You are on page 1of 9

1

ENGINE VOCABULARY
PLANTA DIESEL
Air cooler Enfriador de aire The air cooler cools the scavenging air to increase its air
density by reducing its volume.
Air spring Resorte neumatico Hydraulic pressure opens the exhaust valve and the air
spring closes it.
Auxiliary blower Ventilador auxiliar The auxiliary blower charges the scavenging air trun!
when engine at low speed regime
Auxiliary boiler "aldera auxiliar #enerates water steam over atmospheric pressure by
burning a fuel as thermal energy source
$allast pump $omba de lastre Hydraulic machine that allow to transfer %pumping& sea
water from outside vessel %sea side& to a tan %ballast
tans& and vice versa! to mae certain vessel stability
$allast tan Estan'ue de lastre (nternal space in a vessel! intended to contain sea water
for stability purposes
$ilge )entina $ilge can be discharged outboard only after reducing its
oil concentration below 1* Rpm by an oily water
separator.
$oiler feed water Agua de alimentaci+n de
calderas
,ater at li'uid state after condenser which is pumped
bac to boiler to eep a safe woring water level inside
$ore "alibre- diametro
interior
The inner diameter of a cylinder is called .bore..
"am /eva The cams attached to the camshaft controls valve
timing.
"amshaft Arbol de levas The camshaft turns at the same rate as the cranshaft in
a two0stroe engine.
"entral cooler for the
high temperature
system
Enfriador principal del
sistema ht de cha'uetas
Heat exchanger which interacts between two cooling
systems %High Temperature 1 /ow Temperature&
"irculating cooling
water tan
Estan'ue de agua de
cha'uetas
Reservoir for water reserve in a cooling system
"irculating pump $omba circuladora 2rovides a sea water 3ow through a cooling system to
re4ect heat out of it
"lutch Embrague- encapilladura 5echanism that allows tor'ue transmission by
connecting shaft line couplings
"ombustion
chamber
"amara de combustion (t6s the volume created by the cylinder head! cylinder
liner! and piston crown in a shape of combustion
chamber! when piston is at T7"
"ompression
ignition
Encendido por
compresion
(n a diesel engine! the fuel in4ected self ignites by means
of highly compressed air inside cylinder! and therefore at
high temperature. This method is called compression
ignition.
"ompression ring Anillo de compresion "ompression rings provide a seal to avoid gas leaages
out of combustion chamber! throughout clearance
between piston and liner
"ompression stroe "arrera de compresion 7uring the compression stroe! both inlet and exhaust
valves are closed and air is compressed as the piston
rises.
"onnecting rod $iela The connecting rod is pinned to the cran at one end! to
the crosshead or piston at the other.
"pp %controllable Helice de paso A ship 8tted with a "22 does not need to turn its
MATERIAL COMPILADO Y PREPARADO POR MARIA VERONICA VALDIVIA/ IMO TEACHER
9
pitch propeller& controlado propeller in reverse.
"ran "igue:al The cran converts the piston;s reciprocal motion to the
rotational motion necessary for turning the propeller.
MATERIAL COMPILADO Y PREPARADO POR MARIA VERONICA VALDIVIA/ IMO TEACHER
<
"rancase "arter The crancase is separated from the scavenging air
trun by a diaphragm plate in a typical crosshead type
engine.
"rosshead "ruceta 5ost marine diesel engines with long stroes are of the
crosshead type.
"rosshead guide
shoe
"orrederas de la
cruceta
The crosshead moves up and down along the crosshead
guide shoes.
"ylinder head-cover "ulata del cilindro-
tapa
=ixed part of the engine that covers the upper part of
the cylinder! forming part of the combustion chamber
"ylinder liner "amisa del cilindro The piston moves up and down inside the cylinder liner.
7ay0service tan Estan'ue de servicio =uel is strati8ed to eliminate impurities in the settling
tan and afterwards transferred to the daily service
tan. $y means of centrifugal separators to complete
cleanliness treatment.
7iaphragm plate "hapa del diafragma The piston rod passes through the stu>ng box! which is
bolted to the diaphragm plate.
7istributor 7istribuidor The starting air distributor is driven by the camshaft and
distributes starting air to the cylinders.
Economi?er Economi?ador The economi?er reclaims waste heat contained in the
exhaust gas.
Emergency 7iesel
room
)ala del generador de
emergencia
(n a place outside of the Engine Room! the emergency
generator is located in a appropriate room to provide
electrical power when mains fails
Emergency exit from
the Engine room
)alida de emergencia de
la sala de m@'uinas
(solated /adder trun that connects the engine room
space to outside for the sole purpose of to provide a safe
exit in case of an emergency
Exhaust for the
auxiliary boiler
7escarga de gases de la
caldera auxiliar
#ases released after combustion must be driven outside
of boiler space! to ensure safety. This is performed by
the boiler exhaust gas pipe
Exhaust for the
auxiliary diesel
7escarga gases motor
generador
#ases released by engines combustion must be driven
outside of engine room! to ensure safety. This is
performed by means of exhaust gas pipe of each engine
Exhaust for the main
engine
#ases escape del motor
principal
#ases released by main engine combustion must be
driven outside of engine room! to ensure safety. This is
performed by means of main exhaust gas pipe
Exhaust for the three
auxiliary diesels
7escarga gases de los
motores generadores
#ases released by main engine combustion must be
driven outside of engine room! to ensure safety. This is
performed by means of main auxiliary diesel gas pipe
Exhaust gas boiler Eo!o"i#a$or Heat exchanger that utili?es residual heat of exhaust
gases of main engine to produce steam instead of fuel
burned in the boiler
Exhaust gas pipe for
the main engine
7ucto gases escape del
motor principal
The exhaust gases discharged by the main engine! and
after passing through the turbocharger and economi?er!
are evacuated to atmosphere by means of a special
steel pipe
Exhaust manifold 5ultiple de descarga Exhaust gas 3ows through the exhaust manifold to the
turbocharger.
Exhaust stroe "arera de descarga 7uring the exhaust stroe! the exhaust valve is opened
and the combustion products are driven out of the
cylinder! by piston action
Exhaust valve Valvula de descarga Exhaust valves of large slow0speed diesel engines are
often controlled hydraulically.
Expansion-power
stroe
5ultiple de escape 7uring the expansion or power stroe! the combustion
gases expands and lowers the piston! thus creating
power.
MATERIAL COMPILADO Y PREPARADO POR MARIA VERONICA VALDIVIA/ IMO TEACHER
A
=ire extinguisher
pump
$omba de incendio 2rovides sea water under pressure to entire 8re main
=lywheel Volante de inercia The 3ywheel stabili?es the cranshaft rotation.
The 3ywheel is toothed around its perimeter and meshes
with the turning gear when it is engaged.
MATERIAL COMPILADO Y PREPARADO POR MARIA VERONICA VALDIVIA/ IMO TEACHER
*
=our0stroe engine 5otor de cuatro
tiempos
=our0stroe engines have inlet and exhaust valves.
=pp %8xed pitch
propeller&
Helice de paso 84o (f a ship has a single right0hand! 8xed pitch propeller! its
stern tends to move to port when astern engine is used.
=resh air inlet Entrada de aire fresco (n order to ensure that fresh air is uncontaminated by
dust or other materials! use a 8lter on the fresh air inlet.
=resh water pump $omba de agua dulce-
caldera de agua destilada
=rom the lubricating oil cooler! the fresh water returns to
the sodium side of. the fresh water pump for
recirculation through the engine.
=reshwater tan Estan'ue de agua dulce =reshwater generators are installed on ships to convert
sea water to salt water! then it is stored in freshwater
tans
=uel atomi?ation Atomi?acion de
combustible
The opening pressure of a fuel in4ector must be ad4usted
properly to ensure optimal fuel atomi?ation.
=uel 8lter =iltro de combustible The fuel 8lter removes or retains foreign matters from
fuel.
=uel heater "alentador de
combustible
Heavy fuel oil is heated by a fuel heater to reduce
viscosity.
=uel in4ection pump $omba de inyeccion de
combustible
The $osch fuel in4ection pump consists in a plunger and
barrel to increase fuel pressure for atomi?ation
=uel in4ector (n4ector de
combustible
The fuel in4ector in4ects fuel into the combustion
chamber in the form of a spray by means of no??le
holes.
#ears for the shaft0
driven generator
5ecanismo del generador
acoplado al e4e propulsor
B generador de cola
#overnor Regulador "entrifugal device that maintains the engine speed by
controlling the amount of fuel in4ected into each
cylinder.
Heat exchanger (ntercambiador de
calor
Heat 3ows from a hottest body to another colder! so the
heat exchanger allows to perform heat transfer among
them! through a solid wall
%ea&' (uel oil $a'
ta!)
Esta!*ue $e ser&iio
$e +etroleo I,O
=uel re'uires to be free of impurities and water before
atomi?ation! so the clean fuel is storage in the day tan!
or service tan! after treatment in the settling tan and
afterwards by centrifugal strati8cation through puri8ers!
as cleanliness treatment
%ea&' (uel oil
settli!g ta!)
Esta!*ue $e
$ea!tai-! $el
+etr-leo
The fuel settling tan removes water and relatively large
foreign ob4ects from the fuel! by gravity strati8cation
Heavy fuel oil transfer Trasvasi4e de petroleo The fuel stored in the double bottom tans! must to be
transferred to engine room tans for its preparation and
consumption
(ndicator valve-coc #rifo atmosfCrico o
cono del indicador
The indicator valves are opened when blowing down the
engine and also allow to install the diagram indicator
device to chec engine performance
(nlet stroe "arrera de admision 7uring the inlet stroe! the admission valve is opened
and air enters into the cylinder by suction! as the piston
moves down in a naturally aspirated engine.
(nternal combustion
engine
5otor de combustion
interna
(n an internal combustion engine! the chemical energy
contained in a fuel is converted 8rst in thermal energy
and afterwards in mechanical energy by motion of parts
inside the engine.
Dacet cooling water Agua de enfriamiento
de cha'uetas
The 4acet cooing water cools the top part of the
cylinder where temperature is the highest.
5ain bearing 7escanso de bancada 5ain bearings support the weight and torsion eEorts of
MATERIAL COMPILADO Y PREPARADO POR MARIA VERONICA VALDIVIA/ IMO TEACHER
F
the cranshaft.
5ain engine 5otor principal 2rovides the mechanical power re'uired for vessel
propulsion
5edium0speed
diesel engine
5otor diesel de
mediana velocidad
,hen a medium0speed diesel engine is used as a prime
mover! reduction gear is necessary.
Gil mist detector 7etector de presencia
de gases explosivos de
aceite
Gil mist detectors is designed to alarm the ris of
presence of explosive vapors of lubricating oil in the
crancase due to .hot spots..
Gil ring Anillo de lubricacion Gil rings scrape the excess oil from the cylinder wall.
Gily water
separator
)eparador de aguas
aceitosas
$ilge water re'uires to be without of oil presence prior to
overboard discharge! G,) separates oil from water
2iston 2iston 5ovable part of an internal combustion engine! which
compresses air or mixture in the combustion chamber!
and converts combustion pressure into a mechanical
force in the expansion stroe
2iston blige pump $omba alternativa de
sentinas
The alternative pistons type pump is employed in a bilge
system! to discharge overboard bilge water! 8rst
through the separator
2iston crown-sirt "amisa del piston The piston comprises of two partsH the crown and the
sirt.
2iston ring Anillo 2iston rings are placed in the ring grooves and seal the
combustion chamber by spreading outward. The number
of piston rings may vary considerably with the type and
si?e o piston.
2iston rod V@stago (n a crosshead type engine! the piston rod connects the
piston to the connecting rod through the crosshead
2lunger and barrel Embolo bu?o y camisa The plunger housed in a barrel increases the fuel
pressure! so high as to ensure a proper atomi?ation
2ropeller shaft E4e porta helice Transmits the tor'ue developed by the main engine! to
the propeller
2uri8er 2uri8cador 2uri8ers remove water and sludge from fuel or
lubricating oil! by using centrifugal force.
2ush rod 2ulsador de valvula 2ush rods and rocer arms control the valve timing.
Rac "remallera The rac rotates the plunger housed in a barrel! and
ad4usts the amount of fuel.
Relief valve Valvula de seguridad Relief valves 8tted to the crancase are designed to
release the high pressure that develops inside in case of
crancase explosion.
Replacement piston 2iston de respeto 5arine engines re'uire of spares ready to be used when
needed
)cavenging air
trun-box
"olector de aire de
barrido
The scavenging air trun- box is pressuri?ed by the
compressed air supplied by the turbocharger or the
auxiliary blower when engine runs
)cavenging port /umbrera de barrido )cavenging ports are uncovered as the piston
approaches bottom dead center allowing scavenging air
to enter into the cylinder
)eawater cross duct 7ucto cru?ado de agua
de mar
)haft0 driven
generator
#enerador acoplado o
generador de cola
)ome vessels have an electric generator installed in the
propeller shaft line! to save fuel when sailing
)lop tan Esestan'ues de residuos Gil taners have slop tans to collect pollutant residues
after wash and rinse of cargo tans
)low0speed diesel
engine
5otor diesel de ba4a
velocidad
/arge commercial vessels use to have two0stroe slow0
speed diesel engines for propulsion! because of its high
thermal e>ciency and high power output
)ound absorber )ilenciador Reduces noise level
MATERIAL COMPILADO Y PREPARADO POR MARIA VERONICA VALDIVIA/ IMO TEACHER
I
)par ignition Encendido por chispa (n a gasoline engine! fuel is ignited by a spar produced
by a spar plug. This method is called spar ignition.
)tarting air Aire de arran'ue 5arine diesel engines are started by admitting into the
cylinders! compressed air at high pressure! in the
appropriate se'uence for the re'uired direction.
)tarting air valve Valvula de aire de
arran'ue
,hen starting air valve opens! compressed air enters
into the cylinders! forcing pistons to move
)teering and
operations air bottle
for pneumatic control
and drive of the
pneumatic
instruments
$otella de aire del
sistema instrumental
neumatico de control y
operaci+n del gobierno
)tern tube $ocina del codaste The stern tube seals the area where the propeller shaft
penetrates the hull.
)trainer =iltro )trainers! remove dirt and foreign matters contained in a
3uid.
)tu>ng box 2rensa del vastago The stu>ng box contains seal rings and scraper rings to
eep clean the piston rod
)ump tan Estan'ue de sumidero /ubricating oil used in the crancase is collected in the
sump tan.
)upercharger )obrealimentador-
turboalimentador
)cavenging air is supplied by a centrifugal compressor
driven by engine exhaust gases
Tail shaft inside the
stern tube
E4e de cola en tubo
codaste
The total weight of the propeller shaft inside the stern
tube is carried by the bearings nown as the stern tube
The engine control
room
)ala de control del cuarto
de ma'uinas
Gn a ship! the engine room! or ER! is the propulsion
machinery spaces of the vessel.
Thrust bearing Rodamiento de empu4e The thrust bearing supports the thrust created by the
propeller.
Trun0piston engine 5otor (n a trun0piston type engine! piston is connected by
the connecting rod! directly to the cran
Turbocharger Turbocargador The turbocharger is driven by exhaust gas and charges
the scavenging air trun with fresh air.
Turning gear Virador The turning-4acing gear turns slowly the engine with a
motor.
Two0stroe engine 5otor de dos tiempos (n a two0stroe engine! every downward stroe is a
power stroe.
Variable pitch
propeller
HClice de paso variable The pitch changes along the propeller blade radius!
unlie the controllable pitch propeller
Ventilator head "abe?a de desahogo Allows air to 3ow from inside a tan to outside! and vice
versa
PLANTA DE TURBINA
External
combustion engine
5otor de combustion
externa
A steam turbine is an external combustion engine
because the combustion taes place outside the engine
itself.
$oiler "aldera The boiler uses the heat energy extracted from fuel to
change water into steam.
,ater0tube boiler "aldera acuo tubular A water0tube boiler has water and steam drums
connected by small tubes containing water by inside
,ater tube "aldera acuo tubular ,ater tubes of small diameter are used to maximi?e
heat transfer by increasing the total surface area.
,ater drum Tambor de agua The water drum distributes water to all boiler tubes
MATERIAL COMPILADO Y PREPARADO POR MARIA VERONICA VALDIVIA/ IMO TEACHER
J
)team drum Tambor de vapor The steam drum is located in the highest part of a boiler
)team separator )eparador de vapor The steam separator separates steam from water.
)uperheater )upercalentador Heat exchanger that increases the steam temperature
over than saturation point
)oot blower )oplador de hollin )oot blowers remove soot from water tubes surface!
superheaters! and other devices inside the boiler.
)uperheated steam Vapor sobrecalentado )uperheated steam is hotter than saturated steam
)aturated steam Vapor saturado )aturated steam is steam at the boiling point of water at
a given pressure.
=orced draft fan Ventilador de tiro
for?ado
The forced draft fan forces combustion air into the
boiler.
Economi?er Economi?ador The economi?er reclaims the heat contained in the
exhaust before it is discharged through the funnel.
#as air heater "alentador de aire The gas air heater uses the exhaust gas and heats the
combustion air to increase e>ciency in a boiler
$urner =ogon Air and sprayed fuel are mixed for complete
combustion in a boiler in a shape of cone
)wirler 2antalla difusora The swirler maes combustion air .swirl. and eeps
good combustion condition.
5aneuvering valve Valvula de cuello The maneuvering valve controls the engine power when
maneuvering by throttling the steam inlet 3ow
Ko??le control valve Valvula de control de la
tobera
The no??le control valves controls the amount of steam
sent to the high0pressure turbine.
High0pressure
turbine
Turbina de alta presion )team leaving the maneuvering valve enters either the
high pressure turbine or astern turbine.
/ow0pressure
turbine
Turbina de ba4a presion The low0pressure turbine is larger than the high
pressure turbine because the steam volume increases
as it expands.
Astern turbine Turbina trasera The astern turbine shares a rotor with the low0pressure
turbine.
Rotor Rotor The moving blades are attached to the rotor.
)tationary blade 2aleta 84a The stationary blades are attached to the turbine
casing.
)tage Etapa As the steam passes through each stage! it expands and
loses its heat energy and pressure
Ko??le Toberas Ko??les increase the steam velocity reducing its
pressure by throttling! aiming the resultant steam 4et
towards rotor blades
"asing "arcasa- cubierta The rotor is housed by the turbine casing! where the
stationary blades are 8tted
5oving blade 2aleta movil The moving blade is designed to extract maximum
amount of energy from the woring 3uid.
5ain condenser "ondensador principal )team is cooled in the main condenser and returns to
water.
Vacuum pump $omba al vacio A vacuum pump or an e4ector is used to create vacuum
in the main condenser by extracting non condensable
gases from the system
E4ector Eyector The evaporator uses an e4ector to reduce the pressure
inside.
Evaporator Evaporador The evaporator-distiller boils sea water under low
pressure and condenses the steam to create distilled
water.
MATERIAL COMPILADO Y PREPARADO POR MARIA VERONICA VALDIVIA/ IMO TEACHER
L
7istilling plant 2lanta de destilado A turbine ship must have a distilling plant to supply
enough feedwater.
5ain circulating
pump
$omba de circulaci+n
principal
The main circulating pump sends sea water to the main
condenser.
5ain feed pump $omba de alimentaci+n
principal
The main feed pump is often driven by steam and sends
feedwater to the steam drum.
=eed water heater "alefactor de agua de
alimentacion
=eedwater heaters in most shipboard steam plants use
bleed steam to heat the feedwater.
$leed steam Vapor de extraccion A turbine plant that utili?es bleed steam to heat the
feedwater is said to wor on the regenerative cycle.
,arm0up steam Vapor para calentar ,arm0up steam is used to warm up the turbines.
7eaerator 7esaereador The deaerator not only heats the feewwater but also
removes oxygen from it.
7irect contact
heater
"alefactor de contacto
directo
The deaerator is also called the dc %direct contact&
heater because the steam comes in direct contact with
the feedwater.
Reduction gear Engrana4e reductor Reduction gear reduces the turbine revolution to optimal
propeller speeds.
#ravity tan Estan'ue de gravedad As a safety measure against an lo pump failure! a
turbine plant usually has a gravity tan that can provide
lubricating oil to the turbine bearings and reduction
gear.
)afety valve Valvula de seguridad A safety valve opens automatically at a pre0set pressure
to prevent the boiler from exploding.
MATERIAL COMPILADO Y PREPARADO POR MARIA VERONICA VALDIVIA/ IMO TEACHER