Race and Media

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Race and Media
A Look at How Minorities are Perceived Through Various Aspects of Television

Researched and Composed by:
Sheldon Green India Hatcher Gena Kimbrough Hadiyah Daché Muhammad Kaity Packer

For:
Professor Sabrina Freeney Mass Communications Research Clark Atlanta University Fall 2006

Race and Media We live in the world of television. We’ve put our newspapers down because we

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would rather watch the news as it is happening. We’ve turned our radios off because our music now comes with a visual aid. We’ve been to less and less stage plays and events at our local theatres because all of the good drama lies within reality television. The television is turning into our sole source of entertainment. Unfortunately, everything displayed on television is not as entertaining we’d like for it to be. One could even say that the only thing television entertains are the cultural vulnerabilities of minorities and the vast disparities between each race, subliminally proposing that racial equality in unattainable. The news, commercials, syndicated network and entertainment shows exploit everything negative and stereotypical about minorities. In America, even the smallest of foreign countries and ethnicities fall victim to American media’s vicious form of entertainment. The television has become the world’s best weapon of mass destruction. Research within this paper focuses on television’s affects on the perceptions on minorities in American society. Specifically, research in this paper goes into a deeper focus on how television and stereotypes in television affect everyday perceptions and socialization of minorities. Affects on Children Since it’s inception in the early 1950’s the television has been the single most influential tool on modern society (Herr). For children born into the world of television, the entertainment factor has been on a continuous rise. Children are exposed to many aspects of the world’s cultures through various programs and program genres. The children have cartoons, situation comedies, commercials, dramas and movies targeted to

Race and Media them specifically through television. Distinctively, the portrayal of race in children’s programming provides children with a false concept of races that differ from their own. This altered perception directly affects the validity of the cultivation and social expectancy theories (Li-Vollmer 244). There are currently approximately 4,000 studies examining the effects of

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television on children (Herr). Children are exposed to television in infancy and-- because of that-- television is one of the most powerful socializing agents (Larson 1). These days, it is becoming harder to free children from the television screen when nearly 70% of daycare facilities utilize the television daily. It is estimated that the average child watches television for 1,680 minutes per week (Herr). Many American children grow up watching either the Disney channel or Disney movies. Every child knows at least one Disney show or movie. With the latter, Disney movies are considered American classics and have not changed much since their original creations (Picker et al.). The movies Lady and the Tramp and Oliver and Company show Latino’s as “irresponsible Chihuahua’s,” African-Americans as “jive crows” in Dumbo and non-existent in the near-by and surrounding areas of Tarzan’s Africa, and NativeAmericans as nothing but insignificant savages in Pocahontas (Picker et al.). Moreover, African-Americans seem to always get the short end of the stick when it comes to the happy ending of the fairytales. As an example, in The Jungle Book, made in 1967, the apes in the movie were clearly African-Americans. The character King Louis, the selfproclaimed leader of the apes, was actually the voice of African-American big band leader Louis Prima (Picker et al.). Many scholars argue over whether this was a

Race and Media

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coincidence or not. Funny how the apes constantly sing in The Jungle Book that they just want “to be human, too.” The bulk of time spent watching any television programming is more than likely time spent watching advertisements. Commercials aired in between children’s programming are predominately commercials in which all of the children shown in the commercial are white (Larson 6). For a minority child viewer, the commercials say that the white race is a clear majority over all others and white children enjoy more (LiVollmer 215). Less than one percent of minority children in commercials appear alone and nearly all minorities in commercials appear in a public setting (Larson 11). Restaurants are the premier public setting in which minority children are displayed together and more often than not those restaurants are for fast-food (Larson 11). These commercials give children the false notion that minority children can only have a meal outside of home away from their family. Even the minority children who are watching these commercials believe that whatever it is they are fed at home isn’t good enough and that they should be out eating in a fast food restaurant. According to Children Now, a non-partisan, independent organization for children, African-American children feel that entertainment media represents their race more closely than news media and AsianAmerican children feel that news media represents their race more closely than entertainment media. Also, in commercials specifically made for children, minorities often appear as athletes, service workers or laborers (Li-Vollmer 218). Many would consider these occupations (with the exception of athlete) to be those that require less education, less effort and less leadership. Sending messages like these to children lets them know that

Race and Media minority children don’t have to strive to be anything other than average because they are content with that. Children perceive this as so and often assume the occupation of a

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friend’s parent by relating their race to what they saw someone of the same race doing in a commercial (Li-Vollmer 219). In programming, children tend to think that White people are shown more positively and minorities, specifically African-American and Latino, are shown more negatively (Children Now). Commercials, such as those derived from for this paper, do not give children a chance to recognize a specified racial group and does not allow them to be able to differentiate between the minorities for themselves. Though commercials targeted to children have slightly improved over the past couple of years, the racial disparity that still exists in the commercials makes the slight changes insignificant (Li-Vollmer 223). These commercials are dangerous as they relate to race relations between children and race relations in America. The danger doesn’t come solely from a child watching one commercial, the danger comes in the constant repetition, the subtlety of the racial biases and the fact that not even most adults can recognize the racial bias in most commercials (Li-Vollmer 229). Though protests by organizations such as the NAACP and La Raza have been an ongoing process for the past couple of years, the problem of the racial bias has yet to change. Commercials have become the leading “unconscious, seemingly natural racist discourse found in the media” (Li-Vollmer 224). Television Commercials Race in television commercials has been a big issue. Back in the 1950’s, U.S advertisers spent $171 million, or about three percent of total U.S advertising volume on the new medium of television. However it did not take long for the nation’s advertisers to

Race and Media discover the power of this new communications medium to reach mass audiences frequently and quickly. Television also offered unique creative opportunities to instill their brands with personality and image like never before. By 2001, TV advertising had grown to more than $54 billion and accounted for more than 29 percent of all US ad spending, surpassing newspapers as the leading US advertising medium. The top 10 network television advertisers are: Procter & Gamble Co., General Motors Corp., Johnson & Johnson, Ford Motor Co., Pfizer, Time Warner, Pepsi Co., Walt Disney Co., Sony Corp. and Yum Brands. Of these company’s only half hire African American actors regularly. Diversity is a growing factor in each of the company’s but the role minorities play in their television ads can be discriminating. Of these company’s only half hire African American (AA) actors regularly.

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Diversity is a growing factor in each of the company’s but the role minorities play in their television ads can be discriminating. (MacDonald, p.S2) In a lot of present day television commercials you see various cultures depicted in different ways. For example while watching television (CBS 46) during a 30 minute program, 18 commercials were aired. Of those 18 commercials European Americans (EA) were depicted in every single ad. Only two of the 18 had African American actors. One was a LaZ Boy ad and the other was a commercial for contacts in which the African American guy was pictured on the right hand side of the screen and a European American on the left hand side. This is stated because when we view things such as books, television, etc. we look at things from left to right, so was the AA actor purposely placed in the second viewing position? There was one Asian actor in the LaZ Boy commercial as well. Hispanic people were depicted in two commercials and both were for the most part

Race and Media degrading. One commercial was a sandwich ad in which a woman of European descent was tired of cooking long meals so she tried the sandwich which was very quick and she loved it. Then she says “Now I have more time to watch the pool boy!” Ironically the pool boy walks in and he’s Hispanic. The other commercial that depicted a Hispanic actress was an ad for a law firm in which a Hispanic woman was crying because she did not have enough money to pay for a lawyer. The lawyer, a European American, steps in and offers to set her up with some type of payment plan and tells her not to worry. It’s hard to understand why minorities are not depicted equally in television ads. For the most part they are portrayed stereotypically. Most minorities obtain roles in commercials that European America believe represents them. Most of these types of ads include Kentucky Fried Chicken commercials, (Fast Food ads in general), contacts or vision commercials, lower valued car commercials, and most other ads in which the product their advertising does not have much value. On the other hand European Americans are portrayed in a far more glamorous manor. Most ads that have anything to do with luxury are closely related to European Americans. They are exposed in Luxury car ads such as Mercedes Benz, Lexus, Infinity, etc. They are also well represented in diamond commercials, real estate ads, and pretty much all advertisements that illustrate the image of living the lavish life. A full 98 percent of all US homes have a TV, and viewing time for the average household increased from about five hours a day in 1960 to about eight hours per day in 2003. Television audiences vary a great deal depending on the time of day, day of the week, and nature of the programming. (Lee, Katz, p.76) Advertising messages can be presented when potential customers are watching and advertisers can reach select

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Race and Media geographic audiences by buying local and regional markets. These factors may have a

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great influence on how and why companies hire the models, actresses, and actors they use in their ads. However these factors may also be the reason many companies lose minority clients. No race wants to be misrepresented. Contemporary broadcast television offers advertisers many advantages over competing media. Television offers a kind of immediacy that other forms of advertising cannot achieve, displaying and demonstrating the product with sound, motion, and full color right before the customer’s eyes. (Lee, Katz, p.83) For this reason many would believe that advertising agencies would try to reach out to everyone and somehow try to represent or include a sense of belonging for all ethnic groups. In spite of this race is still not evenly distributed nor equally depicted in television commercials. Representation in the News Media has divided the working class and stereotyped young African-American males as gangsters or drug dealers. As a result of such treatment, the media has crushed youths' prospects for future employment and advancement. The media has focused on the negative aspects of black people while maintaining the cycle of poverty that the elite wants. Television news is one of the main reasons these perceptions of African Americans are created. There are so many myths and stereotypes that play a major role in the depictions of African Americans as it relates to their representation in television news. Our main focus is the socialization as well as the culture of African Americans that allow the media to only broadcast news that they feel is relevant to our African race.

Race and Media Critical news scholars claim that the news supports the values, beliefs and norms of the ruling elite that wields social, economic and political power within a hierarchy of social formations (Hall, 1977).

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African Americans are frequently shown in the physical grasp of police officers in local and syndicated network television news stories that often involve violence, drugrelated arrests, petty crimes and assaults. This common camera shot reinforces the stereotype that African Americans accused of a crime are more threatening than their white defendants who are less likely to appear on camera in the grasp of police officers (Entman, 1994). Entman's study also shows differences in verbal representation of African Americans and whites. These findings, according to Entman, may further reinforce negative stereotypical images of African Americans. One cannot ignore the verbal code words in news that signal that the story is about African Americans. A computerized search through 300 Nightly ABC World News stories was conducted using words such as: inner city, racism or racist, racial or race, minority, underclass and ghetto. Sixty-six stories were about African Americans (Entman 1994). Note however that 234 stories were extracted from the search as mentioning Black or "Blacks." Both the pictures and the verbal connotations coupled with the lack of varied images of African American life further contribute to hostility and rejection of African Americans by white mainstream society. (Entman 1994). There are two main categories that fall into place when associated television news as it relates to African Americans; socialization and culture. Socialization is the process by which human beings or animals learn to adopt the behavior patterns of the community in which they live. Because blacks are among the

Race and Media 10 most stereotypical ethnicity, it is almost certain that they fall in the category of socialization in television news. Many times, most feel so complacent with the media and its assumptions that they tend to mimic and depict the characteristics held upon them. They feel obligated to act a certain way because most of the way TV news perceives them (Entman 1994). Due to our different ethnic backgrounds and also because we are all raised in different environments, our behavior that we have will forever be distinct from one another(Albarran 9). For example, during the Hurricane Katrina destruction, it was so clear that there was a racial boundary between the ways blacks were viewed from their white counter-parts. Whites were being viewed as scouting for food and surviving while blacks were being viewed as looting. This is a very important example of how news can make assumptions based on the socialization that depicts African Americans (Albarran 12). Because of this, the media associates that experience and quickly identify the way a black person would act, speak, and behave. This is absolutely false but even the things that are untrue will always have the assumptions made. Race is continually under construction through the various means of socialization. The means of socialization are the family, government, school, church, peers and friendship networks, work, and of course the media. Culture has been called "the way of life for an entire society." As such, it includes codes of manners, dress, language, religion, rituals, norms of behavior and systems of belief. (Wikipedia). Television News bases the majority of their beliefs and coverage’s due to the culture that African Americans represent. This is truly unfair and unreasonable. These reasons and more support why the portrayal in Television news as it relates to African Americans are primarily negative because of the way society views

Race and Media 11 blacks through socialization and culture (Albarran 4). Society is seemingly judgmental and biased. We should cover news because its important and it keep us updated, not because we have to reinforce the stereotypical aspects that associate with one’s race to continue to add what we feel is truth about ones way of living. Music Videos It is not uncommon to turn on the television and view a woman half naked selling a product in an advertisement. Today it has become more common to see an African American woman in a music video selling the song of an artist through the exoticness of her sexuality. Some view it as the choice of a woman, while others argue that society has engrained her to be this way. Whatever the case may be African American women in the media are constantly being depicted in images that illuminates a negative light that shines overall. To understand the constant degradation of women in the media one must understand the history of degraded women in America. It is no secret that over the years women, especially black women, have been illustrated to be everything from mammies to sexual animals. In the early days of media, black women were depicted as maids and nannies also called mammies. These mammies were black women who were employed to tend to a white family’s household. This woman would be seen as part of the family but only under the convenience of the white household she worked for. She was the cook, the cleaning lady, and the scapegoat for hardships they had to endure on the day to day basis. (Klebesadel, pg. 7) The mammy was considered to be one of the most disrespectful representations of African American women in America, until the conception of the hip hop era. In today’s

Race and Media 12 world of hip hop, the average African American woman displayed on television screens in music videos has an age range from 17-25. Her body contains shapely measurements of a 36 inch bust, a 24 inch waist, and 36 inch hips. Her body is always exposed, without tact, and her picture seems to appear every time a man refers to a whore, bitch, or slut. She is portrayed as the ideal woman for a man who lives in the world of hip hop. (Keels. pg. 5) Many argue that this exotic woman displayed in music videos is a positive evolution for black women rising above the state of the mammy figure. For the first time a black woman is seen as a sexy individual with a unique shape that she can only possess. This opposes the idea of a white woman being the only ultimate beauty in America, and for once a woman who does not have blonde hair and blue eyes can be deemed as beautiful. (McCloud) While others argue that African American women are even more disrespected because not only are white Americans responsible for degradation, the African American men are now playing a part in this atrocity. In another light, individuals believe the actions of African Americans in the media of hip hop is proof that they are still in search of an identity that was lost, and hip hop being seen as the hopeful cause that could possibly bring them back to a sense of culture and harmonic belonging. Before the days of slavery African Americans, then Africans, had a land of their own, a society of their own, and a sense of identity. (Leyda, pg. 17) Unfortunately when many Africans were captured and brought to the land of America to be enslaved, their dehumanization and separation from everything they’ve known stripped them of their identity leaving them practically lifeless. Over the years of emancipation and reformation African Americans continued to struggle for acceptance in

Race and Media 13 a world that didn’t accept them, still without an identity of their own. Today the formulated ideals of Africa Bambataa or what we see today as hip hop is supposed to be a similar replacement of the identity lost, with the familiar phrase, “Hip hop is a culture.” On the other hand, individuals do agree African Americans have lost their sense of identity over the years, but in efforts to find this identity of hip hop they have only proven the stereotypes and assumptions of white America to be true. For example one of the prime assumptions being that black women are seen as nothing but sexual exotic creatures, which Americans see depicted everyday on Black Entertainment Television. (Tollin) It appears that in efforts to save the African American race by providing a sense of identity through hip hop women seem to be the suffering sacrifice. Although the identity of African American women is degraded in the hip hop culture, women in general have suffered and are still suffering from depictions and mixed messages being sent about them through the media. (Rieken) Society has always had their own idea of depicting women. For example showing them in different ads and media sending all kind of hypocritical messages ranging anywhere from a woman displaying an innocent face but wearing garments that are revealing and sexually explicit. Through these constant actions of society, women strive to receive a certain respect and positive depiction from the men of America. Unfortunately until all women take a stand to alleviate the problem of negative imaging in media there will never be a change in the way society views women in all. Representation in Primetime Television The true analysis lies within ethnic representations on prime time television between minorities during prime time programming. Prime time refers to the entire set of

Race and Media 14 programs telecast between 8 and 11 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, in the United States. It is also the period with the greatest number of viewers. The concept of prime time is built around the delivery of context at a fixed time, which is under control of the content distributor (Weiner 2). The research phase is within the analysis of viewer receptions of the roles played by Hispanic-Americans and Asian-Americans on prime time, an inquiry if they identify with the prime time characters and to decipher if reality has significance within the statistical measure of the characters identities in the roles. The limited portrayal of Hispanic-Americans on prime time television remains an issue despite promises of improvements by major networks. Since the National Council of La Raza participated in a 1999 “brownout” encouraging a one-week boycott of programming, networks have pledged to increase the frequency and quality of HispanicAmerican representations (NAACP). At 12.5% of the population, Hispanic-Americans constitute the largest racial/ ethnic minority group in the United States (US Census). Research still suggests that they remain unrepresented on television compared to figures of citizenship in the United States comprising to 1% to 3% of prime time television population (Greenburg; Mastro; Brand). Studies have revealed associations between viewing portrayal of race and/or ethnicity and the attributions of social class, judgments, employment, family lifestyle, economical standing, and attitudes. This research is both theoretically and socially significant; in order to indicate if a pattern of under representation is due to statistics or by stereotype. In the late 1900’s, Hispanic-Americans in prime time television statistically remained within the 3 percentile, as they were since the 1950’s, and in secondary and non-recurring roles, with males outnumbering the females (Greenburg; Mastro; Brand

Race and Media 15 2000. 691). Stereotypically the roles that were reoccurring were: criminals, lovers and comedians. The attitudes (in the same order) were: aggressive and dishonest nature, hot tempered and sexually aggressive and heavy accented and un-intelligent. The comedian character can be seen as depicted in “Rosario” on past episodes (cancelled in June 2006) of NBC’s “Will and Grace”- also adopting the stereotype as a low-class worker with an aggressive attitude and short- tempered behavior (Greenburg; Mastro; Brand 2001. 23) Tajfel’s social identity theory suggests the relationship between individuals seeking to create and maintain a positive identity by comparing favorable and unfavorable characteristics in media representations is natural, with regard to ethnic transcendence of characters on television programming (Tajfel 1978) This means one may be accustomed to their own image of self from the idea of the images in characters on television. Although content analyses cannot offer casual evidence linking media exposure to real-world attitudes and behaviors, the content features derived from these analyses, suggest that the manner in which Hispanic-Americans are depicted on TV may be of consequence to real-world group interactions. A two-week composite of prime time TV programming (8-11 p.m. EST Mon.-Sat. and 7-10 p.m. EST Sun.) across five broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, NBC, FOX and WB) was constructed during a six week sampling period from October to November 2002 (Neuendorf 2002). The sampling procedure was random using a random numbers table (which often is viewed as inconclusive but effective for generalization). Using the standard error estimates the calculations show intervals of 95% confidence at the 0.5 level with all prime time included, resulting in 67 distinct programs (Neuendorf 2002). Special events, sports, news and Hollywood films were excluded. Eight genre categories

Race and Media 16 were used: sitcom, family drama, soap, cartoon, science fiction, crime/court TV drama, TV movie and other (Neuendorf 2002). Many aspects of the characters were viewed, although there is inability to conclude generalization, the rate of characters of the Hispanic-American decent were figuratively low in the 3 percentile as explained in my first paragraph. Univision has been created specifically for the Latin-American and Hispanic viewers, but is still guided by the upper hand of Caucasians (Shanahan 32). More research on these findings is and has been done since the 1950’s and the number (scientifically) has yet to change. A recent Directors Guild of America report on hiring at the top 40 prime time shows revealed that Asian Americans directors came in 1% (Hong 78). To be overcast in a group specified for prime time TV, does not just apply to actors seen on the screen. Representation comes in many variables when applied to media. For instance one may not say that the director of a film is not heard, when a director is an ultimate decision maker. The On-Air environment (what is in case in my study) is relatively minor as well. Margaret Cho’s: All American Girl, was the first and only prime time network series starring an Asian-American. The series ended dramatically after the first season (Hong 78). Often Asian-American characters are subjected to roles speaking with a defined and thick accent. It would be up to America to view the Actor/Actresses off camera to define if it is “just being in character”. Asian-American males are often portrayed in a comedic style, while Asian-American females are portrayed seductively or in distress. While Asian Americans make up 1/3 of the US Minority Population, collectively represented by African Americans and Hispanics, some 12 million Asian-Americans can account for more than half of the total buying power- nearly $300 billion (Hong 78). On

Race and Media 17 Significant Others (Bravo) prime time popular TV show, a white woman imitated martial arts in relevance to being asked why she would sleep with Jet Li (Actor) (Whelan 16).This is not uncommon (referring to the description of martial arts to represent AsianAmericans). Asian men have played stereotypical roles such as killers, martial artist, cunning villains, and sexually un-stimulating (Tekeuchi). Since Asian Americans include Asian-Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, Burmese, Pakistani and Thai, researchers believe in ethnically specific marketing. Family is the sub sequential pull to Chinese Americans speaking in English on Prime Time TV, while Korean Americans are reached effectively by programs in their own language (US Distribution Journal 71). Regardless of interpretation of interest, Asian Americans and LatinAmericans are at a low percentile of representation in prime time television. (Lee 3) We are not being entertained in Technicolor. The world of television is still very much black and white and even the black is barely visible. Statistics continue to lay truth in front of our eyes and we ignore them. We let our children be told what the lives of the people around them are like so they don’t have any interest in finding out for themselves. Television’s purpose of education has failed us. It is up to each individual to educate themselves on what it is they are really seeing each time they turn on the television. Having a conscious ignorance of the blatant discriminatory images in the media does not help but analyzing, educating and spreading awareness adds a little more color to the television screen one episode at a time.

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Works Cited Albarran, Alan B.; Umphrey, Don (1993) An Examination of Television Motivations and Program Preferences by Hispanics, Blacks, and Whites. Journal and Broadcasting and Electric Media 37, No. 1 Eaton, Carol. Stereotyping on the New Television Networks. Journalism & Mass Communications Quarterly 74, 858-69. Entman, Robert M (1994) Representation and Reality in the Portrayal of Blacks on Network Television News. The Journalism quarterly .71. No 3 Goldman, Kevin (1993) CBS to Push Videotaping of Infomercials. The Wall Street Journal. November 15, 1993 p.B7 Greenburg, Bradley S.; Mastro, Dana E.; Brand, Jeffrey E. Children Now, Latinwood and TV: Prime Time for a Reality Check, Oakland, CA: Children Now, 2000. Herr, Norman. Television and Health. 2001 available from http://www.csun.edu/science/health/docs/tv&health.html. Accessed September 20, 2006. Hong, Michael. The Invisible Asian Americans. Broadcasting & Cable; Vol.135 Issue 3. ImaginAsian TV, New York 2005, 78. Keels, Crystal L. Black Issues in Higher Education. May 19, 2005. Vol. 22, Iss. 7; p. 40 (6 pages) Klebesadel, Helen. Feminist Collections. Madison: Winter 2004. Vol. 25, Iss. 2; p. 7 Larson, Mary Strom. Race and Interracial Relationships In Children’s Television Commercials. Howard Journal of Communications, Jul-Sep2002, Vol. 13 Issue 3, p223-235. Lee, Wai-Na New Media, New Messages: An Initial Inquiry into Audience Reactions to Advertising on Television. Journal of Advertising Research. January/ February 1993, p.74-85 Lee, R.G. Orientals: Asians in Popular Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Journals, PA 1999, 3-4. Leyda, Julia. Cinema Journal. Lawrence: Fall 2002. Vol. 42, Iss. 1; p. 46 (25 pages) Li-Vollmer, Meredith. Mass Communication & Society, Spring2002, Vol. 5 Issue 2, p207-228. MacDonald, Scott 100 Leading Media Companies. Advertising Age. August 25, 2004 p.S2 McCloud, Melody. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. 2006-09-12. 15A. Description: Tuesday, Main Edition, EDITORIAL; 755 words Neuendorf, Armstrong. The Content Analysis Guidebook. NAACP, TV Diversity Report Mixed Results on Network Performance, available from http://www.naacp.org/news/releases/tvdiversity102803.shtml accessed from 23 September 2006. Picker, Miguel and Sun, Chyng. “Mickey Mouse Monopoly: Disney, Childhood and Corporate Power.” 2001.

Race and Media 19 Rieken, Kristie. Associated Press Writer, HOUSTON. The Associated Press State Local Wire. 2006-07-03. Description: Monday, 11:08 PM GMT, STATE AND REGIONAL, 287 words Shanahan, James. Morgan, Michael. Television and its Veiwers: Cultivation Research and Theory. Cambridge, New York, NY Cambridge University Press, 32-51. Tajfel, Henri. Differentiation between Social Group: Studies in the Social Psychology of Inter-group Relations. London, UK: Academic Press, 1978. Tekeuchi, C. Asian American Actors Fed Up with their Portrayal as Sexless Wimps. Accessed from http://modelminority.com/article608.html Tollin, Steven. Special to The Roanoke Times. The Roanoke Times (Virginia). 2006-0509. NRV10. Description: Tuesday, New River Edition, CURRENT; 587 words United States Census, available from http://www.census.gov/population accessed 23 September 2006. U.S. Distribution Journal. Asian Americans Market remains Untapped. Category U.S. Distribution Journal 217, 71-72. Weiner, Allen; McGuire, Mike. Media Research Report: Digital Media Titans Drive the Slow Death of Prime Time, available from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.auctr.edu:2051/login.aspx?direct=true&db=b uh&AN=15791365&site=ehost-live accessed from 23 September 2006. Whelan, D. The Asian American Blind Spot. American Demographics 2002,16-17. www.cabletvadbureau.com “Ad-Supported Cable Networks” http://www.childrennow.org/ “Media Publications” Accessed October 1, 2006.

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