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DAVID A.

CORTMAN*
dcortman@alliancedefendingfreedom.org
Georgia Bar No. 188810
KEVIN H. THERIOT*
ktheriot@alliancedefendingfreedom.org
Georgia Bar No. 373095
Rory T. Gray*
rgray@alliancedefendingfreedom.org
Georgia Bar No. 880715
ALLIANCE DEFENDING FREEDOM
1000 Hurricane Shoals Road NE, Suite D-1100
Lawrenceville, Georgia 30043
(770) 339-0774
(770) 339-6744 Fax

J EREMY D. TEDESCO*
jtedesco@alliancedefendingfreedom.org
Arizona Bar No. 023497
J ONATHAN A. SCRUGGS*
jscruggs@alliancedefendingfreedom.org
Arizona Bar No. 030505
ALLIANCE DEFENDING FREEDOM
15100 N. 90
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Street
Scottsdale, AZ 85260
(480)-444-0020
(480)-444-0028 Fax

VIRGINIA MCNULTY ROBINSON
vrobinson@robinsonlaw-pllc.com
Idaho Bar No. 7380
ROBINSON LAW, PLLC
1910 Northwest Blvd., Suite 200
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 83814
(208) 664-1139
(208) 664-1171 Fax

Attorneys for Plaintiffs

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
DISTRICT OF IDAHO

DONALD KNAPP; EVELYN KNAPP;
HITCHING POST WEDDINGS, LLC,

Plaintiff,
v.
Case No. _________________

VERIFIED COMPLAINT
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CITY OF COEUR D'ALENE,

Defendant.

NATURE OF THIS ACTION
1. This case is about the City of Coeur D’Alene unconstitutionally coercing two
Christian ministers, Donald and Evelyn Knapp, to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies at The
Hitching Post Wedding Chapel in violation of their religious beliefs, their ordination vows, and
their consciences. Coeur D’Alene does so by imposing a Hobson’s choice on the Knapps through
City Ordinance §9.56, which bars sexual orientation discrimination in public accommodations:
the Knapps can either violate their religious convictions and ministerial vows by performing
same-sex wedding ceremonies or follow their religious convictions and vows by declining to
perform same-sex ceremonies and face up to 180 days in jail and up to $1,000 in fines. Worse,
each day the Knapps decline to perform a requested same-sex wedding ceremony, they commit a
separate and distinct misdemeanor, subject to the same penalties. Thus, if the Knapps decline a
same-sex wedding ceremony for just one week, they risk going to jail for over 3 years and being
fined $7,000. For the past several months, the City has privately and publicly threatened to apply
Ordinance §9.56 to the Knapps if same-sex marriage became legal in Idaho and the Knapps
declined to perform a same-sex wedding ceremony at The Hitching Post Wedding Chapel.
2. The Knapps now face this very situation. The United States Court of Appeals for
the Ninth Circuit invalidated Idaho’s marriage laws and legalized same-sex marriage in Idaho on
October 7, 2014, thereby allowing Idaho county clerks to begin issuing same-sex marriage
licenses on October 15. A few days later, on October 17, 2014, the Knapps invoked their
religious beliefs and ordination vows and declined a request to perform a same-sex wedding
ceremony. According to the City, the Knapps violated and still violate Ordinance §9.56, and
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each day that passes subjects them to the risk of escalating jail sentences and fines. Because of
the immediate and irreparable harm the Knapps are suffering to their constitutionally protected
rights, they urgently need this Court to issue a temporary restraining order enjoining Ordinance §
9.56 as-applied to them.
3. Donald and Evelyn Knapp are ordained Christian ministers who believe biblical
marriage is good for society. Not only have they been happily married for 47 years, they have
married roughly 35,000 couples and seen countless lives blessed through marriage. As ordained
ministers, the Knapps believe God called them to promote the welfare of their community by
uniting others in marriage.
4. Based on this calling, the Knapps began operating the Hitching Post Wedding
Chapel in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho in 1989.
5. The Knapps have performed wedding ceremonies in this chapel ever since,
eventually forming Hitching Post Weddings, LLC as a “religious corporation” and an “extension
of their sincerely held religious beliefs” to “help people create, celebrate, and build lifetime,
monogamous, one-man-one-woman marriages as defined by the Holy Bible.” See Hitching Post
Wedding, LLC Operating Agreement, attached to this Complaint as Exhibit 1.
6. Because their religious beliefs affect everything they do, the Knapps and Hitching
Post, LLC only perform wedding ceremonies consistent with their religious beliefs. The Knapps
and Hitching Post, LLC cannot, have not, and will not perform ceremonies that violate their
religious beliefs, such as a same-sex wedding ceremony.
7. The Knapps and Hitching Post, LLC cannot perform these ceremonies because
they believe God created marriage to be a sacred covenant between one man and one woman.
The Knapps also pledged to follow this belief in their ordination vows. Performing same-sex
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wedding ceremonies would thus force the Knapps to condone, promote, and even consecrate
something forbidden by their religious beliefs and ordination vows.
8. The Knapps have never approached that cliff’s edge. Rather, they have
consistently declined to perform same-sex ceremonies, refusing to perform these ceremonies at
least 15 times in the past and as recently as May 2014 and October 17, 2014.
9. But Coeur d’Alene now requires the Knapps and Hitching Post, LLC to perform
same-sex wedding ceremonies or face criminal liability.
10. Ordinance §9.56 prohibits a “public accommodation” from denying “any person
because of sexual orientation and/or gender identity/expression, the full enjoyment of any of the
accommodations, advantages, facilities or privileges of any place of public resort,
accommodation, assemblage, or amusement.”
11. The Hitching Post Wedding Chapel is a public accommodation under this
ordinance because the Knapps open the chapel to the public and offer wedding services in
exchange for a fee. According to the City, the Knapps and Hitching Post, LLC also deny
privileges based on sexual orientation under this ordinance because they perform wedding
ceremonies for opposite-sex couples and do not perform these services for same-sex couples.
12. This past summer, after the Idaho district court enjoined Idaho’s marriage laws,
City officials told Mr. Knapp twice that Ordinance §9.56 required him to perform same-sex
wedding ceremonies if same-sex marriage became legal. Deputy City Attorney Warren Wilson
then publicly declared the City’s position when a journalist asked him about the Hitching Post:
“For profit wedding chapels are in a position now where last week the ban would have prevented
them from performing gay marriages, this week gay marriages are legal, pending an appeal to the
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9th Circuit… If you turn away a gay couple, refuse to provide services for them, then in theory
you violated our code and you’re looking at a potential misdemeanor citation.”
13. Because the Knapps and Hitching Post, LLC are currently violating Ordinance
§9.56, they are subject to pay fines up to $1,000 and suffer jail time of up to 180 days for every
day they violate the ordinance. See City Ordinance §§9.56.060 and 1.28.
14. So, if the Knapps decline to perform a same-sex ceremony on a Monday and
continue to do so the next day, the Knapps risk going to jail for nearly one year and being fined
$2,000.
15. If the Knapps refuse to perform one same-sex ceremony for one week, they risk
going to jail for over 3 years and being fined $7,000.
16. If the Knapps refuse to perform one same-sex ceremony for 30 days, they risk
going to jail for over 14 years and being fined $30,000.
17. If the Knapps refuse to perform one same-sex ceremony for a year, they risk
going to jail for 180 years and being fined $365,000.
18. The Knapps thus face an impossible choice: Suffer escalating fines and jail time
for following their religious beliefs and ordination vows or forsake their religious beliefs and
ordination vows and perform same-sex wedding ceremonies. But the First Amendment does not
allow the government to force regular citizens or religious corporations much less ordained
ministers to make this choice. For these reasons, the Knapps and Hitching Post, LLC ask this
Court to enjoin Ordinance §9.56 and declare it unconstitutional as applied to them because this
application violates the Free Speech Clause, the Free Exercise Clause, the Equal Protection
Clause, the Due Process Clause, and Idaho’s Free Exercise of Religion Protected Act.

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JURISDICTION AND VENUE
19. This civil rights action raises federal questions under the United States
Constitution, particularly the First and Fourteenth Amendments, and the Civil Rights Act of
1871, 42 U.S.C. § 1983.
20. This action also raises claims under state law, particularly the Idaho Free Exercise
of Religion Protected Act (FERPA), Idaho Code § 73–401 et seq.
21. This Court has original jurisdiction over the federal claims under 28 U.S.C. §§
1331 and 1343 and has supplemental jurisdiction over the state claims under 28 U.S.C. §1367.
22. This Court has authority to award the requested damages under 28 U.S.C. § 1343
and Idaho Code. § 73-402(4); the requested declaratory relief under 28 U.S.C. §§ 2201-02 and
Idaho Code. § 73-402(4); the requested injunctive relief under 28 U.S.C. § 1343, Fed. R. Civ. P.
65, and Idaho Code. § 73-402(4); and costs and attorneys fees under 42 U.S.C. § 1988 and Idaho
Code. § 73-402(4).
23. Venue is proper in this district under 28 U.S.C. § 1391(b) because the Defendants
reside in this district and/or all of the acts described in this Complaint occurred in this district.
PLAINTIFFS
24. Plaintiff Donald Knapp is a Christian and an ordained minister with the
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel.
25. Mr. Knapp is a resident and citizen of the state of Idaho and is married to his wife
Evelyn Knapp.
26. Mr. Knapp is also one of the two members (“member” is the formal name for an
owner of an LLC) of Hitching Post Weddings, LLC.
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27. Plaintiff Evelyn Knapp is a Christian and an ordained minister with the
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel.
28. Mrs. Knapp is a resident and citizen of the state of Idaho and is married to Mr.
Knapp.
29. Mrs. Knapp is the other member of Hitching Post Weddings, LLC.
30. Plaintiff Hitching Post Weddings is a limited liability company organized under
Idaho law, with its principal place of business at 524 Government Way, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho.
31. Hitching Post Weddings, LLC’s operating agreement explains the company’s
religious character and purpose:
The Hitching Post is a religious corporation owned solely by ordained ministers
of the Christian religion who operate this entity as an extension of their sincerely
held religious beliefs and in accordance with their vows taken as Christian
ministers. The purpose of the Hitching Post is to help people create, celebrate, and
build lifetime, monogamous, one-man-one-woman marriages as defined by the
Holy Bible.

DEFENDANT
32. Defendant City of Coeur d’Alene is a municipal corporation authorized under
state law to sue and be sued. See Idaho Code § 50–101 et seq.
33. Coeur d’Alene is responsible for passing and enforcing its ordinances, including
City Ordinance §9.56.
FACTUAL BACKGROUND
The Knapps come to faith 60 years ago
34. In September 1952 at a small, International Church of the Foursquare Gospel
church in Oregon City, Oregon, a teacher summarized the good news about J esus to a room full
of young children. The teacher then prayed and released the children to report to their parents.
Donald Knapp was in the room that day. He began to follow J esus at the age of six.
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35. Mr. Knapp immediately reported his new commitment to his mother, who had
faithfully brought him to the church since his birth.
36. As far back as he can remember, Mr. Knapp has followed J esus.
37. As far back as he can remember, Mr. Knapp attended a Foursquare Church.
38. Mrs. Knapp began to follow J esus in 1953 in Martinez, California. She was five
years old.
39. She started attending a Foursquare Church a few years later in Downey,
California and has continued to do so ever since.
40. The Knapps eventually crossed paths in Los Angeles at LIFE (Lighthouse of
International Foursquare Evangelism) Bible College, the flagship college for ministers,
missionaries and teachers of the Foursquare Church.
The Knapps begin life together at a wedding chapel
41. Mr. Knapp enrolled at LIFE Bible in 1964.
42. A year later, Mr. Knapp attended a revival meeting at a church near campus, and
during a time of prayer there Mr. Knapp felt God call him to be a pastor. From that point
forward, Mr. Knapp pursued his calling to be a minister in the Foursquare Church.
43. That same year, Mrs. Knapp came to LIFE Bible and met Mr. Knapp for the first
time.
44. Four months after their first date, on a scenic excursion to Wayfarer’s Wedding
Chapel, Mr. Knapp proposed to Mrs. Knapp. She accepted, and they were married at a
Foursquare church on August 5, 1967. They have been married over 47 years.
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45. Mr. Knapp then graduated from LIFE Bible in J une 1968 with a degree in
theology. By graduating from LIFE Bible, Mr. Knapp received his license to be a minister in the
Foursquare Church.
The Knapps minister throughout Pacific Northwest
46. Mr. Knapp then put that license to use, and he and Mrs. Knapp moved to
Prineville, Oregon where Mr. Knapp pastored his first church: Prineville Foursquare Church.
47. For the next thirteen years, the Knapps served numerous Foursquare Churches in
the northwest area:
• 1968-70: Prineville Foursquare Church in Prineville, Oregon
• 1970-72: The Valley Foursquare Church in Millwood, Washington
• 1972-77: Coeur d'Alene Foursquare Church in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho
• 1977-80: New Life Christian Center Church in Spokane Valley, Washington
48. At each stop, Mr. Knapp served as lead pastor or assistant pastor. He even
founded New Life Christian Center Church.
49. And early in his pastoral career, Mr. Knapp received his ordination from the
Foursquare Church after he had served enough time in a local church to qualify for ordination.
50. The Foursquare Church ordained Mr. Knapp in February of 1970.
51. Before and after he was ordained, Mr. Knapp performed typical pastoral duties for
his churches, preaching, speaking at funerals, teaching Sunday school, counseling church
members, baptizing new believers, administering communion, and officiating weddings.
52. Mr. Knapp officiated his first wedding in 1969.
53. At each church on their journey, Mrs. Knapp served alongside Mr. Knapp,
volunteering in any capacity she could to support her husband and the church.
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54. For example, Mrs. Knapp taught Sunday school, counseled church members, led
Bible study groups, and played the piano.
55. A few years later, Mrs. Knapp sought ordination because she had served in
churches beside Mr. Knapp for so long.
56. The Foursquare Church ordained Mrs. Knapp in May 1978.
57. In 1980, the Knapps finally came to the church they still attend today: Life Center
Foursquare Church in Spokane. Mr. Knapp served as an assisting pastor for this church, and Mrs.
Knapp volunteered like she did before.
58. But the scope of their ministry expanded when the Knapps received an offer from
a member of their former church: an offer to buy the Hitching Post.
The Knapps begin Hitching Post Chapel ministry
59. Mr. Knapp first learned about the Hitching Post Chapel around 1975 from a
member of his Coeur d'Alene church, J ohn Green. Green worked at the Hitching Post and
eventually purchased it.
60. But Mr. Knapp did not begin to work at the Hitching Post Chapel until 1987. At
that time, a former minister of the Coeur d'Alene Foursquare Church was officiating weddings at
the Hitching Post Chapel seven days a week. This was too much for him. So he called his friend
Mr. Knapp and asked for help.
61. The request intrigued Mr. Knapp. Mr. Knapp not only needed extra income, he
thought the experience would be a perfect way to use his talents and ministerial experience to
bless others.
62. So Mr. Knapp agreed and began working and officiating weddings at the Hitching
Post Chapel one day a week starting in fall 1987.
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63. Mr. Knapp continued to work at the Hitching Post Chapel in this capacity for one
and a half years.
64. Then in 1988, J ohn Green offered to sell the Hitching Post to the Knapps because
Green had fallen into some financial troubles.
65. The prospect of owning a small business both excited and scared the Knapps. So
they prayed long and hard about the offer. And God answered their prayers. The Knapps became
convinced that God had opened a door for them to pursue this new opportunity and had called
them to minister in this new venue.
66. Indeed, the Knapps decided to go forward because the Hitching Post allowed
them to serve people in a pastoral role just as they served in pastoral roles in their church. The
Knapps viewed their wedding services at the Hitching Post as their ministry, as an opportunity to
touch lives and to speak the good news about God, about God’s love, and about the meaning of
marriage to a whole new category of people.
67. So the Knapps bought the Hitching Post business and name from Green in 1989
and began leasing the Hitching Post Wedding Chapel that same year.
The Hitching Post Chapel: 95 years of weddings
68. But the Hitching Post hosted weddings long before the Knapps bought it.
69. Upon information and belief, The Hitching Post opened its doors and began
hosting weddings in the Coeur d'Alene area as far back as 1919.
70. In those days, the justice of the peace would select a location for his office and
that location became known as the Hitching Post. Eventually, the government dissolved the
justice of the peace position, and ministers stepped in to officiate weddings at the Hitching Post.
71. The Hitching Post moved to its current location sometime in the 1950s.
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72. This current location is 524 N Government Way, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho.
73. In this location, the Hitching Post Chapel is approximately 300 feet from the
Kootenai County Clerk’s office.
74. The Hitching Post Chapel and the Kootenai County Clerk’s office are located on
the same street.
75. The Kootenai County Clerk’s office issues marriage licenses.
76. A person can walk from the Kootenai County Clerk’s office to the Hitching Post
Chapel in roughly 1 minute.
77. Couples often do precisely this. They get their marriage license from the Kootenai
County Clerk’s office and walk across the street to wed at the Hitching Post Chapel.
78. Because the Clerk’s office is so close by, the Hitching Post Chapel is a very
convenient and popular spot for couples wanting a wedding service.
79. Roughly 50% of Hitching Post customers come to the Hitching Post Chapel on
the same day they receive their marriage license from the Kootenai County Clerk’s office.
I believe in God the Father Almighty: the Knapps affirm the Bible on marriage
80. Since the Knapps are each ordained ministers and regularly perform weddings,
they take their religious beliefs seriously, especially their religious beliefs about marriage.
81. The Knapps are evangelical Christians who hold to historic Christian beliefs.
82. For example, the Knapps believe that God has revealed His will in the Bible, that
all people have violated God’s commands, and that all people need forgiveness offered through
God’s Son, J esus Christ.
83. The Knapps also hold to the church’s historic view on marriage, sexual desire,
and sexual activity.
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84. Specifically, the Knapps believe that God created two distinct genders in His
image, that God ordained marriage to be between one man and one woman, and that God intends
for all sexual activity to occur within this one-man-one-woman marriage covenant.
85. As a corollary to these beliefs and because of statements in the Bible addressing
this topic, the Knapps believe that all sexual acts outside and contrary to a one-man-one-woman
marriage covenant are contrary to God’s will, including fornication, homosexual acts, and
polygamy.
86. Likewise, the Knapps believe that Christian ministers perform and participate in a
religious ceremony when they officiate a wedding.
87. As Christian ministers, when the Knapps officiate at weddings, they publicly
bless, promote, pray for, and endorse those marriages. They also convey religious messages
about those marriages and ceremonially initiate those marriages.
88. For this reason, the Knapps cannot officiate a same-sex wedding or commitment
ceremony without violating their religious beliefs, promoting activities contrary to their religious
beliefs, and expressing messages contradicting their religious beliefs.
89. While the Knapps believe all forms of sexual immorality are contrary to God’s
will, they also believe that all people are created in God’s image, and therefore all people deserve
to be treated with dignity and respect.
90. Likewise, the Knapps believe J esus commanded Christians to love their
neighbors.
91. Accordingly, the Knapps exhibit love toward every person they meet and treat
them with dignity and respect, regardless of who they are, regardless of their sexual orientation,
and regardless of whether they act in ways the Knapps consider contrary to God’s word.
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92. The Knapps also hold a Christian view of vocation and work.
93. Specifically, the Knapps believe that they should honor God in all aspects of their
lives, including their work, and that they should seek to serve God and their neighbors through
their vocation.
94. As a result, the Knapps exhibit love toward every person they encounter while
they work and they treat them with dignity and respect.
I believe in the Holy Catholic Church: the Knapps affirm the Church on marriage

95. As ordained ministers in the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, the
Knapps have affirmed their agreement with the Church’s religious beliefs. The Knapps’s
personal religious beliefs align with and reflect their Church’s beliefs.
96. The following documents identify and explain the beliefs of the Foursquare
Church: the Foursquare Creedal Statement, the Foursquare Declaration of Faith, and the
Corporate Bylaws of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel.
97. The Foursquare Church also issues a Handbook for the Operation of Foursquare
Churches that contains regulations about ordination for Foursquare ministers.
98. According to the Foursquare Corporate Bylaws, the Board of Directors may
revoke the credentials of a Foursquare minister on the following grounds:
• Heresy
• Willful failure or refusal to comply with the provisions of the “Declaration of
Faith,” the Articles, or these Bylaws as applicable to the minister’s place of
appointment or service

Bylaws §12.2.5.

99. These Bylaws also require persons do the following to be entitled to membership
in a Foursquare Church:
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• Subscribe and adhere to the “Declaration of Faith,” compiled by Aimee
Semple McPherson.

• Agree to comply with the Articles and these Bylaws.

Bylaws §13.6.1.
100. Church membership can be revoked for the following reasons:
• Refusal to adhere to the “Declaration of Faith,” or to comply with the provisions
of the Articles or these Bylaws

• Willful unchristian or unscriptural conduct.

Bylaws §13.6.7.
101. These Bylaws later specify: “Marriage is a biblical covenant relationship between
a man and a woman established initially by God…. High standards of marriage are very essential
to the individual, to the family, and to the cause of Christ.” Bylaws §13.6.8.
102. The Bylaws also require Foursquare pastors to “[e]vangelize the community,
strive for the salvation of souls, edify the church, and build up Christian life throughout the
church by preaching, teaching, conducting services, and administering ordinances, including
marriage only between a man and a woman.” Bylaws §14.4.
103. At the end of the Bylaws is an appendix entitled “Minister’s Code of Ethics.” This
code requires Foursquare ministers to affirm the following:
• As an ordained or licensed minister or Christian worker, I subscribe in full
to the contents of the “Declaration of Faith,” compiled by Aimee Semple
McPherson, Founder of the International Church of the Foursquare
Gospel.

• I declare myself in harmony with and bind myself to the objects, purposes
and provisions of the Articles of Incorporation and bylaws of the
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel.

• I agree that I am obligated by my divine call as a Christian and as a
minister of the Gospel of J esus Christ to abide by, in ministry and life, the
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biblical standards of integrity and morality to which all Christian
leadership is accountable.

• I agree to comply with the foundational principles, processes and
procedures of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, as set
forth in the following Board approved documents: “The Declaration of
Faith,” “Articles of Incorporation and bylaws of the International Church
of the Foursquare Gospel.” I will exhort my fellow Foursquare ministers
to uphold the principles of a holy life and to adhere to the foundational
principles, processes and procedures of the International Church of the
Foursquare Gospel.

104. Ministers of the Foursquare Church must subscribe and adhere to this Code of
Ethics as “a prerequisite for licensing and/or ordination.” Handbook for the Operation of
Foursquare Churches §12.1.
105. In their ordination vows, the Knapps pledged to abide by the Foursquare
Statement of Faith and Bylaws.
106. If the Knapps performed a same-sex wedding ceremony, they would violate their
ordination vows and risk Church discipline, including the possible revocation of their credentials
as ministers.
107. Because the Knapps cannot perform same-sex wedding ceremonies and comply
with their ordination vows or their personal religious beliefs, they have always operated their
wedding business in accordance with these religious beliefs.
The Knapps form Hitching Post Weddings LLC to promote biblical marriage
108. The Knapps view their work and business at Hitching Post as ministry. Thus, they
operate every aspect of the Hitching Post for a religious purpose and based on their religious
beliefs.
109. When the Knapps bought the Hitching Post, they initially operated the business as
an S corporation.
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110. Eventually, the Knapps formed their business into its present structure: a limited
liability company called Hitching Post Weddings, LLC.
111. When they did this, the Knapps took the opportunity to memorialize their
practices, goals, and purposes for the Hitching Post in writing.
112. The Knapps have always followed these practices, goals, and purposes since
buying the Hitching Post in 1989.
113. The Operating Agreement of Hitching Post Weddings, LLC identifies the
company’s character, ethos, and goals. See Exhibit 1.
114. Section 3.1 of this Agreement is entitled “Purpose.”
115. This section reads as follows:
The Hitching Post is a religious corporation owned solely by ordained ministers
of the Christian religion who operate this entity as an extension of their sincerely
held religious beliefs and in accordance with their vows taken as Christian
ministers. The purpose of the Hitching Post is to help people create, celebrate, and
build lifetime, monogamous, one-man-one-woman marriages as defined by the
Holy Bible.

The Christian religion requires that all its adherents, and especially its ministers,
apply their religious precepts and doctrines to all facets of their lives, including
their work and the operation of their businesses. For this reason, the Hitching Post
reserves the right to refuse a request for services that would require the entity to
engage in conduct that conflicts with its owners’ sincerely held religious beliefs
and the ministerial vows taken by the owners.

The Hitching Post engages in its own expression through the services that it
provides. In so doing, The Hitching Post intentionally expresses public messages
that promote aspects of its owners’ Christian religion and those are not
inconsistent with those sincerely held beliefs. For this reason, The Hitching Post
reserves the right to refuse a request for services that would require the entity to
engage in or host expression that violates its owners’ sincerely held religious
beliefs. Only Hitching Post’s owners and employees perform the weddings at
Hitching Post Chapel and other locations scheduled by the Hitching Post. They
have ultimate control over the content of the ceremony and will not conduct a
ceremony that expresses messages that are inconsistent with their Christian faith.

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The Hitching Post provides wedding and marriage-related services for the purpose
of publicly expressing and promoting that marriage is the union of one man and
one woman, which is consistent with its owners’ sincerely held religious beliefs
and with their ministerial vows. Any request for wedding and marriage-related
services not within this identified purpose is outside the scope of services offered
by the Hitching Post.

The Hitching Post, consistent with its owners’ sincerely held religious beliefs,
provides wedding and marriage-related services also for the purposes of
promoting the social institution of marriage as a fundamental building block of
our society and promoting the public understanding of marriage as the union of
one man and one woman. By furthering these purposes, the Hitching Post
endeavors to instill and promote this biblical understanding of marriage and
marriage-related values in the communities where it operates. Achieving these
goals is important to ensure that marriage remains a vital social institution that
uniquely promotes the raising of children by their mother and father.

116. Hitching Post Weddings, LLC abides by its Operating Agreement.
117. The purpose of Hitching Post Weddings, LLC is to help people create, celebrate,
and build lifetime, monogamous, one-man-one-woman marriages as defined by the Holy Bible.
118. Hitching Post Weddings, LLC engages in its own expression when its owners and
employees perform the weddings at Hitching Post Chapel and other locations scheduled by the
Hitching Post Weddings, LLC.
119. Hitching Post Weddings, LLC reserves the right to refuse a request for services
that would require the entity to engage in or host expression that violates its owners’ sincerely
held religious beliefs.
Hitching Post Weddings LLC practices what it preaches
120. To ensure that Hitching Post Weddings LLC achieves its stated goals and follows
its corporate documents, the Knapps implemented certain policies and practices.
121. For example, Hitching Post Weddings LLC requires all its employees to sign the
“Hitching Post Employee Policy, Rules, and Regulations Regarding Marriage Ceremonies.”
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122. A true and correct copy of this Employee Policy is attached to the Complaint as
Exhibit 2.
123. This Employee Policy recites the “Purpose” section in the Hitching Post
Weddings LLC Operating Agreement.
124. Then, the Employee Policy specifies the following Rules and Regulations:
• Only the Hitching Post owners and employees may perform wedding
ceremonies at the Hitching Post Chapel and other locations scheduled by
the Hitching Post. Outside ministers may not perform wedding ceremonies
at the Hitching Post Chapel or other locations scheduled by the Hitching
Post. Brides and grooms may not invite outside ministers to perform such
ceremonies. Outside ministers may come and stand alongside the Hitching
Post owner or employee who performs the wedding ceremony. But only
the Hitching Post owner or employee may perform the ceremony.

• In accordance with the religious beliefs and ministerial vows of the
Hitching Post owners, Hitching Post owners and employees will only
perform wedding ceremonies for couples entering into a one biological
male and one biological female union. Hitching Post owners and
employees will not conduct wedding ceremonies or their equivalent (i.e.
commitment ceremonies, etc.) for same-sex, polyamorous, bigamous, or
any other relationship that is inconsistent with the Hitching Post owners’
religious belief that marriage is a union between man and woman.

• In accordance with the religious beliefs and ministerial vows of the
Hitching Post owners, Hitching Post owners and employees will perform
ceremonies for those of different faiths and religious beliefs (so long as
those marriage ceremonies are consistent with the beliefs set forth herein)
because marriage is a common grace and creational gift bestowed by God
upon all humans for the benefit of human society.

• Persons of all age, race, creed, color, sex, national origin, religion, sexual
orientation, gender identity/expression, disability, marital status, and
socioeconomic status are welcomed and encouraged to stand with brides
and grooms and to attend wedding ceremonies.

• Persons of all age, race, creed, color, sex, national origin, religion, sexual
orientation, gender identity/expression, disability, marital status, and
socioeconomic status are welcomed and encouraged to obtain any
resource about marriage provided by the Hitching Post.

125. After these rules, the Employee Policy states:
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As an employee of the Hitching Post, I agree to perform my job-related activities
in accordance with the rules specified above. I agree that I will not perform
wedding ceremonies or their equivalent at the Hitching Post Chapel or at any
locations scheduled by the Hitching Post in a way that violates the rules specified
above.

126. The Employee Policy finally requires Hitching Post Employees to affirm that they
have read and agree to abide by this policy.
127. Employees do so by signing this Policy.
128. Every current employee and owner of Hitching Post Weddings LLC has signed
this Employee Policy.
129. Hitching Post Weddings LLC also requires every wedding ceremony customer to
sign its “Hitching Post Wedding Customer Policy, Rules, and Regulations Regarding Marriage
Ceremonies.”
130. A true and correct copy of this Customer Policy is attached to the Complaint as
Exhibit 3.
131. This Customer Policy states the following:
The Hitching Post is a religious corporation owned by Christian ministers for a
religious purpose. If you would like to read a full description of the Hitching
Post’s purpose and character and a full description of the wedding ceremonies the
Hitching Post will perform, a document outlining these is available upon request.
Because of its religious purpose and character, the Hitching Post will only
perform wedding ceremonies consistent with the owners’ religious beliefs.
Therefore, Hitching Post owners and employees will not conduct wedding
ceremonies or their equivalent (i.e. commitment ceremonies, etc.) for same-sex,
polyamorous, bigamous, or any other relationship that is inconsistent with the
Hitching Post owners’ religious belief that marriage is a union between one
biological male and one biological female.

As a Hitching Post wedding customer, I affirm and promise that I am not
requesting the Hitching Post to provide any services that violate the rules
specified above. I affirm and promise that I am requesting the Hitching Post to
perform a wedding service between one biological male and one biological
female. If I have any questions about how these rules apply in my particular
instance, I agree to ask a Hitching Post owner or employee before the Hitching
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Post performs my wedding ceremony at the Hitching Post Chapel or at locations
scheduled by the Hitching Post.

Please sign that you have read this policy and agree to abide by it:

132. Hitching Post Weddings LLC will not perform a wedding ceremony for
customers until they sign a copy of the Customer Policy.
We are gathered here today to join this man and this woman: services at the Hitching Post
Chapel

133. Since the Knapps bought the Hitching Post in 1989, the Hitching Post has offered
and charged for Hitching Post employees to officiate weddings.
134. On average, the Hitching Post performs roughly 1,400 weddings per year.
135. The Knapps have performed nearly every one of these weddings since the time
they first bought The Hitching Post.
136. The Knapps have hired other ministers to officiate weddings for the Hitching
Post.
137. Before hiring any minister, the Knapps ask the minister to perform a wedding
service in front of them. That way, the Knapps ensure that the minister performs ceremonies
consistent with their religious beliefs.
138. The Hitching Post does not allow customers to use their own ministers to perform
weddings at the Hitching Post Chapel.
139. The Hitching Post offers wedding services at the Hitching Post Chapel at 524 N
Government Way and at other venues when requested. For example, the Knapps have performed
wedding ceremonies in parks, churches, and private homes.
140. But almost all Hitching Post wedding ceremonies occur at the Hitching Post
Chapel.
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141. This chapel offers three rooms for wedding ceremonies: the western room, the
Victorian style sitting room, and the main chapel room.
142. The Knapps display religious messages, religious symbols, religious books,
scripture quotes, and inspirational Christian-based poems or phrases throughout The Hitching
Post Chapel.
143. On the door frame to the main chapel where the Knapps perform most weddings
is a sign that says “CHAPEL”.
144. Above that sign is another larger sign that states: “ALL BECAUSE TWO
PEOPLE FELL IN LOVE….”
145. On the back of the door into the main chapel is a sign that reads: “WEDDING
CEREMONY IS BEING PERFORMED, Please Take a Seat, The Minister will be Right with
you, Thank You.”
146. The above sign is placed on the back of the main chapel door because that side of
the door faces the Hitching Post Chapel’s front room, where prospective customers enter.
147. The Ten Commandments from the Book of Exodus in the Bible is displayed in the
main chapel.
148. In two, separate framed pictures, the Knapps also hang documents displaying the
Bible’s teaching about the attributes of love from I Corinthians 13.
149. The document in the pictures frame states the following:
Love is patient. Love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It
is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of
wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always
protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails.
1 Corinthians. 13.

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150. The Knapps also display a plaque that expresses their belief that J esus Christ is
Lord and Savior in the Hitching Post Chapel’s front room where they first welcome customers.
151. This wooden plaque contains an icthys: a symbol consisting of two intersecting
arcs, the ends of the right side extending beyond the meeting point so as to resemble the profile
of a fish.
152. Throughout history, Christians have used the ichtys as a symbol to great and
recognize each other.
153. Inside the ichtys on the Knapps’s plaque are the following Greek letters: Iota, Chi,
Theta, Upsilon, Sigma.
154. Below the ichtys on the plaque, the following English text appears:
J ESUS CHRIST SON OF GOD SAVIOR.
155. This English text translates what the Greek text above it stands for.
156. The Knapps also place Bibles and books that provide biblically-based guidance
for marriage in the front room where they first welcome customers.
157. Also, prominently displayed on the Knapps’s main desk in the front room is “The
Star Book for Ministers” by Edward T. Hiscox.
158. This book is a resource for evangelical pastors regarding any number of religious
functions and duties they may be called upon to perform, including religious ceremonies like
marriages.
159. Most ceremonies at the Hitching Post Chapel occur in the main chapel room.
160. Most ceremonies begin with soft, instrumental music played over a speaker.
161. Then the Hitching Post minister directs the ceremony.
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162. While each Hitching Post minister adds personal touches to their wedding
ceremonies, they perform substantially the same ceremony.
163. For example, a sample ceremony is attached to the Complaint as Exhibit 4. This
sample is a true and correct description of the ceremony Mrs. Knapp performs.
164. Mrs. Knapp begins her ceremony this way:
Mrs. Knapp: We're gathered here to join this man and this woman in Holy
Matrimony, which is honorable among all men and is not to be entered into
unadvisedly, or lightly, but reverently, discretely and in the fear of God.

165. Mrs. Knapp proceeds to ask the groom questions and have him repeat vows to his
bride:
Mrs. Knapp: Do you take the lady whom you now hold by the hand, to be your
lawful and wedded wife? (I Do). Do you promise to love and cherish her in
sickness and in health, for richer, for poorer, for better for worse, and forsaking all
others keep you only unto her so long as you both shall live? (I do)

Groom repeats vows: I ___ take you ____, to be my wedded wife, to have and to
hold from this Day forward, for better or worse, for richer or poorer, in sickness
and in health, to love and to cherish, till death do us part.

166. Mrs. Knapp asks similar questions to the bride and has her repeat vows to the
groom.
167. Mrs. Knapp then asks the couple joint questions:
Mrs. Knapp: Do you both promise in the presence of God that you will at all
times and in all circumstances treat each other with respect as is appropriate for a
husband and a wife. (I Do). That you will love, cherish and stay with one another
until separated by death. (I Do)

168. Mrs. Knapp then proceeds to give a homily that directly references 1 Corinthians
13.
169. This homily includes the following:
I'd like to talk to you about Love. Love is a very small word, but there is a lot of
meaning to it. God has told us something about love and since He created
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marriage and love, I think that He has some great advice for us and if we follow
what he says, you will have a great marriage. He tells us that Love is kind, is not
selfish, Love keeps no record of wrongs, works to please, trusts, hopes,
perseveres.

170. After applying these scriptural principles to the bride and groom, Mrs. Knapp
explains the significance of wedding rings and instructs the couple to exchange rings.
171. Mrs. Knapp then prays over the couple:
Dear Lord, Bless ____ and ____, help them as a husband and wife to do things
that will build a marriage, that ____ would often tell ____ how much she respects
him and appreciates him, and that ____ will give ____ the Love and tenderness
and kindness that she needs. Help them to be not only lovers, but best friends,
sharing what is in their hearts with each other. Thank you for this Lord, in J esus
Name, Amen.

172. Finally, Mrs. Knapp pronounces the couple married:
Forasmuch as ____ and ____ have consented together in Holy wedlock and have
witnessed the same before God and have given and pledged their commitment to
each other and have declared the same by the giving and receiving of rings and
joining of hands. I pronounce that you are Husband and Wife in the Name of the
Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Amen. You may now kiss the bride.

173. Mrs. Knapp performs this precise ceremony for most ceremonies she performs.
174. Mrs. Knapp occasionally varies the ceremony in minor ways. For example,
sometimes she focuses on God’s forgiveness and encourages the couple to forgive each other just
as God forgives them. Other times, she references the Golden Rule rather than 1 Corinthians 13.
More rarely, Mrs. Knapp explains the concept of love described in 1 Corinthians 13 without
explicitly referencing that text. Mrs. Knapp tries to personalize the service to the couple as much
as she can.
175. For ceremonies she performs, Mrs. Knapp decides what to say about marriage and
how to say it.
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176. Mrs. Knapp’s ceremonies convey her religious expression as an ordained
minister.
177. Mrs. Knapp conveys religious messages and religious concepts through her
wedding ceremonies. Mrs. Knapp intentionally creates a wedding service that honors God and
that conveys God’s intention for marriage. Through her ceremonies, Mrs. Knapp also
communicates that God loves marriage and people should follow God’s guidance about
marriage.
178. Since purchasing the Hitching Post in 1989, Mrs. Knapp has performed
approximately 1,500 wedding ceremonies.
179. Every one of these ceremonies had been consistent with her religious beliefs.
180. Mr. Knapp typically performs ceremonies with similar structure, format, and
substance as Mrs. Knapp’s ceremonies.
181. A ceremony Mr. Knapp performed is available at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4QY21qg6Y4M. A copy of this video is attached to this
Complaint as Exhibit 5.
182. This video reflects a typical ceremony Mr. Knapp performs. Most ceremonies Mr.
Knapp performs are similar to this video.
183. As this video suggests, Mr. Knapp usually relies on the Golden Rule to form the
basis for his homilies. Mr. Knapp also prays and references God and the Bible.
184. Mr. Knapp tries to personalize his services to each couple as much as he can.
185. For ceremonies he performs, Mr. Knapp decides what to say about marriage and
how to say it.
186. Mr. Knapp’s ceremonies convey his religious expression as an ordained minister.
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187. Mr. Knapp conveys religious messages and religious concepts through his
wedding ceremonies. Mr. Knapp intentionally creates a wedding service that honors God and
that conveys God’s intention for marriage. Through his ceremonies, Mr. Knapp also
communicates that God loves marriage and people should follow God’s guidance about
marriage.
188. Since purchasing the Hitching Post in 1989, Mr. Knapp has performed
approximately 34,000 wedding ceremonies.
189. Every one of these ceremonies had been consistent with his religious beliefs.
190. The wedding services the Hitching Post offers are religious ceremonies.
191. When they perform wedding ceremonies, the Knapps express messages on their
own behalf and on behalf of Hitching Post Weddings, LLC.
192. When they perform wedding ceremonies, the Knapps express their religious
messages and religious messages on behalf of Hitching Post Weddings, LLC.
193. The Hitching Post charges between $80 and $102 for their wedding services.
194. This charge varies based on the date of the wedding (weekday or weekend) and
whether the couple wants photographs taken.
195. If a couple wants photographs, the presiding Hitching Post minister photographs
the couple six to ten times after the ceremony using a Hitching Post owned digital camera. If
another Hitching Post employee is present, that employee will take pictures of the ceremony.
196. The Hitching Post then gives the couple the photographs on a secure digital card.
197. The Hitching Post only provides photography services for wedding ceremonies
performed by Hitching Post ministers.
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198. To every wedding customer, the Hitching Post provides some resources about
marriage.
199. These resources offer advice about how to foster a successful marriage.
200. These resources reference and rely on the Bible or rely on biblical principles.
201. The Knapps provide these resources to every customer because they believe that
exposing them to God’s love and design for marriage provides the best chance for the customers
to have a successful and lasting marriage.
202. The Knapps hope and frequently pray that wedding customers will read and view
these resources and come to believe in J esus Christ and come to base their marriage on biblical
principles.
203. For example, the Hitching Post provides a CD to every wedding customer. This
CD contains two audio files of the Knapps’s pastor at Life Center Foursquare Church, J oe
Wittwer.
204. The first audio file on the Hitching Post CD contains a message entitled “Proven
Ideas for Building Strong Marriages.” This message is also available at
http://hitchingpostweddings.com/advice/.
205. Pastor Wittwer recorded this message specifically for the Hitching Post.
206. Around 1994, Mr. Knapp went to Pastor Wittwer and asked him to create a
message the Hitching Post could distribute to its customers.
207. Mr. Knapp wanted to do this to give customers a resource they could reference
repeatedly to strengthen their marriages.
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208. Pastor Wittwer gave Mr. Knapp this message around 1994, and the Hitching Post
began distributing it on cassettes at first and then on CDs. Wittwer updated this message around
2005, and the Hitching Post placed it on their website in summer of 2014.
209. In this message, Wittwer asserts that “God designed and created marriage, and
nobody knows better than God how to make a marriage work well.” Wittwer then encourages the
listeners to seek wisdom from the Bible to foster their marriage.
210. Wittwer also encourages the listeners to love their spouses. And Wittwer defines
love not as a feeling but as a commitment to do what is best for the other person no matter what
it costs.
211. Wittwer does not hide what this love looks like: “I can’t think of a better example
of love than the Lord J esus Christ. The Bible says that it was love that made him die on the cross
for you and me.”
212. Likewise, Wittwer encourages the listeners to forgive each other in their
marriages. Wittwer again points to J esus as the example: “The Bible says that in J esus God has
forgiven all of our sins, every sin, past, present, future are all forgiven in Christ.”
213. Wittwer also cites Luke 6:38 and Ephesians 5 and concludes by praying to God
for the couples listening to the recording: “I pray that they could put you, J esus, at the very
center of their relationship. That as they love you more, their love for each other will grow as
well.”
214. The second audio file on the Hitching Post CD contains a 47 minute sermon from
Wittwer entitled “Commitment — A Superglue of Marriage.”
215. A copy of this sermon is also available at
http://hitchingpostweddings.com/advice/.
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216. Pastor Wittwer originally gave this sermon at his church.
217. In his “Commitment — A Superglue of Marriage” sermon, Pastor Wittwer cites
the following Bible verses:
• Genesis 2:24: “For this reason, a man will leave his father and mother and be
united to his wife, and they will become one flesh.”

• J ohn 3:16: “For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that
whoever believes in him shall not perish but have everlasting life.”

• Romans 5:8: “But God demonstrates his own love for us in this: While we were
still sinners, Christ died for us.”

• 1 J ohn 3:16: “This is how we know what love is: J esus Christ laid down his life
for us.”

• 1 J ohn 4:9-10: “This is how God showed his love among us: he sent his one and
only Son into the world that we might live through him. And this is love: not that
we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son as an atoning sacrifice for our
sins.

• Leviticus 19:32: “Rise up in the presence of the aged, show respect for the elderly
and revere your God.”

218. Wittwer also emphasizes that God intends every marriage to be permanent.
Wittwer then provides some skills and values that will help married couples stay together and
highlights commitment as the most important value for a permanent marriage: “Marriage is a
covenant between two people based on promises we make before God and keep with his help.”
219. To emphasize commitment’s importance for marriage, Wittwer cites sample
marriage vows and explains them through the prism of J esus’ actions and words. Wittwer also
has married couples in his audience recite these marriage vows line by line to each other.
220. Wittwer finishes his sermon this way: “These are big promises, and we need
God’s help. So help me God. Help me. Want a superglue marriage? Make the promises. Repeat
them often to each other. And ask God for his help. So help me God. I choose us.”
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221. In addition to the CD with Pastor Wittwer’s messages about marriage, the
Hitching Post also currently provides a book to every wedding customer.
222. This book is entitled “Marriage Building It to Last” by Bob and Page Bingham.
223. This 283 page book provides advice about how to maintain and develop a
marriage, including advice about sex, love, decision making, and the differences between men
and women, that is consistent with biblical teaching regarding marriage.
224. Besides wedding ceremonies, the Hitching Post also sells postcards with pictures
of the Hitching Post Chapel. The Hitching Post has sold postcards for approximately 10 years.
225. The Hitching Post has sold and will continue to sell these postcards to anyone
regardless of their race, color, religion, creed, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national
origin, ancestry, age, or veteran status.
226. With respect to wedding ceremony services, the Hitching Post has offered and
will continue to offer its services to anyone regardless of their race, color, religion, creed, sex,
national origin, ancestry, age, or veteran status.
Hitching Post promotes marriage online: Hitchingpostweddings.com
227. The Knapps also pay a company to maintain a website for the Hitching Post. The
website is accessible at http://hitchingpostweddings.com/.
228. The Knapps decide what content to place on this website.
229. This website explains the history of the Hitching Post and provides customers
information about pricing, the Hitching Post staff, and wedding reservations.
230. The website also contains an “Advice” section with a host of free resources about
how to develop a successful and lasting marriage. See http://hitchingpostweddings.com/advice/.
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231. For example, this advice section provides a link to a 45 minute sermon Pastor
Wittwer originally gave at his church. This sermon is entitled “The Essence of Marriage.”
232. A true and correct copy of a video of Wittwer’s “The Essence of Marriage”
sermon is available at http://vimeo.com/79140854. A true and correct copy of this video is also
located on the CD attached to this Complaint as Exhibit 6.
233. In this video, Pastor Wittwer cites the following Bible verses:
• Ephesians 5:31: “For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be
united to his wife, and the two will become one flesh”

• Deuteronomy 10:20: “Fear the Lord your God and serve him. Hold fast to him
and take your oaths in his name.”

• Exodus 19:4-6: “‘You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt, and how I
carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself. Now if you obey me
fully and keep my covenant, then out of all nations you will be my treasured
possession. Although the whole earth is mine, you will be for me a kingdom of
priests and a holy nation.’ These are the words you are to speak to the Israelites.”

• J ohn 3:16: “For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that
whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.”

• Romans 5:8: “But God demonstrates his own love for us in this: While we were
still sinners, Christ died for us.”

• 1 J ohn 4:10: “This is love: not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent
his Son as an atoning sacrifice for our sins.”

234. Wittwer then defines marriage as “a covenant between a man and a woman based
on promises they make before God and keep with his help.” He exhorts his audience to spurn the
consumerist model of marriage, where spouses leave a marriage when it does not meet their
needs, and adopt a covenantal model of marriage that mimics God’s relationship with his church:
a permanent relationship where the partners are fully known by each other yet fully loved by
each other. He finally concludes with prayer, thanking God because “you are the covenant
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keeping God, that you are the one who said, I will never leave you, I will always love you, I will
always forgive you. I promise.”
235. Below the link to Wittwer’s sermon, the advice page on the Hitching Post website
then contains a section of “Love Quotes.”
236. The following quotations appear in this section:
• So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to
you…. – Matthew 7:12

• However, each one of you also must love his wife as he loves
himself, and the wife must respect her husband. – Ephesians 5:33

• Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is
not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-serving (selfish), it is not easily
angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil
but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always
hopes, always perseveres. I – Corinthians 13:4-7 (NIV)

237. The advice page next contains a “Recommended Listening” section with two
recordings.
238. The first recording contains Wittwer’s “Proven Ideas for Building Strong
Marriages” message. The second recording contains Wittwer’s “Commitment - A Superglue of
Marriage” sermon.
239. The same message and sermon also appears on the CD the Hitching Post gives to
every wedding ceremony customer. The content of this message and sermon are described
above.
240. Finally, the advice page on the Hitching Post website contains a “Recommended
Reading” section. This section contains links to the Amazon webpage where viewers can buy
particular books about marriage.
241. The Recommended Reading section contains links to the following books:
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• “The Meaning of Marriage” by Timothy Keller
• “Love and Respect” by Emerson Eggerichs
• “The 5 Love Languages” by Gary Chapman
• “The Proper Care and Feeding of Husbands” by Dr. Laura Schlessinger
• “His Needs, Her Needs” by William Harley
• “Communication, Key To Your Marriage” by H. Norman Wright
• “Before You Say I DO” by N. Wright
• “For Better or For Best” by Gary Smalley
• “Love For A Lifetime” by J ames Dobson
• “Love Is A Decision” by Gary Smalley
242. Timothy Keller is the pastor of Redeemer Presbyterian Church in New York City.
243. Emerson Eggerichs was the senior pastor of Trinity Church in East Lansing,
Michigan.
244. Gary Chapman is the senior associate pastor at Calvary Baptist Church in
Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
245. H. Norman Wright is the Research Professor of Christian Education at Talbot
School of Theology.
246. J ames Dobson is founder and chairman emeritus of Focus on the Family.
247. Gary Smalley is the founder of the Smalley Relationship Center and the author of
books on family relationships from a Christian perspective.
248. Six books listed on the Hitching Post website cite the Bible to provide advice
about marriage.
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249. Those that do not are, in the view of the Knapps, consistent with the Bible’s
teachings concerning marriage.
250. The Knapps recommend these resources on the Hitching Post website because
they want everyone to access these resources and come to believe in J esus Christ and base their
marriage on biblical principles.
251. On the Hitching Post website and in many resources linked on this website, the
Hitching Post promotes the message that God created marriage to be a one-man-one-woman
covenant.
252. The Hitching Post website and many resources linked on this website encourage
couples to base their marriages on the Bible.
253. If the Knapps performed a same-sex marriage ceremony, they would be
expressing a message about marriage that contradicts the messages they promote on their
website.
Hitching Post refuses to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies
254. For as long as the Knapps have owned it, the Hitching Post has never allowed its
ministers to officiate same-sex weddings because doing so would violate the Knapps’s religious
beliefs.
255. As a result, Hitching Post employees have refused requests to perform same-sex
wedding and commitment ceremonies.
256. Mr. Knapp has refused to perform same-sex ceremonies at least 15 separate times
since 1989.
257. For example, a woman called the Hitching Post Chapel in the 1990s and asked
Mr. Knapp if the Hitching Post married women.
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258. Confused, Mr. Knapp asked what she meant. The woman then asked does the
Hitching Post marry lesbians.
259. Mr. Knapp responded no.
260. Another incident occurred around May 2014.
261. At that time, two women came to the Hitching Post Chapel together and asked in
person to be married. One woman was elderly and the other was much younger. They appeared
to be 20 years apart in age difference.
262. The Hitching Post employee working the front desk at the time declined their
request. The couple then left.
263. That employee told Mr. Knapp about the incident after the fact, and Mr. Knapp
agreed that the employee followed company policy by denying the request.
264. On October 17, 2014, a prospective customer called and asked if The Hitching
Post would perform a same-sex wedding ceremony. In accordance with their sincerely held
religious convictions and ministerial vows, Mrs. Knapp politely responded that The Hitching
Post does not perform same-sex wedding ceremonies because it is a religious organization. She
also informed the individual that the county clerk’s office could provide him a list of places
where he could get married. The Knapps do not intend to change this decision.
265. In accordance with their sincerely held religious convictions and ministerial vows,
the Knapps intend to decline any other requests they receive to perform same-sex wedding
ceremonies at The Hitching Post.
Coeur d’Alene passes Ordinance 9.56; Ordinance 9.56 applies to the Hitching Post Chapel
266. The Coeur d’Alene City Council passed Ordinance 9.56 on J une 4, 2013, by a 5-1
vote.
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267. During testimony before the vote, business owners raised concerns that the
ordinance would force them to compromise their faith and expose them to costly litigation.
268. According to media reports, Councilman Steve Adams warned that “[i]nevitably
the ordinance will be used as a sword more than a shield.”
269. Also according to media reports, Councilwoman Deanna Goodlander stated that
the ordinance sends “the message that intolerance does not belong in Coeur d’Alene.”
270. The Ordinance states that “[t]he following acts are prohibited and shall constitute
a misdemeanor: … To deny to or to discriminate against any person because of sexual
orientation and/or gender identity/expression the full enjoyment of any of the accommodations,
advantages, facilities or privileges of any place of public resort, accommodation, assemblage, or
amusement.”
271. Ordinance 9.56 defines “public accommodation” as follows:
PLACE OF PUBLIC RESORT, ACCOMMODATION, ASSEMBLAGE OR
AMUSEMENT: Includes, but is not limited to, any public place, licensed or
unlicensed, kept for gain, hire or reward, or where charges are made for
admission, service, occupancy or use of any property or facilities, whether
conducted for the entertainment, housing or lodging of transient guests, or for the
benefit, use or accommodation of those seeking health, recreation or rest, or for
the sale of goods and merchandise, or for the rendering of personal services, or for
public conveyance or transportation on land, water or in the air, including the
stations and terminals thereof and the garaging of vehicles, or where food or
beverages of any kind are sold for consumption on the premises, or where public
amusement, entertainment, sports or recreation of any kind is offered with or
without charge, or where medical service or care is made available, or where the
public gathers, congregates, or assembles for amusement, recreation or public
purposes, or public halls, public elevators and public washrooms of buildings and
structures occupied by two (2) or more tenants, or by the owner and one or more
tenants, or any public library or any educational institution wholly or partially
supported by public funds, or schools of special instruction.

272. The Hitching Post Chapel qualifies as a “public accommodation” under the
Ordinance.
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273. The Hitching Post qualifies as a “public accommodation” under the Ordinance for
at least three reasons: (1) it is a public place; (2) it is operated for a profit (i.e. “kept for gain”);
(3) it charges for the wedding ceremonies and other marriage-related services it offers.
274. Accordingly, the Ordinance’s bar on sexual orientation discrimination applies to
The Hitching Post and its operations.
275. The City interprets Ordinance §9.56, and specifically its bar on sexual orientation
discrimination, to bar a public accommodation from declining to provide a service to same-sex
couples that it would provide to opposite-sex couples or to anyone else.
276. The Ordinance provides that a “violation of this chapter is a misdemeanor,
punishable as provided in title 1, chapter 1.28 of this code.”
277. Chapter 1.28 states that a misdemeanor is punishable “by a fine of not more than
one thousand dollars ($1,000.00), or by imprisonment not to exceed one hundred eighty (180)
days, or by both such fine and imprisonment.”
278. Chapter 1.28 further provides that “[e]ach such person is guilty of a separate
offense or liable to a separate penalty for each and every day during any portion of which any
violation of any provision of the ordinances of the city is committed, continued or permitted by
any such person, and he shall be punished accordingly.”
279. Accordingly, the Knapps commit a separate and distinct misdemeanor each day
they continue follow their religious beliefs and decline to perform a requested same-sex wedding
ceremony.
280. Each of those misdemeanor violations is punishable by jail time, a fine, or both.

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Coeur d’Alene officials confirm that Ordinance §9.56 applies to Hitching Post
281. Coeur d’Alene officials have also informed Mr. Knapp and the media that City
Ordinance §9.56 requires the Hitching Post to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies.
282. On May 13, 2014, a federal district court judge invalidated the Idaho laws
defining marriage as the union between a man and a woman.
283. A few days after that ruling, a reporter with the Spokesman-Review newspaper
called Mr. Knapp and asked whether he and the Hitching Post would begin performing same-sex
wedding ceremonies in light of the judge’s ruling.
284. Mr. Knapp responded: “I cannot in good conscience perform same-sex
marriages.”
285. The day after talking to the reporter, Mr. Knapp read an article in the Spokesman
Review that discussed whether Ordinance §9.56 would require the Hitching Post to perform
same-sex wedding ceremonies.
286. That article stated the following (emphasis added):
Wedding venues that turn away gay couples may violate local laws, such as Coeur
d’Alene’s prohibition on discrimination based on sexual orientation. The
provision adopted by the City Council last year applies to housing, employment
and places of public accommodation, including businesses that render public
services. “I think that term is broad enough that it would capture (wedding)
activity,” city attorney Warren Wilson said. Similar laws have applied to florists,
bakeries and photographers that have refused to work on same-sex weddings in
other states, Wilson noted. “Those have all been addressed in various states and
run afoul of state prohibitions similar to this,” he said. “I would think that the
Hitching Post would probably be considered a place of public accommodation
that would be subject to the ordinance.” In Washington, no clergy person is
required to marry a couple if doing so would violate the dictates of their faith
tradition. Idaho does not have a similar exemption in place, but religious entities
are exempt from the Coeur d’Alene ordinance, so pastors in the city are not
obligated to perform same-sex weddings. But any nonreligious business that hosts
civil ceremonies would fall under the city law, Wilson said.

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287. This newspaper article is available online at
http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2014/may/15/ministers-diverge-in-opinion-on-lifting-of-
idahos/.
288. This newspaper article contains some statements attributed to Coeur d’Alene
Deputy City Attorney Warren Wilson.
289. The statements attributed to Wilson in this newspaper article accurately reflect
statements Wilson made.
290. These statements accurately reflect the position of the Coeur d’Alene City
Attorney Office.
291. These statements accurately reflect the position of the City of Coeur d’Alene.
292. Wilson has continued to announce that Ordinance §9.56 applies to for-profit
wedding chapels including the Hitching Post.
293. For example, around May 15, 2014, a reporter with a local television station
created a report about same-sex marriage and the Hitching Post.
294. This report is available at http://www.kxly.com/news/north-idaho-news/hitching-
post-owners-will-close-before-performing-samesex-marriages/26006066. A written article also
accompanies the video report.
295. A true and correct copy of this video report is attached to this Complaint as
Exhibit 7.
296. The reporter interviewed Wilson for this report and asked him about the Hitching
Post Chapel.
297. Wilson made the following statements on camera during his interview:
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• “For profit wedding chapels in this city now are in a position where last week the
ban would have prevented them from performing gay marriages, this week gay
marriages are legal, pending an appeal to the 9th Circuit.”

• “If you turn away a gay couple or refuse to provide services to them that you
would provide for anyone else, then in theory you violated our code and you're
looking at a potential misdemeanor citation.”

298. These statements accurately reflect statements Wilson made.
299. These statements accurately reflect the position of the Coeur d’Alene City
Attorney Office.
300. These statements accurately reflect the position of the City of Coeur d’Alene.
301. The Coeur d’Alene City Attorney Office is responsible for enforcing Ordinance
§9.56.
302. After reading Wilson’s media statements, Mr. Knapp became concerned. He
wanted clarification whether the Hitching Post was violating the law because the Hitching Post
had declined requests to perform same-sex ceremonies in the past. Mr. Knapp also knew the
Hitching Post would receive these requests in the future because the Hitching Post is so popular
and so close to the county clerk’s office where marriage licenses are issued.
303. Moreover, the local media widely reported about the Hitching Post’s
unwillingness to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies.
304. Therefore, City officials knew about the Hitching Post’s unwillingness to perform
same-sex wedding ceremonies.
305. In light of this general knowledge and officials’ comments in the media, Mr.
Knapp decided to call the Coeur d’Alene City Attorney’s Office to clarify whether Ordinance
§9.56 applied to the Hitching Post.
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306. Mr. Knapp called the Coeur d’Alene City Attorney’s Office on approximately
May 20, 2014.
307. Mr. Knapp talked to Wilson, the same attorney quoted in the newspaper article.
308. Mr. Knapp asked Wilson if the Coeur d’Alene anti-discrimination ordinance
required him and the Hitching Post to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies.
309. Mr. Knapp also asked if he was exempt from the ordinance since he was an
ordained minister.
310. Wilson responded that Mr. Knapp would have to perform same-sex wedding
ceremonies because of the Coeur d’Alene ordinance.
311. Wilson also responded that Mr. Knapp was not exempt from the ordinance
because the Hitching Post was a business and not a church.
312. Mr. Knapp asked what would happen if he refused to perform the same-sex
wedding ceremonies.
313. Wilson responded that Mr. Knapp could be fined up to $1,000 and serve up to 180
days in jail.
314. Mr. Knapp was deeply concerned at the prospect of having to forgo his religious
beliefs or suffer fines and jail time. So Mr. Knapp wanted to make sure the city ordinance
required him to do what the ordinance and the officials said.
315. Approximately a month after the May 20, 2014 telephone call, Mr. Knapp again
called the Coeur d’Alene City Attorney’s Office.
316. This time, Mr. Knapp talked to either Deputy City Attorney Wilson or City
Attorney Michael Gridley.
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317. Mr. Knapp asked if the Coeur d’Alene anti-discrimination ordinance required him
and the Hitching Post to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies.
318. Wilson or Gridley responded that the Coeur d’Alene ordinance would require Mr.
Knapp to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies and that Mr. Knapp was not exempt from this
requirement.
Court decisions about same-sex marriage place Hitching Post in crosshairs
319. Although the Hitching Post declined to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies in
the past, the Hitching Post did not receive many requests to perform same-sex wedding
ceremonies because same-sex marriage has been illegal in Idaho.
320. That changed briefly on May 13 when a Federal District Court judge enjoined
Idaho’s law defining marriage as a one-man-one-woman union. See Latta v. Otter, 1:13-CV-
00482-CWD, 2014 WL 1909999 (D. Idaho May 13, 2014).
321. The Ninth Circuit stayed that order on May 20, 2014 until the Ninth Circuit
affirmed the District Court’s ruling on October 7, 2014. See Latta v. Otter, 14-35420, 2014 WL
4977682 (9th Cir. Oct. 7, 2014).
322. Although the Ninth Circuit issued its mandate that same day, United States
Supreme Court J ustice Anthony Kennedy the next day stayed that mandate until the Supreme
Court could receive briefing from the parties about the need for a longer stay. See
http://sblog.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/14A374-Kennedy-order.pdf.
323. The Supreme Court ultimately denied the Idaho Governor’s request to stay the
Ninth Circuit ruling on the afternoon of October 10. See http://sblog.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-
content/uploads/2014/10/Idaho-marriage-SCt-stay-denial-10-10-14.pdf.
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324. The Ninth Circuit then issued an order on May 13, 2014 allowing same-sex
marriages to begin in Idaho at 9:00 a.m. on October 15, 2014.
325. So county clerks throughout Idaho began issuing marriage licenses to same-sex
couples for the first time on October 15, 2014.
326. Because same-sex marriage is now legal in Idaho, the Hitching Post for the first
time faces the prospect of frequently receiving requests to perform same-sex wedding
ceremonies.
327. Likewise, the Hitching Post for the first time now faces the prospect of frequently
denying requests to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies because of the Knapps’ religious
beliefs.
328. Coeur d’Alene has not enforced Ordinance §9.56 against the Hitching Post in the
past because same-sex marriage was illegal in Idaho.
329. Now that same-sex marriage is legal in Idaho and the Hitching Post has already
denied and will deny requests to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies, Coeur d’Alene will
enforce Ordinance §9.56 against the Hitching Post.
330. The Knapps are thus under a constant, coercive, and substantial threat to violate
their religious beliefs due to the risk that they will incur the penalties of jail time and criminal
fines for declining to speak a message and perform a wedding service that contradicts their
religious beliefs and ministerial vows.
331. Any amount of jail time or criminal fines could seriously curtail the Knapps’s
ability to engage in their desired religious expression and to perform the wedding ceremonies
they are called by God to perform.
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332. The Knapps are in a constant state of fear that they may have to go to jail, pay
substantial fines, or both, resulting in them losing the business that God has called them to
operate and which they have faithfully operated for 25 years.
333. The Knapps also cannot effectively plan their business because of this imminent
threat.
334. The Knapps lease to use the Hitching Post Wedding Chapel ends October 31,
2014.
335. If they sign a lease extension and Coeur d’Alene enforces Ordinance §9.56
against them, the Knapps will have to stop performing wedding ceremonies and will be stuck
paying their lease without any source of income to do so. They cannot afford this.
336. But if they do not sign a lease extension in the next few weeks, the Knapps will
lose an extremely valuable location for their business and suffer the loss of their primary income
source.
Many Coeur d’Alene venues perform same-sex wedding ceremonies

337. While the Knapps and the Hitching Post, LLC do not perform same-sex wedding
ceremonies, many other wedding chapels and venues in Coeur d’Alene do.
338. The website for the Kootenai County Clerk’s office contains a document with a
non-exhaustive list of local wedding facilities and providers.
339. This document is available at
http://www.kcgov.us/departments/recorder/marriageforms/officiants.pdf. A true and correct copy
of this document is attached to this Complaint as Exhibit 8.
340. This document lists 26 Coeur d’Alene venues that perform wedding ceremonies.
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341. In a May 15, 2014 newspaper article in the Spokesman-Review, two Coeur
d’Alene ministers publicly confirmed they will perform same-sex wedding ceremonies.
342. This newspaper article is available at
http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2014/may/15/ministers-diverge-in-opinion-on-lifting-of-
idahos/.
343. This article contains the following statements:
Gay couples will have other options to mark their unions once they obtain a
marriage license. One person who said she’s happy to marry gay couples is
Christine Taysan, who is ordained through the Universal Life Church and has
presided over about a dozen weddings in Idaho. “I’ve put it out there since we’ve
gotten this good news (that) if anybody wants to get married on Friday that I
would offer my services free of charge,” said Taysan, who operates as Custom
Ceremonies by Christine. She expects same-sex couples will be excited to take
advantage of the opportunity to marry now in the Gem State. “It’s something that
a lot of them have been waiting a long time for.” Tracy Springberry, minister of
the North Idaho Unitarian Universalist Fellowship, said she looks forward to
presiding over same-sex weddings. “I will absolutely be performing them,” said
Springberry, who lives in Spokane and married her partner in Washington last
J uly. “It means I can really live out my faith.” So far she hasn’t been asked to
marry a same-sex couple in Idaho. “I’m interested in making sure people know
we’re there and are willing to do it,” Springberry said.

344. In light of the numerous wedding venues in Coeur d’Alene and the willingness of
many Coeur d’Alene ministers to perform same-sex ceremonies, same-sex couples will have
many venues to choose from besides the Hitching Post Chapel if they want a same-sex wedding
ceremony.
345. The Knapps will refer those seeking a same-sex marriage ceremony at the
Hitching Post to the Kootenai County Clerk’s office for its document listing other local wedding
providers.

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The Knapps and Hitching Post Weddings, LLC will continue to follow religious beliefs and
refuse to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies

346. The Knapps do not want to disobey the law. They are hardly fit for jail. Mr.
Knapp is 68, and Mrs. Knapp is 66.
347. Nor can the Knapps afford to pay $1,000 a day for violating Ordinance §9.56. The
Knapps will quickly go broke and Hitching Post Weddings, LLC will become insolvent.
348. But the Knapps do not want to shut down Hitching Post Weddings, LLC either.
This business provides their primary source of income. Without this income, the Knapps would
have to change careers and find another source of income to survive. This prospect frightens the
Knapps given their age.
349. Moreover, the Knapps feel called by God to continue their ministry at the
Hitching Post. They are compelled by their religious beliefs and their ordination vows to perform
wedding ceremonies and to encourage couples to foster Godly marriages.
350. Specifically, the Knapps feel compelled to express and promote the biblical
definition of marriage by performing wedding ceremonies for opposite-sex couples.
351. So if the Knapps stopped performing wedding ceremonies at the Hitching Post,
they would violate God’s call to them and violate their religious duty to follow God’s call.
352. But the Knapps do not want to and will not perform wedding ceremonies for
same-sex couples. The Knapps will not violate the religious beliefs they have followed for over
60 years or the ordination vows they have followed for over 35 years.
353. Therefore, in choosing between the options open to them, no option is viable. For
each option, the Knapps and the Hitching Post, LLC either violate their religious beliefs, suffer
extreme financial hardship, or risk fines and jail time.
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354. Therefore, the Knapps and Hitching Post Weddings, LLC are currently suffering
irreparable harm and need immediate relief from this Court.

ALLEGATIONS OF LAW
355. At all times relevant to this Complaint, each and all of the acts alleged were
attributed to Coeur d’Alene which acted under color of a statute, regulation, custom, or usage of
the State of Idaho.
356. The Knapps and Hitching Post Weddings, LLC are suffering imminent and
irreparable harm from Coeur d’Alene’s policy and practice.
357. The Knapps and Hitching Post Weddings, LLC have no adequate or speedy
remedy at law to correct or redress the deprivation of its rights by Coeur d’Alene.
358. Unless the conduct of Coeur d’Alene is enjoined, the Knapps and Hitching Post
Weddings, LLC will continue to suffer irreparable injury.
FIRST CAUSE OF ACTION
Violation of Plaintiffs’ First Amendment Right to Freedom of Speech
Compelled Speech, Viewpoint Discrimination, and Unconstitutional Conditions

359. Plaintiffs repeat and reallege each of the allegations contained in paragraphs 1–
358 of this Complaint.
360. Religious speech is fully protected by the First Amendment.
361. Plaintiffs engage in religious speech in their operation of The Hitching Post.
362. The owners of The Hitching Post, Plaintiffs Donald and Evelyn Knapp, are
ordained ministers who run the business according to their sincerely held religious beliefs and
their vows taken as Christian ministers.
363. The Knapps and their employees are the only persons permitted to perform
wedding ceremonies at The Hitching Post Chapel.
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364. In accordance with the Knapps’ religious beliefs and ministerial vows, The
Hitching Post Weddings, LLC and its owners and employees will only perform wedding
ceremonies that are consistent with the Christian religion.
365. Thus, among other things, The Hitching Post and the Knapps will only perform
wedding ceremonies for couples entering into a one biological male and one biological female
union.
366. The Hitching Post and the Knapps’ wedding ceremonies generally involve
references to God, the invocation of God’s blessing on the union, the exchange of religious-
based vows, prayer, and brief remarks drawn from Holy Scripture designed to encourage the
couple and help them to have a successful marriage.
367. The Hitching Post and the Knapps provide wedding and marriage-related services
for the additional purposes of publicly expressing the biblical message that marriage is between
one man and one woman, promoting the idea that marriage is a fundamental building block of
society, and instilling this biblical understanding of marriage in the communities in which it
operates.
368. The First Amendment’s Free Speech Clause prohibits the government from
compelling citizens to express or support a message not of their own choosing.
369. In accordance with the Knapps’ religious beliefs and ministerial vows, The
Hitching Post will only perform wedding ceremonies for couples entering into a one biological
male and one biological female union.
370. The City’s anti-discrimination ordinance, Chapter 9.56, requires The Hitching
Post and the Knapps to engage in expression that they do not desire to convey, namely,
performing a wedding ceremony that solemnizes marital unions that are not one-man-one-
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woman unions, like the same-sex marriage ceremony request that was the catalyst for the filing
of this lawsuit.
371. Because The Hitching Post and the Knapps declined to perform same-sex
wedding ceremonies pursuant to the Knapps’ religious convictions and ministerial vows, The
Hitching Post and its owners are now subject to criminal prosecution by the City and if convicted
could be imprisoned for up to one hundred eighty (180) days, or fined up to one thousand dollars
($1,000), or both.
372. For each day they persist in declining requested same-sex wedding ceremonies,
Plaintiffs are guilty of a separate offense and thus subject to rapidly escalating fines and jail
terms.
373. In addition, if convicted The Hitching Post and the Knapps could be ordered to
undergo “sensitivity training.”
374. The effect of the ordinance is to compel two Christian ministers to perform same-
sex wedding ceremonies in direct violation of their religious convictions and ministerial vows or,
if they decline to do so, to fine and imprison them for their unwillingness to speak in violation of
their sincerely held religious beliefs.
375. This speech compulsion violates the First Amendment.
376. The First Amendment’s Free Speech Clause also prohibits viewpoint
discrimination against protected expression.
377. The City enforces Chapter 9.56 in a viewpoint discriminatory manner in relation
to the topic of marriage.
378. The City will not prosecute or threaten to prosecute under Chapter 9.56 those
expressive businesses that provide wedding services and that are willing to express a message in
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favor of same-sex marriage, but it will prosecute or threaten to prosecute those expressive
businesses, like The Hitching Post, that provide wedding services and that are not willing to
foster such a message but rather promote the message that marriage is between one man and one
woman.
379. Thus, an expressive business must hold and express a view favorable to same-sex
marriage in order to avoid prosecution by the City and potential fines and jail time if convicted;
this is rank viewpoint discrimination.
380. The effect of Chapter 9.56—especially considering the criminal fines and jail time
it imposes on those convicted of violating it—is to impose a viewpoint-based litmus test on the
ability of residents of Coeur d’Alene to own a business, which is anathema to the First
Amendment.
381. The First Amendment’s Free Speech Clause also prohibits the government from
conditioning a benefit on the relinquishment of a constitutional right.
382. The Knapps and Hitching Post Weddings, LLC retain the right to chose the
content of their expression, to promote religious messages they choose, to participate in religious
ceremonies they choose, and to exercise their religion by performing religious ceremonies in
their capacities as ordained ministers and by operating their ministry without having to suffer jail
time, fines, sensitivity training, and other arbitrary limitations on those rights.
383. By mandating that the Knapps and Hitching Post Weddings, LLC perform same-
sex wedding ceremonies, Chapter 9.56 unconstitutionally conditions the receipt of state benefits
— specifically the right to speak, the right to remain silent, and the right to exercise their religion
by performing religious ceremonies and operating a ministry in accordance with their religious
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beliefs — on the Knapps and Hitching Post Weddings, LLC surrendering, suspending, or
limiting their constitutional rights to free speech.
384. Chapter 9.56 and the City’s enforcement thereof chill, deter, and restrict Plaintiffs
and other religiously-owned expressive businesses from freely expressing their religious beliefs.
385. Chapter 9.56, as interpreted and applied by the City to mandate speech promoting
same-sex wedding ceremonies, to punish those unwilling to express a message that violates their
own convictions, and to condition the ability to earn a living and operate a ministry on forfeiting
First Amendment freedoms is not the least restrictive means of serving any compelling interest
the City seeks to promote.
386. Chapter 9.56, as applied to Plaintiffs, accordingly violate their right to Free
Speech as guaranteed by the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution.
WHEREFORE, Plaintiffs respectfully ask that the Court grant the relief specified in the
Prayer for Relief.
SECOND CAUSE OF ACTION
Violation of Plaintiffs’ First Amendment Right to Free Exercise of Religion

387. Plaintiffs repeat and reallege each of the allegations contained in paragraphs 1–
358 of this Complaint.
388. The Knapps’ sincerely held religious beliefs prohibit them from performing,
officiating, or solemnizing a wedding ceremony between anyone other than one man and one
woman.
389. The Knapps’ sincerely held religious beliefs are derived from the Bible’s
teachings about the God-ordained institution of marriage, from their ministerial vows, and from
the doctrinal teachings of the Church in which they are ordained.
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390. The Knapps operate The Hitching Post pursuant to their sincerely held religious
beliefs.
391. The Knapps’ compliance with their religious convictions constitutes a religious
exercise.
392. The right to the free exercise of religion encompasses the right to preach,
proselytize, and perform other religious functions, or, in other words, to be a Christian minister.
393. The Knapps act as Christian ministers in their capacity as owners and operators of
The Hitching Post, and perform the religious function, among others, of officiating weddings on
behalf of The Hitching Post.
394. Chapter 9.56 as applied by the City is not facially or operationally neutral.
395. Chapter 9.56 violates the Knapps’ right to the free exercise of religion by
conditioning their right to own and operate a wedding ceremony business on their willingness to
violate their religious beliefs by performing same-sex wedding ceremonies.
396. Chapter 9.56 bars the Knapps from simultaneously owning a wedding ceremony
business and adhering to a key aspect of their religious faith.
397. Chapter 9.56 forces Plaintiffs to choose between adhering to their religious beliefs
by declining to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies and being punished with criminal fines
and jail time, or abandoning their free exercise rights by performing same-sex wedding
ceremonies in order to avoid criminal fines and jail time.
398. Chapter 9.56 thereby substantially burdens Plaintiffs’ free exercise of religion.
399. Chapter 9.56 also imposes special disabilities on Plaintiffs due to their religious
beliefs.
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400. Chapter 9.56 and the City’s enforcement thereof impermissibly prefers some
religious views over others by permitting those whose religious beliefs support same-sex
marriage to own and operate a marriage-related expressive business according to their religious
beliefs without fear of punishment, while punishing with criminal fines and jail time those who
own and operate marriage-related expressive businesses according to religious beliefs that bar
them from supporting same-sex marriage, like the Knapps.
401. The City’s preference for some religious views over Plaintiffs’ religious views
violates the Free Exercise Clause.
402. Chapter 9.56, facially and as applied by the City, is not generally applicable
because it contains categorical exemptions to the prohibition against discrimination on the basis
of sexual orientation for “[r]eligious corporations, associations, educational institutions, or
societies.”
403. Given Chapter 9.56’s broad exemption for religious corporations, associations,
schools, and societies of all types, the City has no legitimate basis for refusing to extend a
religious exemption to the Knapps who are Christian ministers engaged in a religious function.
404. Chapter 9.56 also contains the following, additional exemptions to its ban on
sexual orientation discrimination: (a) An expressive association whose employment of a person
protected by this chapter would significantly burden the association’s rights of expressive
association under Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, 530 U.S. 640 (2000); (b) The United States
government, any of its departments or agencies, or any corporation wholly owned by it; (c) the
state of Idaho or any of its departments, agencies, or political subdivisions, other than the city of
Coeur d’Alene; (d) the rental of a housing accommodation in a building which contains housing
accommodations for not more than two (2) families living independently of each other, if the
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1 Filed 10/17/14 Page 54 of 63
55
lessor or a member of his family resides in one of the housing accommodations, or (e) to the
rental of a room or rooms in a single-family residential housing accommodation by an individual
if he or a member of his family resides therein.
405. The enforcement of Chapter 9.56 against the Knapps, with its promise of criminal
fines, jail time, or both, imposes severe coercive pressure on the Knapps to change or violate
their religious beliefs.
406. Chapter 9.56 also violates Plaintiffs’ free exercise rights under the hybrid rights
doctrine because it implicates Plaintiffs’ free exercise rights in conjunction with other
constitutional protections, like their right to free speech and their due process right to earn a
livelihood free from unreasonable governmental interference.
407. The City has no compelling interest in forcing the Knapps to perform same-sex
wedding ceremonies in violation of their religious beliefs.
408. Forcing the Knapps to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies in violation of their
religious beliefs does not further any legitimate interests the City might assert.
409. Forcing the Knapps to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies in violation of their
religious beliefs is not the least restrictive means available to the City of furthering any
legitimate interests it might assert.
410. Chapter 9.56 and the City’s enforcement thereof unconstitutionally chills
Plaintiffs’ freedom of religious exercise and expression, both of which are fundamental rights
guaranteed to Plaintiffs’ by the First and Fourteenth Amendments.
411. Chapter 9.56, as applied to Plaintiffs, accordingly violates their right to freely
exercise their religion as guaranteed by the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the United
States Constitution.
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56
WHEREFORE, Plaintiffs respectfully ask that the Court grant the relief specified in the
Prayer for Relief.
THIRD CAUSE OF ACTION
Violation of Plaintiffs’ Rights under the Idaho Free Exercise of Religion Protected Act
(FERPA)

412. Plaintiffs repeat and reallege each of the allegations contained in paragraphs 1–
358 of this Complaint.
413. The Idaho Free Exercise of Religion Protected Act (FERPA) provides that “[f]ree
exercise of religion is a fundamental right that applies in this state, even if laws, rules or other
government actions are facially neutral.”
414. FERPA also provides that the “government shall not substantially burden a
person’s exercise of religion even if the burden results from a rule of general applicability.”
415. The Knapps’ sincerely held religious beliefs prohibit them from performing,
officiating, or solemnizing a wedding ceremony between anyone other than one man and one
woman.
416. The Knapps’ sincerely held religious beliefs are derived from the Bible’s
teachings concerning the God-ordained institution of marriage, from their ministerial vows, and
from the doctrinal teachings of the Church in which they are ordained.
417. The Knapps operate The Hitching Post pursuant to their sincerely held religious
beliefs.
418. The Knapps’ compliance with their religious convictions constitutes an exercise
of religion under FERPA.
419. Chapter 9.56 forces Plaintiffs to choose between adhering to their religious beliefs
by declining to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies and being punished with jail time and
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1 Filed 10/17/14 Page 56 of 63
57
criminal fines, or abandoning their free exercise rights by performing same-sex wedding
ceremonies in order to avoid criminal fines and jail time.
420. Chapter 9.56’s severe penalties effectively prevent the Knapps from
simultaneously owning and operating a wedding ceremony business and adhering to a key aspect
of their religious faith.
421. The enforcement of Chapter 9.56 against the Knapps, with its promise of jail time,
criminal fines, or both, imposes severe coercive pressure on the Knapps to change or violate their
religious beliefs.
422. Chapter 9.56 thereby substantially burdens Plaintiffs’ free exercise of religion.
423. FERPA provides that the government must show that its substantial burden on a
person’s exercise of religion is “[e]ssential to further a compelling governmental interest” and
the “least restrictive means of furthering that compelling governmental interest.”
424. The City has no compelling interest in forcing the Knapps to perform same-sex
wedding ceremonies in violation of their religious beliefs.
425. Forcing the Knapps to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies in violation of their
religious beliefs does not further any legitimate interests the City might assert.
426. Forcing the Knapps to perform same-sex wedding ceremonies in violation of their
religious beliefs is not the least restrictive means available to the City of furthering any
legitimate interests it might assert.
427. Chapter 9.56, as applied to Plaintiffs, accordingly violates their right to freely
exercise their religion as guaranteed by the Idaho Free Exercise of Religion Protected Act.
WHEREFORE, Plaintiffs respectfully ask that the Court grant the relief in the Prayer for
Relief.
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FOURTH CAUSE OF ACTION
Violation of Plaintiffs’ Fourteenth Amendment Right to Equal Protection

428. Plaintiffs repeat and reallege each of the allegations contained in paragraphs 1–
358 of this Complaint.
429. The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees
Plaintiffs the equal protection of the laws, which prohibits the City from treating Plaintiffs
differently than similarly situated persons and businesses.
430. The government may not treat someone disparately as compared to similarly
situated persons when such disparate treatment burdens a fundamental right.
431. Plaintiffs are similarly situated to other persons and expressive businesses that
provide marriage-related services.
432. Chapter 9.56 and the City’s enforcement thereof treats Plaintiffs’ religious speech
and exercise of religion differently than those similarly situated to Plaintiffs by permitting those
whose religious beliefs support same-sex marriage to own and operate a marriage-related
expressive business according to their religious beliefs without fear of punishment, while
punishing with criminal fines and jail time those who own and operate marriage-related
expressive businesses according to religious beliefs that bar them from supporting same-sex
marriage.
433. The City’s discriminatory enforcement of Chapter 9.56 violates several
fundamental rights of Plaintiffs, such as their freedom of speech and free exercise of religion.
434. When the enforcement of government regulations, like Chapter 9.56, infringe on
such fundamental rights, discriminatory intent is presumed.
435. In this case, the presumption of discriminatory intent is borne out by the City’s
intentional discrimination against Plaintiffs’ religious speech and free exercise of religion.
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1 Filed 10/17/14 Page 58 of 63
59
436. The City lacks a rational or compelling state interest for such disparate treatment
of Plaintiffs.
437. The City’s disparate treatment of Plaintiffs is not narrowly tailored to further any
legitimate government interest the City may allege.
438. Chapter 9.56, as applied to Plaintiffs, thus violates their right to equal protection
of the laws as guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
WHEREFORE, Plaintiffs respectfully ask that the Court grant the relief in the Prayer for
Relief.
FIFTH CAUSE OF ACTION
Violation of Plaintiffs’ Fourteenth Amendment Right to Due Process

439. Plaintiffs repeat and reallege each of the allegations contained in paragraphs 1–
358 of this Complaint.
440. The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees
Plaintiffs the right to due process of law, which includes the right to own and operate a business
and earn a livelihood free from unreasonable governmental interference.
441. Chapter 9.56 unreasonably interferes with the Knapps due process rights by
threatening them with jail time, criminal fines, or both, if they continue to operate their business
in accordance with their religious convictions.
442. Chapter 9.56, as applied to Plaintiffs, thus violates their right to due process as
guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
WHEREFORE, Plaintiffs respectfully ask that the Court grant the relief in the Prayer for
Relief.
PRAYER FOR RELIEF
WHEREFORE, Plaintiffs ask this Court to enter judgment against Defendant and provide
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1 Filed 10/17/14 Page 59 of 63
60
Plaintiffs with the following relief:
(A) A temporary restraining order, preliminary injunction, and permanent injunction
prohibiting the City, its agents, officials, servants, employees, and any other
persons acting in its behalf, from enforcing Chapter 9.56 against Plaintiffs based
on their decision not to perform, officiate, or solemnize same-sex marriages;
(B) A declaratory judgment that Chapter 9.56, as-applied to Plaintiffs, violates the
First and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution;
(C) That this Court adjudge, decree, and declare the rights and other legal relations of
the parties to the subject matter here in controversy, in order that such
declarations shall have the force and effect of final judgment;
(D) That this Court retain jurisdiction of this matter for the purpose of enforcing any
Orders;
(E) That the Court award Plaintiffs’ costs and expenses of this action, including a
reasonable attorneys’ fees award, in accordance with 42 U.S.C. § 1988 and with
Idaho Code. § 73-402(4);
(F) That this Court award nominal and compensatory damages for the violation of
Plaintiffs’ constitutional rights and for lost income;
(G) That this Court issue the requested injunctive relief without a condition of bond or
other security being required of Plaintiffs; and
(H) That the Court grant such other and further relief as the Court deems equitable
and just in the circumstances.




Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1 Filed 10/17/14 Page 60 of 63
61
Respectfully submitted this 17th day of October, 2014,
By: /s/Virginia McNulty Robinson
DAVID A. CORTMAN*
dcortman@alliancedefendingfreedom.org
Georgia Bar No. 188810
KEVIN H. THERIOT*
ktheriot@alliancedefendingfreedom.org
Georgia Bar No. 373095
RORY T. GRAY*
rgray@alliancedefendingfreedom.org
Georgia Bar No. 373095
ALLIANCE DEFENDING FREEDOM
1000 Hurricane Shoals Road NE, Suite D-
1100
Lawrenceville, Georgia 30043
(770) 339-0774
(770) 339-6744 Fax

J EREMY D. TEDESCO*
jtedesco@alliancedefendingfreedom.org
Arizona Bar No. 023497
J ONATHAN A. SCRUGGS*
jscruggs@alliancedefendingfreedom.org
Arizona Bar No. 030505
ALLIANCE DEFENDING FREEDOM
15100 N. 90
th
Street
Scottsdale, AZ 85260
(480)-444-0020
(480)-444-0028 Fax

VIRGINIA MCNULTY ROBINSON
vrobinson@robinsonlaw-pllc.com
Idaho Bar No. 7380
ROBINSON LAW, PLLC
1910 Northwest Blvd., Suite 200
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 83814
(208) 664-1139
(208) 664-1171 Fax

*Application for admission pro hac vice
forthcoming.


ATTORNEYS FOR PLAINTIFFS
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Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-1 Filed 10/17/14 Page 1 of 2
JS 44 Reverse (Rev 09/11)
INSTRUCTIONS FOR ATTORNEYS COMPLETING CIVIL COVER SHEET FORM 1S 44
Authority For Civil Cover Sheet
The JS 44 civil cover sheet andthe inIormation contained herein neither replaces nor supplements the Iilings and service oI pl eading or other papers as required
by law, except as provided by local rules oI court. This Iorm, approved by the Judicial ConIerence oI the United States in September 1974, is required Ior the
use oI the Clerk oI Court Ior the purpose oI initiating the civil docket sheet. Consequently, a civil cover sheet is submitted to the Clerk oI Court Ior each civil
complaint Iiled. The attorney Iiling a case should complete the Iorm as Iollows:
I. (a) Plaintiffs-Defendants. Enter names (last, Iirst, middle initial) oI plaintiII and deIendant. II the plaintiII or deIendant is a government agency, use only
the Iull name or standard abbreviations. II the plaintiII or deIendant is an oIIicial within a government agency, identiIy Iirst the agencyand then the oIIicial, giving
both name and title.
(b) County oI Residence. For each civil case Iiled, except U.S. plaintiII cases, enter the name oI the county where the Iirst listed plaintiII resides at the
time oI Iiling. In U.S. plaintiII cases, enter the name oI the county in which the Iirst listed deIendant residesat the time oI Iiling. (NOTE: In land condemnation
cases, the county oI residence oI the 'deIendant¨ is the location oI the tract oI land involved.)
(c) Attorneys. Enter the Iirm name, address, telephone number, and attorney oI record. II there are several attorneys, list them on an attachment, noting
in this section '(see attachment)¨.
II. 1urisdiction. The basis oI jurisdiction is set Iorth under Rule 8(a), F.R.CP., which requires that jurisdictions be shown in pleadings. Place an 'X¨ in one
oI the boxes. II there is more than one basis oI jurisdiction, precedence is given in the order shown below.
United States plaintiII. (1) Jurisdiction based on 28 U.S.C. 1345 and 1348. Suits by agencies and oIIicers oI the United States are included here.
United States deIendant. (2) When the plaintiII is suing the United States, its oIIicers or agencies, place an 'X¨ in this box.
Federal question. (3) This reIers to suits under 28 U.S.C. 1331, where jurisdicti on arises under the Constitution oI the United States, an amendment to the
Constitution, an act oI Congress or a treaty oI the United States. In cases where the U.S. is aparty, the U.S. plaintiII or deIendant code takes precedence, and box
1 or 2 should be marked.
Diversity oI citizenship. (4) This reIers to suits under 28 U.S.C. 1332, where parties are citizens oI diIIerent states. When Box 4 is checked, the citizenship oI
the diIIerent parties must be checked. (See Section III below; Iederal question actions take precedence over diversity cases.)
III. Residence (citizenship) of Principal Parties. This section oI the JS 44 is to be completed iI diversity oI citizenship was indicated above. Mark this section
Ior each principal party.
IV. Nature of Suit. Place an 'X¨ in the appropri ate box. II the nature oI s uit cannot be determined, be sure the cause oI action, in Section VI below, is
suIIicient to enable the deputy clerk or the statistical clerks in the Administrative OIIice to determine the nature oI suit. II the cause Iits more than one nature oI
suit, select the most deIinitive.
V. Origin. Place an 'X¨ in one oI the seven boxes.
Original Proceedings. (1) Cases which originate in the United States district courts.
Removed Irom State Court. (2) Proceedings initiated in state courts may be removed to the district courts under Title 28U.S.C., Section 1441. When the petition
Ior removal is granted, check this box.
Remanded Irom Appellate Court. (3) Check this box Ior cases remanded to the district court Ior Iurther action. Use the date oI remand as the Iiling date.
Reinstated or Reopened. (4) Check this box Ior cases reinstated or reopened in the district court. Use the reopening date as the Iiling date.
TransIerred Irom Another District. (5) For cases transIerred under Title 28 U.S.C. Section 1404(a). Do not use this Ior within district transIers or multidistrict
litigation transIers.
Multidistrict Litigation. (6) Check this box when a multidistrict case is transIerred into the district under authority oI Title 28 U.S.C. Section 1407. When this
box is checked, do not check (5) above.
Appeal to District Judge Irom Magistrate Judgment. (7) Check this box Ior an appeal Irom a magistrate judge`s decision.
VI. Cause of Action. Report the civil statute directly related to the cause oI action and give a brieI description oI the causeDo not cite jurisdictional statutes
unless diversity. Example: U.S. Civil Statute: 47 USC 553
BrieI Description: Unauthorized reception oI cable service
VII. Requested in Complaint. Class Action. Place an 'X¨ in this box iI you are Iiling a class action under Rule 23, F.R.Cv.P.
Demand. In this space enter the dollar amount (in thousands oI dollars) being demanded or indicate other demand such as a preliminary injunction.
Jury Demand. Check the appropriate box to indicate whether or not a jury is being demanded.
VIII. Related Cases. This section oI the JS 44 is used toreIerence related pending cases, iI any. II there are related pending cases, insert the docket numbers
and the corresponding judge names Ior such cases.
Date and Attorney Signature. Date and sign the civil cover sheet.
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-1 Filed 10/17/14 Page 2 of 2
AO 440 (Rev. 06/12) Summons in a Civil Action
UNITEDSTATESDISTRICT COURT
for the

)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
Plaintiff(s)
v. Civil Action No.
Defendant(s)
SUMMONS IN A CIVIL ACTION
To: (Defendant’s name and address)
A lawsuit has been filed against you.
Within 21 days after service of this summons on you (not counting the day you received it) — or 60 days if you
are the United States or a United States agency, or an officer or employee of the United States described in Fed. R. Civ.
P. 12 (a)(2) or (3) — you must serve on the plaintiff an answer to the attached complaint or a motion under Rule 12 of
the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The answer or motion must be served on the plaintiff or plaintiff’s attorney,
whose name and address are:
If you fail to respond, judgment by default will be entered against you for the relief demanded in the complaint.
You also must file your answer or motion with the court.
CLERK OF COURT
Date:
Signature of Clerk or Deputy Clerk
District of Idaho
DONALDKNAPP; EVELYN KNAPP; HITCHING
POST WEDDINGS, LLC,
CITY OF COEUR D'ALENE
City of Coeur D'Alene
c/o Michael C. Gridley, City Attorney
710 E. Mullan Avenue
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 83814
Virginia McNulty Robinson
Robinson Law, PLLC
1910 Northwest Blvd., Suite 200
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 83814
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-2 Filed 10/17/14 Page 1 of 2
AO 440 (Rev. 06/12) Summons in a Civil Action (Page 2)
Civil Action No.
PROOF OF SERVICE
(This section should not be filed with the court unless required by Fed. R. Civ. P. 4 (l))
This summons for (name of individual and title, if any)
was received by me on(date) .
I personally served the summons on the individual at(place)
on(date) ; or
I left the summons at the individual’s residence or usual place of abode with (name)
, a person of suitable age and discretion who resides there,
on(date) , and mailed a copy to the individual’s last known address; or
I served the summons on (name of individual) , who is
designated by law to accept service of process on behalf of (name of organization)
on(date) ; or
I returned the summons unexecuted because ; or
Other (specify):
My fees are $ for travel and $ for services, for a total of $ .
I declare under penalty of perjury that this information is true.
Date:
Server’s signature
Printed name and title
Server’s address
Additional information regarding attempted service, etc:
0.00
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-2 Filed 10/17/14 Page 2 of 2
AO 440 (Rev. 06/12) Summons in a Civil Action
UNITEDSTATESDISTRICT COURT
for the

)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
Plaintiff(s)
v. Civil Action No.
Defendant(s)
SUMMONS IN A CIVIL ACTION
To: (Defendant’s name and address)
A lawsuit has been filed against you.
Within 21 days after service of this summons on you (not counting the day you received it) — or 60 days if you
are the United States or a United States agency, or an officer or employee of the United States described in Fed. R. Civ.
P. 12 (a)(2) or (3) — you must serve on the plaintiff an answer to the attached complaint or a motion under Rule 12 of
the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The answer or motion must be served on the plaintiff or plaintiff’s attorney,
whose name and address are:
If you fail to respond, judgment by default will be entered against you for the relief demanded in the complaint.
You also must file your answer or motion with the court.
CLERK OF COURT
Date:
Signature of Clerk or Deputy Clerk
District of Idaho
DONALDKNAPP; EVELYN KNAPP; HITCHING
POST WEDDINGS, LLC,
CITY OF COEUR D'ALENE
City of Coeur D'Alene
c/o Steve Widmyer, Mayor
710 E. Mullan Avenue
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 83814
Virginia McNulty Robinson
Robinson Law, PLLC
1910 Northwest Blvd., Suite 200
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 83814
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-3 Filed 10/17/14 Page 1 of 2
AO 440 (Rev. 06/12) Summons in a Civil Action (Page 2)
Civil Action No.
PROOF OF SERVICE
(This section should not be filed with the court unless required by Fed. R. Civ. P. 4 (l))
This summons for (name of individual and title, if any)
was received by me on(date) .
I personally served the summons on the individual at(place)
on(date) ; or
I left the summons at the individual’s residence or usual place of abode with (name)
, a person of suitable age and discretion who resides there,
on(date) , and mailed a copy to the individual’s last known address; or
I served the summons on (name of individual) , who is
designated by law to accept service of process on behalf of (name of organization)
on(date) ; or
I returned the summons unexecuted because ; or
Other (specify):
My fees are $ for travel and $ for services, for a total of $ .
I declare under penalty of perjury that this information is true.
Date:
Server’s signature
Printed name and title
Server’s address
Additional information regarding attempted service, etc:
0.00
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-3 Filed 10/17/14 Page 2 of 2


EXHIBIT 1
EXHIBITS 001
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-4 Filed 10/17/14 Page 1 of 24
OPERATING AGREEMENT
OF
HITCHING POST WEDDINGS, L.L.C.
In consideration of the mutual benefits and obligations set forth in this Agreement, the
undersigned parties agree as follows:
ARTICLE ONE
DEFINED TERMS
Section 1.1. Definitions. Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms defined in this
Article One shall, for the purposes of this Agreement, have the following meanings:
"Idaho Act" means the Idaho Uniform Limited Liability Company Act, IDAHO CODE § §
30-6-101 et seq., as amended or restated from time to time.
"Additional Members" has the meaning set forth in Section 13.1.
"Affiliate" means, with respect to a specified Person, any Person that directly or indirectly
controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, the specified Person. As used in this
definition, the term "control" means the possession, directly or indirectly, ofthe power to direct or
cause the direction of the management and policies of a Person, whether through ownership of
voting securities, by contract or otherwise.
"Agreement" means this Operating Agreement of the Company, as amended, modified,
supplemented or restated from time to time.
"Capital Account" means, with respect to any Member, the account maintained for such
Member in accordance with the provisions of Section 4.4.
"Capital Contribution" means, with respect to any Member, the aggregate amount of
money and the fair market value of any property (other than money) contributed to the Company
pursuant to Section 4.1 with respect to such Member's Interest.
"Certificate" means the Certificate of Organization of the Company and any and all
amendments to and restatements ofthe Certificate ofOrganization filed on behalf ofthe Company
with the office of the Secretary of State of the State of Idaho pursuant to the Idaho Act.
"Code" means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended from time to time, or any
corresponding federal tax statute enacted after the date of this Agreement. A reference to a
specific section of the Code refers not only to such specific section but also to any corresponding
provision of any federal tax statute enacted after the date of this Agreement, as such specific
section of corresponding provision is in effect on the date of application of the provisions of this
Agreement containing such reference.
"Company" means Hitching Post Weddings L.L.C., the limited liability company formed
and continued under and pursuant to the Idaho Act and this Agreement.
"Covered Person" means (i) a Member, (ii) any Affiliate of a Member, (iii) any officers,
directors, shareholders, partners, employees, representatives or agents of a Member, or their
respective Affiliates, and (iv) any employee or agent of the Company or its Affiliates.
OPERATING AGMT OF HITCHING POST WEDDINGS, L.L.C. - 1
EXHIBITS 002
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-4 Filed 10/17/14 Page 2 of 24
"Fiscal Year" means: (i) the period commencing upon the formation of the Company and
ending on December ofthe year this Agreement is executed; (ii) any subsequent 12 month period
commencing on January I and ending on December 31 ; or (iii) any portion ofthe period described
in Clause (ii) of this sentence for which the Company is required to allocate Profits, Losses and
other items of Company income, gain, loss or deduction pursuant to Article Eight of this
Agreement.
"Interest" means a Member's limited liability company interest in the Company which
represents such Member's share ofthe profits and losses ofthe Company and a Member's right to
receive distributions ofthe Company's assets in accordance with the provisions ofthis Agreement
and the Idaho Act.
"Laws" means:
(i) All constitutions, treaties, laws, statutes, codes, ordinances, orders, decrees, rules,
regulations and municipal by-laws, whether domestic, foreign or international;
(ii) All judgments, orders, writs, injunctions, decisions, rulings, decrees and awards of
any governmental body;
(iii) All policies, practices and guidelines of any governmental body; and
(iv) Any amendment, modification, re-enactment, restatement, or extension of the
foregoing, in each case binding on or affecting the party or Person referred to in the context in
which such word is used; and "Law" shall mean anyone ofthem.
"Majority Vote" means the written approval of , or the affirmative vote by, Members
holding a majority of the Percentage Interests.
"Member" means each ofthe Persons undersigned and includes any Person admitted as an
Additional Member or a substitute Member pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement, in such
Person's capacity as a member of the Company, and "Members" means two or more of such
Persons when acting in their capacities as members ofthe Company. For purposes of the Idaho
Act, the Members shall constitute one class or group of members.
"Net Cash Flow" means, for each Fiscal Year or other period of the Company, the gross
cash receipts of the Company from all sources, but excluding any amounts, such as gross receipts
taxes, that are held by the Company as a collection agent or in trust for others or that are otherwise
not unconditionally available to the Company, less all amounts paid by or for the account of the
Company during the same Fiscal Year or other period (including, but not limited to, payments of
principal and interest on any Company indebtedness and expenses reimbursed to the Members
under Section 5.2), and less any amounts determined by the Members to be necessary to provide a
reasonable reserve for working-capital needs or any other contingencies of the Company. Net
Cash Flow shall be determined in accordance with the cash receipts and disbursements method of
accounting and otherwise in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles,
consistently applied. Net Cash Flow shall not be reduced by depreciation, amortization, cost
recovery deductions, depletion, similar allowances or other noncash items, but shall be increased
by any reduction of reserves previously established.
"Percentage Interest" means the Interest of a Member, expressed as a portion of one
hundred percent, as shown on the attached Schedule A, which reflects the Member's ownership
interest in the Company, as determined by the unanimous written consent of the Members as
adjusted from time to time.
"Person" includes any individual, corporation, association, partnership (general or
limited), joint venture, trust, estate, limited liability company, or other legal entity or organization.
OPERATING AGMT OF HITCHING POST WEDDINGS, L.L.C. - 2
EXHIBITS 003
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-4 Filed 10/17/14 Page 3 of 24
"Profits" and "Losses" means, for each Fiscal Year, an amount equal to the Company's
taxable income or loss for such Fiscal Year, determined in accordance with Section 703(a) of the
Code.
"Tax Matters Partner" has the meaning set forth in Section 11.1.
"Treasury Regulations" means the income tax regulations, including temporary
regulations, promulgated under the Code, as such regulations may be amended from time to time
(including corresponding provisions of succeeding regulations).
Section 1.2. Headings. The headings and subheadings in this Agreement are included for
convenience and identification only and are in no way intended to describe, interpret, define or
limit the scope, extent or intent ofthis Agreement or any provision ofthe same.
ARTICLE TWO
FORMATION AND TERM
Section 2.1. Formation.
(i) The Members form the Company as a limited liability company under and pursuant to
the provisions ofthe Idaho Act and agree that the rights, duties and liabilities ofthe Members shall
be as provided in the Idaho Act, except as otherwise provided in this Agreement.
(ii) Upon the execution of this Agreement or a counterpart of this Agreement, the
undersigned Persons shall be admitted as Members.
(iii) The name and mailing address ofeach Member, the agreed value ofthe contribution to
the capital of the Company and the Percentage Interest of each Member shall be listed on the
attached Schedule A. The Members shall be required to update Schedule A from time to time as
necessary to accurately reflect the information in such schedule. Any amendment or revision to
Schedule A made in accordance with this Agreement shall not be deemed an amendment to this
Agreement. Any reference in this Agreement to Schedule A shall be deemed to be a reference to
Schedule A as amended and in effect from time to time.
Section 2.2. Name. The name ofthe company formed is Hitching Post Weddings L.L.C.
The business of the Company may be conducted upon compliance with all applicable Laws under
any other name designated by the Members.
Section 2.3. Term. The term ofthe company shall commence on the date the Certificate is
filed in the office ofthe Secretary of State ofthe State ofIdaho and shall perpetually continue until
the Company is dissolved in accordance with the provisions ofthis Agreement. The existence of
the Company as a separate legal entity shall continue until cancellation of the Certificate in the
manner required by the Idaho Act.
Section 2.4. Designated Office. The Company's designated office in the State of Idaho
shall be located at 3676 Evergreen Dr., Coeur d' Alene, Kootenai County, Idaho, 83815. At any
time, the Members may designate another designated office.
Section 2.5. Registered Agent and Office. The Company's registered agent and office in
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the State ofIdaho shall be Evelyn Knapp, located at 3676 Evergreen Dr., Coeur d' Alene, Kootenai
County, Idaho, 83815. At any time, the Members may designate another registered agent or
registered office.
Section 2.6. Principal Place of Business. The principal place of business of the Company
shall be a(524 Government Way, Coeur d' Alene, Idaho 83814. At any time, the Members may
change the location ofthe Company's principal place of business to another location.
Section 2.7. Qualification in Other Jurisdictions. The Members shall cause the Company
to be qualified, formed or registered under assumed or fictitious name statutes or similar Laws in
any jurisdiction in which the Company transacts business. A Member, as an authorized person
within the meaning of the Idaho Act, shall execute, deliver and file any articles/certificates (and
any amendments to or restatements of such articles/certificates) necessary for the Company to
qualify to do business in a jurisdiction in which the Company may wish to conduct business.
ARTICLE THREE
   
Section 3.1. Purpose. The Hitching Post is a religious corporation owned solely by
ordained ministers of the Christian religion who operate this entity as an extension of their
sincerely held religious beliefs and in accordance with their vows taken as Christian ministers. The
purpose of the Hitching Post is to help people create, celebrate, and build lifetime, monogamous,
one-man-one-woman marriages as defined by the Holy Bible.
The Christian religion requires that all its adherents, and especially its ministers, apply their
religious precepts and doctrines to all facets of their lives, including their work and the operation
of their businesses. For this reason, the Hitching Post reserves the right to refuse a request for
services that would require the entity to engage in conduct that conflicts with its owners' sincerely
held religious beliefs and the ministerial vows taken by the owners.
The Hitching Post engages in its own expression through the services that it provides. In so
doing, The Hitching Post intentionally expresses public messages that promote aspects of its
owners' Christian religion and those are not inconsistent with those sincerely held beliefs. For
this reason, The Hitching Post reserves the right to refuse a request for services that would require
the entity to engage in or host expression that violates its owners' sincerely held religious beliefs.
Only Hitching Post's owners and employees perform the weddings at Hitching Post Chapel and
other locations scheduled by the Hitching Post. They have ultimate control over the content of
the ceremony and will not conduct a ceremony that expresses messages that are inconsistent with
their Christian faith.
The Hitching Post provides wedding and marriage-related services for the purpose of publicly
expressing and promoting that marriage is the union of one man and one woman, which is
consistent with its owners' sincerely held religious beliefs and with their ministerial vows. Any
request for wedding and marriage-related services not within this identified purpose is outside the
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scope of services offered by the Hitching Post. 
The Hitching Post, consistent with its owners'  sincerely held religious beliefs, provides wedding 
and marriage-related services also for the purposes ofpromoting the social institution of marriage 
as  a  fundamental  building  block  of our  society  and  promoting  the  public  understanding  of 
marriage as the union ofone man and one woman. By furthering these purposes, the Hitching Post 
endeavors  to  instill  and  promote  this  biblical  understanding  of marriage  and  marriage-related 
values  in  the  communities  where  it  operates.  Achieving  these  goals  is  important to  ensure  that 
marriage remains a  vital  social  institution that uniquely promotes the raising of children by their 
mother and father. 
Section 3.2. Powers ofthe Company. 
(i)  The  Company  shall  have  the  power  and  authority  to  take  any  and  all  actions 
necessary, appropriate, proper, advisable, incidental or convenient to or for the furtherance of the 
purpose set forth in Section 3.1, including, but not limited to, the power. 
(a)  To  conduct  its  business,  carry  on its  operations  and  have  and  exercise  the  powers 
granted to a limited liability company by the Idaho Act in any state, territory, district or possession 
of the United States, or in any  foreign country, that may be necessary, convenient or incidental to 
the accomplishment of the purpose ofthe Company; 
(b)  To enter into, perform and carry out contracts of any kind, including, but not limited 
to, contracts with any Member, any Affiliate ofthe same, or any agent or Affiliate ofthe Company 
necessary to, in connection with, convenient to, or incidental to the accomplishment ofthe purpose 
ofthe Company; 
(c)  To lend money to,  borrow money from,  act as surety, guarantor or endorser for, and 
transact other business with third parties including Members and Affiliates of the Company; 
(d)  To purchase, take, receive, subscribe for or otherwise acquire,  own,  hold, vote, use, 
employ,  sell,  mortgage,  lend,  pledge, or otherwise dispose of,  and otherwise use and deal  in and 
with, shares or other interests in or obligations of domestic or foreign corporations, associations, 
general or limited partnerships (including, but not limited to, the power to be admitted as a partner 
and to exercise the rights and perform the duties created by such admission), trusts, limited liability 
companies (including, but not limited to, the power to be admitted as a member or appointed as a 
manager ofa limited liability company and to exercise the rights and perform the duties created by 
such admission or appointment), or individuals or direct or indirect obligations ofthe United States 
or  of  any  government,  state,  territory,  governmental  district  or  municipality  or  of  any 
instrumentality or any of them; 
(e)  To lend money  for  its  proper purpose,  to  invest and  reinvest  its  funds,  to take  and 
hold real and personal property for the payment of funds so loaned or invested; 
(f)  To sue and be sued, complain and defend, and participate in administrative or other 
proceedings, in its name; 
(g)  To  appoint  employees  and  agents  of the  company,  and  define  their  duties  and  fix 
their compensation; 
(h)  To indemnify any Person in accordance with the Idaho Act and to obtain any and all 
types of insurance; 
(i)  To cease its activities and cancel its Certificate; 
G) To negotiate, enter into, renegotiate, extend, renew, terminate, modify, amend, waive, 
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execute,  acknowledge  or  take  any  other  action  with  respect  to  any  lease,  contract  or  security 
agreement in respect of any assets of the Company; 
(k)  To borrow money and issue evidences of indebtedness, and to  secure the same by a 
mortgage, pledge or other lien on the assets of the Company; 
(1)  To pay, collect, compromise, litigate, arbitrate or otherwise adjust or settle any and all 
other claims or demands of or against the Company or to hold such proceeds against the payment 
of contingent liabilities; and 
(m)  To  make,  execute,  acknowledge  and  file  any  and  all  documents  or  instruments 
necessary, convenient or incidental to the accomplishment of the purpose of the Company. 
(ii)  The Company may  merge  with,  or consolidate  into,  another  Idaho  limited liability 
company or other business entity upon the approval of all of the Members. 
ARTICLE FOUR 
CAPITAL CONTRIBUTIONS; INTERESTS; CAPITAL 
ACCOUNTS; ADVANCES 
Section 4.1.  Capital Contributions. 
(i)  Each  Member  has  contributed  or  is  deemed  to  have  contributed to  the  capital  of the 
Company the  amount  set  forth  opposite the  Member's  name  on the  attached  Schedule  A.  The 
Initial  Capital  Contributions  of the  Members  at the time  of the  LLC's formation  were  made  by 
merging an existing Washington corporation (DLK Enterprises, Inc.) into the Company via a Plan 
of Merger under the State of Idaho's Entities Transactions Act. 
(ii)  No  Member  shall  be  required  to  make  any  additional  capital  contribution  to  the 
Company.  However, a Member may make additional capital contributions to the Company with 
the written consent of all of the Members. 
Section  4.2.  Member's  Interest.  A  Member's  Interest  shall  for  all  purposes  be  personal 
property.  A Member has no interest in specific Company property. 
Section 4.3.  Status of Capital Contributions. 
(i)  Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, the amount of a Member's Capital 
Contributions may be returned to it, in whole or in part, at any time, but only with the consent ofall 
of the  Members.  Any  such returns  of Capital  Contributions  shall  be  made  to  all  Members  in 
proportion to their Percentage Interests.  Notwithstanding the foregoing, no return of a Member's 
Capital  Contributions  shall  be  made  under  this  Section  4.3  if such  distribution  would  violate 
applicable law.  Under circumstances requiring a return of any Capital Contribution, no  Member 
shall have the right to demand or receive property other than cash, except as may be specifically 
provided in this Agreement or as may be specifically agreed to by all ofthe Members. 
(ii)  No Member shall receive  any interest, salary or drawing with respect to its Capital 
Contributions  or  its  Capital  Account  or  for  services  rendered  on  behalf of the  Company  or 
otherwise  in  its  capacity  as  a  Member,  except  as  otherwise  specifically  provided  in  this 
Agreement. 
(iii)  Except  as  otherwise  provided  in  this  Agreement  and  by  applicable  law,  the 
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Members shall be liable only to make their capital contributions pursuant to Section 4.1, and no
Member shall be required to lend any funds to the Company or, after a Member's Capital
contributions have been fully paid pursuant to Section 4.1, to make any additional capital
contributions to the Company. No Member shall have any personal liability for the repayment of
any Capital contribution of any other Member.
Section 4.4. Capital Accounts.
(i) An individual Capital Account shall be established and maintained for each Member.
(ii) The Capital Account of each Member shall be maintained in accordance with the
following provisions:
(a) To such Member's Capital Account there shall be credited such Member's Capital
Contributions (consisting of cash or the fair market value of any property net of any liabilities
secured by such contributed property that the Company is considered to assume or take subject to
under Section 752 of the Code); such Member's distributive share of Profits; and such Member's
distributive share of other items of income, gain or credits; and
(b) To such Member's Capital Account there shall be debited the amount of cash and the
fair market value ofproperty distributed by the company to such Member (net ofliabilities secured
by such distributed property which the Member is considered to assume or take subject to under
Section 752 of the Code); such Member's distributive share of Losses; and such Member's
distributive share of other items of loss or deduction.
Section 4.5. Advances. If any Member shall advance any funds to the Company in excess
of its Capital Contributions, the amount of such advance shall neither increase its Capital Account
nor entitle it to any increase in its share of the distributions of the Company. The amount of any
such advance shall be a debt obligation of the Company to such Member and shall be subject to
such terms and conditions acceptable to the Company and each Member. Any such advance shall
be payable and collectible only out of Company assets, and the other Members shall not be
personally obligated to repay any part of the advance. No Person who makes any nonrecourse
loan to the Company shall have or acquire, as a result of making such loan, any direct or indirect
interest in the profits, capital or property ofthe Company, other than as a creditor.
Section 4.6. Additional Contributions. If and to the extent unanimously approved by the
Members from time to time, the members may make additional capital contributions in such
amounts as the Members may determine. In such event, the members shall have the opportunity,
but not the obligation, to participate in such additional capital contributions pro rata in proportion
to their membership interests, or as they may otherwise agree, and the members' membership
interests shall be recalculated after any such additional capital contributions.
ARTICLE FIVE
MEMBERS
Section 5.1. Powers of Members. The Members shall have the power to exercise any and
all rights or powers granted to the Members pursuant to the express terms ofthis Agreement or by
the Idaho Act. Except as provided in this Agreement, the Members shall have no power to bind
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the Company.
Section 5.2. Reimbursements. The Company shall reimburse the Members for all
ordinary and necessary out-of-pocket expenses incurred by the Members on behalf of the
Company. Such reimbursement shall be treated as an expense of the Company that shall be
deducted in computing the Net Cash Flow and shall not be deemed to constitute a distributive
share of Profits or a distribution or return of capital to any Member.
Section 5.3. Partition. Each Member waives any and all rights that it may have to
maintain an action for partition of the Company's property.
Section 5.4. Resignation. A Member may not resign from the Company prior to the
dissolution and winding up of the Company.
Section 5.5. Meeting of Members.
(i) Meetings of the Members may be called at any time by any Member. Notice of any
meeting shall be given to all Members not less than one (1) day nor more than thirty (30) days prior
to the date of such meeting. Each Member may authorize any Person to act for it by proxy on all
matters in which a Member is entitled to participate, including waiving notice of any meeting, or
voting or participating at a meeting. Every proxy must be signed by the Member or its
attorney-in-fact.
(ii) Unless otherwise agreed by all of the Members, all meetings of Members shall take
place at the principal place of business ofthe Company.
(iii) Business transacted at any meeting of Members shall be limited to the purposes stated
in the notice ofthe meeting, unless otherwise agreed to by all of the Members.
(iv) The holders of a majority of the Percentage Interests issued and outstanding and
entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum
at all meetings ofthe Members for the transaction ofbusiness except as otherwise provided by this
Agreement. If, however, such quorum shall not be present or represented at any meeting of the
Members, the Members entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person or represented by proxy,
shall have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than
announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present or represented. At such adjourned
meeting at which a quorum shall be present or represented any business may be transacted which
might have been transacted at the meeting as originally notified. If the adjournment is for more
than ten (l0) days, or ifafter the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting,
a notice ofthe adjourned meeting shall be given to each Member.
(v) When a quorum is present at any meeting, the vote ofthe holders ofthe majority ofthe
Percentage Interests having voting power, present in person or represented by proxy, shall decide
any question brought before such meeting, unless the question is one upon which by express
provision ofthis Agreement, a different vote is required in which case such express provision shall
govern and control the decision of such question.
(vi) Unless otherwise provided in this Agreement, each Member shall at every meeting of
the Members be entitled to vote in person or by proxy, but no proxy shall be voted on after three
years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period.
(vii) Members may participate in a meeting of the Members by means of conference
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telephone or similar communications equipment, provided all persons participating in the meeting
can hear each other, and such participation in a meeting shall constitute presence in person at the
meeting.
(viii) The Members shall establish all other provisions relating to meetings of Members,
including notice of the time, place or purpose of any meeting at which any matter is to be voted on
by any Members, waiver of any such notice, action by consent without a meeting, the
establishment of a record date, quorum requirements, voting in person or by proxy or any other
matter with respect to the exercise of any such right to vote.
(ix) The Company may take any action contemplated by this Agreement as approved by
the unanimous written consent of the Members.
ARTICLE SIX
MANAGEMENT
Section 6.1. Member Management.
(i) In accordance with the Idaho Act, management of the Company shall be vested in the
Members. Except as otherwise expressly provided in this Agreement, whenever this Agreement
requires or permits actions to be taken by the Members, the decision by Members owning more
than fifty percent (50%) of the Percentage Interests of the Company shall be the controlling
decision ofthe Company.
(ii) The Members shall have full, exclusive and complete discretion to manage the business
and affairs of the Company, to make all decisions affecting the business and affairs of the
Company and to take such actions as they deem necessary or appropriate to accomplish the
purpose of the Company as set forth in this Agreement. There shall not be a "manager" (within the
meaning ofthe Idaho Act) of the Company.
(iii) With respect to third parties, each Member is an agent ofthe Company's business, and
each Member may bind the Company, unless otherwise specified in a Statement of Authority filed
with the Idaho Secretary of State pursuant to Section 6.3 below. If a Member binds the Company,
but did not have the authority to so act under this Agreement (including by failing to obtain
necessary consents from other Members), in addition to any other remedy (at law or in equity) that
may be available against such Member, such Member shall be liable for all damages suffered by
the Company caused by breaching this Agreement.
Section 6.2. Reliance by Third Parties. Any Person dealing with the Company or any
Member may rely upon a certificate signed by any Member as to: (i) the identity of a Member; (ii)
the existence or nonexistence of any fact or facts which constitute a condition precedent to acts by
the Members or in any other manner germane to the affairs of the Company; (iii) the Persons who
are authorized to execute and deliver any instrument or document of, or on behalf of, the
Company; or (iv) any act or failure to act by the Company or as to any other matter whatsoever
involving the Company or any Member.
Section 6.3. Statement of Authority. Under the Idaho Act, and upon approval of a
majority of the Percentage Interests of the Company, the Company may file with the Idaho
Secretary of State a Statement of Authority specifying the actual authority of the Members ofthe
OPERA TING AGMT OF HITCHING POST WEDDINGS, L.L.C. - 9
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Company relative to executing instruments and binding the Company to transactions.
Section 6.4. Committees. The Members may, by resolution, designate one or more
committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the Members of the Company_ The
Members may designate one or more Members as alternate members of any committee, who may
replace any absent or disqualified Member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or
disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members ofthe committee present at
any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such members constitute a quorum,
may unanimously appoint another Member to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or
disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the
Members, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Members in the
management of the business and affairs of the Company, but no such committee shall have the
power or authority to take any of the actions described in Section 6.5 of this Agreement unless
authorized in writing by each Member. Such committee or committees shall have such name or
names as may be determined from time to time by resolution adopted by the Members. Each
committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the Members when
required.
Section 6.5. Actions Requiring Unanimous Approval of the Members. Notwithstanding
any other provision of this Agreement to the contrary, no Member shall take any ofthe following
actions on behalf ofthe Company unless authorized to do so unanimously by the Members:
(i) The sale, exchange or other disposition ofany ofthe assets ofthe Company except for
sales in the ordinary course of business;
(ii) The commencement ofa voluntary proceeding seeking reorganization or other relief
with respect to the Company under any bankruptcy or other similar law or seeking the appointment
of a trustee, receiver, custodian or other similar official of the Company or any substantial part of
its property, or the making by the Company of general assignment for the benefit of creditors;
(iii) The declaration or making of any distributions to Members;
(iv) The entering into by the Company of any joint venture, partnership, subcontracting,
license, sub-license, manufacturing, marketing, distribution or other similar arrangement with any
Person;
(v) The entering into by the Company ofany agreement, facility, commitment, guaranty,
instrument or other undertaking providing for, or relating to, the incurrence ofany indebtedness by
the Company;
(vi) The formation or organization of any subsidiary of the company and the
appointment of directors of (or persons with comparable authority with respect to) any such
subsidiary;
(vii) The issuance, sale, acquisition or repurchase by the Company of any Interest or
other equity interest (or option, warrant, conversion or similar right with respect to any equity
interest) in or ofthe Company;
(viii) The commitment to any material capital expenditure by the Company in any Fiscal
Year of the Company;
(ix) The adoption of a business plan and annual operating budget for the Company (or
any updates to the plan or budget);
(x) The entering into, amendment or termination of employment contracts with
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Members or their respective Affiliates;
(xi) The appointment or change of the independent auditors or deposit banks or the
Company;
(xii) The acquisition or lease by the Company of any real property, or any sale, lease or
sublease of, or similar arrangement affecting, any real property owned or leased by the Company;
(xiii) The entering into, amendment, modification, renewal (or election not to renew),
waiver or termination by the Company of any financing document;
(xiv) The incurring or assumption of any material liability or obligation, whether
contractually or otherwise, by the Company; and
(xv) The acquisition or lease by the Company of any real property.
Section 6.6. Company Attorney. Unless otherwise agreed by all of the Members, the
general cotmsel and attorney at law ofthe Company shall be Michael S. Oswald, Managing Partner
of InnovaCotmSel, LLP, who is located at 2412 W. Bannock Street, Boise, Idaho, 83702, whose
telephone number is (208) 914-3086. The Members all recognize and acknowledge that said
attorney is the attorney for the Company and not for anyone Member individually.
ARTICLE SEVEN
AMENDMENTS 
Any amendment to this Agreement shall be adopted and be effective as an amendment to the
Agreement if it receives the affirmative vote ofall ofthe Members, provided that such amendment
be in writing and executed by all ofthe Members. This Agreement may not be amended, in whole
or in part, orally, impliedly or by a course of dealing or conduct.
ARTICLE EIGHT 
ALLOCATIONS 
Section 8.1. Profits and Losses.
(i) Subject to the allocation rules of Section 8.2, Profits for any fiscal Year shall be
allocated among the Members in proportion to the Percentage Interests.
(ii) Subject to the allocation rules in Section 8.2, Losses from any Fiscal Year shall be
allocated among the Members in proportion to the Percentage Interests.
Section 8.2. Allocation Rules.
(i) For purposes of determining the Profits, Losses or any other items allocable for any
period, Profits, Losses and any such other items shall be determined on a daily, monthly or other
basis, as determined by the Members using any method that is permissible tmder Section 706 of
the Code and the Treasury Regulations tmder that Section.
(ii) Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, all items ofCompany income, gain,
loss, deduction and any other allocations not otherwise provided for shall be divided among the
Members in the same proportions as they share Profits mJd Losses for the Fiscal Year in question.
(iii) The Members are aware ofthe income tax; consequences ofthe allocations made by
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this Article Eight and agree to be bound by the provisions of this Article Eight in reporting their
shares of Company income and loss for income tax purposes.
(iv) The Members intend that the allocation provisions set forth in this Agreement are
intended to comply with Section 704(b) ofthe code and the Treasury Regulations issued under the
Section and the provisions are to be interpreted in a manner consistent with those Treasury
Regulations.
Section 8.3. Tax Allocations; Section 704(c) of the Code. In accordance with Section
704(c) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations under that Section, income, gain, loss and
deduction with respect to any property contributed to the capital of the Company shall, solely for
income tax purposes, be allocated among the Members so as to take account of any variation
between the adjusted basis of such property to the Company for federal income tax purposes and
its initial fair market value.
ARTICLE NINE
DISTRIBUTIONS
Section 9.1. Net Cash Flow. Except as otherwise provided in Article Fifteen (relating to
the dissolution of the Company), any distribution of the Net Cash Flow during any Fiscal Year
shall be made to the Members in proportion to the Percentage Interests.
Section 9.2. Distribution Rules. All distributions pursuant to Section 9.1 shall be at such
times and in such amounts as shall be determined by the Members.
Section 9.3. Limitations on Distribution. Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary
contained in this Agreement, the Company, and the Members on behalf of the Company, shall not
make a distribution to any Member on account of its interest in the Company if such distribution
would violate the Idaho Act or other applicable Law.
Section 9.4. Financial Stability. No distribution shall be declared and paid unless, after
giving effect to the distribution, the assets of the Company exceed the Company's liabilities.
ARTICLE TEN
BOOKS AND RECORDS
Section 10.1. Books, Records and Financial Statements.
(i) At all times during the continuance of the Company, the Company shall maintain, at
its principal place of business, separate books of account for the Company that shall show a true
and accurate record of all costs and expenses incurred, all charges made, all credits made and
received and all income derived in connection with the operation of the Company business in
accordance with generally accepted accounting principles consistently applied, and, to the extent
inconsistent with such principles, in accordance with this Agreement. Such books of account,
together with a copy ofthis Agreement and ofthe Certificate, shall at all times be maintained at the
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principal place of business of the Company and shall be open to inspection and examination at
reasonable times by each Member and its duly authorized representative for any purpose
reasonably related to such Member's interest in the Company.
(ii) The Company, and the Members on behalf of the Company, shall prepare and
maintain, or cause to be prepared and maintained, the books of account of the Company. The
Company, and the Members on behalf of the Company, shall prepare and file, or cause to be
prepared and filed, all applicable federal and state tax returns.
Section 10.2. Accounting Method. For both fmancial and tax reporting purposes and for
purposes of determining Profits and Losses, the books and records of the Company shall be kept
on the cash method of accounting applied in a consistent manner in accordance with generally
accepted accounting principles and shall reflect all Company transactions and be appropriate and
adequate for the Company's business.
Section 10.3. Fiscal Year. The accounting, financial, tax, and fiscal year for the
Company shall be a calendar year, beginning on January 1 and ending on December 31.
Section 10.4. Financial Audit. At any time at a Member's sole discretion, the financial
statements ofthe Company may be audited by an independent certified public accountant, selected
by such Member, with such audit to be accompanied by a report of such accountant containing its
opinion. The cost of such audits will be an expense of the requesting Member. A copy of any
such audited financial statements and accountant's report will be made available for inspection by
all ofthe Members.
ARTICLE ELEVEN
TAX MATTERS
Section 11. L Tax Matters Partner.
(i) Donald Knapp is designated as "Tax Matters Partner" of the Company for purposes of
Section 6231(a)(7) of the Code. The Tax Matters Partner may not choose a forum for the
resolution oftax matters or extend any statute oflimitation without the written consent ofall ofthe
Members.
(ii) The Tax Matters Partner shall, within ten (10) days of the receipt of any notice from
the Internal Revenue Service in any administrative proceeding at the Company level relating to the
determination of any Company item of income, gain, loss, deduction or credit, mail or otherwise
deliver a copy of such notice of each Member.
Section 11.2. Taxation as Partnership. The Company shall be treated as a partnership for
U.S. federal income tax purposes.
ARTICLE TWELVE
LIABILITY; EXCULPATION; INDEMNIFICATION
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Section 12.1. Liability. Except as otherwise provided by the Idaho Act, the debts,
obligations and liabilities of the Company, whether arising in contract, tort or otherwise, shall be
solely the debts, obligations and liabilities of the Company, and no Member shall be obligated
personally for any such debt, obligation or liability of the Company solely by reason of being a
Member.
Section 12.2. Exculpation.
(i) No Covered Person shall be liable to the Company or any other Covered Person for
any loss, damage or claim incurred by reason of any act or omission performed or omitted by such
Covered Person in good faith on behalf ofthe Company and in a manner reasonably believed to be
within the scope of authority conferred on such Covered Person by this Agreement, except that a
Covered Person shall be liable for any such loss, damage or claim incurred by reason of such
Covered Person's gross negligence or willful misconduct.
(iii) A Covered Person shall be fully protected in relying in good faith upon the records
of the Company and upon such information, opinions, reports or statements presented to the
Company by any Person as to matters the Covered Person reasonably believes are within such
other Person's professional or expert competence and who has been selected with reasonable care
by or on behalf ofthe Company, including information, opinions, reports or statements as to the
value and amount of the assets, liabilities, profits, losses or Net Cash Flow or any other facts
pertinent to the existence and amount of assets from which distributions to Members might
properly be paid.
Section 12.3. Fiduciary Duty. To the extent that, at law or in equity, a Covered Person
has duties (including fiduciary duties) and liabilities relating to such duties to the Company or to
any other Covered Person, a Covered Person acting under this Agreement shall not be liable to the
Company or to any Member for its good faith reliance on the provisions of this Agreement. The
provisions of this Agreement, to the extent that they restrict the duties and liabilities of a Covered
Person otherwise existing at law or in equity, are agreed by the parties to replace such other duties
and liabilities of such Covered Person.
Section 12.4. Duty of Loyalty. In addition to its duties under this agreement or the Act,
each Covered Person shall;
(i) Account to the Company, and hold as its trustee, any property, profit or benefit
derived in the conduct or winding up of the Company's business or from the use of Company
property, including the appropriation of a Company opportunity; and
(ii) Refrain from dealing with the Company in the conduct or winding up of the
Company's business as or on behalf of a party having an interest adverse to the Company (unless
the members consent).
Section 12.5. Duty of Good Faith. The Members shall deal with one another in good faith,
according to principles of fair dealing, and with honesty in fact. In addition to their duties under
this Agreement or the Idaho Act, the Covered Persons shall be liable to the Company and the
members for mistakes of fact or judgment, and any act or omission in connection with the conduct
ofthe Company's business, ifthe mistake, act or omission was the result of fraud, bad faith, gross
negligence, willful misconduct or a wrongful taking which shall have been proven in a court of
OPERATING AGMT OF HITCHING POST WEDDINGS, L.L.C. - 14
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competent jurisdiction, is the subject of a nonappealable order, judgment, decree or decision, and
has caused or resulted in loss or damage to the Company or its members. Covered Persons shall
not be responsible to any member for any loss of its investment or from operations, unless such
loss shall have been the result of the conduct set forth above.
Section 12.6. Indemnification. To the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, a
Covered Person shall be entitled to indemnification from the Company for any loss, damage or
claim incurred by such Covered Person by reason of any act or omission performed or omitted by
such Covered Person in good faith on behalf ofthe company and in a manner reasonably believed
to be within the scope of authority conferred on such Covered Person by this Agreement, except
that no Covered Person shall be entitled to be indemnified in respect of any loss, damage or claim
incurred by such Covered Person by reason ofgross negligence or willful misconduct with respect
to such acts or omissions; provided, however, that any indemnity under this Article 12 shall be
provided out of and to the extent of Company assets only, and no Covered Person shall have any
personal liability with respect to such indemnity.
Section 12.7. Expenses. To the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, expenses
(including legal fees) incurred by a Covered Person in defending any claim, demand, action, suit or
proceeding shall, from time to time, be advanced by the Company prior to the final disposition of
such claim, demand, action, suit or proceeding upon receipt by the Company of a undertaking by
or on behalf ofthe Covered Person to repay such amount if it shall be determined that the covered
Person is not entitled to be indemnified as authorized in Article 12.
Section 12.8. Insurance. The Company may purchase and maintain insurance, to the
extent and in such amounts as the Members shall, in their sole discretion, deem reasonable, on
behalf of Covered Persons and such other Persons as the Members shall determine, against any
liability that may be asserted against or expenses that may be incurred by any such Person in
connection with the activities of the Company or such indemnities, regardless of whether the
Company would have the power to indemnifY such Person against such liability under the
provisions of this Agreement. The Company may enter into indemnity contracts with Covered
Persons and such other Persons as the Members shall determine and adopt written procedures
pursuant to which arrangements are made for the advancement of expenses and the funding of
obligations under Article 12 and containing such other procedures regarding indemnification as
are appropriate.
Section 12.9. Outside Similar Businesses. Any Member or Affiliate of a Member may
not engage in or possess an interest in other business ventures of any nature or description,
independently or with others, similar to the business of the Company.
Section 12.10. Outside Dissimilar Businesses. Any Member or Affiliate of a Member
may engage in or possess an interest in other business ventures of any nature or description,
independently or with others, dissimilar to the business ofthe Company, and the Company and the
Members shall have no rights by virtue of this Agreement in and to such independent ventures or
the income or profits derived from such ventures, and the pursuit of any such venture, even if
competitive with the business of the Company, shall not be deemed wrongful or improper.
OPERATING AGMT OF HITCHING POST WEDDINGS, L.L.C. - 15
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Section 12.11. Business Opportunities. Every Member or Affiliate ofa member shall be
obligated to present any particular investment opportunity that may arise or become known to the
Company, but only ifsuch opportunity is of a character that, ifpresented to the Company, could be
taken by the Company.
ARTICLE TIDRTEEN 
ADDITIONAL MEMBERS 
Section 13.1. Admission. By approval ofall ofthe Members, the Company is authorized
to admit any Person as an additional member ofthe Company (each an "Additional Member" and
collectively the "Additional Members"). Each such Person shall be admitted as an Additional
Member at the time such Person: (i) executes this Agreement or a counterpart of this Agreement;
and (ii) is named as a Member on the attached Schedule A. The legal fees and expenses
associated with such admission shall be borne by the Company.
Section 13.2. Allocations. Additional Members shall not be entitled to any retroactive
allocation of the Company's income, gains, losses, deductions, credits or other items; provided
that, subject to the restrictions ofSection 706( d) ofthe Code, Additional Members shall be entitled
to their respective share of the Company's income, gains, losses, deductions, credits and other
items arising under contracts entered into before the effective date of the admission of any
Additional Members to the extent that such income, gains, losses, deductions, credits and other
items arise after such effective date. To the extent consistent with Section 706(d) ofthe Code and
Treasury Regulations promulgated under that Section, the Company's books may be closed at the
time Additional Members are admitted (as though the Company's tax year had ended) or the
Company may credit to the Additional Members pro rata allocations of the Company's income,
gains, losses, deductions, credits and items for that portion ofthe Company's Fiscal Year after the
effective date ofthe admission of the Addition Members.
ARTICLE FOURTEEN 
ASSIGNMENT AND PLEDGE OF INTERESTS 
Section 14.1. Assignability ofInterests. No Member may assign the whole or any part of
its Interest.
Section 14.2. Recognition ofAssignment by Company_ No assignment or pledge or any
Interest, or any part of an Interest, that is in violation of this Article 14 shall be valid or effective,
and neither the Company nor the Members shall recognize the same for the purpose of making
distributions pursuant to this Agreement. Neither the Company nor the Members shall incur any
liability as a result of refusing to make any such distributions to the assignee of any such invalid
assignment.
Section 14.3. Pledge. No Member may pledge or otherwise encumber the whole or any
part of its Interest.
Section 14.4. Transfers. No member may transfer all, or any portion of, or any rights in, its
Interest. The members agree that the restrictions on the transfer of Interests under this provision
OPERATING AGMT OF HITCHING POST WEDDINGS, L.L.C. - 16
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are fair and reasonable in light of Internal Revenue Code requirements affecting the Company's
classification as a partnership for tax purposes.
ARTICLE FIFTEEN
DISSOLUTION, DISASSOCIATION, LIQUIDATION AND TERMINATION
Section 15.1. No Dissolution. The Company shall not be dissolved by the admission of
Additional Members or substitute Members in accordance with the terms of this Agreement.
Section 15.2. Events Causing Dissolution. The Company shall be dissolved and its
affairs shall be wound up upon the occurrence of any ofthe following events:
(i) The written consent of all Members;
(ii) The death, incompetency, permanent disability, retirement, expulsion, bankruptcy or
dissolution/divorce of a Member or the occurrence of any other event under the Idaho Act that
terminates the continued membership ofa Member in the Company unless, within thirty (30) days
after the occurrence of such an event, all of the remaining Members agree in writing to continue
the business of the Company; or
(iii) The entry of a decree ofjudicial dissolution of the Company under the Idaho Act.
Section 15.3. Voluntary Retirement. Any member may retire from the Company upon
giving one-hundred eighty (180) days' notice, in advance, of such retirement to the other
Members. In the event of such retirement, the Member so retiring agrees to transfer and convey
to the remaining Members all of his or her Interest, including all accounts that may be due by
virtue of his or her services and goodwill, as well as his or her right, title or estate in and to the
Company property. The retiring Member shall be entitled to payment from the Company for the
value ofthe Member's Interest on the date ofretirement as established by the procedure set forth in
Sections 15.5 and 15.6 below.
Section 15.4. Involuntary Expulsion. Any Member may be expelled from membership
in the Company with or without cause by an affirmative vote of a two-third majority of the
Percentage Interests of the Members of this Company. In the event of such expulsion, the
expelled Member shall be entitled to payment from the Company for the value of the Member's
Interest on the date of expulsion as established by the procedure set forth in Sections 15.5 and 15.6
below. In addition thereto, if the expelled Member has been receiving a salary from the
Company, she or he shall be entitled to a severance payment equal to six (6) months' salary from
and after the date of expulsion, payable monthly, the salary to be the average monthly salary as
shown by the annual statements preceding the date of such expulsion.
Section 15.5. Payment to Disassociated Member.
(i) If any Member shall die, retire, be expelled or withdraw for any reason during the term
ofthe Company, there shall be payable to such Member or to the personal representative of such
deceased Member the value of his or her Interest in the Company, which shall be determined in the
following manner:
(a) An amount equal to the sum of: (1) any loan by the Member to the Company;
OPERATING AGMT OF HITCHING POST WEDDINGS, L.L.C. - 17
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and (2) any other indebtedness due from the Company to the Member other than the sums due
under paragraphs (b) and (c) below.
(b) An amount equal to the Member's proportionate share of the accrued net
income ofthe Company to the date of the Member's disassociation undistributed in the Member's
drawing account.
(c) An amount equal to the Member's proportionate share ofthe total fair market
value of all Company property, excluding intangible assets (which includes but is not limited to
goodwill and the Company name), according to the Appraised Value of such property.
(d) The Company shall have the right to offset against the payments to be made
under paragraphs ( a), (b), and (c) above any claim which the Company may have against the
disassociated Member arising out ofthe Company or this Agreement.
(ii) The amount required to be paid to the disassociated Member or to the personal
representative of the estate of a disassociated Member pursuant to subsection (i) above shall be
paid in sixty (60) substantially equal monthly installments, with the first payment due no later than
ninety (90) days following disassociation. The balance due the disassociated Member or to the
personal representative ofthe estate of a disassociated Member shall accrue simple interest from
the date of disassociation at the Prime Rate on the date of disassociation, as published in the Wall
Street Journal, or another reputable publication designated by the Members. Each monthly
payment shall include principal and interest. The Company shall have the privilege at any time
and from time to time of accelerating the payment of the whole or any part or parts of the unpaid
balance prior to the due date at any time without notice or bonus.
(iii) Notwithstanding any of the provisions of this Article, there may be paid to a
disassociated Member or to the personal representative of the estate of a disassociated Member
such sum of money in such installments as a majority in interest of the continuing or surviving
members shall deem advisable.
(iv) The amounts payable to a disassociated Member or to the personal representative of a
disassociated Member shall be paid by the Company and accepted by the disassociated Member or
by the personal representative of the disassociated Member in full, final and complete settlement
and satisfaction ofall the claims of such disassociated Member against the Company, the surviving
or continuing members, and the assets ofthe Company.
(v) During the time that payments are being made for disassociation, the disassociated
Member, or its successor in interest, shall not be a Member of the Company and shall have no
rights as a Member ofthe Company.
Section 15.6. Appraised Value. The appraised value of the disassociated Member's
equity in the Company, detennined as of the date on which the disassociation occurred (the
"Appraised Value"), shall be detennined by an appraiser(s), who shall be designated by each ofthe
Company and the disassociated Member or its successor-in-interest within ten (10) days following
the date on which the Company and the disassociated Member or its successor-in-interest
acknowledge that they cannot otherwise agree on the value. Ifthe Company and the disassociated
Member or its successor-in-interest are unable within that ten (lO)-day period to agree on an
appraiser, then each shall, as promptly as possible, appoint a qualified certified valuation analyst or
other similarly qualified appraiser in good standing with any professional governing body. For
the purpose of making the appraisal, the appraiser(s) shall be given access to, and may review,
subject to appropriate confidentiality arrangements, all books and records and infonnation
OPERATING AGMT OF HITCHING POST WEDDINGS, L.L.C. - 18
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Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-4 Filed 10/17/14 Page 19 of 24
available to the Company. The appraiser(s) shall prepare and submit his, her or their written
appraisal to the Company and to the disassociated Member or its successor-in-interest. Ifthe two
appraisers agree upon the appraised value, they shall jointly render a written report. If they have
not so agreed, within ten (l0) days following the realization of their disagreement, they shall
appoint a third appraiser, who shall appraise the Company's assets, determine the appraised value
and render a written report. That appraiser's determination shall be conclusive and binding on the
parties. Each party shall pay the fees and expenses of the appraiser designated by the party, and
shall bear one-half of the fees and expenses of the third appraiser.
Section 15.7. Liquidation. Upon dissolution of the Company, the Members shall carry
out the winding up of the Company and shall immediately commence to wind up the Company's
affairs; provided, however, that a reasonable time shall be allowed for the orderly liquidation ofthe
assets ofthe Company and the satisfaction ofliabilities to creditors so as to enable the Members to
minimize the normal losses attendant upon a liquidation. The Members shall continue to share
Profits and Losses during liquidation in the same proportions, as specified in Article 8, as before
liquidation. The proceeds of liquidation shall be distributed in the following order and priority;
(i) To creditors of the company, including Members who are creditors, to the extent
otherwise permitted by law, in satisfaction ofthe liabilities ofthe Company (whether by payment
or the making of reasonable provision for payment); and
(ii) To the Members in accordance with their Capital Account balances, after giving
effect to all contributions, distributions and allocations for all periods.
Section 15.8. Accounting on Dissolution. The capital, income and drawing accounts shall
be posted as of the date of dissolution. Assets and liabilities shall be taken at book value, but no
value shall be assigned to intangible assets (which includes but is not limited to goodwill and the
Company name).
Section 15.9. Termination. The Company shall terminate when all of the assets of the
Company, after payment of or due provision for all debts, liabilities and obligations of the
Company, shall have been distributed to the Members in the manner provided for in this Article 15
and the Certificate shall have been canceled in the manner required by the Idaho Act.
Section 15.10. Claims of the Members. The Members and former Members shall look
solely to the Company's assets for the return oftheir Capital Contributions, and ifthe assets of the
Company remaining after payment of or due provision for all debts, liabilities and obligations of
the Company are insufficient to return such Capital Contributions, the Members and former
Members shall have no recourse against the Company or any other Member.
ARTICLE SIXTEEN
MISCELLANEOUS
Section 16.1. Notices. All notices provided for in this Agreement shall be in writing, duly
signed by the party giving such notice, and shall be delivered, mailed via an overnight courier
service, telecopied or mailed by registered or certified mail, as follows:
OPERATING AGMT OF HITCHING POST WEDDINGS, L.L.C. - 19
EXHIBITS 020
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-4 Filed 10/17/14 Page 20 of 24
(i) If given to the Company, at the address specified in Section 2.6 ofthis Agreement;
(ii) If given to any Member, at the address set forth opposite its name on the attached
Schedule A, or at such other address as such Member may designate in the future by written notice
to the Company.
All such notices shall be deemed to have been given when received.
Section 16.2. Failure to Pursue Remedies. The failure of any party to seek redress for
violation of, or to insist upon the strict performance of, any provision of this Agreement shall not
prevent a subsequent act, which would have originally constituted a violation, from having the
effect of an original violation.
Section 16.3. Cumulative Remedies. The rights and remedies provided by this
Agreement are cumulative and the use of anyone right or remedy by any party shall not preclude
or waive its right to use any or all other remedies. The rights and remedies are given in addition to
any other rights the parties may have by Law or otherwise.
Section 16.4. Binding Effect. This Agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the
benefit of all of the parties and, to the extent permitted by this Agreement, their successors, legal
representatives and assigns.
Section 16.5. Interpretation. Throughout this Agreement, nouns, pronouns and verbs
shall be applicable. All references in this Agreement to "Articles," "Sections" and "Paragraphs"
shall refer to corresponding provisions ofthis Agreement.
Section 16.6. Severability. The invalidity or unenforceability ofany particular provision
ofthis Agreement shall not affect the other provisions ofthis Agreement, and this Agreement shall
be construed in all respects as if such invalid or unenforceable provision were omitted.
Section 16.7. Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in any number of
counterparts with the same effect as ifall parties had signed the same document. All counterparts
shall be construed together and shall constitute one instrument.
Section 16.8. Entire Agreement. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement
among the parties pertaining to the subject matter of this Agreement and supersedes all prior
agreements and understandings pertaining to the subject matter.
Section 16.9. Governing Law. This Agreement and the rights of the parties shall be
interpreted in accordance with the laws of the State of Idaho, and all rights and remedies shall be
governed by such laws without regard to principles of conflict oflaws.
Section 16.10. No Implied Rights or Remedies. Nothing expressed or implied shall be
construed to confer upon any Person, except the Members and Managers, any rights or remedies
under or by reason ofthis Agreement.
Section 16.11. Dispute Resolution. In the event of a dispute or disagreement regarding
OPERATING AGMT OF HITCHING POST WEDDINGS, L.L.C. - 20
EXHIBITS 021
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-4 Filed 10/17/14 Page 21 of 24
perfonnance, execution, interpretation, or any other matter related to the fonnation or fulfillment
of this Agreement:
(i) The laws of the State ofldaho shall govern all matters related to such;
(ii) The District Court of the First Judicial District of the State of Idaho, in and for the
County of Kootenai, shall have exclusive jurisdiction to hear and resolve such;
(iii) Each of the undersigneds and the Company expressly consent to personal jurisdiction
and venue in the District Court of the First Judicial District of the State of Idaho, in and for the
County of Kootenai, and waive any objection to personal jurisdiction or venue that the
undersigned might have;
(iv) If any of the undersigneds or the Company seek the services of an attorney regarding
such, the prevailing party upon trial, appeal, or other judicial disposition shall be entitled to
reimbursement of all reasonable attorney fees, court costs, and litigation expenses incurred in
enforcing this Agreement and in collecting on any judgment resulting therefrom, except such fees,
costs, and expenses incurred in pursuing an invalid or unenforceable provision of this Agreement;
(v) Any of the undersigneds and the Company can pursue any and all legal and equitable
remedies available to a party under Idaho law.
Section 16.12. Advice of Counsel. Each of the undersigneds acknowledge that they
have had the opportunity to consult with their respective legal counsel prior to and regarding the
fonnation, execution, and perfonnance ofthis Agreement.
Section 16.13. Representations. The undersigneds each represent that:
(i) at the time of execution of this Agreement, the undersigned freely and voluntarily
assented to be bound by the tenns and conditions ofthis Agreement;
(ii) at the time of execution of this Agreement and during all times related to the
negotiation and drafting of this Agreement, the undersigned had capacity to act and was
knowledgeable and aware of the dealings and effect ofthis Agreement;
(iii) this Agreement is not being executed for an illegal purpose and the tenns and
conditions ofthis agreement do not contain any illegal subject matter;
(iv) the undersigned, at the time of execution ofthis Agreement and during all times related
to the negotiation and drafting of this Agreement, made no misrepresentations, false assertions of
facts, and did not conceal any facts;
(v) at the time ofexecution ofthis Agreement and during all times related to the negotiation
and drafting of this Agreement, the party was acting voluntarily and not subject to duress or
coercion;
(vi) the undersigned is unaware of any mutual or unilateral mistakes related to the
fonnation or execution ofthis Agreement;
(vii) the undersigned has read and understands the tenns and conditions ofthis Agreement
and believes all of them to be fair and reasonable; and
(viii) the party received adequate consideration in support of execution ofthis Agreement.
These representations shall survive the execution of this Agreement and continue for the duration
ofthe Company's existence.
In witness, the parties have executed this agreement the day and year indicated opposite
each signature.
OPERATING AGMT OF HITCHING POST WEDDINGS, L.L.C. - 21
EXHIBITS 022
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-4 Filed 10/17/14 Page 22 of 24
OCT-06-14 10 09 AM DON+LYNN KNAPP 208 667 1535 P.02
. . . . ,I ."
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. ,()PERAlWG AGMT OF HITCHING POST WEDDINGS, L.L.C... 22
EXHIBITS 023
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-4 Filed 10/17/14 Page 23 of 24
SCHEDULE A 
Member, with
Address and 
Telephone
Percentage
Ownership
Interest
Donald Knapp 
3676 Evergreen Dr., Coeur d' Alene, ld.  83815 
Tel. 208-667-1535 
50
Evelyn Knapp 
3676 Evergreen Dr., Coeur d' Alene, ld.  83815 
Tel. 208-667-1535 
Tel. (208) 
50
TOTAL 100%
OPERATING AGMT OF HITCHING POST WEDDINGS, L.L.C. - 23 
EXHIBITS 024
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-4 Filed 10/17/14 Page 24 of 24


EXHIBIT 2
EXHIBITS 025
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-5 Filed 10/17/14 Page 1 of 3
HITCHING POST EMPLOYEE POLICY, RULES, AND REGULATIONS
REGARDING MARRIAGE CEREMONIES

Statements of Purpose

The Hitching Post is a religious corporation owned solely by ordained ministers of the Christian
religion who operate this entity as an extension of their sincerely held religious beliefs and in
accordance with their vows taken as Christian ministers. The purpose of the Hitching Post is to
help people create, celebrate, and build lifetime, monogamous, one-man-one-woman marriages
as defined by the Holy Bible.

The Christian religion requires that all its adherents, and especially its ministers, apply their
religious precepts and doctrines to all facets of their lives, including their work and the operation
of their businesses. For this reason, the Hitching Post reserves the right to refuse a request for
services that would require the entity to engage in conduct that conflicts with its owners’
sincerely held religious beliefs and the ministerial vows taken by the owners.

The Hitching Post engages in its own expression through the services that it provides. In so
doing, The Hitching Post intentionally expresses public messages that promote aspects of its
owners’ Christian religion and that are not inconsistent with those sincerely held beliefs. For this
reason, The Hitching Post reserves the right to refuse a request for services that would require
the entity to engage in or host expression that violates its owners’ sincerely held religious beliefs.
Only Hitching Post’s owners and employees perform weddings at Hitching Post Chapel and
other locations scheduled by the Hitching Post. They have ultimate control over the content of
the ceremony and will not conduct a ceremony that expresses messages that are inconsistent with
their Christian faith.

The Hitching Post provides wedding and marriage-related services for the purpose of publicly
expressing and promoting that marriage is the union of one man and one woman, which is
consistent with its owners’ sincerely held religious beliefs and with their ministerial vows. Any
request for wedding and marriage-related services not within this identified purpose is outside
the scope of services offered by the Hitching Post.

The Hitching Post, consistent with its owners’ sincerely held religious beliefs, provides wedding
and marriage-related services also for the purposes of promoting the social institution of
marriage as a fundamental building block of our society and promoting the public understanding
of marriage as the union of one man and one woman. By furthering these purposes, the Hitching
Post endeavors to instill and promote this biblical understanding of marriage and marriage-
related values in the communities where it operates. Achieving these goals is important to ensure
that marriage remains a vital social institution that uniquely promotes the raising of children by
their mother and father.




EXHIBITS 026
Case 2:14-cv-00441-REB Document 1-5 Filed 10/17/14 Page 2 of 3
Rules and Regulations

In light of these purposes specified above, employees of the Hitching Post must adhere to the
following rules:

• Only the Hitching Post owners and employees may perform wedding ceremonies at the
Hitching Post Chapel and other locations scheduled by the Hitching Post. Outside
ministers may not perform wedding ceremonies at the Hitching Post Chapel or other
locations scheduled by the Hitching Post. Brides and grooms may not invite outside
ministers to perform such ceremonies. Outside ministers may come and stand alongside
the Hitching Post owner or employee who performs the wedding ceremony. But only the
Hitching Post owner or employee may perform the ceremony.
• In accordance with the religious beliefs and ministerial vows of the Hitching Post owners,
Hitching Post owners and employees will only perform wedding ceremonies for couples
entering into a one biological male and one biological female union. Hitching Post
owners and employees will not conduct wedding ceremonies or their equivalent (i.e.
commitment ceremonies, etc.) for same-sex, polyamorous, bigamous, or any other
relationship that is inconsistent with the Hitching Post owners’ religious belief that
marriage is a union between man and woman.
• In accordance with the religious beliefs and ministerial vows of the Hitching Post owners,
Hitching Post owners and employees will perform ceremonies for those of different faiths
and religious beliefs (so long as those marriage ceremonies are consistent with the beliefs
set forth herein) because marriage is a common grace and creational gift bestowed by
God upon all humans for the benefit of human society.
• Persons of all age, race, creed, color, sex, national origin, religion, sexual orientation,
gender identity/expression, disability, marital status, and socioeconomic status are
welcomed and encouraged to stand with brides and grooms and to attend wedding
ceremonies.
• Persons of all age, race, creed, color, sex, national origin, religion, sexual orientation,
gender identity/expression, disability, marital status, and socioeconomic status are
welcomed and encouraged to obtain any resource about marriage provided by the
Hitching Post.

As an employee of the Hitching Post, I agree to perform my job-related activities in accordance
with the rules specified above. I agree that I will not perform wedding ceremonies or their
equivalent at the Hitching Post Chapel or at any locations scheduled by the Hitching Post in a
way that violates the rules specified above. If I have any questions about how these rules apply in
a particular instance, I agree to ask the Hitching Post owners before I perform a wedding
ceremony at the Hitching Post Chapel or at locations scheduled by the Hitching Post.

Please sign that you have read this policy and agree to abide by it:



__________________________________________________

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EXHIBIT 3
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HITCHING POST WEDDING CUSTOMER POLICY, RULES, AND REGULATIONS
REGARDING MARRIAGE CEREMONIES

The Hitching Post is a religious corporation owned by Christian ministers for a religious purpose. If you
would like to read a full description of the Hitching Post’s purpose and character and a full description
of the wedding ceremonies the Hitching Post will perform, a document outlining these is available upon
request. Because of its religious purpose and character, the Hitching Post will only perform wedding
ceremonies consistent with the owners’ religious beliefs. Therefore, Hitching Post owners and
employees will not conduct wedding ceremonies or their equivalent (i.e. commitment ceremonies, etc.)
for same-sex, polyamorous, bigamous, or any other relationship that is inconsistent with the Hitching
Post owners’ religious belief that marriage is a union between one biological male and one biological
female.

As a Hitching Post wedding customer, I affirm and promise that I am not requesting the Hitching Post to
provide any services that violate the rules specified above. I affirm and promise that I am requesting the
Hitching Post to perform a wedding service between one biological male and one biological female. If I
have any questions about how these rules apply in my particular instance, I agree to ask a Hitching Post
owner or employee before the Hitching Post performs my wedding ceremony at the Hitching Post
Chapel or at locations scheduled by the Hitching Post.

Please sign that you have read this policy and agree to abide by it:



__________________________________________________

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EXHIBIT 4
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Lynn’s Wedding Vows

These are the vows I usually use.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
We're gathered here to join this man and this woman in Holy Matrimony, which is honorable among
all men and is not to be entered into unadvisedly, or lightly, but reverently, discretely and in the
fear of God.

And now if Patrick and J essica have appeared for the purpose of being joined in Holy wedlock, will
you please signify this intention, by joining your right hands.

To Patrick
Do you take the lady whom you now hold by the hand, to be your lawful and wedded wife? (I Do).
Do you promise to love and cherish her in sickness and in health, for richer, for poorer, for better
for worse, and forsaking all others keep you only unto her so long as you both shall live? (I do)
GROOM – repeat vows - I Patrick take you J essica, to be my wedded wife, to have and to hold from
this day forward, for better or worse, for richer or poorer, in sickness and in health, to love and to
cherish, till death do us part.

To J essica
Do you take the gentleman who now stands by your side and who holds you by the hand to be your
lawful and wedded husband? (I Do)
Do you promise to love and cherish him, in sickness and in health, for richer, for poorer, for
better for worse, and forsaking all others, keep you only unto him as long as you both shall live?
(I Do)
BRIDE – repeat vows - I J essica take you Patrick, to be my wedded husband, to have and to hold
from this day forward, for better or worse, for richer or poorer, in sickness and in health, to love
and to cherish, till death do us part.

To both of you
Do you both promise in the presence of God that you will at all times and in all circumstances treat
each other with respect as is appropriate for a husband and a wife. (I Do)
That you will love, cherish and stay with one another until separated by death. (I Do)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

You have made many promises today, to love, cherish, stay with each other. And I hope you have
talked about these things, to love, to cherish etc. and that you have talked about your hopes and
dreams and plans for the future.

You have made a commitment today, a choice, a decision to love and today you are starting out fresh
and new. And this is just the wedding, not the marriage. It will start in a few minutes and you
have lots of years ahead to perfect your love for each other.

I'd like to talk to you about Love. Love is a very small word, but there is a lot of meaning to it.
God has told us something about love and since He created marriage and love, I think that He has
some great advice for us and if we follow what he says, you will have a great marriage.
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He tells us that Love is Kind, is not selfish, Love keeps no record of wrongs, works to please, trusts,
hopes, perseveres. Also our pastor says it this way, “Love is doing what's best for the other
person no matter what it costs me.” I'd like to share a little about the “Love keeps no record of
wrongs” part. As I think people get hung up on this. Someone says something to us and we get
our feelings hurt and instead of talking through a difficult situation, we stuff it inside and then
another thing is stuffed on top of that and then another and one day we just explode, because we
aren't created to handle it.

So Patrick, I can't imagine you would ever come home from work and ever say something unkind or
do something unkind to your beautiful bride -but just in case- swallow your pride, and yes, I
know it is hard, but go and ask forgiveness from J essica. And J essica if you will give that
forgiveness and then do one more thing, bury it or throw it away never to be brought up again in
the future. See that is what God did for us. When we do wrong we are to go to God and ask
forgiveness and does He forgive us- yes, He does. And then he does one more thing, he buries it
in the sea of forgetfulness, never to be remembered again. We might remember the crummy
thing we did, but he doesn't. So that is an example for us to follow, though we won't be perfect
at it, but work at it daily. However, if you have things you need to work through and discuss,
take the time to do that as your marriage is “that important” for you to do things that will build
your marriage. Now J essica it works the other way too. I can't imagine that you'd ever be
cranky or crabby and say or do something unkind to Patrick, but just in case, -- do the same, ask
him to forgive you and Patrick give her that forgiveness and then put it away never to be brought
up again.

Rings- The ring is a symbol of the love that the two of you pledged to each other. A never ending
circle showing long lasting commitment to each other.

Prayer- Dear Lord, Bless Patrick and J essica, help them as a husband and wife to do things that will
build a marriage, that J essica would often tell Patrick how much she respects him and appreciates
him, and that Patrick will give J essica the Love and tenderness and kindness that she needs.
Help them to be not only lovers, but best friends, sharing what is in their hearts with each other.
Thank you for this Lord, in J esus Name, Amen.

Forasmuch as Patrick and J essica have consented together in Holy wedlock and have witnessed the
same before God and have given and pledged their commitment to each other and have declared
the same by the giving and receiving of rings and joining of hands. I pronounce that you are
Husband and Wife in the Name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Amen.

You may now kiss the bride.

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EXHIBIT 5
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DVD TO BE DELIVERED TO THE COURT


EXHIBIT 6
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CD TO BE DELIVERED TO THE COURT


EXHIBIT 7
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DVD TO BE DELIVERED TO THE COURT


EXHIBIT 8
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LOCAL WEDDING FACILITIES
This is a complimentary list only; we do not endorse any of the facilities.



Kootenai County Magistrate Judge
501 Government Way or
324 Government Way, Coeur d’Alene
208-446-1170

Senior Judge Eugene Marano
208-664-3676

Bride and Groom Forever
Pastor Don Washburn
2111 Windermere, Coeur d’Alene
208-704-2739
Marriages performed anytime,
anywhere $50

Town and Country Weddings
Mobile Wedding Chapel
Reverend E.P. Holm
United Living Ministries, Inc.
208-762-5830
chaplainep@yahoo.com

The Coeur d’Alene Resort
208-765-4000 or 800-365-8338
www.cdaresort.com

Coeur d’Alene Wedding Chapel
Suzanne Anderson
618 Wallace, Coeur d’Alene, 208-664-
4408
www.northidahoweddings.com
info@northidahoweddings.com

F. Lewis Clark Mansion
Monty Danner
5250 East Hayden Lake Road, Hayden
Lake
208-772-3470
www.clarkhouse.com
info@clarkhouse.com

Greenbriar Inn
Chris McIlvenna
315 Wallace, Coeur d’Alene
208-667-9660
www.greenbriarcatering.com





The Hitching Post
524 Government Way, Coeur d’Alene
208-664-5510
www.hitchingpostweddings.com
hpost1@frontier.com

Victorian Wedding Chapel
1502 Sherman Avenue, Coeur d'Alene
208-664-8745

The White House Events, Wedding &
Catering
805 Sherman Avenue, Coeur d’Alene
208-765-3958
cdawhitehouseevents.com
cdawhitehouseevents@ymail.com

Katie’s Wild Rose Inn
7974 East Coeur d’Alene Lake Dr,
Coeur d’Alene
208-699-3669 or 800-371-4345
www.katieswildroseinn.com

River Cove Elegant Waterfront Bed &
Breakfast
212 Parkwood Place, Post Falls
208-773-9190
www.therivercove.com

The Roosevelt Inn and Spa
John Hough
105 East Wallace Avenue, Coeur
d’Alene
208-765-5200 or 800-290-3358
www.therooseveltinn.com
info@therooseveltinn.com

Prairie Sky Weddings
Faye M. Griffiths
2890 South Stateline Road, Post Falls
Traveling Minister

Reverend James Bean
208-687-1360 or 208-699-2541
rbean@frontier.com
Traveling Minister

Reverend Dennis Oliver
208-651-1021
djoliver@roadrunner.com

Reverend Florence M. Morrison
208-667-4604
parsonflo@msn.com

Pastor Mark Coffey
303 South 16
TH
Street, Coeur d’Alene
208-664-3233 or 208-661-0573
newheaven4u2@aol.com

North Idaho Weddings
Terry Gurno
(208) 660-7727
terrygurno@gmail.com

Married By Melody
Melody Melton
208-964-3648
Ordained Minister

Pastor Gary W. O’Neal
208-691-2215
www.forgreenerpastures.com
garyonealcoaching.com

Reverend Jameson Richards
(U.L.C., Rose Ministries)
208-704-7054
shepherdrichards@aol.com
Custom Ceremonies By Christine
Christine Taysan
208-704-8137
christinetaysan@gmail.com
Reverend Christina Oss LaBang
808-216-8062 or 925-255-6194
pacha119@yahoo.com
Traveling Minister

Weddings at the Park
Christi Kuchenski
29710 North Caribou Avenue, Athol
208-659-3910
christi@weddingsatthepark.com

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