C u s to m e r N e w s l e t t e r D e C e m b e r 2 0 07
Dear Business Partners anD FrienDs,
2007 was a year without precedence for the world shipbuilding industry. wärtsilä two-stroke engines also benefited from the booming market. all in all, more than 7.2 million brake horsepower of wärtsilä two-stroke engines will be delivered by our licensees by the end of this year and the order intake for 2007 will exceed ten million brake horsepower, both all time high records for our products.
To meet the market requirements of the future we have upgraded several of our most popular engines models, including the RT-flex96C, RT-flex58T, RT-flex50 and RTA48T. In May, Hyundai Heavy Industries tested its first 14-cylinder RT-flex96C engine, thereby expanding its product offering to the largest fully electronically-controlled, large-bore common-rail two-stroke diesel engine in the market. Orders for our new RT-flex82 and RT-flex50 engine types are ramping up at rapid pace and reflect the strong demand for common-rail diesel engine technology in the marine world. The increased number of orders for our engines has also led to an expansion of our world wide network of licensees. Besides our long-term partners in Japan, Korea, China, Poland and Croatia, we have now extended our licence activities to Vietnam and Russia to satisfy the increasing global demand for Wärtsilä commonrail low-speed engines. 2007 also saw the successful completion of the European Union funded HERCULES research project
into “High Efficiency R&D on Combustion with UltraLow Emissions for Ships”, paving the way for future improvement in reducing emissions from marine engines, thereby increasing engine efficiency and reliability. In turn, this will reduce engine lifecycle costs. The result of this ambitious pan-European project will significantly influence the development of our future engine generations. In this respect we also want to highlight the installation of a new research engine in our test laboratory in Oberwinterthur, Switzerland. Commissioning is planned for the second quarter of 2008 and will enable Wärtsilä to have extended testing of new technologies and innovations which can then be implemented in our new engine models or on engines in service. It’s my pleasure to present you more details of our activities and the Highlights 2007 for Wärtsilä two-stroke marine engines on the following pages. Martin Wernli President, Wärtsilä Switzerland Ltd
4 8 engine programme further adapted to market needs first 14-cylinder rt-flex96c tested at hyundai
10 large number of rt-flex engines commissioned 2007 12 completion of hercules joint research project 14 new licensees: vinashin and bryansk 16 lubrication retrofits pass the 125 mark 18 to the future in 2008
engine Programme Further aDaPteD to market neeDs
in response to market developments, a number of changes were introduced in early december for the wärtsilä low-speed engine programme in 2008:
Reduced fuel consumption with the RTA48T engine type The new RT-flex50-D engine version with higher output and reduced fuel consumption Uprating of the RT-flex58T and RTA58T to the D versions Increased power outputs for the RT-flex96C and RTA96C engine types Wärtsilä propulsion packages for Wärtsilä lowspeed engines.
Complete details of all the programme changes are given in the booklet Ship Power Systems 2008 available from all Wärtsilä offices.
The Wärtsilä RTA48T is continuing to be popular, especially for the propulsion of bulk carriers from handy size and larger. As bunker prices do not show any sign of falling, design potential within the RTA48T has been utilised to cut the engines’ fuel consumption.
The RTA48T-D has been adapted to reduce specific fuel consumptions by 2 g/kWh across the board. This has been obtained largely by increasing the maximum cylinder pressure. However, the power outputs have not been increased as higher powers are available from the RT-flex50-D engine type.
The Wärtsilä RT-flex50 low-speed engines have rapidly gained orders since the first engines went into service in January 2006. They are being applied in a variety of ship types, including bulk carriers from handymax to panamax sizes, product tankers, multipurpose cargo carriers, feeder container vessels, etc. The RT-flex50-D has been introduced with both increased power and lower fuel consumption to offer better layout possibilities to better match ship design requirements. The MCR output has been raised by 5.1 per cent from 1660 kW/cylinder in the B version to 1745 kW/ cylinder in the D version at the same running speed of 124 rev/min. Thus, with five to eight cylinders inline, the RT-flex50-D covers a power range of 6100–13,960 kW at 99–124 rev/min. At the same time the specific fuel consumptions have been reduced by 2 g/kWh. Thus at the maximum continuous rating R1, the full-load BSFC has been reduced from 171 to 169 g/kWh. This fuel saving is made possible by employing the latest, higher-efficiency turbochargers in the RT-flex50-D engines.
Outline of a Wärtsilä propulsion package based on a low-speed engine, including controllable- or fixed-pitch propeller, sterntube bearings, stern seals, line bearings, and shafting.
wärtsilä rt-flex96c and rta96c
The demand for containership newbuildings continues at a good rate with 10,000 to 12,600 TEU being commonplace. To offer better propulsion solutions for these vessels, the power outputs of Wärtsilä RT-flex96C and RTA96C low-speed engines have been increased by 5.4 per cent. Thus the engines’ maximum continuous power outputs have been increased from 5720 to 6030 kW/ cylinder at the same shaft speed of 102 rev/min and the same corresponding full-load brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 171 g/kWh. This results in the 14-cylinder RT-flex96C engine giving a massive power output of 84,420 kW, or 114,800 bhp. The RT-flex96C and RTA96C have been popular for the propulsion of the largest and fastest container ships with close to 400 of these engines having been ordered, of which more than 190 are of the electroni8RT-flex96C cally-controlled RT-flex96C common-rail type.
wärtsilä rt-flex58t-d and rta58t-d
The Wärtsilä RT-flex58T and the RTA58T low-speed engines have also been uprated from 2180 kW/cylinder in the current B version to 2260 kW/cylinder in the D version at the same speed of 105 rev/min. The full-load fuel consumption at MCR (maximum continuous rating, R1) has been maintained at 170 g/kWh. The RTA58T-D and RT-flex58T-D thus cover a power range of 7900–18,080 kW at 84–105 rev/min.
summary of wärtsilä propulsion packages with low-speed engines
Engine type Cylinders Powers kw uec37lsii uec43lsii uec45lse rta48t-d rta52u rt-flex50-d rta58t-d rt-flex58t-d rt-flex60c-b 5–8 4–8 5–8 5–8 5–8 5–8 5–8 5–8 5–8 3860–6180 4200–8400 6225–9960 7250–11,640 7800–12,480 8725–13,960 11,300–18,080 11,300–18,080 12,100–19,360 Propeller diameters mm 3800–4400 4200–5150 5150–5900 5400–6250 5300–6100 5350–6250 6550–7550 6550–7550 6100–7050 Package weight approx. tonnes 96–144 120–218 192–289 200–296 239–346 230–334 328–493 328–493 315–502
wärtsilä propulsion packages for low-speed engines
Wärtsilä is well set up for the supply of complete propulsion packages. Engines are sourced from wellestablished licensed engine builders while propellers (both controllable- and fixed-pitch types), shafting, line bearings, sterntube bearings and stern seals are all manufactured in Wärtsilä’s own factories. The accompanying table left gives a guide to the types of propulsion packages that can be supplied by Wärtsilä. In the case of a specific project, the package will be engineered to give the optimum solution to fit the ship and owner’s requirements.
the wärtsilä low-speed engine programme 2008
2 UEC37LSII UEC43LSII UEC45LSE RTA48T-D UEC50LSE RT-ﬂex50-D/RTA50-D RTA52U RT-ﬂex58T-D/RTA58T-D UEC60LSE RT-ﬂex60C-B RTA62U-B RT-ﬂex68-D/RTA68-D RTA72U-B RT-ﬂex84T-D/RTA84T-D RT-ﬂex82T/RTA82T RT-ﬂex82C/RTA82C RT-ﬂex96C/RTA96C Mitsubishi UE Wärtsilä RTA Wärtsilä RT-ﬂex 3 4 6 8 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 80 MW 140–186 120–160 111–130 102–127 99–124 99–124 108–135 84–105 90–105 91–114 92–115 76–95 79–99 61–76 68–80 87–102 92–102 Speed rpm
First 14-cylinDer rt-flex96c testeD at hyunDai
A notable event in May was the successfully testing of a 14-cylinder Wärtsilä RT-flex96C common-rail low-speed engine by Hyundai Heavy Industries Co Ltd in its Ulsan engine works in Korea. The 14RT-flex96C is the world’s most powerful diesel engine in service. The engine tested develops 80,080 kW (108,920 bhp) at 102 rev/min. The official shop test was witnessed by representatives of the shipowner and the classification societies. Wärtsilä 14RT-flex96C engines are already in service in six large container ships. The first of these engines entered service in September 2006 in the container ship Emma Mærsk. The engine was subsequently installed in the first of a series of eight 8600 TEU container ships being built at Hyundai shipyards for operation by the Korean shipowner Hyundai Merchant Marine Co Ltd (HMM). Delivery of the first ship in this series will be in 2008.
large numBer oF rt-flex engines commissioneD 2007
whilst we celebrate the sales success of wärtsilä rt-flex common-rail engines, it is also important to recognise the part played by service engineers in the introduction of this revolutionary technology.
At present, a total of 125 RT-flex engines of various bore sizes have been put into operation since 2001. In 2007 alone, 60 ships with RT-flex engines where delivered. All these engines were commissioned by our two-stroke service engineers based at Wärtsilä in Switzerland and the network companies. There is also a healthy order backlog still to be delivered as more than 520 RT-flex engines are on order or in service. So the pressure of rapid deliveries will continue into 2008 and beyond. The RT-flex technology is notable because it is the only available technology today for applying electronically-controlled common-rail systems to large, lowspeed diesel engines. The common-rail systems give unrivalled flexibility in the way the engines operate, to deliver benefits such as smokeless operation at all operating speeds and lower emissions in general, lower fuel consumption, reduced maintenance costs and lower steady operating speeds for better manoeuvring. At the same time, RT-flex engines burn exactly the same grades of heavy fuel oil as other low-speed marine engines. The RT-flex system also has the potential for adaptation to future needs by updating software rather than requiring hardware retrofits.
The rapid introduction and ramping up of RT-flex engine deliveries has called for further extensive education and training of our service and commissioning engineers to give them the familiarity and skills for efficiently handling the new technology. At the same time we have sought additional new employees globally with suitable competence levels. Shop tests and commissioning of RT-flex engines are being carried out at various licensees and shipyards, often not under easy circumstances and environments, and usually under psychological pressure of tight time schedules. However our well-educated engineers with their flexibility, and with the excellent support from the RT-flex technical experts, have been able to handle all the deliveries and maiden voyages.
Cylinder tops of Wärtsilä RT-flex50 engine in the cargo ship “Credo”
comPletion oF hercules Joint research ProJect
the multinational diesel research proJect hercules (high efficiency r&d on combustion with ultra-low emissions for ships), in which wärtsilä was one of the leaders, was successfully completed in the summer 2007. the eur 33 million proJect was partly funded by the european union (eur 15 million) and the swiss federal government (eur 2.5 million).
The 43-month cooperative research project involved a team of more than 40 European engine component suppliers, equipment manufacturers, universities, research institutions and shipping companies. The results from HERCULES will allow the participating companies to develop marine diesel engines that will achieve drastically lower gaseous and particulate emissions, at the same time gaining increased engine efficiency and reliability. The developments will encompass technologies, components and equipment. The aim is to reduce engine fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and life-cycle costs. The results of the research are being shared among the participants and are expected to be incorporated in engines introduced during the next ten years or so. The project has been undertaken through a number of interrelated work packages and involved work for both low-speed two-stroke engines and medium-speed four-stroke engines. The details below give some examples of the work concerning low-speed engines.
A particular achievement was the development, manufacture, installation and testing of a novel test rig for the fundamental investigation of fuel sprays, combustion and emissions formation in large-bore engine cylinders. This spray/combustion chamber has an internal diameter of 500 mm and can operate at maximum pressures up to 200 bar.
The results showed that engine tuning parameters did not have sufficient influence to significantly reduce particulate matter emissions. However, fuel quality did have an impact. Particulate emissions decrease with increasing fuel quality and decreasing sulphur content. Data resulting from these measurements provided a basis to investigate particulate emissions systematically and to state that the current particulate formation models will have to be adapted. Correlation with after-treatment technologies investigated showed that there is a need to explore new technologies for marine diesel engines running on heavy fuel oil to reduce particulate emissions to the same extent as for passenger cars.
emissions reduction methods (internal – water)
Various ways to use water inside engine cylinders to reduce the generation of NOX emissions at source were studied and further developed. For low-speed engines this involved Direct Water Injection (DWI). Appropriate computer simulation approaches have been devised for above techniques. Extensive simulations were run for identifying the most suitable geometries and operational parameters. The systems were further developed on the basis of shipboard testing as well as the experience from additional endurance tests in the laboratory. The successful shipboard tests were conducted in collaboration with A.P. Moller-Maersk Group, with a prototype installation on board one of its vessels.
Aftertreatment of engine exhaust gases was also studied. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) equipment has been used to demonstrate NOX reduction at laboratory scale under conditions representative of the exhaust gas composition from a two-stroke research engine. Results showed that considerable development work needs to be done before NTP systems can be considered a viable proposition for large diesel engines. A shipboard monitoring system is operational on an eight-cylinder low-speed engine. Attention has also been given to new measuring techniques. A measuring concept for emissions originating from individual engine cylinders has been developed on the basis of preliminary tests and simulations. The sampling proved to be the most
advanced combustion concepts
Three-dimensional CFD (computer fluid dynamics) simulation tools were applied to engine combustion for optimising the combustion systems, involving the development of new models as well as the extension and adaptation of existing sub-models. The developed models were applied to a very large number of cases and the results compared to measured data to ensure the models’ validity over a wide range of engine types and sizes, and varying operating conditions.
emissions reduction methods (internal – exhaust gas)
Particulate matter emissions were characterised in terms of physical and chemical properties; size distributions were measured. Particulate matter deposited on filter samples was chemically analysed.
critical issue in the arrangement and must be further improved to obtain better results. Further, infra-red spectroscopy was tested against the standard NOX measuring method.
the next step – hercules-b
Wärtsilä is participating in the proposal of a follow-up to HERCULES in a new large-scale collaborative research project – HERCULES-B . The proposal was submitted in June 2007 to the European Commission within the “FP7 Cooperation Work Programme: Theme 7-Transport”. The proposal is currently in the phase of contract negotiations. The principal aims of the proposed HERCULES-B, based on the developed knowledge and results of
HERCULES , are to improve considerably the efficien-
cy of marine diesel propulsion systems and to achieve substantial reductions in both fuel consumption and emissions. HERCULES-B is planned to reach beyond today’s limits set by the IMO, radically improving the environmental effect of waterborne transport. If the project is finally accepted the research work is expected to start in spring 2008.
Kai Herrmann, one of the researchers on the HERCULES project, with the two main elements of the Spray/Combustion Chamber test rig now installed in the Wärtsilä Diesel Technology Center in Oberwinterthur – left is the pressure accumulator vessel and right is the spray/combustion chamber itself.
new licensees: Vinashin anD Bryansk
wärtsilä’s family of licensees manufacturing low-speed engines was strengthened by the addition of new members in vietnam and russia. with these new members, wärtsilä has licensees producing low-speed engines in south korea, china, Japan, brazil, vietnam, poland, croatia, and russia.
Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (Vinashin)
In May, Vinashin and Wärtsilä jointly signed a licence agreement for the manufacture and sale of Wärtsilä low-speed marine diesel engines in Vietnam. This licence agreement supports the growing Vietnamese shipbuilding industry with the latest technology for low-speed diesel engines including the most modern electronically-controlled common-rail technology. Under this agreement Vinashin will be able to manufacture certain types of Wärtsilä modern lowspeed engine types with bore sizes between 48 and 82 cm. The first delivery is scheduled for the beginning of 2010, with production building up to a targeted annual output of 30 to 40 engines. Prior to this licence agreement, Wärtsilä lowMartin Wernli, President Wärtsilä Switzerland Ltd, and Pham Thanh Binh, President and CEO Vinashin, signing the contract. speed engines had already been ordered by Vinashin for import from Japan and Poland. Two 56,000 tdw bulk carriers are being built by Vinashin for Dutch owners, with each vessel being powered by a sixcylinder Wärtsilä RT-flex50 engine. They are due for delivery in 2008.
From left: A. Terekhin, Technical Director Diesel Building Division (TMH), I. Shpak, First Deputy to General Director (TMH), A. Zadorozhny, General Director of BMZ, M. Wernli, President Wärtsilä Switzerland Ltd, D. Firsov, President Wärtsilä Vostock LLC
Bryansk Engineering Works (BMZ)
The second addition to the Wärtsilä licensee family was Bryansk Engineering Works (BMZ) of Bryansk, Russia, which signed a licence agreement in October for the manufacture of Wärtsilä low-speed marine diesel engines. The agreement grants BMZ rights to supply Wärtsilä engines to shipyards in Russia, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria which are foreseen as growing shipbuilding countries in the coming years. It is thus expected to provide BMZ with new opportunities for increasing production volumes and strengthening its position in the growing market of marine engine building. BMZ, a manufacturing subsidiary of Transmashholding (TMH, joint stock company of closed type), has already gained considerable experience manufacturing low-speed marine diesel engines of another designer since 1961. In 2006 BMZ built 12 main marine diesels, eight of which were manufactured for foreign orders. Presently 1000 BMZ marine diesel engines are in operation in the world. Under the new agreement, BMZ will focus on manufacturing Wärtsilä low-speed engines of up to 82 cm bore size, with power outputs from 8 to 30 MW. BMZ will deliver its first Wärtsilä engine in 2009. In addition, BMZ will provide Wärtsilä with engine components required for the manufacture of Wärtsilä low-speed engines. Both agreements, in Vietnam and Russia, are longterm partnerships with Wärtsilä so that together with Wärtsilä and the other licensees they can deliver to shipowners modern engines with high quality and the best engine technologies. Support for the new licensees to manufacture Wärtsilä low-speed engines will be provided by Wärtsilä’s Switzerland company which is the group’s centre of excellence for the design, development, research, marketing, licensing, servicing and support of Wärtsilä low-speed engines. In accordance with the agreement Wärtsilä will not only provide the new licensees with relevant technical documentation, but will also arrange training for the licensees’ specialists both in its training centre and production sites. In parallel with the new licence agreements, Wärtsilä has also expanded its network operations in the same countries.
luBricating retroFits Pass the 125 mark
The new electronically-controlled Pulse Lubricating System (PLS) introduced in 2006 has quickly become popular with shipowners for retrofits in Wärtsilä RTA and RT-flex low-speed engines. By the end of 2007, orders had been received for Retrofit PLS in more than 103 complete engine installations, amounting to 1048 cylinders. The Pulse Lubricating System delivers reduced cylinder oil consumption without compromising piston-running reliability. This is made possible through an improved distribution of cylinder lubricating oil to the cylinder liner, and the fully flexible, precise timing of oil delivery. The guide feed rate with Retrofit PLS is 0.8 g/kWh so it is hardly surprising that it is popular when cylinder oil prices have been steadily increasing. The savings achieved with Retrofit PLS depend upon the cylinder feed rates already applied by shipowners, but it can be more than 30 per cent. For a large engine such as a 12-cylinder RT-flex96C, the savings can be more than US$ 200,000 a year. The Pulse Lubricating System delivers metered quantities of cylinder lubricating oil under pressure at precise timing exactly into the piston ring package from where it is evenly distributed around the circumference of the liner. The system is based on a lubricating module for each cylinder with a dosage pump and monitoring electronics. The pressurised cylinder oil is delivered to newly developed lubricators that fit existing cylinder liners of RTA and RT-flex engines. At present, Retrofit PLS is available for RT-flex96C, RTA96C, RT-flex84T, RTA84T and RTA84C engine types. Additional engine types will be added to these in 2008. The retrofits are generally undertaken during normal port stays and sea passages, without disturbing everyday commercial operation of the ships. All equipment required for the retrofit installation, including prefabricated pipework, is supplied and the conversion is undertaken by Wärtsilä service engineers.
Piston rings in an engine using Retrofit Pulse Lubricating System
Engine cylinders in course of erection
to the Future in 2008
we can also look forward to 2008 and attention can be drawn to two significant events.
New low-speed research engine
In the second quarter 2008, a new low-speed research engine will be inaugurated in the Diesel Technology Center in Oberwinterthur, Switzerland. Designated RTX-4, it is a full-scale engine with four cylinders of 600 mm bore to replace the previous research engine. It will develop up to 12,000 kW. The new research engine will support our future development and design activities. Among the topics for research using this engine are engine efficiency, exhaust emissions reduction technologies, component reliability, ease of manufacture, lowering maintenance costs, and testing new components and technologies.
These four new engine types are proving highly attractive to shipowners with close to 100 engines already ordered. The ordered engines include all four engine types. The four new engine types are being developed on the basis of a common platform with as many parts as possible being shared to bring benefits of rationalisation in the design and manufacturing, lowering manufacturing costs, and rationalising also spare parts stocks. The ‘-C’ versions are intended to be ideal prime movers for container ships of Panamax size with capacities up to 5000 TEU. They have a stroke of 2646 mm and are available with six to twelve cylinders covering a power range of 21,720 kW to 54,240 kW at 87 to 102 rev/min. The ‘-T’ versions have a stroke of 3375 mm to suit the optimum shaft speeds for the propulsion of large tankers, VLCCs and ULCCs up to more than 350,000 tdw. The engines will be built with six to nine cylinders covering a power range of 21,720 kW to 40,680 kW at 68 to 80 rev/min.
First “82” engines to be tested
The first of the new RT-flex82C, RT-flex82T, RTA82C and RTA82T engine types will begin testbed running in 2008. The first of these will be an RTA82C engine in February 2008 at Hyundai Heavy Industries Co Ltd. The first engines will be delivered in newbuildings in mid year.
Wärtsilä Switzerland Ltd P.O. Box 414 | Zürcherstr. 12 | CH-8401 Winterthur | Phone: +41 52 262 4922 | Fax: +41 52 262 0717 | www.wartsila.ch