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Verbal communication[edit]

Main article: Human communication

Effective verbal or spoken communication is dependant on a number of factors and cannot be
fully isolated from other important interpersonal skills such as non-verbal communication,
listening s

Communicate" redirects here. For other uses, see Communicate (disambiguation).
Communication (from Latin commnicre, meaning "to share"
) is the activity of
conveying information through the exchange of ideas, feelings, intentions, attitudes,
expectations, perceptions or commands, as by speech, non-verbal gestures,
writings, behavior and possibly by other means such as electromagnetic, chemical or physical
phenomena and smell. It is the meaningful exchange of information between two
or more participants (machines, organisms or their parts).

Communication requires a sender, a message, a medium and a recipient, although
the receiver does not have to be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the
time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space.
Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative
commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver understands the
sender's message.
[citation needed]

Communicating with others involves three primary steps:

Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a concept, idea,
information, or feeling.
Encoding: Nex

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Research and development
Meaning of Accrual and Deferral
Accrual: An accrual occurs before a payment or receipt transaction. There are accruals for
expenses and for revenues. An accrual of an expense refers to the reporting of an expense

Written communication and its historical
Over time the forms of and ideas about communication have evolved through the continuing p
Month-end closing: The work that is performed at the end of a posting period.
Functional area: An organizational unit in Accounting that classifies the expenses of an
organization by functions such as:
Sales and distribution
rogression of technology. Advances include communications psychology and media psychology,
an emerging field of study.
The progression of written communication can be divided into three "information communication

1. Written communication first emerged through the use of pictographs.
The pictograms were made in stone, hence written communication was not yet mobile.
2. The next step occurred when writing began to appear on paper, papyrus, clay, wax, etc.
with common alphabets. Communication became mobile.
3. The final stage is characterized by the transfer of information through controlled waves
of electromagnetic radiation (i.e., radio, microwave, infrared) and other electronic
Communication is thus a process by which meaning is assigned and conveyed in an attempt to
create shared understanding. This process, which requires a vast repertoire of skills
ininterpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, gestures, and
evaluating enables collaboration and cooperation.

Misunderstandings can be anticipated and solved through formulations, questions and answers,
paraphrasing, examples, and stories of strategic talk. Written communication can be clarified by
planning follow-up talks on critical written communication as part of the every-day way of doing
business. A few minutes spent talking in the present will save valuable time later by avoiding
misunderstandings in advance. A frequent method for this purpose is reiterating what one heard
in one's own words and asking the other person if that really was what was meant.

Verbal communication
2 Nonverbal communication
3 Oral communication
4 Business communication
5 Written communication and its historical development
6 Effective communication
7 Barriers to effective human communication
o 7.1 Physical barriers
o 7.2 System design
o 7.3 Attitudinal barriers
o 7.4 Ambiguity of words/phrases
o 7.5 Individual linguistic ability
o 7.6 Physiological barriers
o 7.7 Cultural Differences
8 Nonhuman communication
o 8.1 Animal communication
o 8.2 Plants and fungi
o 8.3 Bacteria quorum sensing
9 Communication cycle
10 Communication noise
o 10.1 Environmental noise
o 10.2 Physiological-impairment noise
o 10.3 Semantic noise
o 10.4 Syntactical noise
o 10.5 Organizational noise
o 10.6 Cultural noise
o 10.7 Psychological noise
11 Communication as academic discipline
12 See also
13 References
14 Further reading

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