Cereal properties

B.K.K.K.Jinadasa

(GS/M.Sc./FOOD/3608/08)

14th Nov. 2009

2009/10

Cereal Properties

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Cereal properties Introduction Starch is found in almost every typical meal from the Northern Hemisphere. Generally this is used in the preparation of breads, cakes, biscuits etc. Other famous serials as foods are rice, corn, Kurakkan and sorghum. Starch is a polysaccharide (meaning "many sugars") made up of glucose units linked together to form long chains. The number of glucose molecules joined in a single starch molecule varies from five hundred to several hundred thousand, depending on the type of starch. Starch is the storage form of energy for plants, just as glycogen is the storage form of energy for animals. The plant directs the starch molecules to the amyloplasts, where they are deposited to form granules. Thus, both in plants and in the extracted concentrate, starch exists as granules varying in diameter from 2 to 130 microns. The size and shape of the granule is characteristic of the plant from which it came and serves as a way of identifying the source of a particular starch. The structure of the granule of grain is crystalline with the starch molecules orienting in such a way as to form radially oriented crystals. This crystalline arrangement is what gives rise to the phenomenon of birefringence. When a beam of polarized light is directed through a starch granule, the granule is divided by dark lines into four wedge-shaped sections. This crosshatching or cross is characteristic of spherocrystalline structures. There are two types of starch molecules amylose and amylopectin. Amylose averages 20 to 30 percent of the total amount of starch in most native starches. There are some starches, such as waxy cornstarch, which contain only amylopectin. Others may only contain amylose. Glucose residues united by a 1,4 linkage form the linear chain molecule of amylose. Amylose is the linear fraction and amylopectin is the branched fraction. Amylose molecules contribute to gel formation. This is because the linear chains can orient parallel to each other, moving close enough together to bond. Probably due to the ease with which they can slip past each other in the cooked paste, they do not contribute significantly to viscosity. The branched amylopectin molecules give viscosity to the cooked paste. This is partially due to the role it serves in maintaining the swollen granule. Their side chains and bulky shape keep them from orienting closely enough to bond together, so they do not usually contribute to gel formation. Different plants have different relative amounts of amylose and amylopectin. These different proportions of the two types of starch within the starch grains of the plant give each starch its characteristic properties in cooking and gel formation. Gluten is the protein in wheat, plays the main role in the bakery industry. At the mixing with water gliadins and glutanine interact and give the Gluten, which has cohesive elastic properties. Further, gluten that is formed inside the dough trap the CO2 formed by yeast and expand the dough. This is the most significant property of wheat flour when compared with other cereal flours. When boil, starch granules absorb water which results in the swelling of granule and burst in to a gel. This is called gelatinization.

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Cereal Properties 5.1. Examination of flour/starch 5.1.1. Materials Plastic Containers 100 ml beakers Flour (wheat, rice and corn) Binocular microscope and stereo microscope Slides and cover slips Iodine solution Weighing scale 5.1.2. Method Given flour samples were examined for their appearance visually and textural aspects by holding samples in the palm and in between fingers. 1g of each sample was mixed with water and examined their characters. Then a drop from each sample was put on to slides and made thin smears. Smears were covered with cover slips and observed under the microscope. Then the smears were prepared by adding one drop of iodine solution on to the sample drop. Slides were observed under the microscope. 1g of from each sample was taken into beakers and 10 ml of distilled water was added into each beaker. Beakers with samples were heated to boil with shaking vigorously. Changes were observed both visually and under the microscope. Drop of iodine was added to each sample and re-examined under the microscope. Drop of methylene blue was added to each heated and unheated samples and re-examined under the microscope. 5.1.3. Results Character Texture Color Wheat Flour Smooth Powder Off White Corn Flour Smooth Powder White Rice Flour Rough Powder Off White

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When mixed with water Color Texture Off White Suspension Stickiness is high White color paste like sticky Off white suspension Liquid

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Cereal Properties

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Microscopic appearance (10 x 40) Microscopic Appearance after adding Iodine

Wheat Purple color granules

Corn Purple color granules

Rice Dark Purple color granules

Microscopic Appearance after adding Methylene Blue

Background blue

Background blue

Background blue

Boiling with water

Become clear after the corn flour Some granules blue, some granules white with light blue back ground

Corn flour solution became clear first Blue color swollen and burst granules with light blue back ground

Rice solution became clear last. Blue Color. Burst granules with light blue back ground.

Microscopic appearance after adding Iodine (after boiling)

5.1.4. Discussion Generally starches are identified by their microscopic features. To see starch granules clearly iodine was added. During the structure studies, it was identified that granule shape changes according to flour type, wheat granules were the biggest and rice were the smallest among these three flour types and also the gelatinization time and temperature also changed with the flour type.

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Cereal Properties 5.2. Separation of wet gluten 5.2.1. Materials 100ml beaker Measuring cylinder Piece of cheese cloth Spatula Petri dish Oven Sample flours Water Sodium meta bisulphite Iodine solution 5.2.2. Method 25g of wheat flour was weighed into a plastic container.15 ml of water was added into the plastic container containing flour and made a dough. Then the dough was kept in a beaker filled with water and let it stand for one hour. After one hour dough was taken out and place in the cheese cloth and washed with a gentle stream of tap water till water passed through the silk didn t turn blue when a drop of iodine solution was added. The residue was transferred by using a spatula to previously weighed dish and allowed it to dry in the oven. Same procedure was done to other two samples. Wet gluten (before drying) was stretched by hands and measured the length. Then a small amount of sodium meta bisulphite and coconut oil were added to the dough separately and again stretched. Length was measured. 5.2.3. Results Weight (g) Weight of flour Weight of Dish Weight of Dish+ Wet Gluten Wight of dish + dry gluten % of gluten Wheat flour 25 g. 44.5694 52.0227 48.1084 3.539 x 100 25 14.16%

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Strechability Gluten Gluten + SMS 5.2.4. Discussion

In Cm 14 Cm 9 Cm

Remarks Became soft

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Cereal Properties

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Glutanine and gliding present in wheat flour interact and form a sticky and elastic material which is gluten when mixed with water. After washing away starch gluten can be separated. Rice flour doesn t contain a detectable amount of gluten. The characters of gluten could be altered by the addition of various chemicals. When sodium meta bisulphiteis added the sulphide bonds of the gluten structure break and weaken the gluten structure.

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Cereal Properties 5.3. Gelatinization of starch 5.3.1. Materials Beaker Measuring cylinders Thermometer Slides and cover slips Microscope Water bath Flour samples Iodine solution 5.3.2. Method 1g of flour was taken in a beaker and 20ml of water was added to it. Then the beaker was heated gradually with a thermometer immersed in it. A drop of starch suspension was taken out at every 5 °C rise in temperature. Each drop was placed on slides and made smears. Smears were stained using iodine solution and observed under the microscope. Number of granules which have taken up the stain and total number of granules were counted. Experiment was done up to 100°C. a graph was plotted for temperature versus number of grains that had taken up the stain and ruptured. Separate suspensions of 10% flour slurries were taken in beakers and heated to different temperatures. (40°C, 50°C, 60°C, 70°C ) and transferred them into separate measuring cylinders. They were allowed to stand overnight and volumes were measured. A graph was plotted with temperature and the volume of gel. 5.3.3. Results Slide No. 1 2. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

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Temperature Room Temperature 35 40 45 50 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

No. of stained

granules 300 293 168 136 112 92 52 44 40 40 40 5 5 5

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Gelatinization of starch
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 30 35 40 45 50 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Temperature

Discussion

No of cells

Series1

When starch suspension is heated, water was absorbed by the starch granule and caused the swelling and bursting of the granules. Increasing of viscosity took place as a result of above process. 5.2.4. Discussion Starch gelatinization is a process that breaks down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. Penetration of water increases randomness in the general structure and decreases the number and size of crystalline regions. Crystalline regions do not allow water entry. Heat causes such regions to be diffused, so that the chains begin to separate into an amorphous form. This process is used in cooking to make roux sauce, pastry, custard or popcorn. Gelatinization is also known as the thickening of a liquid. The starch grains/flour granules absorb the liquid. When heated the grains/granules swell and then burst, releasing starch into the liquid. The granules/grains swell to 5 times their original size

References · Potter N.N, (1987). Food science, 3rd Ed, pp.589 599. AVI publishing Company, Inc., USA · Fennema, Owen. R., 1996.Food chemistry, 3rd Ed, Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York · Perarson.D. Laboratery techniques in food analysis, 8

Cereal Properties

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London; Butterworth publishers,1973

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