 504 504 505 505 505 506

Table Number 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Located On Page 509 510 511 513 515 516 522 529 596 601 602 603 604 605 607

Table Number 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

Located On Page 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 616 616 621 626

Figure Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Located On Page 487 487 488 488 491 492 495

Figure Number 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Located On Page 497 499 520 526 606 617 618 619


TABLE 24 596

TABLE 24 597


11.0 DESIGN OF BELT DRIVES There are basically two approaches to the proper dimensioning of a belt drive, in both methods it is assumed that the load carrying ability of the pulley will exceed that of the belt. Therefore, the emphasis will be placed on the proper belt selection. The preoccupation with belt selection and complete neglect of the proper selection of pulley bores−−or shaft sizes−−as well as the means of fastening the pulley to the shaft may also result in failure of the drive. For this reason this Handbook contains a section on design of shafts and fasteners. 11.1 Design Based on Horsepower This method takes into account the tensile strength of the belt, after proper allowance is made for losses as a result of centrifugal force. The pulley diameter and rpm are treated as in dependent variables. The formula used for this calculation is derived as follows:

hp = 7.933 x pd x rpm (Tt − Tc) x 10-6 Tc = Kc x pd² x rpm²

[13] [14]

For Service Factor SF = 1, Ta = Tt, and for a one inch wide belt the values of Ta and Kc are given for different belt constructions in Tables 2 and 3. Based on these values using (13) and [14] computerized Horsepower Capacity Tables are compiled and shown on Tables 25 thru 29 for different belt constructions. Tension loss per one inch belt width is shown as a function of belt speed in form of a graph on Figure 12. The problem with this method of calculating is twofold: a) b) It does not take into account that surface speed of the belt must not exceed 6500 fpm In the case of TRUE METRIC® (10,000 for MXL and 5500 for XL). This limitation has to be superimposed on the table subsequently, (See interrupted lines on Table 25) by means of additional calculations. The life of the belt is not taken Into account at all. It was established empirically that the life of the belt (in hours) will depend on the following factors: 1. Number of deformation cycles the belt can withstand. 2. Length of belt used. 3. inverse proportionality to the belt speed.

The number of deformation cycles the belt can withstand will vary depending on the tension load of the belt itself. The higher the ratio of Ta/Tt is, the higher the number of cycles wilt be. Furthermore, for the same Ta/Tt larger diameter pulleys will yield higher number of cycles, hence longer life. To cope with the problem of belt life Table 4 gives minimum pulley diameters, below which a reduced belt life must be anticipated. On Table 25 the dotted line indicates the area beneath which reduced belt life will occur. In general, to increase belt life horsepower ratings for higher rpm's should be reduced. 599

11.2 Design Based on Allowable Torque for Optimum Life (For HTD® −−TRUE METRIC® drives only) If all the values and coefficients which govern the belt life are established experimentally. then by calculating simultaneously belt life and horsepower, a set of values can be derived for which a somewhat reduced horsepower rating will yield substantially longer life. Such evaluations have been made for the TRUE METRIC® 3mm and 5mm belts, and the findings have been put into the form of Tables 30 thru 33 which show variable allowable torque values as a function of rpm and pulley diameter as well. These values are given for specific belt widths. The torque values used with these tables must take into account the actual torque requirements derived by experiment or calculation, and must be multiplied by a service factor given in Table 38. The service factor must be chosen based on actual operating conditions. We will call this increased torque the Design Torque. By substituting torque values from Tables 30 thru 33 into [15] the horsepower Tables 34 thru 37 have been compiled. If these tables are used in lieu of Tables 28 and 29 the resulting belt widths will have to be increased, but belt life will also be substantially improved. PLEASE NOTE THAT THIS METHOD OF BELT SELECTION BASED ON OPTIMUM LIFE, WAS DEVELOPED BY UNIROYAL INC. ONLY RECENTLY AND IS APPLICABLE ONLY TO THE HID® −−TRUE METRIC® BELTS. THERE ARE NO SIMILAR COMPUTATIONAL MEANS AVAILABLE FOR THE MXL, XL AND L TYPE BELTS THESE HAVE TO BE CHOSEN IN THE CONVENTIONAL WAY BASED ON HORSEPOWER. THE APPLICABLE PROCEDURE IS GIVEN IN THE FURTHER TEXT. If specific belt life values are required for the TRUE METRlC® belts, SDP Application Engineering will be glad to provide these if the basic design data is supplied. A minicomputer program exists, and telephone inquiries can be promptly expedited. 11.3 Drive Selection Procedure−−Based on Horsepower Step 1: Determine design horsepower By definition design horsepower is a multiple of the rated horsepower, which takes into account overload and the specific drive characteristics. Dhp = hp x SF [16]

Service Factor SF is a multiplier always greater than one which is established based or service requirements. Upon determining the class of driver per Table 39 the Basic Service Factor per Table 38 is selected. In case of a Speed-up Drive an additional factor is added to SF, whereas per Table 41 unusual conditions will further modify SF. Step 2. Select belt pitch From belt pitch selection graph Fig. 13 select the belt type which will be used. There is usually more than one choice which can be considered. If a belt of stronger design is used it will result in a narrower belt. In many instances the selection will be made based on: total cost of drive, compatibility with previous designs, required flexibility of drive belt, depth of engagement between belt & pulley, availability of particular belt length, and finally personal preference of the designer. 600



Note: To obtain HP capacity for widths other than one inch use value in table, multiplied by width factor. Exam ple:A one-inch-wide MXL belt running on a 30 MXL driver pulley at 7000 RPM has a capacity of 1.35 HP. To find the HP capacity of a 3/8-inch-wide MXL belt (6Z16-xxx037) multiply 1.35 X 0.32 - 0432 HP per 3/8-Inch-wide MXL belt.

•••••••Area beneath dotted line: This pulley and RPM can be used only if a Corresponding reduction in belt service life is allowable. −−−Area beneath interrupted line: This pulley and RPM can be used only if a simultaneous reduction in belt service life and torque reduction is taken into account.

TABLE 25 601



Note: Example:

To obtain HP capacity for widths other than one inch use value in table, multiplied by width factor. A one-inch-wide XL belt runningona 30 XL driver pulley at 7000 RPM has a capacity of 3.84 HP. To find the HP capacity of a 3/8-inch-wide XL belt (6Z3-XXXO37) multiply 3.84 X 0.29 = 1.11 HP per 3/8-inch-wide XL belt.

••••••••••Area beneath dotted line:

This pulley and RPM can be used only if a corresponding reduction in belt service life is allowable. TABLE 26 602



Note: Example:

To obtain HP capacity for widths other than one inch use value in table, multiplied by width factor. A one inch wide L belt running on a 22 L driver pulley at 4000 RPM has a capacity of 4.23 HP. To find the HP capacity of a ½ inch wide L belt (6R4-XXX050) multiply 4.23 X 0.44 1.86 HP per ½ inch wide L belt.

••••••••Area beneath dotted line:

This pulley and RPM can be used only if a corresponding reduction in belt service life is allowable. TABLE 27 603



Important Note: This table is computed based on tensile strength similarly to tables for 0.080, 0.200 and 0.375 inch pitch belts. DO NOT USE FOR DESIGN. USE FOR COMPARISON ONLY. Tables later In this chapter are based on allowable torque, and the resulting computation yields optimum belt life.


To obtain HP capacity for widths other than one inch use value in table, multiplied by width factor.

TABLE 28 604



Important Note: This table is computed based on tensile strength similarly to tables for 0.080, 0.200 and 0.375 inch pitch belts. DO NOT USE FOR DESIGN. USE FOR COMPARISON ONLY. Tables later In this chapter are based on allowable torque, and the resulting computation yields optimum belt life.


To obtain HP capacity for widths other than one inch use value in table, multiplied by width factor.

TABLE 29 605


TABLE 30 6mm (0.24in.) Wide Belt


TABLE 31 9mm (0.35 in.) Wide Belt


TABLE 32 9mm(0.35 in.) Wide Belt


TABLE 33 15mm (0.59 in.) Wide Belt











Speed-Up Ratio Range 1 Thru 1.24 1.25 Thru 1.74 1.75 Thru 2.49 2.50 Thru 3.49 3.50 Thru Over Additional Factor None 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

For 24-hour continuous operation and/or use of an idler, add 0.2 to Service Factor. For intermittent or seasonal operation, deduct 0.2 from Service Factor. 616



Figure 15 619

It is worth noting that the 3mm and 5mm TRUE METRIC® belts are capable of carrying loads normally associated with much coarser pitch belts. As a result, the use of TRUE METRIC® belts will yield the following advantages: smaller overall size, narrower belts, ultimately lower cost. Step 3. Select pulley combination Use Drive Ratio Tables (Table 22) and choose pulleys depending on the space available; TRUE METRIC® pulley dimensions are given in Tables 18 and 19. Check surface speed of smaller pulley BS (fpm) = 0.262 x pd (in) x rpm [17] BS (m/s) = 0.0000524 x pd (mm) x rpm [18] which should not exceed 6500 f pm for TRUE METRIC® (10,000 for MXL and 5500 for XL). Check compliance with requirement given on Table 4 for minimum pulley diameters. Step 4. Determine belt length and nominal center distance Choice of longer belt length has the effect of increasing belt life. On the other hand it also increases the envelope dimensions of the drive, as well as its costs. It is desirable to choose belt lengths which are available as standard stock items. For calculation of accurate center distances see separate section with formulas and center distance factor-tables (Table 23). Step 5. Select belt width From the appropriate Belt Horsepower Capacity Ratings (Tables 25 thru 27) and belt width factors calculate the width of the belt needed to satisfy the calculated Dhp. Step 6. Obtain actual Service Factor This step is introduced to recheck previous steps

Te is calculated from [20] and Tc from [14] or obtained from graph Figure 12. Ta for the appropriate belt width is taken from Table 3. If SF is satisfactory, then design is finalized, if not, increase belt width and correspondingly the value of Ta will also increase. 620

Step 7. Verify teeth in mesh (TIM) Number of teeth in mesh is calculated based on [12]. The minimum number of TIM which will satisfy the shear strength of the belt teeth is 6. Namely, this is the specific relationship between the allowable working tension and shear strength of teeth per unit width of the belt. If TIM is smaller than 6, then the chosen belt width Wt must be increased using correction factor F per Table 34 and an increased belt width Ws must be specified. TABLE 42 TIM 6 5 4 3 2 F FACTOR 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

11.4 Drive Selection Procedure−−BASED ON ALLOWABLE TORQUE NOTE: THIS PROCEDURE IS APPLICABLE TO TRUE METRIC® PITCHES ONLY AND WILL YIELD OPTIMUM LIFE. Step 1. Determine design torque (peak torque) Torque which is a result of the nominal shaft horsepower can be calculated from [19].

Upon choosing Service Factor SF per Tables 38-41 peak torque can be calculated Design Torque = T x SF [23] Step 2. Select belt pitch Based on Design Torque obtained from [23] and the rpm of smaller pulley choose from Figure 14 the belt type which will be used. Step 3. Select pulley combination From the Design Torque and Tables 30 through 33 which show the allowable torque values of TRUE METRIC® belts choose the smaller pulley size. Subsequent to determination of the small pulley size use Drive Ratio Tables (Table 22) and choose whenever possible pulley sizes which are available from stock. TRUE METRIC® pulley diameters are shown in Tables 18 and 19. Check surface speed of smaller pulley BS (fpm) = 0.262 x pd (in) x rpm [17] BS (m/s) = 0.0000524 x pd (mm) x rpm [18] which should not exceed 6500 f pm for TRUE METRIC® (10,000 for MXL and 5500 for XL). 621

Check compliance with requirement given on Table 4 for minimum pulley diameters. Use procedure identical with the one described for calculation based on horsepower. See [8] and Table 23. Step 5. Select belt width Using the Design Torque determined in Step 1 and the smaller pulley's speed and number of grooves, select the proper belt width from the appropriate 3mm or 5mm Allowable Pulley Torque Tables 30 through 33. Step 6. Verify teeth in mesh (TIM) Use procedure identical with the one described for calculation based on horsepower. See [22] and Table 42. 11.5 Example of Drive Design−−BASED ON HORSEPOWER GIVEN: Rated hp = 0.3, rpm = 1700, class of drive lll, Drive ratio 3:1, used for reciprocating compressor, usage is intermittent. Step 1: Determine design horsepower. SF from Tables 38 through 41 is chosen as SF = 2.4 - 0.2 = 2.2 From [16] Dhp = hp x SF Dhp = 0.3 x 2.2 = 0.66 Step 2: Select belt pitch From Figure 13, for Dhp = 0.66 rpm = 1700 L type belt of 318" pitch is chosen. Step 3: Select pulley combination From Drive Ratio Tables (Table 22) and desired overall size of drive the following is chosen: N1 = 48 D1 = 5.730" N2 = 16 D2 = 1.910" Values of D1 and D2 are obtained from SDP Catalog. A check of belt speed per [17] reveals BS = 0.262 x pd x rpm = 0.262 x 1.910 x 1700 = 850.71 (fpm) which is lower than the specified maximum of 5500 fpm. Therefore, no correction is needed. Per Table 4 our choice exceeds the minimum pulley diameter requirement of 1.671". Step 4: Determine belt length and nominal center distance From the desired overall size of drive and availability of standard belt lengths (see SDP Catalog) the following is chosen: NB = 86 BL = 32.250" Center distance is obtained from Table 23. NB-N1 = 38 N1-N2 = 32 CDF = 26.509

C = 26.509 x 0.375 = 9.941"

Step 5: Select belt width From Table 27 for ½" wide belt 1700 rpm and 16 teeth the horsepower capacity rating becomes: hp = 1.45 x 0.44 = 0.64 where 1.45 is rating for 1" wide belt and 0.44 the width factor for ½" wide belt. This capacity rating closely approximate the required Dhp 0.66, therefore the ½" width (which is standard) is chosen. 622

Step 6: Obtain actual Service Factor. From [20]

Tc is obtained from Figure 12 for the previously computed velocity of BS = 850.71 (fpm). Tc = 0.4 lbs. Tc can also be computed from [14] Tc = Kc x pd2 x rpm2 where Kc = 38 x 10-9 from Table 2. Tc = 30 x 10-9 x 1.9102 x (1.7 x 103)2 = 400.62 x 10-3 = 0.4 lbs. Ta is obtained from Table 3. Ta = 24 lbs. Therefore from [21]

This ServiceFactor is smaller than the desired 2.2. It is therefore proper to Increase belt width. Next standard belt width will be ¾" (consult SDP catalog) and corresponding Ta from Table 3 will be 39 lbs.

It can be noted that the originally obtained true ServiceFactor of 1.99 can also be deemed satisfactory, provided that a somewhat shorter belt life is acceptable. Step 7: Verify teeth in mesh (TIM) From [12]

which value is satisfactory and no correction is needed. 11.6 Example of Drive Design BASED ON ALLOWABLE TORQUE IN EXPECTATION OF OPTIMUM LIFE GIVEN: Rated hp = 0.5, rpm = 1750, class of driver lll, Drive ratio approx. 2.5:1, used for reciprocating compressor, usage is intermittent. Step 1: Determine Design Torque From [19]


Result of this calculation can be checked by Power Nomogram Figure 15. Service Factor SF from Tables 38 thru 41 is chosen as SF = 2.4 - 0.2 = 2.2 From [23] Design Torque = T x SF = 18 x 2.2 = 39.6 in lbs Step 2: Select belt pitch From Figure 14 the 5mm belt pitch is chosen based on 39.6 in lbs torque and 1750 rpm Step 3: Select pulley combination Small pulley with 28 teeth is chosen, consequently, based on Tables 19 and 22 N1 = 72 D1 = 4.511 N2 = 28 D2 = 1.754 The drive ratio will be 2.57:1. A check of belt speed 1 reveals BS = 0.262 x pd x rpm = 0.262 x 1.754 x 1750 = 804.21 (fpm) which is lower than the specified maximum of 6500 f pm. Per Table 4 our choice exceeds the minimum pulley diameter requirement of 1.629". Step 4: Determine belt length and nominal center distance From the desired overall size of drive and availability of standard belt lengths (see SDP catalog) the following is chosen: NB = 100 BL = 19.685 Center distance is obtained from Table 23 NB-N1 = 28 N1-N2 = 44 CDF = 23.970 C = 23.970 x 0.19685 = 4.7185" Step 5: Select belt width From Design Torque value of 39.6 in-lbs and small pulley with 28 teeth and 1750 rpm, using Allowable Pulley Torque Table 33 yields a belt width of 15mm. Step 6: Verify TIM From [12]

resulting value is satsifactory, and no correction is needed. Step 7: Entering the parameters of the example problem into the SDP minicomputer results in a useful belt life calculation of 2383 hrs. 624

Table 43 was constructed to provide comparison of different belt constructions using identical RPM and pulleys with the same number of teeth. It gives the Horsepower capacity of belts of different widths. It also illustrates the difference of ratings for HTD® −−TRUE METRIC® belts using the design criterion for optimum life, (allowable torque) as opposed to the tensile strength/Horsepower method. A study of Table 43 reveals the following observations:

• • • • •

For certain applications the 3mm HTD belt could be used instead of the XL belts The 5mm HTD belt compares favorably with the L type belt and therefore could be considered instead of the L belt. The influence of belt life factors is apparent in comparing the two methods of determining HP capacity as illustrated by the dual ratings listed for the 3mm and 5mm HTD belts. Under more severe operating conditions the optimum life (allowable torque) rating is reduced below the value obtained by the tensile strength (H.P. method) for determining belt capacity. Under certain conditions such as a relatively large pulley and low RPM, calculations based on tensile strength (H.P. method) will yield lower H.P. capacity than calculations based on allowable torque. This reflects relatively easy operating conditions for the particular belt chosen. i.e.: 1750 rpm, 30 groove pulley and 3mm pitch belt. If a known H.P. is to be transmitted practically any belt pitch could be selected provided the width satisfies the horsepower requirement. The final determining factor is the desire to select a standard belt and pulley to insure their availability. Please consult our catalog for a complete listing of standard belts and pulleys.



Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful