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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated

Pedro Pina, Water Industry Solution


Architect, Bentley Systems
Dynamic modelling tools and case studies in
WaterGEMS. e.g. Pump scheduling, hydrant
flushing, Darwin Calibrator for leak detection and
closed valves and linking with real time data and
demand

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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Summary
Problem Overview
Available Tools
Features Update
Examples
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Input
Preparation
Simulation/
Analysis
Verification
Report
Data
Problem
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Features
Input/Data Integration
Model Builder
SCADA Connect
Water Objects

Simulation/Analsys
Model Calibration
Leakage Detection
Close Valve Detection
Pump Optimization
Data Logger Placement

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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Input Model Builder
CAD, GIS, Table
Data
WaterGems/CAD ModelBuilder
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Connectivity Issues
Pipes without end nodes
Pipes that do not connect but should
Pipes that appear to connect but are not
Pipes that cross without junctions
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Complex Demand Paterns
SCADA
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Input SCADA Connect
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Input Water Objects
.NET Development Environment
Means of extending capability of model
Can do
Pre-processing
Post-processing
Add engines

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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Real Time modelling
Current Time
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Water Objects Examples
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Available Tools
Commercially Available
Model Calibration
Leakage Detection
Closed Valve Detection
Pump Optimization
Pipe Renewal Planning and Optimization

Prototypes (also available under conditions)
Fire Hydrant/Flushing optimization
Data logger optimization
Improved Pump Optimization

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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Darwin

Calibrator - Calibration
Comparison of Field data:
Pressures or gradients at nodes
Flows in pipes, pumps, and valves
Theory of natural selection developed
in the 70s
Applied to water systems in the 90s
Optimization through genetic
algorithms
Uses multiple field data sets to
calibrate: Roughness, Demands and
States
It generates tests of successive
populations
The strong will survive
Module Including in WaterGEMS - Addition in WaterCAD
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Leak Detection Model Overview
Data-driven models
Apply data-driven modeling methods, e.g. statistics/
regression methods, artificial neural network, support
vector machine etc.
Purely based on data analysis (pressures and flows) to
uncover new abnormalities as possible new pipe bursts
Unable to detect the leaks that have already existed in
the system
Physics-based models
Simulate leakage through network hydraulic model
Model leakage as pressure dependent demand for known
leakages
Key is to predict the whereabouts and size of leaks
throughout a distribution system
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Perfect Hydraulic Modeling
60.00
80.00
100.00
120.00
00:00 08:00 16:00 00:00
T
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H
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(
m
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Model Field Test
60.00
80.00
100.00
120.00
00:00 08:00 16:00 00:00
T
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H
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(
m
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Model Field Test
60.00
80.00
100.00
120.00
00:00 08:00 16:00 00:00
T
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H
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(
m
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Model Field Test
60.00
80.00
100.00
120.00
00:00 08:00 16:00 00:00
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(
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KALL2 Source
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Post Calibration
A B
C
HGL
Model Calibration
100 gpm
80 gpm
80 gpm
Pre Calibration
Demand

Leakage

Actual HGL

Modelled HGL


Calibration Time
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
n
i i i
P k Q
Leakage Q
i
is pressure dependent, given as emitter flow as above
K
i
is the emitter coefficient to be optimized as leakage indicator
K
i
> 0 indicates a leakage at node i, while K
i
= 0 indicate no leakage
at node i.
Leakage Hydraulics
Leakage is allocated to the
node in a model
HGL
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Parameter Identification
Genetic Algorithm based network calibration/optimization
tool
Made up of a GA (Darwin Calibrator) and hydraulic
engine
Has three functionalities
Demand based calibration
Pressure Dependent based calibration
Leakage Hotspot Detection
The GA optimizes any combination of:
Nodal outflow (Consumption and/or Leakage)
Links roughness
Links operational status
Attempts to generate nodal heads and flow rates that best
matches recorded field data
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Enable Active Water Loss Control
Predict the location and size of water losses (both real
and apparent)
Guide field engineer to quickly locate leaky pipes
and/or apparent water losses
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Field personnel can focus on area(s)

detected by Darwin Calibrator
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Integrated Framework Darwin Calibrator
for Leakage Detection & Model Calibration
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Real DMA Leakage Detection
Darwin Calibrator for leakage detection
28 observed pressure points and total
inflow into the system
Apply it to water
systems in UK
Optimize emitter flow
Predict leakage hotspots
Minimize leak detection
uncertainty
Facilitate a better
detection rate

Narrow down leakage
spots
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Case I
Leak repaired, 10 l/s saving
Posi-Tect &
field survey
Forest Farm
Leakage spots
identified with
Darwin Calibrator
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Case I (cont)
Historical leak
Predicted leak
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Case I (cont)
Historical leak
Predicted leak
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Case I (cont)
Historical leak
Predicted leak
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Case I (cont)
Historical leak
Predicted leak
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Closed Valve Detection
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Pump Optimization
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Pump
Station
Tank Supply
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
CSP Case Study (Wu, Woodward & Allen 2009)
DMZ system
57 Ml/day
11 pump
stations and 9
tanks
Energy cost:
330K/year
Recorded daily
energy cost:
912
Modeled daily
energy cost:
923
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Energy Cost comparison
Pump Existing controls Optimized controls
ID
Pump utilization
(%) Daily cost () Pump utilization (%) Daily cost ()
X2420052_ 100 181.99 100 181.73
X2420014_ 40 142.11 41 120.51
X2420075_ 42 201.95 37 141.19
X2410361_ 50 31.99 42 22.65
X2419963_ 50 31.99 42 22.65
X241998C_ 26 7.92 31 5.18
X2450024_ 40 37.35 21 13.87
PILWTH 82 236.19 40 98.33
NEWMRKT 23 111.63 22 88.98
Total cost() 983.12 695.10
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Overall saving is 29% of original energy cost
By shifting pumping hours and increasing supply of 3.5 Ml/d from
gravity source
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Pipe Renewal Planning and Design
Optimization
Condition assessment tool
Tool to rank pipe links based on several aspects
Calculate a score for each aspect
Combine scores for overall ranking
Part of WaterGEMS, or WaterCAD add-on
Results display tools
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Workflow
System Inventory
Pipe Break
History
Model
Break
Analysis
Fire Flow
Analysis
Criticality
Analysis
Other Property
Of Interest
Analysis
Normalized
Break Score
Normalized
Fire Score
Normalized
Criticality Score
Normalized
Score
Weighting
Overall
Score
Pipe Score
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Color Coding by Score
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Rehabilitation Optimization
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Available Tools
Comercially Available
Model Calibration
Leakage Detection
Closed Valve Detection
Pump Optimization
Pipe Renewal Planning and Optimization

Prototypes (also available under conditions)
Fire Hydrant/Flushing optimization
Data logguer optimization
Improved Pump Optimization

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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
A New Paradigm
CP
U
1
CP
U
N
GP
U
Unified Coherent Memory
Heterogeneous
Computing
Homogeneous
Computing
Single-core Many-core
CPU Advancement
General
purpose
Graphics
driver
G
P
U


A
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Accelerated Modeling
1.51
2.84
3.52
3.94
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
48 hr 96 hr 144 hr 192 hr
S
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CPU GPU SpeedUp
2.46
3.94
0
1
2
3
4
0
500
1000
1500
14K Pipes 81K Pipes
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CPU GPU
SpeedUp Linear (SpeedUp)
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Host CPU Neural Computing on GPU
Data-Driven Model
Big data, big opportunity
Data information
Capture data relationships
Fast ANN model
training/calibration
Read
from
GPU
Upload
data to
GPU
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
On CPU
On GPU
765
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Pump Scheduling
Fitness
Respon
se
Solutio
n
Optimize pump operation
Minimize energy cost
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Accelerated Pump Scheduling
Fitness
Trained ANN
Respon
se
Solutio
n
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Opening hydrant changes head loss and flow
velocity of pipes, which is useful
Greater the change, more helpful for the model
calibration
Changing velocity helps remove bad accumulations
in the pipe
Very common operation in practice
Flushing Problem
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
We dont want to open all hydrants <- Limited number of hydrants should be
opened
Which one to open? -> Affect as much as possible pipes [Efficiency]
How many to open? -> Require as few as possible [Cost]
How much hydrant flow should be used? -> Smaller the better


Hydrant Selection - Find Best
Hydrants To Open
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Use Hydrant Selection
Tool to find optimal
combination of
hydrants
A water system with 429
pipes
Currently 8 hydrants are
selected for flow testing,
selected by experience
Head loss change
threshold: 0.1 m H2O
(0.14psi)
Hydrant Flow Range: 32
126, Interval: 4
Case study
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Sum of Pipe Lengths Comparison
Current 8 Hydrants Optimum 8 Hydrants
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Optimal solution outperforms existing 8
hydrant setting with even 2 hydrants
Sum of Pipe Lengths / Total Pipe
Lengths Comparison
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00%
80.00%
90.00%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 20
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Number of open hydrants
Optimal VS Existing 8
Optimal
Existing 8
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Logguer Placement
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Logguer Placement
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2008 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Aknowlegments
http://inside/bsw/AppliedResearch/Watertown/S
itePages/Home.aspx
Zheng Wu et al. 2011,2012,2114