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Appendix 2

The Cole-Hackenberger Motor/Engine Prototype Timeline 1957 1989

ichar! Hackenberger "Hack# E$%$ &ray 'el(on )chla*t "ocky#
197+ 197, -at 51. /007 -at ,,.
Thi( paper i( a collection o* photo( an! in*ormation to help intere(te! re(earcher( *ollo1 the +0
year (aga o* E$%$ &ray an! hi( 2ree Energy a!3ent4re($ The *oc4( i( on the (e54ential
!e3elopment o* 15 e6traor!inary machine($ 7t i( inten!e! to help (ort o4t the e3ol4tion o* thi(
technology an! hope*4lly ai! e6perimenter( in their 54e(t to (4cce((*4lly repro!4ce thi( e6otic
e54ipment$ The (4r3i3ing technical hi(tory i( (potty8 th4( the a4thor ha( *ille! in a m4ltit4!e o*
hole( 1ith pla4(ible 9 creati3e (pec4lation($ Many o* the photo( pre(ente! ha3e only become
a3ailable in the la(t *e1 year( thro4gh the genero4( contrib4tion( o* in!i3i!4al( 1ho ha3e
become 1illing to (hare their (torie( an! pri3ate collection( o* memorabilia$
7t i( pre(ently tho4ght that8 in all8 15 motor(/engine( 1ere ma!e at a co(t in e6ce(( o* a :1-1//
million -in 1970 !ollar(.$ 7t i( (till 4n!etermine! ;4(t 1here all thi( money came *rom$ 7t i(
tho4ght that there 1ere (ome ancillary !e3ice( !e3elope! along the 1ay that 1ere 54ite
impre((i3e in their o1n right -The Electro(tatic &enerator an! Military Mortar. that helpe!
con3ince potential in3e(tor( a( to the *ea(ibility o* thi( en!ea3or$ <( *or the Motor(/Engine(
there 1ere t1o !i(tinct era( o* !e3elopment= 1. The P4l(e Motor !e3elopment pha(e -1957
circa 19,>. an! /. the 2ree Energy Engine pha(e -circa 19,5 1979.$
< *air amo4nt o* circ4m(tantial hi(tory ha( been *ol!e! into thi( commentary in or!er to help
e6plain ho1 thing( 1ent the 1ay they !i!$ < lot o* engineering !eci(ion( 1ere ba(e! 4pon
*inance( an! the pre3ailing marketing con!ition($ There i( a lot o* (4pplemental (pec4lati3e
technical in*ormation a3ailable to the rea!er on the 7nternet$ Tho(e (peci*ic topic( can be better
appreciate! a*ter the 1hole hi(tory o* thi( technology i( e6amine!$
)4mmary o* the Cole/Hackenberger Motor/Engine Prototype(=
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Mo!el ?ear Engineer Ca(e 2eat4re @emi(e
-Circa. )iAe
P4l(e Motor(
E0 19,1 Cole 9# 2ir(t Motor to operate B Tho4ght to be in (torage
E1 19,+B Cole 1/# "Cro1n Motor# D1ne! by <lan 2rancoe4r
E/ 19,+ Cole 1/# "P4rple Motor# D1ne! by Eohn @$ iley
E+ 19,+ Cole 1/# +-Pole Ca(e only D1ne! by Mark McFay
E> 19,> Cole 1/# )ingle Pole te(t Motor D1ne! by <lan 2rancoe4r
E5 19,> Cole 1/# <ll non-con!4cti3e con(tr4ction D1ne! by <lan 2rancoe4r
E5< 19,, Cole 1/# <ll non-con!4cti3e con(tr4ction @e(troye! by @< in 197>
2ree Energy Engine(
EM<0 1970 Cole +# Mock 4p mo!el -non-*4nctional. D1ne! by Mark McFay
EM<1 19,7 Cole 1/# 2ir(t tr4e 2ree Energy Engine B Probably cannibaliAe!
EM</ 19,9 Cole 1/# 10 HP te(te! by Cro(by e(earch @e(troye! by in 197>
EM<>-E1 1970 Cole 1,# +/$5 HP a4tomoti3e engine Gpgra!e! to EM<>-E/
EM<>-E/ 197+ "Hack# 1,# Gpgra!e o* EM<>-E1 to 100 HP @e(troye! by @< in 197>
EM<5 197+ "Hack# 1/# Ca(e only Engine ne3er complete! @e(troye! by @< in 197>
EM<,-E1 197> "Hack# 1/# 2aile! ne1 generation !e(ign / HP Gpgra!e! to EM<,-E/
EM<,-E/ 197, "Hack# 1/# etro*itte! EM<, @e(troye! by 2CC in 1979
EM<7 1979 "Hack# 9# C4ilt in Falona8 7o1a "Cl4e Engine# B Tho4ght to be in (torage
The Capacitor @i(charge P4l(e Motor Pha(e -1957 circa 19,>.=
Mar3in Cole an! E$%$ &ray 1ere *rien!( an! neighbor( li3ing in Ho( <ngele($ Cole 1a( a (ingle
man 1ho ma!e a goo! li3ing a( a che* at an 4p(cale (ea*oo! re(ta4rant$ &ray ha! been a li*elong
a4to-bo!y-*en!er man an! kno1n to be 54ite goo! at the cra*t$ 7n 1957 a 4((ian emigrant
name! <n!re Poppo** ga3e a "Popping Coil# toy (et4p -or at lea(t the plan( to one. to Mr$ &ray8
1ho then got the i!ea o* 4(ing thi( !e3ice a( the ba(i( *or a ne1 kin! o* motor$ He bro4ght hi(
i!ea to Mr$ Cole8 1ho hel! a ma(ter( !egree in mechanical engineering an! 1a( e6ceptionally
(kille! at technical ill4(tration$ The t1o then began !ra1ing (ketche( in the li3ing room an!
hatching plan( to b4il! an in!4(trial motor that 1o4l! -hope*4lly. be more e**icient than
common motor( an! co4l! pro!4ce h4ge tor54e( at lo1 (pee!( 1ith o4t e6ce((i3e heat$ They
(tarte! o4t e6ploiting a no3el combination o* common cla((ical proce((e( inten!ing to create thi(
ne1 an! impro3e! motor technology$ <bo4t a year later Mr$ &ray ha! to lea3e to1n beca4(e o*
4nplea(ant b4(ine(( i((4e($ Mr$ Cole appear( to ha3e contin4e! 1orking on the pro;ect by
him(el*$ 7n 19,> there 1a( a ma;or (hi*t in the !irection o* !e3elopment$ Mr$ &ray8 (oon there
a*ter8 manage! to mo3e back to Ho( <ngele( an! re-partner 1ith Cole *or a 3ent4re that 1a(
promi(ing to be m4ch more intere(ting an! potentially 3ery l4crati3e$ 7t i( tho4ght that the +-Pole
motor( -E0 to E5<. 1ere ma!e *rom 19,1 to abo4t 19,>$ Driginally they 1ere inten!e! to be
!e3elopment prototype( that 1ere incremental e6ploration (tep( in 1orking o4t the engineering
!etail( o* their ne1 p4l(e motor concept$ Ho1e3er8 (omething happene! along the 1ay that
change! the (tory an! co4l! ha3e 1ell change! 1e(tern hi(tory a( 1e kno1 it -C4t thatI( another
The 2ree-Energy Engine Pha(e -circa 19,5 1979.=
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7n 19,>8 1hile &ray 1a( li3ing in Ha( %ega(8 he recei3e! a kit o* part( -a((4me! to be *rom
Mar3in Cole. that he a((emble! o4t!oor( bet1een t1o b4il!ing($ The p4rpo(e o* the electrical
har!1are 1a( 4nkno1n to the *amily$ )ome te(t( 1ere con!4cte!8 b4t the re(4lt 1a( an
e6plo(ion o* (ome kin! that abr4ptly en!e! the e6periment($ Thi( ha( been (pec4late! to be a
hy!rogen e6plo(ion *rom an o3er charge! lea!-aci! battery$ 'o in;4re( 1ere reporte!$ The (on(
1ere ta(ke! to clean 4p the *ragment( o* a !amage! car battery -1ith it( top blo1n o**.8 (ome
magnet 1ire8 an ignition coil8 (ome 1hite pla(tic piece(8 pl4( a (mall a((ortment o* other 4n-
*amiliar component($ The (ame year Mr$ &ray mo3e! back to Ho( <ngele( an! the 54e(t *or 2ree
Energy 1a( apparently beg4n in earne(t8 in (ecret8 an! 4nkno1n to hi( *amily$ 7t i( a((4me! that
the *ir(t o3er-4nity ob(er3ation( took place in 19,> 1hen Cole 1a( 1orking alone 1ith on one o*
the +-Pole motor($ 7t i( (pec4late! that Mr$ Cole8 1hile impro3ing on the P4l(e Motor !e(ign8
(ome ho1 ob(er3e! that hi( energy e**icient motor 1a( in!ee! (o e**icient that it 1a( generating
more o4tp4t (pee! an! tor54e than 1hat it (ho4l! ha3e been - ba(e! 4pon the amo4nt o*
electrical energy that 1a( being (4pplie! to it$ E6periment( an! mo!i*ication( 1ere ma!e to
4n!er(tan! an! enhance the proce(($ 7t i( not kno1n ;4(t 1hich +-Pole P4l(e Motor pro3i!e! the
*ir(t e3i!ence o* the 2ree-Energy phenomenon8 b4t it i( a((4me! that it 1a( the la(t one o* the 5
mo!el E (erie( -the E5. 1here Mr$ Cole e6plore! an all pla(tic -non-con!4cti3e. con(tr4ction$
2rom here the o4trageo4( technical a!3ent4re began$ The !e(ign o* the Motor (hi*te! *rom a +-
Pole (ingle coil !e(ign to a 9-Pole !4al coil !e(ign an! 1a( *rom then on calle! an engine$ M4ch
o* the architect4re o* the pre3io4( P4l(e Motor( remaine!$ The ne1 non-cla((ical proce(( 1a(
(t4!ie! *or a *e1 year( an! thi( i( ho1 the tr4e 2ree-Energy Engine( came abo4t$ <pparently
e3en the *ir(t prototype o* the ne1 !e(ign met 1ith (4cce(($ The10 HP (econ! prototype o* thi(
(erie( -EM</. 1a( e3al4ate! by a +
party te(ting organiAation that yiel!e! (ome *anta(tic
re(4lt($ The ne6t a!3ancement goal 1a( to increa(e the hor(e-po1er o4tp4t o* the engine to 100
or /00 HP th4( b4il!ing a mo!el a( po1er*4l a( a ga(oline a4tomoti3e engine$ Then (4!!enly8 in
197/8 Mar3in Cole le*t the pro;ect8 ne3er to ret4rn8 a*ter (igning o3er hi( intere(t( to E$%$&ray
-*or a *eeB.$ He le*t to1n 1ith hi( pregnant girl *rien! an! ne3er came back$ 7t i( (pec4late! that
he ha! !e3elope! a (erio4( an6iety comple6 concerning the po1er o* the proce((e( he ha!
!i(co3ere!$ Hi( attit4!e took a (4!!en change 1hen an a((ociate! anti-gra3ity phenomenon
became apparent in a!!ition to the 3a(t o3er-4nity e**ect($ <*ter that he *eare! o* being
comman!eere! by the go3ernment or (ome other ho(tile cartel$ 2rom then on &ray8 not (4**ering
*rom the (ame concern -at the time.8 carrie! on attempting to *4rther !e3elop an! (ell the
technology 4(ing hire! (peciali(t( to take ColeI( place$ &rayI( technical kno1le!ge o* the
phy(ic( an! electronic( o* thi( in3ention 1a( 54ite limite!8 th4( *or a long time8 the act4al
technical progre(( came to a (tan!(till$
The "EM<# in the mo!el n4mber o* the 2ree Energy Engine (erie( (tan!( *or "Electro Magnetic
<((ociate(#8 1hich 1a( the gro4p o* "in(i!er(# that 1ere the *4n!ing (o4rce *or thi( e**ort *rom
19,/ to 197/$ Driginally the name 1a( E)M< 1hich (too! *or Electro )tatic 9 Magnetic
<((ociate($ The ) 1a( !roppe! to help co3er 4p the ma;or non-cla((ical proce(( in3ol3e!$ Thi(
*4n!ing gro4p 1a( !i(ban!e! 1hen Mr$ Cole le*t an! &ray took total control o* the pro;ect an!
reorganiAe! it 4n!er hi( o1n b4(ine(( name Jetech$
)hortly a*ter Mr$ ColeI( !epart4re8 &ray hire! ichar! Hackenberger8 a (oli! (tate electrical
engineer *rom )ilicon %alley$ 7t (eem( to ha3e taken Mr$ Hackenberger a *e1 year( to !eco!e ;4(t
1hat Cole ha! !one8 e3en 1ith 1orking prototype( in *ront o* him$ He ma!e (ome
4n!er(tan!able mi(take(8 b4t (eem( to ha3e e3ent4ally recti*ie! hi( mi(4n!er(tan!ing( an!
e3ent4ally make impro3ement(8 ho1e3er in 1980 he !ie! be*ore any o* hi( 1ork co4l! reach
*r4ition$ &ray contin4e! *or the re(t o* hi( li*e attempting to pro*it *rom all thi( !e3elopment8
1itho4t m4ch (4cce(($ 7t (eem( that he ne3er !i! !e3elop a *4ll technical 4n!er(tan!ing a( to
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ho1 the(e engine( act4ally 1orke!$ He !ie! in 19898 in )park( 'e3a!a8 *rom a (tre(( in!4ce!
heart attack$ Cy then he 1a( in poor health an! ha! !e3elope! a (erio4( an6iety comple6 o* hi(
o1n8 1ith goo! rea(on8 (ince ho(tile in!i3i!4al( 1ere pre((4ring him 1ith threat( to han! o3er
the technology$
eincarnation o* the E-)erie( P4l(e Motor Prototype(
Cack in 19808 1hile attempting to create promotion 3i!eo( to (ell thi( technology -o** (hore.8
&ray reco3ere! many o* the P4l(e E-Motor prototype( *rom (torage an! hire! a technician
-'el(on )chla*t. to get them to r4n (omeho1$ Mr$ )chla*t 1a( able to accompli(h thi( ta(k8 b4t
the re(4lt( 1ere *ar *orm a 2ree-Energy (ol4tion$ The mo!i*ie! motor( no1 re54ire! h4ge
amo4nt( o* po1er to rotate 1ith no loa!8 b4t they co4l! no1 (tart *rom a !ea! (top an! co4l! r4n
in both !irection( 1hich i( (omething that the original E-Motor( co4l!nIt !o$ 'e3er the le((
&ray ma!e 3i!eo( o* the(e operating machine( an! pa((e! them o** a( 1orking 2ree-energy
engine( 4(ing the 197+ te(t re(4lt( *rom the EM</ engine a( 3eri*ication$ <pparently thi(
approache! 1orke! (ince &ray 1a( allege! to ha3e ama((e! a :/7 million !ollar in3e(tment
*4n! -accor!ing to the company la1yer Eoe &or!on. thro4gh a Cayman 7(lan! brokerage *irm$
&ray 1a( later (1in!le! o4t o* thi( money$
The remo!ele! P4l(e E-Motor( 1ere re-name! accor!ing to the !ominate color o* their ca(e or
!ecoration !4ring the 1980 retro-*it 1hen they 1ere being con3erte! into (tage prop($ Th4( the
"Clack#8 "Khite#8 "P4rple#8 an! "Cro1n# !e(ignation( came into being$ &ray probably allo1e!
thi( con3er(ion to take place (ince the(e motor( 1ere not the (4cce((*4l 2ree-Energy Engine
!e(ign( any1ay$ C4t they looke! ;4(t like the real thing an! 1o4l! (er3e 1ell *or operating 3i!eo
mock4p( *or almo(t no co(t$
The E (erie( P4l(e Motor( are n4mbere! accor!ing to !igit( (tampe! on the motor ca(e($ The(e
ha3e been ob(er3e! *or the E18 E+8 E>8 an! E5$ The E/ motor ha( not been e6amine! -re54ire(
!i(a((embly. b4t i( a((4me! to be the "P4rple Motor#$ Thi( i( a *air g4e(( (ince the "P4rple
Motor# an! the E1 -"Cro1n Motor#. are (o clo(e to each other in e6ternal appearance$ 7t i(
(pec4late! that the(e mo(t o* the(e mo!el( 1ere hea3ily mo!i*ie! an! rearrange! a n4mber o*
time( by Cole a( he attempte! to get hi( arm( aro4n! the ob(er3e! 2ree-Energy proce(($
7t i( reporte! -*rom Mark &ray E$%$ &rayI( >
(on. that 1hen the(e E motor( 1ere *ir(t
retrie3e! *rom (torage in 1980 that mo(t o* them lacke! po1er (4pplie( an! a ma;ority o* the
ancillary (1itching (y(tem( -a((4me! to the Thyratron (y(tem(.$ 7t i( tho4ght that Cole kept
migrating the(e (4b-(y(tem component( *rom motor to motor8 rather than b4il!ing ne1 one( *or
each te(t be!$ Thi( 1a( probably !one *or *inancial rea(on( (ince the c4(tom ma!e mica (torage
capacitor( an! (pecial or!er high 3oltage tran(*ormer( 1ere e6pen(i3e an! ha! a long lea! time($
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Thi( (ketch i( a((4me! to be o* the *ir(t operational P4l(e Motor an! i( i!enti*ie! a( the E0
E0 - + Pole Motor -19,1.
7t i( not kno1n *or (4re8 b4t the motor an! (tan! (ho1n on the *ar right o* the E-motor *amily
photo -belo1. i( tho4ght to be the E0$ 7t ha( a (maller ca(e -abo4t 9# !iameter. an! i( there*ore
a((4me! to be a logical (tarting point *or ne1 !e3elopment e6ploration$ 7* (o8 then the te(t(
con!4cte! 1ith thi( early motor pointe! to the nee! *or a larger !iameter ca(e -1/# !iameter.8
1hich then became a (tan!ar! *or the re(t o* the E-Motor !e(ign($ The 8# 6 ># 1hite cylin!er at
the en! o* the motor i( a rotary mechanical (1itching (y(tem -calle! a comm4tator.$ The !e(ign
o* thi( (4b-(y(tem remaine! pretty con(tant -e6ternally. thro4gho4t the !e3elopment o* the E-
motor( an! i( a prominent *eat4re in the later 2ree Energy Engine($
Cole m4(t ha3e (tarting recei3ing (ome e6ternal !e3elopment *4n!ing (hortly a*ter b4il!ing the
E0 motor$ The co(t an! comple6ity o* the later machine( 1o4l! ha3e been 1ell beyon! the
mean( o* e3en a 1ell kno1n che*$ <pparently there 1a( (ome (ort o* 3ent4re capital a3ailable in
H< to a!3ance the i!ea o* a no3el high tor54e in!4(trial p4l(e motor$
7n early tabloi! inter3ie1( -197+. 1ith &ray8 !e(cribe! ho1 the *ir(t motor operate! *or a *e1
min4te( in 19,1$ &ray 1a( not in Cali*ornia at that time nor 1a( he 1orking on motor(8 (o thi(
!ate i( probably 1hen Cole 1a( able to get hi( *ir(t prototype to r4n$ Ke !onIt kno1 1hat ColeI(
*4n!ing (it4ation 1a( at the time8 b4t i* he only ha! hi( income *rom being a pro*e((ional che*8
-<t the "&rotto# on pier L57 in H<. then it probably took him abo4t t1o year( to ;4(t to pay *or
the part( -in ca(h o* co4r(e.$ Thi( kin! o* 1ork i( beyon! the capacity o* 1hat can be !one 1ith
han! tool( or 1ith common (hop po1er tool($ The con(tr4ction o* prece((ion rotary apparat4(
re54ire( the (er3ice( o* a machine (hop$ )ince there are h4n!re!( o* part( that 1ent into the
con(tr4ction o* the later engine(8 it i( tho4ght that it 1a( not m4ch !i**erent *or the *ir(t
prototype($ The goo! ne1( i( that Cole m4(t ha3e (een (ome potential in thi( *ir(t e6pen(i3e
e6perimental mo!el to contin4e on to *inance an! b4il! the E1 motor$ 7t i( e(timate! that Cole
(pent a( m4ch money on thi( *ir(t prototype a( one 1o4l! lay !o1n on a ne1 mi!-range *4lly
loa!e! car$
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E1 + Pole Motor "The Cro1n Motor# -circa 19,+.
7n Dctober /010 Eohn @$ iley o* Canyon Co4ntry8 C< genero4(ly pro3i!e! the common !omain
a mo(t intere(ting (erie( o* high 54ality photo( o* the E1 aka "The Cro1n Motor#$ Hi( intent 1a(
to o**er thi( piece o* hi(tory to the highe(t bi!!er (tarting at :+08000$ Thi( motor 1a( ac54ire! by
Mr$ <l 2rancoe4r o* ?hak8 CC to a!! to hi( 4ni54e collection$ Gn*ort4nately8 thi( motor8 along
1ith the re(t o* the E-(erie( motor( 1ere retro*itte! in 1980 by 'el(on )chla*t$ Khate3er o3er-
4nity con(tr4ction it originally containe!8 ha( long (ince largely been remo3e!$ @arnM

/010 Photo( o* the E1 aka "The Cro1n Motor# by Eohn @$ iley o**ering thi( piece o* hi(tory *or (ale to the highe(t
bi!!er *or a minim4m o* :+08000$ 7t appear( that thi( e6perimental te(t be! ha( been 1ell (tore! *or the pa(t />
year($ The clear Ple6igla( bo6 on the (i!e that ho4(e( the (i6 ignitron( once containe! Mar3in ColeI( approach to
(1itching the o4tp4t p4l(e o* the (torage capacitor($ There i( (ome e3i!ence that he employe! thyratron( at thi(
(tage8 b4t then 1a( able to 4(e another metho! *or later mo!el($
The "Cro1n Motor# (eem( to be the *ir(t in a (erie( o* *i3e 3ery (imilar e6perimental prototype($
7t ha( the large e6ternal en! plate( -a((4me! to be (oli! al4min4m. rather than the internal !e(ign
(een in the later E> an! E5-<$ Thi( al4min4m ca(e (eem( to be e3en thicker than the pla(tic ca(e
o* the E5$ The comm4tator( o* all the P4l(e Motor( (eem i!entical *rom their e6ternal
appearance$ The (ha*t8 the electromagnet(8 the internal (lip ring a((emblie( (eeme! to ha3e been
copie! *rom a common !e(ign that 1a( 4(e! *or the re(t o* the Motor *amily$ The large in(4lating
(lee3e aro4n! the (teel (ha*t o* the E1 i( a *eat4re that carrie( thro4gh the other P4l(e Motor($
Ceca4(e o* many a46h (imilaritie( it i( tho4ght that the(e motor( 1ere *abricate! in one
Page , o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
relati3ely (hort (pan o* time -a yearB.$ 'el(on )chla*t report( that hi( bo(( E$%$ &ray tol! him
that each motor 1a( !e(igne! to e6plore/!i(play a partic4lar a(pect o* thi( technology$ 7t i( likely
that the !ra1ing( that 1ere (ent to the machine (hop( *or *abrication 54ote( 1ere 4(e! o3er again
*or thi( P4l(e Motor (erie($ The plan( 1ere probably not mo!i*ie! 4ntil ab(ol4tely nece((ary$
The en! 3ie1 belo18 o* the (tator electromagnet(8 (ho1( (cant in(4lation bet1een the ca(e an!
the (tator electromagnetic core( in thi( initial !e(ign$ Thi( (4gge(t( that 1hate3er potential(
e6i(te! bet1een the core( an! the ca(e 1ere not e6tremely high$ The thickne(( o* the 1hite
in(4lation (heet material 4(e! in the E1 i( the thinne(t that 1ill e3er be (een in thi( technology$
2rom here on there i( a (tea!y progre((ion in greater electrical i(olation bet1een the motor
internal component( an! the ca(e$ Thi( early !e(ign 1a( pro3i!e 1ith (4b(tantial in(4lation on
the (ha*t (ince the 0$/50# 1hite pla(tic -nylonB. (ha*t (lee3e can be clearly (een in the photo
<ll o* the electrical component( -7gnitron(.8 that are (t4**e! into the rectang4lar Ple6igla(
enclo(4re on the le*t (i!e o* the motor (tan!8 1ere all a!!e! by 'el(on )chla*t an! Mark &ray in
1980$ Khat 1e can glean *rom thi( i( that 1hate3er po1er (4pply / (1itching (y(tem Cole 4(e!
co4l! *it in thi( (ame (pace be(i!e the motor$ 'el(on )chla*t report( that 1hen he ma!e hi(
mo!i*ication( the e6i(ting (1itching circ4itry that he remo3e! 1ere compo(e! o* large 3ac44m
t4be thyratron( controlle! by (maller 3ac44m t4be($ Thi( certainly 1o4l! be 1hat one 1o4l!
e6pect *or high-3oltage (1itching circ4it( *rom the mi! ,0I($

E6cellent 3ie1( o* the comm4tator -le*t. an! the (tator electromagnet( -right. 'ote the (4b(tantial thickne(( o* the
al4min4m ca(e$ The comm4tator 1a( re-1ire! *or the 1980 retro-*it b4t other than that i( (till original$ 7t i( the
electromagnet( an! the (1itching (y(tem that 1ere really b4tchere! beyon! recognition$
There i( other photographic e3i!ence that (4gge(t( that the original electromagnet( 4(e in the E-
Motor( 1ere act4ally c4(tom a4to tran(*ormer( -+ or > 1ire !e3ice(. that boo(te! the +F%
5F% inp4t 3oltage to the higher propo(e! 15F% potential$ 7n the abo3e-right photo o* the (tator
o* the E1 there i( a 1hite pla(tic plate in the back o* the motor 1ith a ># al4min4m (lip ring
mo4nte! in the mi!!le o* it$ <long the (i!e( o* thi( plate are a n4mber o* terminal( -1/ total.$
<*ter the retro-*it not all o* the(e terminal( 1ere nee!e! an! (o they became 4n4(e!$ 7t i( tho4ght
that originally thi( i( 1here the + con!4ctor( o* each (tator electromagnet 1ere lan!e!$
Page 7 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
E/ +-Pole Motor "The P4rple Motor# -circa 19,+.
Thi( motor i( o1ne! by Mr$ Eohn @$ iley 1ho i( accepting a minim4m bi! o* :+08000$ <( o*
Ean$ /011 it ha( not been (ol!$ 'ot m4ch i( pre(ently kno1n abo4t the E/ aka "The P4rple
Motor#8 ho1e3er (omeone pai! an e6tra *ee to ha3e both en! plate( ano!iAe! that *ancy p4rple
color$ 7t i( (pec4late! that by thi( time -late 19,+. potential in3e(tor( 1ere on (ite o*ten eno4gh
that (ome money (pent on "eye can!y# 1a( percei3e! a( a 1orth1hile e6pen!it4re$ 7t i( a((4me!
that thi( motor (port( an al4min4m ca(e8 b4t that ha( not been e(tabli(he! 4ntil a clear (i!e 3ie1
become( a3ailable$

The E/ a( (een in the 198, Jetech promotion 3i!eo 2ront en! clo(e 4p o* the E/ -r4nning.$ The 1hite The
cable( are pro3i!ing +0 F%< o* 5 F% @C o4tboar! @C generator/motor 1a( originally 4(e!
*rom a large po1er (4pply cart -not (ho1n.$ *or (tarting8 b4t no longer nee!e! a*ter the 1980
retro-*it program carrie! o4t by 'el(on )chla*t$
'ote the 1/ %olt @C a4tomoti3e generator attache! to the E/ 3ia *an belt it i( being 4(e! a( a
(tarter motor$ <ll o* the E-Motor( 1ere re54ire! to be bro4ght 4p to a minim4m (pee! -bet1een
500 an! 1000 rpm. be*ore they co4l! be operate! a( a motor$ Thi( 1a( a real !i(a!3antage o* the
technology8 yet the pre(4me! bene*it( 1ere pro;ecte! to o3ercome thi( irritation$ 7t 1a( probably
hope! that a (ol4tion co4l! be *o4n! to eliminate thi( 4gly o4tboar! !e3ice$ Dne a!3antage o*
4(ing a @C generator a( a motor in thi( con*ig4ration i( that it can again be 4(e! a( a generator
1hen the prime motor i( 4p to (pee!$ Thi( allo1( a (mall 3ariable loa! -4p to 1 FK. to be
applie! to the main motor (o that it( e**iciency can be ea(ily mea(4re! 1ith (ome !egree o*
acc4racy$ 7t 1a( probably thi( kin! (et4p that allo1e! Mr$ Cole to ob(er3e the o3er-4nity
Page 8 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
Gntil more in*ormation come( *orth -hope*4lly in the near *4t4re. it i( a((4me! that the "P4rple
Motor# i( a near t1in to the E1 aka the "Cro1n Motor# e3en tho4gh thi( i( highly 4nlikely$ The
co(t o* the(e prototype( prohibit( the con(tr4ction o* a t1in motor ;4(t *or the (ake o* ha3ing a
100N back4p on han!$ There m4(t ha3e been (ome important engineering !i**erence bet1een
the t1o motor( to ;4(ti*y their e6i(tence$ E3en tho4gh the motor( 1ere (tampe! 1ith n4mber(
thi( !oe(nIt pro3e that they 1ere *ini(he! in that or!er$ There 1ere probably a n4mber o*
!e3elopment pro;ect( an! e6periment( going on a( engineering e6perti(e 1a( gaine!$
Page 9 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
E+ + Pole Motor Ca(e -circa 19,/.

The E+ Motor Ca(e in ele3ation Mea(4ring the 1all thickne(( o* the E+ Motor ca(e$
Thi( i( a *4lly machine! +-Pole Cole E-Motor ca(e that matche( the !imen(ion( an! hole pattern(
o* the *4t4re E1 thro4gh E5 motor($ The main !i**erence i( that it( 1all thickne(( i( only 0$>0,#
1hile photo( o* all the other motor( in thi( (erie( (ho1 a m4ch thicker ca(e -appro6imately 1#
thick.$ 7t appear( thi( partic4lar ca(e ha! been e54ippe! at one time 1ith electromagnet(8 (ince
the bolt hole( !i(play 1ear mark( that are ca4(e! 1hen *a(tener( 1ere tightene! again(t the
al4min4m (4r*ace$ Thi( 1a( not a cheap part to *abricate - e(pecially in the early ,0I($ 7t 1o4l!
ha3e to been con(tr4cte! in a (hop that ha! (ome large in!4(trial machining e54ipment to
accommo!ate a part thi( big$ The entire ca(e ha( been t4rne! an! bore! to (peci*ication( then
!rille! an! reame! *or >0 a((orte! hole($ Mo(t all o* the hole( 1ere then re-mille! to pro3i!e a
*lat mo4nting (4r*ace$ The (peci*ic !imen(ion( are= 1/-5/8# D@8 1/# 7@8 an! 1,# long$ < 54ick
e(timate *rom the photograph *rom a local machine (hop -/009. pro!4ce! a 54ote o* :18750 pl4(
:/50 *or the material -(4rpl4(. an! a minim4m *o4r 1eek( lea! time$ 'o1 thi( i( 4(ing mo!ern
comp4ter ai!e! milling machine( an! a C'C lathe$ The in*lation a!;4(te! co(t o* thi( part in
19,/ 1o4l! probably ha3e been (imilar or more likely higher$
Thi( motor ca(e i( *abricate! *rom a (ection o* large al4min4m pipe$ Thi( i( the mo(t economical
1ay to get the (tock materialO there*ore ColeI( motor !e(ign( 1ere con(traine! to *e1 (tan!ar!
pipe !imen(ion($ Typically the 7@ 4(e! in pipe (peci*ication( i( hel! con(tant *rom mo!el to
mo!el 1hile the 1all thickne(( change( accor!ing to gra!e an! pre((4re rating($ )oli! cylin!er(
o* al4min4m are a3ailable *or c4(tom machining b4t the *ee! (tock 1o4l! then co(t tho4(an!( o*
!ollar( rather than a *e1 h4n!re!$ The 7@ *or thi( ca(e i( 1/# - along 1ith the re(t o* the E
Motor($ The a!3antage i( that a( long a( the 7@ o* the motor !e(ign remaine! the (ame - the
Page 10 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
internal component( co4l! be (1itche! *rom te(t be! to te(t be! 3ery ea(ily$ 2or (ome rea(on thi(
ca(e 1a( b4ilt an! then aban!one! in *a3or o* a !i**erent ca(e !e(ign$
7t appear( that the thin ca(e o* the E+ appear( to ha3e not met the !eman!( *o4n! in thi(
technology$ There m4(t ha3e been (ome compelling rea(on *or Cole to gi3e 4p on thi( e6pen(i3e
part an! replace it 1ith another8 e3en more e6pen(i3e8 part$ 7t i( an intere(ting 54e(tion a( to 1hy
a m4ch thicker ca(e 1a( (electe! *or the re(t o* E-motor($ There are t1o (pec4lati3e propo(al(O
1. the tolerance o* the !i(tance bet1een the rotor an! the (tator 1a( re54ire! to be 3ery preci(e
-on the or!er o* 0$005#.8 there*ore the thicker 1all( 1ere nee!e! to hol! the (ha*t bearing( 3ery
ri!ge$ /. 7n the later 2ree-Energy Engine mo!el(8 the ca(e i( an acti3e component in non-
cla((ical proce((8 the ma(( o* the al4min4m i( (ai! to be an important parameter in the
per*ormance o* thi( !e3ice$ -Ho1e3er8 thi( interaction ha( not been !e(cribe! in !etail nor !oe( it
a!!re(( the non-con!4cti3e ca(e(.
Page 11 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
E> 1 Pole Motor "The Clack Motor# -circa 19,+.

The E> aka the "Clack Motor# a( (ho1n in The E> Electromagnet( !i(a((emble! an! photographe!
the 198, Jetech Promotion %i!eo The (ingle by <l 2ranco4er o* C$C$8 Cana!a /00> (ho1ing the no3el
7gnitron (1itch i( a re(4lt o* the 1980 retro-*it$ cro(( (ection !e(ign$ The hal* ro4n! in(4lator( are *or the
%i!eo - Co4rte(y o* Fen Ha1kin( electromagnet en! piece( th4(8 (4gge(ting a high 3oltage
The E> an! the E5 motor( ca4(e! 54ite a (tir in the 2ree-Energy comm4nity 1hen they 1ere
reco3ere! in /000 *rom a (hop in @o!ge City8 F)$ <( the (tory goe( -*rom Fen Ha1kin(.8 'orm
Kooten an! Fen Ha1kin( 1ere !ri3ing together along (ome high1ay in Te6a( 1hile !i(c4((ing
their 3ario4( opinion( o* pa(t 2ree-Energy pioneer($ Mr$ Ha1kin( then mentione! hi( brie*
a((ociation 1ith the &ray technology in the to1n o* @o!ge City$ <pparently8 a Mr$ 4((ell
<4!rey ha! ac54ire! a large part o* the (4r3i3ing e54ipment a*ter &rayI( !eath8 b4t 1a( 4nable
to make it 1ork e3en a*ter thro1ing lot( o* money at it$ <pparently Mr$ Kooten !i! a "G# t4rn
on the roa! an! imme!iately the pair hea!e! to1ar!( Fan(a($ They got l4cky an! 1ere able to
*in! an! p4rcha(e the(e t1o retro-*itte! E-(erie( motor(8 along 1ith (ome other e54ipment$
Mr$ Kooten !i(a((emble! both motor( an! (t4!ie! 1hat he co4l! o* thi( e54ipment$ The ne6t
year he pre(ente! hi( *in!ing( to the /001 Feeley Con*erence in Miami8 2H$ Thi( 1a( the *ir(t
time that any o* the Cole/&ray har!1are ha! been (een or *o4n!$ Many people tho4ght that the
E$%$&ray my(tery 1a( abo4t to be to be (ol3e!$ The pre(entation came an! 1ent8 1ith a lot o*
program C@I( being (ol!8 b4t no one (eem( to ha3e been able to make (en(e o* 1hat Fen an!
'orm ha! !i(co3ere!$ The(e motor( 1ere not at all like the patent !ra1ing( *or the "Capacitor
@i(charge Engine# that 1a( grante! to &ray in E4ne 1975$ The n4mber( on the ca(e are
con*4(ing (ince the Clack Motor 1a( (tampe! 1ith a "># in (e3eral place(8 yet the engine that
1a( promote! in 197+-197> 1a( calle! the EM<>$
7t 1a( a logical concl4(ion to con(i!er the E> to ha3e been an earlier mo!el (ince it only ha! one
pair o* internal electromagnet( -< 1-Pole motor or- one coil on the rotor an! one coil on the
(tator.$ The E5 ha! all three (et( o* electromagnet( in(talle! (o it 1a( con(i!ere! to be a later
mo!el -+-Pole.$ Ho1e3er8 both ca(e( an! commentator( 1ere e54ippe! to han!le +-Pole($ 2or
(ome rea(on it appear( that Cole 1a( 1orking 1ith complete +-Pole motor( an! then (toppe! to
Page 1/ o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
re(tart 1ith a (ingle pole layo4t$ Hater on he again contin4e! on 1ith more +-Pole !e(ign($
<pparently (ome technical i((4e came 4p -mo(t likely the ob(er3ation o* DG. that re54ire! a
backtracking o* e**ort$ 7* it ha! been !e(ire! to make a 1-Pole motor in the beginning it 1o4l!
ha3e been a lot cheaper to machine it that 1ay *rom the (tart$ Each one o* tho(e machine! hole(
a!!( co(t to the *inal *abrication price$ 7* they 1ere not nee!e! they 1o4l!nIt ha3e been there$
Mo(t likely a change in electromagnet !e(ign 1a( being e6plore! an! a n4mber o* can!i!ate(
1ere te(te! in!i3i!4ally in the E> ho4(ing$ The (4cce((*4l electromagnet ma!e it( 1ay to the +-
Pole E5 or one o* the *ir(t prototype 2ree-Energy Engine($ Gn*ort4nately all o* the original
1in!ing( *or the electromagnet( ha! been remo3e! an! replace! 1ith L1> <K& magnet 1ire
!4ring the 1980 retro-*it !one by 'el(on )chla*t$ Mr$ )chla*t report( that the original 1ire 1a( o*
a m4ch (maller ga4ge an! that the electromagnet( 1ere coate! in a bro1n 1a6y (4b(tance$
<*ter a *e1 year( the intere(t in the reco3ere! E> an! E5 !ie! !o1n an! 'orm !eci!e! to (ell the
motor( (ince he (a1 no ob3io4( 2ree-Energy technology in thi( machinery8 1hich 1a( probably
an acc4rate a((e((ment$ The general comm4nity 7nternet intere(t in thi( technology ha! (hi*te! to
the mi((ing po1er (4pplie($ 'orm (ol! the entire lot o* reco3ere! e54ipment to <lan 2rancoe4r
o* C$C$ Cana!a8 1ho (till o1n( the(e hi(toric motor( an! i( taking *ine care o* them$
The /# (ha*t bearing( 4(e! in the E> are rate! *or /50 HP motor (er3ice an! are (till in
pro!4ction *or :1,+$00 each -/005 price(.$

The E> (ingle electromagnet (et -rotor an! (tator. a( 'orm Kooten !i(playing the control commentator
!i(playe! at the /001 Feely Con*erence$ Pre(entation *or the E> -/001 Feely Con*erence.$
Cy 'orm Kooten
<l report( that 1hen he recei3e! the E> it appeare! to ha3e been (tore! 1ith (ome kin! o*
(ol3ent (ince all the in(4lation an! pla(tic part( 1ere partially !i((ol3e!$ The E5 motor appeare!
to be in goo! (hape an! 1a( there*ore p4t into (torage a( i($ <l began a re(toration e**ort on the
E>$ 7n !oing (o he genero4(ly (hare! hi( ob(er3ation(8 on the 7nternet8 th4( he re3eale! (ome o*
the no3el an! 4nkno1n *eat4re( *o4n! on thi( 4n4(4al machine$ The mo(t noticeable item 1a(
the o!! cro((-(ection !e(ign o* the electromagnet laminate! core($ The photo belo1 (ho1( an
en! 3ie1 o* the (ingle (tator electromagnet 4(e! in the E>$ Khat i( 4ni54e i( the 1i!e8 b4t 3ery
thin top pole plate$ < 2inite Electromagnetic Magnetic Mo!eling -2EMM. program (ho1( that
thi( thin top (ection ha( almo(t no impact on the magnetic *l46 *iel! that i( !e3elope! aro4n! the
core 1hen c4rrent i( pro3i!e!$ Thi( geometry i( *ar *rom a cla((ical tran(*ormer core !e(ign$ <l
report( that the lamination( 1ere compo(e! o* 1hat appeare! to be typical high-(ilicon
tran(*ormer (heet (teel$ The(e core( 1ere probably ma!e 4(ing an in!4(trial p4nch proce(( 1ith a
c4(tom !ie$ Thi( approach probably re(4lte! in a h4ge o* 1a(te o* the *ee! (tock material$ The
p4rpo(e o* thi( creati3e !e(ign ha( not been 1ell a!!re((e! by re(earcher( in the *iel!$
Page 1+ o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t

<nother con(tr4ction *eat4re that <l pointe! o4t8 that 1a( not to4che! 4pon in the 'orm Kooten
pre(entation8 1a( the e6ce((i3e in(4lation mea(4re( taken in thi( motor( con(tr4ction$ The /#
(oli! (teel (ha*t o* the E> i( (lee3e! 1ith a 0$/00# thick Te*lon t4be that ha! to ha3e been t4rne!
an! bore! to achie3e (4ch a tight *it$ Thi( (lee3e 1a( another one o* tho(e e6pen(i3e part($ Dne
can only a((4me 1hat thi( in(4lation o3er kill *or 1a( *or8 b4t it !e*initely 1a( nece((ary *or the
proper operation o* the motor$ The core( o* the electromagnet( on the (tator 1ere hea3ily
in(4late! *rom the ca(e$ The core( o* the rotor 1ere al(o hea3ily in(4late! *rom the (ha*t by
mean( o* c4(tom 'ylon b4(hing($ Thi( implie( that the ca(e8 (ha*t8 an! core( all ha! large
potential !i**erence( bet1een them !4ring operation$ Thi( i( 3ery co4nter to cla((ical motor
!e(ign 1here all the(e component( are generally hel! at the (ame potential -gro4n!.$
7t i( generally tho4ght that the Cole/&ray motor( operate! 1ith inp4t 3oltage( o* +F% to 5F%$
The !egree o* in(4lation pro3i!e! on the component( o* the E> (4gge(t( that m4ch higher
internal 3oltage( 1ere employe! -Gp to 15 F%.$ 7t i( 4nclear ;4(t ho1 thi( increa(e in operating
3oltage 1a( achie3e! or 1hat p4rpo(e it 1a( 4(e! *or$ E3en large in!4(trial motor( -108000 HP.
rarely go abo3e 5F% 1ith /$5F% being a *ar more common operating 3oltage$ )omething
intere(ting 1a( certainly going on in tho(e early motor($ Taken a( a 1hole8 a( the motor(
progre((e! it appear( that the internal 3oltage 1a( being (e54entially ele3ate! 1ith each mo!el$
<l al(o pro3i!e! a (cale! !ra1ing o* the commentator o* the E> 1ith it( 15 contact( o* t1o
!i**erent (iAe( an! t1o in!epen!ent control (lip ring($ The p4rpo(e o* all the(e control point( i(
4nkno1n an! to !ate ha( not been !eco!e! a( to any (ort o* propo(e! *4nction$ Ce*ore the E>
an! E5 motor( 1ere reco3ere!8 it 1a( tho4ght the *4n!amental( o* the Cole technology 1ere
*4n!amentally (imple$ Kith the !i(clo(4re o* the con(tr4ction !etail( o* the commentator it
became clear that thi( myth 1a( in!ee! in error$
Page 1> o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t

Page 15 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
E5 + Pole Motor -Pla(tic. "The Khite Motor# -circa 19,+.
'ot a lot o* engineering e6ploration ha( been !one on the E5 (ince <l 2rancoe4r place! it in
(torage$ 'e3er the le(( thi( intere(ting mo!el generate( a lot o* *4n!amental 54e(tion( 1hen the
o3erall !irection o* thi( technology i( analyAe!$ The ob3io4( 54e(tion i( "Khy a Pla(tic MotorB#
7t certainly i(nIt *or co(t (a3ing(8 a( 1a( the rea(on gi3en to &@ in hi( 197> 3i(it to %an '4y(
-concerning the E5-< !i(c4((e! belo1.$ The (tock material *or the part( that replace the
al4min4m an! (teel component( in the E> co(t > to 10 time( more$ The (ha*t an! en! cap( appear
to be a material calle! &atorite 10 -&-10. a *iber gla(( impregnate! thermo-(etting pla(tic that i(
common in electronic circ4it boar!($ Ma(( pro!4ce! &-10 thin (heet( are relati3ely ine6pen(i3e8
b4t &-10 that come( in larger !imen(ion( i( e6cee!ingly co(tly$ That /# 6 +,# &-10 (ha*t 1o4l!
co(t abo4t :800 in to!ayI( market8 an! that i( be*ore the co(t o* machining all the threa!e! hole($
The ca(e co4l! be 'ylon8 b4t

The E5 a( (ho1n in the 198, Jetech Promotion The E5 otor !i(playe! at the /001 Feeley Con*erence
The p4rpo(e o* the 3ertical orientation i( 4nkno1n by 'orm Kooten
%i!eo Co4rte(y o* Fen Ha1kin(

'ylon !oe( not machine ea(ily *or prece((ion part( an! ab(orb( a certain amo4nt o* 1ater$ <
better choice 1o4l! be @elrin$ There are a lot o* choice( a3ailable to!ay -an! they are all
e6pen(i3e. b4t back in 19,+ the (election o* 1/# pla(tic pipe that 1a( !imen(ionally (table 1a(
limite!$ %ario4( gra!e( o* P%C an! <C) 1ere a3ailable back then -4(e! *or 1ater pipe. b4t it i(
highly 4nlikely the(e 1o4l! ha3e been (electe! !4e to their "(o*tne((#$
The main i((4e (till remain($ There 1a( (ome important rea(on that Cole e6plore! an all non-
con!4cti3e con(tr4ction$ )ince co(t 1a( ob3io4(ly not an o3er ri!ing concern then it ha! to ha3e
Page 1, o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
been (ome pre((ing electrical rea(on that 1a( being a!!re((e!$ 7t ha( alrea!y been propo(e that
3oltage( aro4n! 15 F% 1ere being 4tiliAe! internally to the E> motor !4e to it( con(tr4ction$ 7*
(o8 then it i( rea(onable to (4(pect that the all pla(tic motor !e(ign 1a( an attempt to mitigate
1hat e3er problem( that the 15F% 1a( ca4(ing in a metal ca(e/(ha*t/en! en! plate motor$
Perhap( there 1a( a !e(ire to increa(e the po1er o4tp4t by rai(ing the internal 3oltage8 1hich
co4l! only be !one in a non-con!4cti3e enclo(4re$
<pparently8 the engineering bene*it o* an all pla(tic motor enclo(4re 1a( not 1orth the co(t$ Thi(
!e(ign approach 1a( not employe! in the later 2ree-Energy Engine($ Perhap( the all non-
con!4cti3e component( ca4(e! a !i**erent (et o* problem($ Khat e3er the (it4ation 1a( thi( 1a(
the la(t prototype p4l(e motor$ The later 2ree-Energy Engine( *or 1hich 1e ha3e photograph( o*
(ho1 an internal con(tr4ction 1ith a (4b(tantial Te*lon liner$ 7t appear( that the (4cce((*4l !e(ign
approach en!e! 4p being a hybri! o* material($ The Te*lon liner pro3i!e! the in(4lation
propertie( 1hile the o4ter al4min4m ca(e en(4re! !imen(ional rigi!ity$

The E5 1ith the *ront en! cap remo3e! (ho1ing the The E5 an! it( (i(ter the E> a( reco3ere! in /000 by
+-Pole rotor an! (tator$ Photo by <l 2rancoe4r 'orm Kooten an! Fen Ha1kin( in @o!ge City8 F)
E5-< +-Pole Pla(tic Motor -circa 19,>.
Page 17 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
There i( only one other kno1n pla(tic motor like !e3ice in the pre(ent *4n! o* in*ormation abo4t
the Cole/Hackenberger Motor($ 7t i( 4nclear i* thi( 4nit 1a( act4ally a *4nctioning motor or (ome
kin! o* te(t- alignment !e3ice$ 7t ha( been gi3en the label E5-<$ E3en tho4gh it 1a(
photographe! by &@ in E4ne 197> it i( (o (imilar in con(tr4ction to the E5 that it i( incl4!e! 1ith
thi( commentary$

The E5-< a( photographe! in E4ne 197> by &@ )i!e 3ie1 o* the E5-<
2or a long time it 1a( tho4ght that thi( !e3ice 1a( the E5$ Kith higher re(ol4tion photo( ma!e
a3ailable by &@ it co4l! be ea(ily (een that (4ch i( not the "ca(e#$ The thickne(( o* thi( motorI(
pla(tic ca(e approache( 1-1//# an! co4l! 1ell ha3e been machine! *rom a (oli! cylin!er o*
material to achie3e the(e !imen(ion($ Khen the(e photo( 1ere taken the motor appear( to be
e54ippe! a( a Dne-Pole machine8 m4ch like the E>$ <gain8 mo4nting hole( are pro3i!e! *or the
t1o a!!itional (et( o* electromagnet(8 b4t they are not in(talle!$ 7t i( 4nclear i* the rotor i( a three
pole !e(ign or (ingle pole$ The !e(ign o* thi( machine !e*inatly belong( to the era o* the P4l(e
Motor( (ince the (tator an! rotor electromagnet( are o* a (ingle coil !e(ign$
'otice the +,# bar han!le that i( attache! on the en! o* the (ha*t$ <l(o notice the hea3y 1ire that
i( attache! 90 P to the (ha*t a( to make an in!icator again(t the marking( on the e!ge o* the ca(e$
7n thi( con*ig4ration the (ha*t canIt t4rn more than abo4t +0P$ There are no motor mo4nting
bracket(8 *ly1heel8 1ire(8 comm4tator8 or in(tr4ment 1ire( on thi( machine$ 7t (eem( to ha3e
been (trippe! o* all it( ancillary e54ipment$ 7t i( mo(t likely (er3ing a( an <% !emo !e3ice to
ill4(trate the internal operation o* the later 2ree-Energy Engine($ 7t probably i( a clo(e relati3e to
the E5 *abricate! circa 19,+ b4t i( (horter -abo4t 1># rather than a *4ll 1,#. an! ha( internally
mo4nte! en! plate( rather than the e6ternal en! plate( a( (een in the E5$ Thi( machine 1a(
probably a prototype *or the E5$ There i( a goo! chance that the electromagnet( 4(e! in thi(
!e(ign are (horter than the one( 4(e! in the E5$ Khen the E5 1a( ma!e all the 4(able (4pport
e54ipment probably mo3e! to the ne1 motor lea3ing behin! 1hat 1e (ee here$
Khat i( intere(ting in thi( motor !e(ign i( the a!!ition o* open 3ie1 port( that are not blocke!
1ith comm4tator component($ Thi( i( the *ir(t motor to o**er an 4nob(tr4cte! 3ie1 o* the internal
arc proce(( in real time$ 7* thi( (pec4lation i( correct8 then the E5< 1a( an e6perimental
tran(ition apparat4( to better 4n!er(tan! the ob(er3e! 2ree-Energy e3ent($ The principle( learne!
1ith thi( machine probably pro3i!e! the engineering criteria *or the con(tr4ction o* the EM<1
Engine$ Thi( i!ea 1o4l! al(o (4gge(t that the *ir(t ob(er3ation o* an DG proce(( took place 1ith
the operation o* the E5 P4l(e Motor$
Page 18 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
<bo4t +0 !ay( a*ter the(e photo( 1ere taken thi( motor 1a( con*i(cate! by the H< @< an! ma!e
it( one 1ay trip thro4gh the (crap metal (hre!!er$
The *act that the(e t1o pla(tic motor !e(ign( e6i(te! beg( the 54e(tion a( to 1hat kin! o*
technology 1o4l! re54ire (4ch material( an! ;4(t ho1 1a( that technical problem at the time
2amily Photo o* the E (erie( Motor(
Here i( a 3ery *4AAy 3i!eo *rame o* all the mo!i*ie! motor( taken in 198,8 le(( the "Cl4e
Engine#$ 7t look( like &ray ha! pai! (ome rent on a (ec4re (torage *acility remote *rom the %an
'4y( (hop to be able to keep thi( m4ch e54ipment (a*e an! !ry *or almo(t a !eca!e$ 2ort4nately
he !i! thi( or all o* thi( hi(tory that 1e are looking no1 1o4l! ha3e been lo(t$
Page 19 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
e(earcher( can gaAe at thi( collection o* e6pen(i3e c4(tom e54ipment an! ha3e no !o4bt that a
lot o* money an! e**ort 1a( in3e(te! in the !ream that Mar3in Cole p4r(4e! *or a long time$
Hater E$%$ &ray took thi( e54ipment to *4rther hi( o1n per(onal !ream o* riche( an! a!4lation$
<ny non-*4n!e! garage (cienti(t( 1ho ha( e3er taken a (ol!ering g4n to make a (ingle 2ree-
Energy circ4it o* their o1n 1o4l! agree that the creation( one make( i( a poignant (tatement
abo4t their pa((ion an! cra*t(man(hip$ Thi( photo !i(play( an ab4n!ance o* both 54alitie($
Ke may ne3er kno1 1hat the lo(t technology 1a( that ma!e the(e machine( 1ork b4t8 the
(4r3i3ing prototype( (till (peak o* a man 1ith a *oc4(e! inten(ity an! b4rning !e(ire to complete
a *ormi!able ta(k$ Con(i!er the tho4(an!( o* ho4r( that 1ere nee!e! to !e(ign8 !ra18 !oc4ment8
e3al4ate8 mo!el8 an! beg *or more money$ He contin4e! on thi( 1ay *or year($ He (till 1orke! a(
a che* 4ntil the !ay he le*t H< - (o all thi( 1ork 1a( !one on hi( o1n time$ He !i!nIt ha3e a (ta**
o* !ra*ter(8 intern engineer(8 prototype technician(8 con(4lting (peciali(t(8 or e3en a (ecretaryO
heck he !i!nIt e3en ha3e a comp4ter to keep track o* all thi( paper1ork$ 7t i( reporte! by &rayI(
ol!e(t (on @r$ Eame( &ray8 that 4pon E$%$ &rayI( ret4rn to Cali*ornia8 he e(tabli(he! a gro4p
o* "in(i!er(# that *4n!e! an! pro3i!e! the technical (4pport *or hi( 3ent4re$ 7t i( 4nkno1n 1hat
kin!( o* *inancial or technical (4pport Mar3in Cole ha!$
<ll o* the(e prototype( contrib4te! to the age-changing breakthro4gh that Mar3in !i(co3ere!$
Ha! circ4m(tance( t4rne! o4t !i**erently all o* 4( 1o4l! be !ri3ing car( po1ere! by engine( not
m4ch !i**erent than the(e (ho1n$
< 2amily photo o* *i3e o* the +-Pole E-Motor( taken *rom the 198, Jetech promotion 3i!eo$ The(e motor( 1ere all
mo!i*ie! in 1980 to r4n on 5F% @C !eri3e! *rom />0 %<C 100 <mp main($ @e(pite the internal re1in!ing o* the
electromagnet( an! the a!!ition o* (1itching 7gnitron( it i( tho4ght that the cart( that the(e motor( are mo4nte! on
are largely the (ame a( they 1ere 1hen con(tr4cte! circa 19,1 to 19,5$ 2rom le*t to right8 the E> -"Clack Motor#8
the E/ - "P4rple Motor#8 the E5 - "Khite Motor#8 the E1 -"Cro1n Motor#8 an! the (4(pecte! E0 Motor -no color
nick name.$
Part 77 The 2ree-Energy Engine(
EM<0 9 Pole Mo!el Mock4p Engine -circa 197/.
Page /0 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
The EM<08 i( a tiny -+# !iameter. mock4p mo!el o* the EM<>-E1 1ith a battery motor being 4(e! to make the
inner rotor t4rn$ Thi( 1a( 4(e! to make in3e(tor pre(entation($ 7t 1a( being 4(e! a( early a( 197+ b4t it i( not kno1n
;4(t 1hen it 1a( act4ally b4ilt$ 'o !o4bt it 1a( not cheap to pro!4ce$ Thi( mo!el ha( recently been re!i(co3ere!
-@ec$ /010.$
)omeone in the early 70I( commi((ione! a pro*e((ional in!4(trial mo!el b4il!ing (hop to
*abricate thi( miniat4re repre(entation o* the EM<> 2ree-Energy Engine 1ith an attache!
man4al tran(mi((ion$ The *ini(he! pro!4ct 1a( a 1ork o* art an! probably came 1ith a large
in3oice$ 7t i( compo(e! o* almo(t all c4(tom machine! metal part( 1ith *i3e !i**erent color( o*
ano!iAe! al4min4m$ The ca(e i( a clear poly- carbonate cylin!er that allo1( ob(er3ation o* the
1orking internal rotor$ The !etail( ob(er3e! in thi( mini-mock4p are mo(t intere(ting an!
!e(er3e (ome (erio4( technical re3ie1$ There are con(tr4ction *eat4re( machine! into thi( mo!el
that go 1ay beyon! 1hat one 1o4l! normally e6pect to (ee *or in3e(tor pre(entation($ 'on-
technical 3ent4re capitali(t( 1o4l! not be able to appreciate the min4te technical !etail being
!i(playe! here$ 7t 1o4l! not ha3e been 1i(e *or the in3entor to !i(clo(e (4ch important a(pect(8
ne3er the le(( that i( 1hat 1a( !one$ Thi( mo!el (port( a (cale! repro!4ction o* the internal rotor
(ha*t that i( po1ere! by a battery operate! @C motor conceale! in the comm4tator (ection$ 2o4r
"@# cell batterie( are in(talle! in the 1hite mo4nting ba(e$ The EM<0 i( hel! together 1ith a
m4ltit4!e o* tiny he6-hea! cap (cre1(8 ;4t like the *4ll (cale machine$ The mock4p tran(mi((ion
i( machine! bra(($ <ll o* the mo!ele! o4tboar! e54ipment -@C (tart motor8 <ir blo1er8 an!
<lternator. are e54ippe! 1ith (mall roller bearing p4lley($ The *an belt( are neoprene "D# ring(
that t4rn 1hen the engine i( operate!$ The company EM< logo i( engra3e! on the *ront 1hite
pla(tic co1ling$
The EM<0 e6hibit( (e3eral important con(tr4ction !etail(8 t1o o* 1hich ha3e not been ob(er3e!
*rom the (4r3i3ing technical cr4mb( o* thi( engineI( !e(ign$
1. The al4min4m mo4nting pa!( *or the (tator electromagnet( -ma!e o* magenta ano!iAe!
al4min4m. in the EM<0 are the *4ll length o* the engine ca(e$ 7t ha! been tho4ght that the(e
1ere (eparate! in to t1o (ection( like the rotor electromagnet($ Thi( greatly impact( the 3ario4(
theorie( that (pec4late on the act4al topology o* the (tator 1iring$
/. The rotor (ho1( three !i(tinct circ4lar copper b4(( bar ring( in the center o* the (ha*t$ The(e
ha3e only been hinte! at in the patent !oc4ment(8 b4t the mo!el clearly (ho1( their location an!
general layo4t$
Page /1 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
+. The air *lo1 piping i( al(o clearly lai! o4t$ 7t appear( that o4t(i!e air 1a( p4mpe! into the
*ront o* the engine an! then reco3ere! *rom the rear to be pipe! to the rotor comm4tator (ection$
2rom hear it probably *lo1e! into the (tator comm4tator (ection an! 1a( then e6ha4(te!$
>. There are nine con!4ctor( (ho1n in the central "2loating 2l46 2iel!#$ Thi( i( con(i(tent 1ith
photograph( o* thi( (ame (y(tem element on the *4ll (cale engine8 b4t help( 3eri*y the co4nt$
5. The t1o (mall 1hite terminal !i(c( at the *ront o* the engine are al(o pre(ente! in thi(
miniat4re 3er(ion$ The(e are tho4ght to be the control contact( that (1itch the engine *rom the
electromagnet mo!e o* operation to the electro(tatic mo!e an! back again$
The &@ !oc4ment( claim that Pa4l He1i( ha! thi( mo!el on !i(play in hi( o**ice *or (ome time
to help potential c4(tomer( get an i!ea o* 1hat the 2ree-Energy Engine looke! like *or hi(
2a(cination Car$
Concept4al @ra1ing o* the EM<1
EM<1 B Pole Engine -circa 19,9.
Page // o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
<gain8 almo(t nothing i( kno1n abo4t the *ir(t tr4e 2ree-Energy Engine$ Ho1e3er it i( a((4me!
there 1a( one - i* the mo!el n4mbering (e54ence (tarte! 1ith EM<1$ Ke can only (pec4late on
ho1 thi( Engine 1a( con*ig4re! an! 1hat it looke! like$ Ke are pretty (a*e in a((4ming that the
*ir(t prototype in thi( (erie( 1orke! 1ell eno4gh to contin4e on8 or el(e the 1hole e**ort 1o4l!
ha3e re3erte! back to the P4l(e-Motor pro;ect8 1hich ha! (ome pretty goo! moment4m o* it(
Thi( a4thor 1ill make (ome calc4late! (pec4lation( abo4t 1hat thi( *ir(t engine might ha3e
looke! like=
1. 7t 1a( probably at lea(t 1/# in !iameter (ince the later EM<> 1a( 1,# in !iameter an! mo(t o*
the motor( be*ore it 1ere 1/#$
/. 7t 1a( a lo1 po1er prototype on the or!er o* +-5 HP$ <ny o4tp4t le(( than that 1o4l! ha3e
been har! to mea(4re a !e*inite D-G proce(( 1ith o4t the ai! o* (ome (ophi(ticate! e54ipment$
+. 7t 1a( probably a +-Pole machine 4(ing "Ma;or an! Minor# electromagnet( 1ith + pair
mo4nte! in the *ront an! another + pair in the back -to eliminate the (lip ring(.$ Th4( a longer
ca(e 1a( nee!e!$ The original o3er-4nity e**ect( 1ere ob(er3e! 1ith a +-pole machine an! th4(
mo(t likely thi( architect4re 1a( not !e3iate! *rom at thi( ;4nct4re$ More i!entical pole( co4l! be
a!!e! later to increa(e the HP$
>. 7t 4(e! a more comple6 comm4tator than the E-Motor (erie(8 b4t not a( comple6 a( the later
EM<>-E1 b4t (till 4(ing 15Q contact($ Thi( 1a( nee!e! to (4pport the (plit electromagnet
5. 7t 4(e! 4nit po1er (4pplie( along the (ame line( a( tho(e 4(e! in the E-Motor( -mechanical
chopper 3ibrator(.$ Thi( 1a( mo(t likely ;4(t like 1hat i( (ho1n in patent L+-890-5>8 e6cept
they 1ere (ingle 4nit( an! not the paire! 4nit( !e(cribe! in the patent te6t$ Thi( 1a( the only
practical metho! to generate H% *rom batterie( at that time$
,. Khile the 4nit po1er (4pply (taye! generally the (ame the connection( to the (torage
capacitor change! to take a!3antage o* the electro(tatic har3e(t p4l(e$ Thi( p4t a h4ge (train on
the po1er tran(*ormer(8 th4( Cole ha! to (eek a c4(tom *abricator that co4l! b4il! (mall
tran(*ormer( !e(igne! to han!le high 3oltage( on the (econ!ary -4p to 75 F%.$ Th4( the
connection 1ith the Mallory Company o* Car(on City o* 'e3a!a came into being$ They 1ere
man4*act4re( o* c4(tom ignition coil($ They ha! ;4(t mo3e! to 'e3a!a in 19,9$
7. < backen! battery 1a( no1 re54ire! a( part o* the circ4it operation$ Thi( 1a( nee!e! to
capitaliAe on the electro(tatic operation o* the (y(tem an! pro3i!e lo1 3oltage c4rrent carrier(
that co4l! ab(orb an! tran(*er energy *rom the electro(tatic har3e(t p4l(e proce(($
The !i(po(ition o* thi( engine i( 4nkno1n$ C4t it i( highly likely that it( internal part( 1ere again
cannibaliAe! *or the ne6t prototype motor 4ntil ;4(t the ca(e 1a( le*t like 1hat happene! to the
E-+ Motor ca(e$
Page /+ o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
Concept4al @ra1ing o* the EM</
EM</ B Pole Engine -circa 1970.
<t pre(ent there are no photo( o* the EM</ Engine8 ho1e3er it ha( been propo(e! that thi( 1a(
the 10 HP mo!el that 1a( (4bmitte! to Cro(by e(earch in May o* 197+ *or 10 !ay( o*
e3al4ation$ Thi( i( the only engine that ha( been technically re3ie1e! by a +
party te(ting
organiAation$ The re(4lt( 1ere 4n!eniably amaAing$ < Coe**icient o* Per*ormance -CDP. o* /75
at a po1er le3el o* 7$, FK -10 HP. 1ere reporte!$ The entire te(t re(4lt( ha3e not been
reco3ere! (o the act4al !4ration an! con!ition( o* the trial r4n( ha3e not been !etermine!$ 7t i(
reporte! that there 1ere abo4t +0 page( o* !oc4mentation$ 7t i( kno1n that the te(t( 1ere
con!4cte! at lea(e! *acilitie( at Cal Tech$
Thi( 1o4l! be the motor to o1n *or hi(torical in3e(tment p4rpo(e($ 7t( !i(po(ition ha( ne3er been
mentione! in the in*ormation a3ailable$ 7t co4l! ha3e been cannibaliAe! a( 1ell b4t 1e !onIt
Page /> o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
kno1$ 7t i( 3ery likely that it 1a( (till in the %an '4y( (hop 1hen it 1a( rai!e! in 197> an! th4(
en!e! it( li*e 3ia the (crap metal (hre!!er$
EM<+ 9 Pole Engine Ca(e
Cy no1 the proo* o* principle ha! alrea!y been 1ell e(tabli(he! an! the ne6t !e3elopment 54e(t
1a( higher HP rating($ Thi( 1a( initially achie3e! by a!!ing more electromagnet($ The(e photo(
are the *ir(t har! e3i!ence o* a 9-Pole machine8 *rom 1hich all the remaining 2ree-Energy
Engine( 1ill *ollo1$ 7t may or may not ha3e been the *ir(t 9-Pole engine$

Page /5 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
The EM<+ a( photographe! in %an '4y( in 197>$ The EM<+ on !i(play at the 197, )tockhol!er( meeting$
by &@$ 'ote that the electromagnet( ha3e been$ The ca(e engine mo4nt( 1ere cannibaliAe! *or the EM<5
remo3e! an! 1ere probably in(talle! on the EM<> 2ort4nately thi( engine m4(t ha3e been in (torage a( not
engine$ to ha3e been con*i(cate! by the H<@< rai!$

The(e photo( clearly (ho1 that thi( early engine (4**ere! *rom a terminal (tate o* cannibaliAi(m$
The only thing le*t i( the ca(e an! rotor (ha*t$ E3en the motor mo4nt( 1ere taken to be 4(e! on
the EM<5$ The EM<+ appear( to be a 1/# 7@ engine8 ;4(t like the E-Motor(8 b4t clearly (ho1( 9
(tator pole( *ront an! back$ The ne6t engine 1ill be the EM<>-E1 1ith a 1,# 7@ ca(e$ 'otice the
e3enly (pace! hole( *or mo4nting the internal electromagnet( in the abo3e photo( o* the EM<+$
To con(i!er 1hat change! bet1een the EM<+ an! it( replacement the EM<> it i( 4(e*4l to
e6amine the &@ photo collection *or a clear (i!e 3ie1 o* the EM<>$ 7n the photo to the le*t the
(tator electromagnet mo4nt( bolt( can be (een$ 7t i( tho4ght that the electromagnet( 1ere mo3e!
to thi( ca(e$ The !i**erence here i( that the ne1 ca(e i( larger -1,# in !iameter an! abo4t /5N
longer$ Kith the larger !iameter it i( a((4me! that there 1a( more (pace a3ailable bet1een the
pole( *or larger @elrin electro(tatic block($ The !i(tance bet1een the *ront an! back en! 1a(
e6ten!e! abo4t 8# o3erall$ There 1a( more room allocate! to the back o* the motor an! the (pace
(eparating the *ront an! back ring( o* (tator electromagnet($ <ll the(e change( re54ire! a ne1
rotor to match the larger an! longer ca(e !imen(ion($
<ll o* the ancillary e54ipment (een
here8 incl4!ing the te(t (tan!8
probably re(i!e! on the EM<+ at
one time$ <ct4al *4n!ing 1a(
becoming intermittent -!e(pite
many promi(e(. th4(8 engine ca(e(
came an! 1ent8 b4t the (torage
capacitor(8 electromagnet(8 an!
(4pport (4b-(y(tem( mo3e! on to
the ne6t mo!el$ Cy e6amining the
bolt po(ition( in thi( (i!e 3ie1
photo o* the EM<>-E1 -being
con3erte! to the EM>-E/. it can be
(een that the (pace bet1een the
*ront an! back (et( o*
electromagnet( ha( been
(igni*icantly increa(e!8 right 1here
the 18 each R# !iameter black
2loating 2l46 2iel! -222. cable( are 1rappe! aro4n! the center$ 7n the EM<+ the (tator
electromagnet( 1o4l! ha3e ha! abo4t 1$5# o* (pace (eparating their en!( *ront to back$ 7n the
EM<> engine thi( gap 1a( increa(e! to abo4t >#$ 7t i( (pec4late! that thi( 1a( !one to inhibit
arc( that 1o4l! occa(ionally ;4mpe! bet1een *ront an! back (tator electromagnet( rather than
;4mping to the rotor electromagnet( an! then back to the (tator$ The(e 3ariation( o* ca(e !e(ign
point to the no3el proce(( taking place in(i!e the engine$ 7t can be concl4!e! that thi( technology
nee!( to pay attention to relati3e po(ition an! !imen(ion( o* the internal component($
The !i(po(ition o* the EM<+ engine ca(e i( 4nkno1n$ )ince it 1a( not con*i(cate! by the H<
@< in 197> -(ince it (4r3i3e! to be (een in 197,. it 1a( probably taken !4ring the 2CC rai! in
1979$ The E+ motor ca(e (4r3i3e! to mo!ern time($ Thi( (4gge(t( that E$%$&ray manage! to
Page /, o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
keep it in hi( (torage collection$ Ha! the EM<+ ca(e been a3ailable he 1o4l! ha3e ha! it in198,
a( 1ell$
EM<>-E1 9 Pole Engine -197/.
Thro4gh o4t the entire E$%$ &ray (aga there are only a *e1 cr4mb( o* 4(able technical
in*ormation that 1ere e3er !i(clo(e!$ D* that8 more i( kno1n abo4t the EM<>-E1 engine than all
the other( p4t together$ <ny non-*4n!e! re(earcher8 1ho ba(e( their 1ork on hi(torical *act(8 1ill
probably con(i!er (tarting 1ith 1hat i( kno1n abo4t thi( engine$ Thi( engine 1a( the "pre*erre!
embo!iment# o* patent L +-890-5>8 "P4l(e! Capacitor @i(charge Electric Engine# *ile! 'o3$ /8
197+ an! grante! in E4ne o* 1975$ Thi( a4thor conten!( that the te6t in the patent 1a( inten!e! to
be mi(lea!ing b4t the ill4(tration( hol! 3al4able cl4e($ 7t i( 4nkno1n ;4(t 1hen con(tr4ction 1a(
(tarte! on thi( machine8 b4t it 1a( rea!y *or (ale in Ean$ 197+$
The t1o photo( belo1 1ere not taken at the (ame time -b4t clo(e. (ince the one on the le*t ha( a
man4al tran(mi((ion attache! 1hile the one on the right (port( an a4tomatic tran(mi((ion$ The(e
attachment( 1ere ne3er 4(e! in practice an! are only (ho1n to in(pire !ream( o* pro*it *or
in3e(tor( 1ho con(i!ere! in3e(ting in thi( 3ent4re a( it might apply to the a4tomoti3e in!4(try$
The(e photo( 1ere inten!e! to be pre(ente! in the promotion literat4re that &ray !i(trib4te! to
hi( commi((ione! in3e(tment agent($
The photo( 1ere probably taken right a*ter Pan <merican Enterpri(e( p4lle! o4t o* the pro;ect in
the 1
54arter o* 197+$ &ray ha! to (cramble to get replacement *4n!ing$ He 1a( (et on keeping
o1ner(hip o* the technology th4( (elling (tock 1o4l! allo1 him (ome income 1itho4t e3er
ha3ing to gi3e 4p the (ecret($ Ho1e3er8 he !i!nIt !o the proper book1ork or a!3erti(e hi(
corporation properly an! there*ore8 pai! !early *or thi( o3er(ight later$
Page /7 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t

The EM<>-E1 *ront 3ie1 (ho1ing the m4ltit4!e o* The EM<>-E1 back 3ie1$ The hy!ra4lic cl4tch i( *or the
!angling control cable(8 the 4nco3ere! lea!-aci! man4al tran(mi((ion8 1hile the oil cooler i( *or the
(torage batterie(8 an! the 3ario4( o4tboar! (4pport a4tomatic tran(mi((ion or the hy!ra4lic loa! p4mp that
!e3ice( -@C motor8 <lternator8 an! a lo1 pre((4re 1a( 4(e! to mea(4re o4tp4t HP
high 3ol4me air blo1er.
Thi( i( the Aenith o* the Cole 2ree-Energy Engine technology$ Khen the(e pro*e((ional C9K
photo( 1ere taken Mr$ Cole ha! alrea!y le*t to1n$ Thi( i( a( *ar a( he got 1ith$ 7t i( (till a ma(ter
piece o* comple6 har!1are$ He m4(t ha3e really been (care! to lea3e a 1ork o* art like thi(
behin!$ 'e3er the le(( it 1a( (till a 1ork in progre(($ There 1ere a n4mber o* engineering i((4e(
that nee!e! to be (ol3e!$ There 1ere t1o 3er(ion( o* thi( engine$ The E1 mo!el8 (ho1n abo3e8 i(
1here Cole le*t the (cene$ &ray then hire! ichar! Hackenberger to carry on an! make &ray
rich$ HackI( *ir(t ;ob 1a( to increa(e the po1er o4tp4t8 th4( the (ame engine 1a( hea3ily
mo!i*ie! *rom 197+ to 197> to become the E/ 3er(ion$
Gn*ort4nately8 *or the ne6t , year( the technical a!3ancement o* thi( technology 1o4l! be
largely !o1n hill$ Mr$ Hackenberger8 an intelligent an! moti3ate! cla((ical (oli! (tate electrical
engineer8 co4l!nIt 4n!er(tan! the act4al -an! probably 4n!oc4mente!. proce(( that 1a(
operating right in *ront o* him$ &ray 1a( no help (ince he ha! e3en le(( o* an 4n!er(tan!ing o*
1hat 1a( going on$ 'e3er the le(( ichar! (pent the re(t o* hi( li*e in p4r(4it o* re(4rrecting thi(
technology$ He kne1 it 1a( an age-changing breakthro4gh that bor!ere! on p4re magic$ He !i!
e3erything he co4l! to *ig4re o4t 1hat ma!e the original machine( tick8 gi3en the limite!
re(o4rce( hi( bo(( E$%$ &ray pro3i!e! *or 9@ 1hile (pen!ing the lion( (hare o* the in3e(tment
capital on per(onal l464rie( an! la3i(h appearance($ 7t (eem( that by 1979 ichar! *inally got
(omething together 1ith the con(tr4ction o* the EM<7 aka "The Cl4e Engine#$ He then (4!!enly
pa((e! on in early 1980 *rom a 1eek long *l4e like illne(( 1hile hi!ing o4t in )an @iego 1ith
&ray$ ichar!(I( *amily !i!nIt e3en kno1 1here he 1a( at the time o* hi( !eath8 an! it took the
a4thoritie( a month to *in! an! noti*y them$
7t i( tho4ght that the EM<>-E1 1a( a +/ HP machine$ )o *ar it appear( to be the only Cole 2ree-
Energy Engine that 4(e! a 1,# 7@ ca(e$ <ccor!ing to Eack )cagnetti8 in hi( 197+ article8 the
engine 1a( 1,# in !iameter an! /># long$ Thi( machine 1orke! 1ell eno4gh to entice the large
Page /8 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
Eapane(e mining an! energy corporation8 Pan <merican Enterpri(e(8 to (ign a letter o* intent 1ith
&ray in Ean o* 197+ to pro3i!e a :1/ million !ollar re(earch grant an! a 3ery l4crati3e <(ian
licen(ing agreement *or (ome large non-!i(clo(e! amo4nt$ -Thi( ha( been (ai! to be in e6ce(( o*
:1 billion !ollar(.$ That !eal *ell apart 1hen a large en3oy o* %PI( an! engineer( came to %an
'4y( *or one la(t (erie( o* 3eri*ication te(t($ There 1a( a (erio4( e54ipment *ail4re an! &ray 1a(
4nable to attempt repair($ The Eapane(e 54ickly came to the correct concl4(ion that &ray 1a( not
the originator o* thi( technology nor !i! he really 4n!er(tan! it$ They took thi( opport4nity to
p4ll o4t o* the !eal8 probably thinking that they co4l! get the original technology cheaper *rom
the real in3entor or at lea(t the (ame price 1ith (omebo!y 1ho kne1 1hat 1a( going on$ 7t i(
4nkno1n i* they e3er attempte! to !etermine 1ho the real in3entor 1a( or i* they e3en trie! to
locate them$ 7t i( al(o (ai! that the company co4l!nIt get *inancing *or the re(earch let alone the
licen(ing agreement8 (o they 1ere really looking *or any e6c4(e to (a3e *ace an! *orget the 1hole

Thi( i( a photo o* the *ormer E$%$ &ray (hop on Cal3ert )treet %an '4y(8 C< taken in /007$ Mr$ &rayI( nephe1
&eorge &ray 1a( (till in b4(ine(( at the time in the right hal* o* the b4il!ing !oing high en! c4(tom a4to
mo!i*ication($ The 3ehicle parke! in the open bay i( a bran! ne1 repro!4ction 19+/ Clack "@4ce Co4pe# 1ith all
chrome engine acce((orie( that 1a( in it( la(t (tage( o* *inal a((embly$ Mr$ &eorge &ray i( 3ery rel4ctant to !i(c4((
anything abo4t hi( 4ncle "E!#$ Ho1e3er he !i! (ho1 the a4thor a collection o* +0 each C9K photo( *rom Ean$ 197+
!oc4menting the (igning o* the letter o* intent 1ith Pan <merican Enterpri(e($ The EM<> 1a( being te(te! by a
team o* three Eapane(e repre(entati3e($ Many o* the photo( 1ere o* a clo(e! circ4it T% aime! at the rea!o4t ga4ge(
on the o4tp4t hy!ra4lic loa! p4mp$ Perhap(8 e3en at thi( time8 te(t( 1ere !one behin! a protecti3e 1all (ho4l! one o*
the (torage batterie( !eci!e! to e6plo!e -again.$
Eohn Ce!ini an! hi( mentor on Cole -no relation to Mar3in Cole. 3i(ite! the &ray (hop in %an
'4y( abo4t three time( in 197+$ @4ring the *ir(t 3i(it the EM<>-E1 1a( !emon(trate! b4t not
a*ter that$ 7t ha! a (peci*ic (tarting (e54ence$ 2ir(t the ma(ter key 1a( t4rne! on$ Eohn (ay( he
hear! a lo1 *re54ency b4AA like that o* a n4mber o* ol! a4tomoti3e ra!io 3ibrator( -100 HA.$
'e6t a p4(hb4tton 1a( pre((e! an! the engine 1a( rotate! by an o4tboar! @C motor$ The engine
began to pick 4p (pee! *or abo4t 15 (econ!($ <t a certain point -a((4me! to be 500 PM.
another (1itch 1a( toggle! on an! the engine became ali3e$ Eohn report( that rea!ing( on the
attache! hy!ra4lic loa! p4mp in!icate! an o4tp4t o* 87 HP$ 7t i( not clear ;4(t 1hen Eohn an!
on 3i(ite! Mr$ &ray an! there*ore it i( 4nkno1n ;4(t 1hat con3er(ion( ha! been applie! to the
Page /9 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
E1$ 2or the (ake o* thi( !i(c4((ion 1e 1ill a((4me that the ma;or E/ mo!i*ication( ha! not been
ma!e$ The engine 1a( operate! *or a perio! o* abo4t 15 min4te( be*ore being (h4t!o1n$ 7* the
HP rea!ing( 1ere acc4rate to 1ithin 5N then (ome (imple math 1ill !i(clo(e (ome intere(ting
ob(er3ation($ The *o4r *4lly charge! gol* cart batterie( at mo(t co4l! hol! /1$, million Eo4le(
-/50 <-hr at /> %@C *or 15 min$.$ The engine pro!4ce! 59$5 million Eo4le( in it( 15 min4te( o*
operation -87 HP 6 $7, FK/HP 6 15 min$. Thi( i( CDP o* /$75 a((4ming all o* the energy in the
batterie( 1a( con(4me!$ The act4al CDP 1a( probably m4ch better (ince only a *raction o* the
energy in the batterie( 1a( claime! to be con(4me!$ 7* only 10N o* the (tore! energy 1a( 4(e!
the CDP ;4mp( 4p to /8$+$
The EM<>-E1 1a( not a (el* r4nner$ 'o matter 1hat they !i! the engine e3ent4ally ran the
batterie( !o1n$ The length o* time it took to !o thi( ha( not been !i(clo(e!$ 7t certainly 1a(nIt *or
lack o* a3ailable energy8 (ince there 1a( plentyO it 1a( beca4(e the lea!-aci! batterie( co4l!nIt
hang onto it$ To!ay there are (e3eral other po((ible co(t e**ecti3e engineering (ol4tion( that
co4l! be 4(e! to a!!re(( thi( problem$
@o1! Canna!y8 another *ir(t han! ob(er3er *rom 197+8 reporte! that 1hen the engine 1a(
operate! *or him it ma!e a lo4! an! !i(tincti3e roar$ He al(o reporte! that the engine ca(e
became electri*ie! - not 4nlike the charge! (phere o* a %an !I &a**e electro(tatic generator$ ?et8
in E4ne o* 197+ Eack )cagnetti reporte! that the engine ran 54ite$ 7t i( 4nkno1n 1hy !i**erent
ob(er3er( in the (ame year ha3e (4ch !i3erging acco4nt( a( to ho1 the engine ran -4nle(( &ray
1a( r4nning the engine ;4(t 1ith the @C motor an! ne3er act4ally engage! the engine.$ Perhap(
!i**erent mo!i*ication( 1ere in place at !i**erent time( that change! the reporte! per*ormance
parameter($ Eohn Ce!ini !i!nIt mention 1hat kin! o* (o4n! the engine ma!e 1hen it 1a(
operate! *or him$ -7 nee! to a(k him abo4t thi( a*ter thing( (ettle !o1n *rom the pre(entation o*
the "Kin!mill#.
Page +0 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
Thi( i( a high re(ol4tion (can o* a po(ter (iAe! photo o* the EM<>-E1 -/0# 6 1/#.$ There i( eno4gh capt4re! !etail
here to !etermine the 1riting on the label( o* the control panel$ 2rom the &@ collection
Page +1 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
Thi( i( the only engine that ha( any (4r3i3ing p4bli(he! operational (tati(tic($ The(e come *rom
the 197+ Eack )cagnetti <rticle$
7np4t Po1er= 1/ 3olt( !c -o* a /> 3olt !c (y(tem.
PM= /550 PM con(tant
Tor54e= ,, lb( / con(tant
Hor(epo1er 100 HP
Crake Hor(epo1er= +/$05 HP
2oot-po4n!( / min4te 180578,50
2oot-po4n!( / (econ! 755 lb( / incl4!e( 110 lb( *or *o4r ,-3olt batterie(
%ol4me= >/# long 6 18# 1i!e 6 //# high
Engine cylin!er i( 1,# 6 />#
)pee!-)1itchable 500 1+00 1950 /550 ++50 >100 PM
Magnetic 2iel! +,0P all !irection( !4ring engine operation
7t i( 4nclear ;4(t ho1 thi( !ata 1a( obtaine! or 1hat kin!( o* in(tr4ment( 1ere 4(e! to e(tabli(h
the(e mea(4rement($ 7t i( al(o 4nkno1n i* thi( 1a( a te(t that Mr$ )cagnetti ob(er3e! *ir(t han! or
1a( e6tracte! *rom !ata !eri3e! (ome pre3io4( te(t reportB
Page +/ o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
Thi( i( the 2a(cination prototype +-1heel car! in3ente! by Mr$ Pa4l He1i( o* 'ebra(ka$ The lo1er photo i( a
concept4al !ra1ing o* ho1 an EM<> type 2ree-Energy Engine 1o4l! be in(talle! in thi( 3ehicle$ 7t ne3er happene!8
not e3en clo(e$ The EM<> engine !i!nIt ha3e the !ynamic re(pon(e nece((ary to operate an a4tomobile$ The real
problem 1a( a lack o* *4n!ing to b4il! a!!itional EM<> type engine($ <*ter the Eapane(e p4lle! o4t in 197+ &ray
1a( le*t 1ith o4t a *4n!ing (o4rce$ <pparently Mr$ He1i( ha! lot( o* !ream( an! goo! i!ea( b4t not eno4gh money
to completely take o3er pro!4ction o* the(e engine($ 7t i( o!! that a man 1ith o4t(tan!ing mechanical (kill( an!
(ome kno1le!ge o* man4*act4ring co4l!nIt a((e(( the act4al (tate o* !e3elopment the EM<> 1a( in an! a3oi!
a!3erti(ing to hi( c4(tomer( (omething that &ray co4l!nIt !eli3er$ 7t i( (ai! that &ray an! He1i( parte! on not (o
plea(ant term($ He1i( apparently ha! in3e(te! 1hat re(o4rce( he ha! in gearing 4p *or the *ir(t batch o* 100 engine(
that &ray 1a( (4ppo(e to !eli3er in the *ir(t 54arter o* 197>$ Khen the(e( engine( !i!nIt arri3e thing( 1ent ba! *or
Mr$ He1i( an! hi( company *ol!e! a year later$
There i( a !oc4ment in the &@ collection8 1ritten by ichar! Hackenberger8 1here he e6plain(
1hy there are t1o hor(epo1er rating( li(te!$ Electric motor( an! a4tomobile engine( 4(e
!i**erent (tan!ar!( in !etermining their po1er o4tp4t rating($ Electric motor( are !e(igne!8
te(te!8 an! rate! *or con(tant (tea!y loa!($ The main limitation i( heat b4il! 4p$ <4tomobile
ga(oline engine( are rate! near their (hort term peak po1er o4tp4t8 !i(regar!ing the impact o*
longer term heat b4il! 4p$ 2or a ga(oline engine the contin4o4( po1er o4tp4t i( *ar le(( than it(
peak po1er$ 7t really !epen!( 4pon ho1 large o* cooling (y(tem i( attache!$ 2or the EM<>
engine( the intent 1a( to compete 1ith ga(oline engine( in the a4tomobile market8 there*ore the
!e(ignate! hor(epo1er rating ha! to be (imilar a( to ho1 a4tomoti3e engine( 1ere rate!$ ichar!
(eem( to ha3e merely m4ltiplie! the con(tant po1er o4tp4t o* the engine by three to get the 100
HP rating$ 7n reality the EM<> engine( !i!nIt !o 3ery 1ell 1ith (4!!en increa(e( in po1er
o4tp4t$ They co4l! operate at a higher (pee!8 b4t the tran(ition 1a( (lo1 an! gra!4al$ They al(o
ha! a ten!ency to (tall i* a loa! 1a( applie! (4!!enly$ The EM<> engine !i!nIt take m4ch *4el8
b4t the common ga(oline engine co4l! r4n circle( aro4n! it a( *ar a( !ynamic per*ormance 1a(
concerne!$ Thi( i((4e ne3er became a problem (ince the engine ne3er ma!e it into a (treet
3ehicle$ Mr$ &rayI( technically 4nin*orme! promotion o* hi( 2ree-Energy engine to Mr$ Pa4l
He1i( a( ;4(t the thing he nee!e! *or the po1er plant in hi( ne1 e6perimental 2a(cination Car
1a( in!ee! 3ery (hort (ighte!$ @e(pite it( o4t(tan!ing 2ree-Energy propertie( the EM<> co4l!
ne3er operate a 3ehicle in the (tate o* !e3elopment it 1a( in$
Page ++ o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
The !e(cription o* the Magnetic 2iel! Drientation in the )cagnetti article i( intere(ting$ 7t i( the
a4thorI( contention that thi( 1a( not a magnetic *iel! being !e(cribe! b4t a high potential
electro(tatic *iel!8 a( ob(er3e! by @o1! Canna!y$
Page +> o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
Thi( !ra1ing i( !one in *4ll ele3ation to (ho1 the relati3e (iAe o* the a!!e! po1er (4pply pack a!!e! to the back o*
the te(t (tan!$
EM<>-E/ 9 Pole Engine Mo!i*ie! <pril 197>
)e3eral change( an! mo!i*ication( 1ere !one to the EM<>-E1 to make it the EM<>-E/$ The
ma;or change( 1ere a ne1 an! larger po1er (4pply (y(tem pl4( a re!e(igne! rotor$ The engine
ca(e an! the (tator electromagnet( appear to ha3e remaine! the (ame$ )ome 3ie1 port( 1ere
a!!e! an! a recon*ig4ration in the o4tboar! (4pport !e3ice( 1a( ma!e$ The @C (tart motor an!
alternator 1ere combine! into a (ingle @C generator/motor an! the air blo1er 1a( 4pgra!e!$ 7t i(
4nkno1n ho1 1ell thi( re!e(ign 1orke! o4t$ 7t i( reporte! that the engine 1a( not !emon(trate!
3ery o*ten8 i* at all8 !4ring the *ir(t hal* o* 197>$ 7n E4ly o* 197> the entire collection o* (hop
prototype( 1ere con*i(cate! by the H< @< *or allege! (tock *ra4!$ The remain( o* the (hre!!e!
e54ipment 1ere not ret4rne! 4ntil E4ne o* 197,$
Three ob(er3er( ha3e reporte! that the mo!i*ie! EM<> !e3elope! a real ba! habit o* ca4(ing the
backen! lea!-aci! batterie( to e6plo!e$ Th4( a thick clear Ple6igla( enclo(4re 1a( a!!e! to at
lea(t keep battery *ragment( o** the 1all( o* the (hop$ 2in!ing a battery that co4l! 1ith(tan! the
h4ge electro(tatic har3e(t p4l(e( con(4me! a lot o* company time an! te(ting$ 2rom an
engineering (tan! point the 54e(tion al1ay( come( 4p "Khy 1a(nIt the battery eliminate! *rom
the (y(temB <*ter all at a CDP o* /75 a (mall *raction o* the o4tp4t co4l! be 4(e! to recharge the
batterie( *rom an ancillary alternator$# Thi( i( a goo! tho4ght8 the problem 1a( that the lea!-aci!
batterie( -1// o* the battery bank. 1ere a 3ital circ4it component to the non-cla((ical operation
there*ore they co4l!nIt be eliminate! that ea(ily$ The (ol4tion that Mr$ Hackenberger (electe!
1a( to a!! a large (erie( capacitor in line 1ith the connection( that (4pplie! the har3e(t p4l(e$
Thi( i!ea (a3e! the batterie(8 b4t it appear( that it al(o hobble! the 2ree Energy pro!4ction$ 7t i(
reporte! that &ray an! Hackenberger 1o4l! arg4e late into the e3ening abo4t thi( mo!i*ication$
Page +5 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
<pparently Mr$ Hackenberger pre3aile! (ince thi( (ame *eat4re 1a( 4(e! on the EM<, engine
an! i( later (ho1n in the 198, patent L>85958975 "E**icient Po1er )4pply )4itable *or 7n!4cti3e
Hoa!(# a( component L+8$
Thi( i( a mo!i*ie! (chematic (ho1ing the 4nit po1er (4pply that 1a( !i(clo(e! in patent L+-890-5>8 *or the EM<>
engine$ 7t ha( been largely !etermine! that the con!4ctor( o* the "2loating 2l46 2iel!# ma!e one loop aro4n! the
motor ca(e -mo(t likely compo(e! o* high 3oltage &-11 Coa6 cable.$ Thi( !ra1ing ha( gi3en re(earcher( heart-
b4rn *or year(8 a( 1ell i( (ho4l! (ince it only pre(ent( abo4t +0N o* the circ4itry act4ally employe! an! 1hat i(
(ho1n contain( error($ The loa! connection( to the electromagnet( are gro((ly mi(lea!ing$ The mo(t common circ4it
i((4e i( the 54e(tion abo4t 1hy the chopper po1er (4pply i( 4(ing hal*-1a3e recti*ication rather that the m4ch more
e**icient *4ll-1a3e recti*ication$ To !ate no one ha( pro**ere! a goo! technical e6planation *or the(e connection( -i*
there i( one.$ The be(t i!ea (o *ar i( that the &ray ;4(t (ketche! (ome erroneo4( connection( together8 (ince he ha!
3ery little 4n!er(tan!ing o* electronic(8 an! then ha! hi( !ra*ter !ra1 the(e ill4(tration( *or the patent application$
@4ring the E/ 4pgra!e program the mechanical chopper po1er (4pplie( !i(clo(e! in patent L+-
890-5>8 1ere replace! 1ith larger capacity (oli! (tate !e3ice( -mo(t likely *4ll 1a3e.$ The
n4mber o* po1er (4pplie( 1a( al(o increa(e! by a *actor o* t1o -or (lightly le((.$ <ll the(e po1er
(4pplie( re54ire! (ome large heat (ink( 1ith cooling *an(8 th4(8 a larger enclo(4re 1a( nee!e!$ 7t
i( r4more! that once the(e change( 1ere ma!e thing( !i!nIt 1ork o4t (o 1ell$ The tran(i(tor(
1ere reg4larly being !e(troye! *rom the tran(ient 3oltage (pike( in!4ce !4ring the har3e(t p4l(e
cycle$ 7t i( a((4me! that thi( i( 1hy the EM<>-E/ (pent m4ch o* it( time in a "non-operational#
(tat4( !4ring mo(t o* 197>$ Correcti3e mea(4re( 1ere probably 4n!er1ay at the time o* the H<
@< rai! took place b4t 1ere ob3io4(ly ne3er complete!$ 7t appear( that not a 1hole lot o* loa!
te(ting 1a( able to be accompli(he! 1ith thi( engine !4e to it high *ail4re rate an! the limite!
time bet1een it( initial commi((ioning an! the con*i(cation$ <( a re(4lt 1e kno1 nothing abo4t
ho1 (4cce((*4l Mr$ Hackenberger 1a( 1ith the 4pgra!e($
Page +, o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t

<pril 197>$ <n important photo o* the EM<> (tator a((embly !4ring it( retro-*it (ho1ing con(tr4ction !etail( o* the
"Ma;or# an! "Minor# electromagnet($ 2rom the &@ collection$ The !ra1ing on the right i( an ill4(tration copie!
*rom patent L+-890-5>8$ 'otice ho1 clo(ely the layo4t o* the (tator electromagnet( match the "pre*erre!
embo!iment# o* the patent !ra1ing$ 7t ha( been (ai! that !4ring thi( time Mr$ Pa4l He1i( 1a( making the rotor
4pgra!e( in hi( (hop in )i!ney8 'ebra(ka$ Thi( photo pro3i!e( a n4mber o* key in(ight( into a( to ho1 thi( engine
1a( act4ally b4ilt$ 7t gi3e( a m4ch better i!ea a( to 1hat kin!( o* con(tr4ction( material( 1ere being 4(e! that 1ere
pre3io4(ly only hinte! at in the patent !ra1ing cro(( (ection$

Photo o* the complete! EM<>-E/ in E4ne 2ront 3ie1 o* the EM<>-E/8 ;4(t a *e1 1eek( be*ore it(
197>$ 'otice the a!!e! black bo6 on the con*i(cation$ 'ote the (mall (54are 3ie1 1in!o1 that ha( been
back o* the engine (tan!$ &@ collection machine! into the *ront o* the engine$ Thi( 1a( in(talle! (o that
Mr$ Hackenberger co4l! ob(er3e the arc( bet1een the (tator
an! rotor$
Khen the(e photo( are compare! to the C9K photo( o* the EM<>-E1 it i( o*ten a((4me! that
the *ront en! o* the engine ha! been greatly mo!i*ie! (ince the ob(er3e! !imen(ion( are
!i**erent$ 7n reality itI( the (ame e54ipment b4t t1o large *ront en! co1ling( on the E1 3ariation
Page +7 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
ha! to be remo3e! *or the E/ re-!e(ign8 th4( making the comm4tator (ection look 3a(tly
Thi( !ra1ing (ho1( the no3el battery connection( 4(e! on the EM<>-E1 an! EM<>-E/8 a( !i(clo(e! *rom the
%alentine an! &@ photo collection($ There 1ere t1o battery bank($ 7t i( tho4ght that the 3ario4( 3oltage tap( are
4(e! *or (pee! control8 b4t ho1 thi( i( act4ally achie3e! ha( not been e(tabli(he!$ 'otice that the ca(e o* the engine
i( at the lo1e(t potential relati3e to the lea!-aci! batterie($ The hea3y 1/ 3olt tap i( inten!e! to operate the 1/ 3olt
(tarting motor$ 7t i( (pec4late! that the /> 3olt tap i( 4(e! to pro3i!e po1er to the @C to @C chopper con3erter( that
(4pply the p4l(e capacitor($ The lo1er cell( o* the battery bank are (pec4late! to be 4(e! in the non-cla((ical
electro(tatic generation cycle$ The hea3y !4ty , %olt gol* cart batterie( -/50 <-hr. ha3e been mo!i*ie! by !rilling
into the encap(4late! b4( bar( an! a!!ing inter-cell connection(8 th4( pro3i!ing / %olt tap( point($ The 3oltage tap
(electe! !etermine( ho1 many lo1 energy charge carrier( 1ill be initially pro3i!e! to the electro(tatic proce((8 th4(
controlling the *inal o4tp4t$
Page +8 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t

EM<5 9 Pole Engine Ca(e -197>.
7n the 197+ Eack )cagnetti article8 he mention( ho1 the (iAe o* the engine co4l! be con!en(e! to
a 9# 6 1/# cylin!er$ Kell8 the replacement mo!el *or the EM<>-E/ !i!nIt 54ite make that m4ch
o* a (iAe re!4ction8 b4t it !i! (hrink !o1n to a 1/# 6 18# !iameter ca(e 1ith le(( (pace bet1een
the *ront an! back electromagnet($
Thi( engine ne3er ma!e it pa(t 1hat i( (ho1n in the photo( belo1$ <ccor!ing to &@ thi( ca(e
1a( con*i(cate! by the H< @< in E4ly 197>$ The agent( 1ho 1ere loa!ing 4p the e54ipment *or
e3i!ence !roppe! thi( ca(e on the (hop cement *loor$ Khen it 1a( ret4rne! it 1a( e6amine! an!
*o4n! to be (o *ar o4t o* ro4n! that it 1a( 4n-4(able *or any *4rther con(tr4ction$ Thi( "p4blic#
e6planation ha( been 54e(tione! by the a4thor$ 7* all o* the other con*i(cate! e54ipment 1a(
pa((e! thro4gh a (crap metal (hre!!e!8 then 1hy !i!nIt thi( component recei3e the (ame *ateB
Khat e3er the rea(on it appear( that the EM<5 ca(e 1a( ne3er pop4late! 1ith electromagnet( or
(een again$

The Ca(e o* the EM<5 *rom a &@ photo taken in E4ne 197>$ Thi( component ha! ;4(t arri3e! *rom the *abricator(
-probably abo4t :/8500 1orth o* machining 1ith the liner.$ 'ote the Te*lon ca(e liner it appear( to be abo4t 0$/50#
thick$ The engine mo4nt( are a((4me! to ha3e been cannibaliAe! *rom the EM<+$
Page +9 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
EM<,-E1 9 Pole Engine -Ean 197,.
<*ter the H< @< rai! in E4ly o* 197> E$%$ &ray an! hi( a((ociate( 1ere le*t 1ith no operational
prototype($ E3en the ca(e *or the ne6t generation EM<5 ha! been taken8 along 1ith any other
*abricate! part( that ha! been !eli3ere! an! 1ere on han! in the (hop area$ The re(4lting legal
litigation e((entially (talle! any ongoing international marketing pro;ect($ Mr$ &ray ha! alrea!y
licen(e! the technology !ome(tically to a Colora!o company calle! Electrotech$ He ha! recei3e!
a :5008000 !o1n payment (o he ha! (ome re(er3e(8 b4t he al(o ha! at lea(t 5 *4ll time (ta** pl4(
him(el* to pay$ The !eci(ion 1a( ma!e to *abricate another prototype engine a( 54ickly a(
po((ible to a((i(t in the 4pcoming co4rt battle 1ith the H< @<$ 7* &ray co4l! !emon(trate a
1orking 2ree-Energy engine in co4rt then the ca(e 1o4l! be !roppe! an! he 1o4l! ha3e
a!!itional !oc4mentation to a((i(t in hi( marking plan($ <ccor!ing to &@ all other ongoing
!e3elopment pro;ect( 1ere imme!iately !roppe!8 (4ch a( the Electro(tatic &enerator$
Mr$ Hackenberger 1a( gi3en hi( marching or!er( to pro!4ce a ne1 engine a( (oon a( po((ible$ 7t
i( 4nkno1n i* the (hortage o* time an!/or money re(4lte! in the !e(ign o* the EM<,-E18 or i*
thi( 1a( hi( pet !e(ign all along$ The EM<,-E1 ha( a !i**erent *orm *actor than the EM<5 ca(eO
it i( abo4t /5N longer$ )o8 there m4(t ha3e been (omething important that "Hack# 1ante! to
(t4** into that e6tra ca(e length$ There i( a goo! chance that the EM<5 ca(e ha! alrea!y been
!e(igne! by Mar3in Cole be*ore hi( !epart4re$ There*ore8 ichar! took thi( opport4nity to
lengthen the ca(e to make hi( 3er(ion o* a 2ree-Energy Engine$
7t i( ea(y to notice that there are no o4tboar! !e3ice( on the EM<, like 1hat cl4ttere! 4p the
EM<> -i$e$ @C (tart motor8 &enerator8 an! Clo1er.$ Perhap( thi( i( 1hat i( hi!!en in that *ront
en! 10# o* e6tra motor ca(e$
Page >0 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
Thi( i( the 4bi54ito4( photo taken by Tom %alentine in Ean$ 197,$ Thi( image circ4late( aro4n! the 7nternet 1hen
!i(c4((ing E$%$&ray an! hi( P4l(e Engine($ Thi( 1a( the height o* &rayI( b4(ine(( pre(entation($ @e(pite all the
glitA an! (ho1 that !re((e! 4p thi( meeting &ray 1a( in (erio4( *inancial tro4ble$ 7n a!!ition 1hat he i( !i(playing
1a( a real (tep back1ar!( *or the technology$ Thi( engine ne3er !i! per*orm any1here clo(e to the achie3ement( o*
the EM<> engine$ Many re(earcher( ha3e *oc4(e! on the no3el component( ;4(t 4n!er the engine ca(e the
concentric copper ring( later calle! the "Con3erter Element )1itching T4be# -CE)T.8 belie3ing that thi( c4(tom
!e3ice 1a( the (o4rce o* the non-cla((ical energy gain$ Thi( circ4it element 1a( later patente! in 198,$ <t the time it
ha! no patent protection an! 1a( !i(playe! to the p4blic -1ith camera(. in a clear Ple6igla( enclo(4re$ 7* thi(
component 1a( really the heart an! (o4l o* the 2ree-energy pro!4ction !o yo4 think the three boar! member la1yer(
(itting at the hea! table -on (tage. 1o4l! allo1 thi( kin! o* p4blic technical !i(clo(4reB
The ba(ic architect4re o* the EM<, 1a( in progre(( an! 1a( brea! boar!e! 1hen Eohn Ce!ini
an! on Cole 3i(ite! in 197+$ 7t i( 4ncertain i* thi( 1a( a le*to3er concept *rom Mar3in Cole or
1a( an original approach concei3e! by Mr$ Hackenberger$ Thi( (et4p i( !oc4mente! in the Eohn
Ce!ini 2iel! 'ote($ 7t appear( that ichar! 1a( 4n!ertaking a n4mber o* ma;or change( *rom the
Cole !e(ign$ Thi( i( 3ery ri(ky b4(ine(( 1hen 1orking 1ith a ne1 technology8 e(pecially one
that !oe( not yet ha3e an e(tabli(he! an! te(te! theoretical mo!el to ba(e *4rther engineering
;4!gment( 4pon$ ichar! 1a( mo(t likely 3ery 1ell a1are o* thi( *act8 b4t time8 money8 an!
circ4m(tance( !i!nIt allo1 *or a !4plication o* the pro3en EM<> !e(ign$ <ll o* hi( po1er
enhancement(8 (iAe re!4ction8 an! (impli*ication i!ea( ha! yet to be te(te!$ He 1a( probably
*orce! to go *or broke an! come 4p 1ith a !e(ign that 1a( hi( be(t compromi(e bet1een
*4nctionality8 co(t8 an! the time con(traint($
There 1a( abo4t 17 month( bet1een the H< @< rai! an! the pre(entation o* the EM<,-E1 at the
)port(manI( Ho!ge in Ean 197,$ Thi( 1a( an important e3ent *or &ray$ Electrotech8 the company
that ha! bo4ght the !ome(tic licen(ing right(8 1a( no1 (4ing him *or breach o* contract$ Thi( i( a
common b4(ine(( mane43er 4(e! to e6tract patent( right( *rom in3entor( 1ho !onIt ha3e the
Page >1 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
ability to carry o4t e6ten!e! litigation$ Dr8 it co4l! ha3e been that the P4l(e Engine patent
grante! in 1975 !i!nIt !i(clo(e eno4gh in*ormation to repro!4ce a 2ree-Energy Engine -act4ally
it har!ly !i(clo(e( anything 4(e*4l at all.$ Khat e3er the act4al legal *act( 1ere &ray 1a( r4nning
o4t o* money8 or alrea!y ha!$ Thi( 1a( a la(t !itch e**ort to in(pire pre3io4( in3e(tor( to again
in3e(t in the ne1 1a3e technology$ He certainly 1ent to great length( to p4t on a goo! (ho1$
The problem 1a( that the ;4(t o** the bench EM<, *aile! to per*orm$ Khen @r$ Chal*in -a boar!
member. 1a( a(ke! 1hat the hor(e po1er o4tp4t o* thi( ne1 engine 1a(O he tr4th*4lly replie! "/
HP#$ E3eryone at the meeting kne1 that the pre3io4( mo!el 1a( to4te! to ha3e operate! at 100
HP8 (o 1hy 1a( thi( ne1 mo!el rolle! o4t 1ith *an*are an! (tage light( to !emon(trate only a
tiny *raction o* the capacity o* it( pre!ece((orB

The EM<,-E1 4n!er con(tr4ction in 'o3$ 118 1975$ "Hack# ha( The EM<,-E1 at the )port(manI( Ho!ge e3ent$
abo4t 8 more 1eek( to *ini(h o** thi( !emo mo!el be*ore it( !Sb4t Thi( 3ie1 (ho1( !etail( o* the three 4nit po1er
at the )port(man Ho!ge on Ean$ 98 197,$ 7t look( like he ha( a 1ay (4pplie(8 incl4!ing their cooling *an($
to go8 not incl4!ing commi((ioning8 te(ting8 t4ning8 a!;4(tment(8 <!!itional *eat4re( o* the control comm4tator
an! !oc4mentation$ are al(o (een$
The general 3er!ict o* tho(e in atten!ance 1a( 54ite pre!ictable an! not in *a3or o* &rayI( hope($
He !i!nIt recei3e a !ime *rom the me!ia pre(entation or the (tock hol!er( meeting$ Coth e3ent(
1ere 4nmitigate! *inancial *lop($ Thi( i( a cla((ic e6ample o* 1hat happen( 1hen there i( a
con*lict o* intere(t( bet1een the engineering !epartment -Hackenberger. an! the marketing
!epartment -&ray. b4t 1e !onIt kno1 the 1hole (tory o* the(e trying time($
2rom here the *inancial 1all( came collap(ing !o1n all aro4n! them$ Thi( 1a( the la(t
(tockhol!er( meeting e3er$ Mo(t o* the boar! member( (oon re(igne! (o a( not to be in3ol3e! in
the ongoing litigation 1ith the Electrotech Corporation$ The lan!lor! boote! &ray o4t o* hi(
la3i(h o**ice *acilitie( at the H< airport a*ter being + month( behin! in the rent$ The phone 1a(
!i(connecte!$ Hi( limo 1a( repo((e((e! by the lea(ing agency 1hile 3ario4( collection agency
a((ociate( 1ere calling anybo!y 1ho might kne1 1here &ray 1a($ Kor(t o* all8 hi( /
enate an! her *ather 2re! HentA ;oine! the oppo(ition to collect !amage( *rom &ray -a*ter
!raining 1hat 1a( le*t in the company bank acco4nt.$ Mr$ HenA came to belie3e that he al(o ha!
a 3ali! claim again(t the o1ner(hip o* the EM<, a*ter (ome la1yer tol! him (o$ He ha!
machine! ma;or portion( o* the engine8 an! probably !i!nIt get pai! *or hi( labor$ The(e acco4nt(
are *rom &@$
Page >/ o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
There 1ere probably (ome co4rt room (e((ion( an! Electrotech *inally got complete !ome(tic
control o3er the P4l(e Motor Patent8 b4t there 1a( nothing el(e they co4l! get that ha! any
*inancial 3al4e$ &ray hi! the EM<, engine prototype (o that he an! Hack co4l! contin4e to
1ork on it$ Khen it 1a( ob3io4( to the 3ario4( la1yer( that &ray 1a( completely broke they
ga3e 4p on the !i**erent la1(4it($ enate an! 2re! probably got nothing$ Electrotech8 or rather
the oil company behin! the (hell corporation8 got 1hat they 1ante! all along an! that 1a( a
termination o* !e3elopment o* the 2ree-energy technology$ They ha! the ;4!gment o* o1ner(hip
*or the patent -pl4( other !amage(. an! co4l! imme!iately tie 4p &ray or any *4t4re in3e(tor( in
co4rt (ho4l! he attempt to !o b4(ine(( in thi( *iel! again at lea(t in <merica$
Hack got a ;ob a( a ta6i cab !ri3er to pay hi( rent$ &ray leane! on (ome o* hi( relati3e( *or
(4pport *or the ne6t co4ple o* year(8 b4t he (till *4lly inten!e! to make a big comeback$
The 1iring layo4t *or the EM<,-E1 a( it 1a( !i(playe! at the )tockhol!er( Meeting Ean$ 98 197,$ 2rom the &@ an!
%alentine photo collectionI($ Thi( i( Mr$ HackenbergerI( re!e(ign o* the Cole (y(tem$ 7t i( tho4ght that the original
electromagnet( on the rotor ha3e been replace! 1ith permanent magnet(8 th4( re!4cing the comple6ity o* the
comm4tator$ The enigmatic "C)ET# !e3ice i( tho4ght to be (ome kin! o* high 3oltage arc (1itch to control p4l(e(
to the (tator electromagnet($ Three large tran(i(tor po1er (4pplie( are 4(e! to replace the m4ltit4!e o* (maller po1er
(4pplie( 4(e! in the EM<> 3er(ion($ @e(pite all the change(8 the comm4tator (till retain( the (ame contact layo4t a(
1a( 4(e! in the early E-(erie( P4l(e Motor($
Page >+ o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t

Thi( i( one propo(e! (chematic !ra1ing -among many. that attempt( to combine the Eohn Ce!ini 2iel! 'ote(8 the
198, patent *or the CE)T an! the ob(er3e! har!1are o* the EM<, into a pla4(ible circ4it$ The problem 1ith thi(
attempt i( that the CE)T (ho1n in the patent a( a +-1ire !e3ice8 1hile all photo( o* the act4al !e3ice (ho1 a /-1ire
!e3ice$ Thi( i( one o* the many 4nre(ol3e! technical i((4e( one *in!( 1hen !ealing 1ith thi( (4b;ect$
Page >> o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
EM<,-E/ 9 Pole Engine -May 197,.
2e1 men 1o4l! re(4me operation( in any b4(ine(( 3ent4re that 1ent a( ba! a( thi( one !i!$ Coth
men m4(t ha3e ha! an 4n-1a3ering belie* in the po1er o* the technology they 1ere p4r(4ing to
contin4e on$ &ray !i!nIt ha3e a complete pict4re o* the technology 1hile Hack probably ha! ;4(t
a little more$ )omeho1 the(e men 1ere able to (et a(i!e 1hate3er their !i**erence( that might
ha3e ha! in !ealing 1ith the blame -1hich there 1a( lot( to go aro4n!. *or the *inancial !i(a(ter$
They appeare! to ha3e contin4e! ahea! a( a partner(hip 1ith 1hat they ha! at han!$ &ray no
longer ha! the money to pay Mr$ Hackenberger$
)ome 1here in H< &ray an! Hack (et 4p (hop to recti*y 1hat e3er mi(take( they ha! ma!e 1ith
the EM<, !e(ign$ They ha! only pennyI( to 1ork 1ith$ Hack 1a( probably m4ch more h4mble
abo4t hi( kno1le!ge o* the Cole 2ree-Energy proce(($ <t lea(t he kne1 o* one goo! i!ea -an!
probably (e3eral. that !i!nIt 1ork$ 7t i( 4nkno1n i* it 1a( lack o* time that lea! to the poor
per*ormance o* the EM<,-E1 an! Hack kne1 thi( 1o4l! happen 1ell in a!3ance! o* the me!ia
e3ent$ Dr8 !i! he ha3e a technical epiphany a*ter the *act$ The a4thor 3ote( *or the (econ!
po((ibility8 (ince there 1ere (e3eral change( that 1ere ma!e to the EM<,-E1 that co4l! ha3e
ea(ily been !one the *ir(t time aro4n!$
Khat e3er the circ4m(tance( 1ere8 by May 197, Hack an! &ray 1ere able to a**or! the *ee to
*abricate (ome retro*it component( to remo!el the EM<,-E1 an! make it the EM<,-E/$ The big
change 1a( the remo3al o* the no3el "CE)T# !e3ice( an! the a!!ition o* three a!!itional pla(tic
comm4tator ring($ The m4lti-contact al4min4m comm4tator (een at the me!ia e3ent ha! al(o
been remo3e!$ There may ha3e been a!!itional change( that 1ere internal to the engine it(el*$
7n the photo( belo1 &ray i( attempting to con3ince &@ that impro3ement( ha3e been ma!e to
the engine (4ch that it i( no1 generating 500 1att( o* po1er -//+ HP.8 1hich i( operating the
incan!e(cent lamp( in the backgro4n!$ The /# 1i!e leather belt that &ray i( pre((ing !o1n on
make( a T 1rap aro4n! the engine(I (ha*t$ The lo1er en! i( (4pporting a 50 lb 1eight 1hile the
other en! i( connecte! to a (mall (pring (cale( -like a *i(h (cale(. connecte! to the table in the
backgro4n!$ Thi( (et4p i( a (imple metho! 4(e! to mea(4re the energy o4tp4t o* the engine8
ho1e3er it can only be 4(e! *or (hort perio!( o* time an! at lo1 energy le3el( -le(( than + HP.
be*ore the (trap heat( 4p an! (tart( to (moke$
There i( another intere(ting photograph in the &@ photo collection -not (ho1n in thi( paper. that
(ho1( a Tektroni6 >90> o(cillo(cope being 4(e! to ai! in the retro-*it$ Thi( i( the only photo that
ha( e3er been (ho1n 1here any a!3ance! electronic in(tr4mentation 1a( being 4(e$
Page >5 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t

The(e photo( 1ere taken by &@ May 1>8 197,$ Thi( 1a( the la(t time &@ 1a( able to !oc4ment any *4rther
a!3ent4re( 1ith E$%$ &ray an! company$ Thi( i( the mo!i*ie! EM<, to become the EM<,-E/$ 'otice the a!!ition
o* the three 1hite comm4tator (ection( at the *ront o* the engine -right (i!e.$ The big ob(er3ation to note here i( the
ab(ence o* the *ame! "CE)T# !e3ice($ 7t i( thi( a4thorI( contention that they ha3e been remo3e! an! *4nctionally
replace! by the ne1 1hite "!on4t(# in the comm4tator$
7n E4ne o* 197,8 a*ter the @< *ra4! ca(e 1a( (ettle!8 &ray 1a( able to retrie3e 1hat 1a( le*t o*
the EM<>-E/ -in bo6e(. a*ter it ha! been r4n thro4gh the metal (hre!!er$ 7t i( (4(pecte! that
Hackenb4rger !4g thro4gh the(e *ragment( an! *inally *ig4re! o4t 1hat it 1a( that he ha! o3er
looke!$ Khat e3er he *o4n! lea! to yet another !i(a(ter ;4(t !o1n the roa!$ )ome time in 1977
ichar! got thing( to click an! the machine came ali3e in the 50FK region$ Ho1e3er8 1hat e3er
he !i! 1a( (ome1hat !i**erent that 1hat 1a( !one 1ith the EM<>$ The re(4lt 1a( a h4ge
contin4o4( b4r(t o* 2 1hite noi(e that (panne! (e3eral ra!io ban!( that la(te! (e3eral min4te(
1hile ichar! 1a( congrat4lating him(el* on being able to *ig4re o4t 1hat it took to get thi(
machine to come ali3e$ He probably !i!nIt ha3e a cl4e that he 1a( generating (4ch a po1er*4l
EM7 (ignat4re8 (ince it 1a( ne3er a problem 1ith the EM<>8 then again he !i!nIt kno1 abo4t the
anti-gra3ity phenomenon that ca4(e! Mar3in Cole to bolt$
7n H< !4ring 197, thi( kin! o* e3ent !i!nIt pa(( 4nnotice! by the a4thoritie( 1ho are charge!
1ith policing the air1ay($ 7t took them abo4t / min4te( to get an acc4rate *i6 on the (o4rce o* the
!i(t4rbance$ The 3ery ne6t !ay t1o tr4ck loa!( o* arme! 2C7 agent( (ho1e! 4p an! !i!nIt e3en
knock$ They !i!nIt e3en pre(ent a 1arrant$ <pparently the Kar Po1er( <ct o* 19>1 gi3e( the
2CC 4nmitigate! (torm trooper a4thority to !o 1hat e3er it take( to p4t an en! to any (o4rce o*
4nlicen(e! 2 energy$ They took e3erythingO the EM<,8 the tool(8 the !ra1ing(8 the *ile
cabinet(8 HackI( (ol!ering g4n8 an! the borro1e! co**ee pot$ 'or 1ere they polite abo4t it$
7t i( 4nkno1n ;4(t ho1 thi( i((4e 1a( re(ol3e!$ Coth men co4l! ha3e been ha4le! o** to pri(on
*or li*e i* the 2CC 1ante! to$ There probably 1a( a (4b(tantial *ine in3ol3e! a( 1ell -that !i!nIt
get pai!.$ 7t probably became clear to the 2CC 9 2C7 that the(e t1o men 1ere ;4(t crackpot
in3entor( an! not commie terrori(t($ The parting me((age -a( reco4nte! by 'el(on )chla*t. 1a(
(traight to the point$ "@onIt e3er 1ork on thi( again$ KE K7HH CE K<TCH7'&#$ )ome (ay thi(
e3ent pro3e( that the M7C 1ere in3ol3e! in (4ppre((ing thi( technology$ <ct4ally thi( i( ;4(t the
r4n-o*-the-mill treatment any ta6 paying citiAen 1o4l! recei3e 1hen b4cking the e(tabli(hment
in matter( o* 4nreg4late! 2 tran(mi((ion in e6ce(( o* a *e1 milli1att($ e(earcher( (ho4l! keep
Page >, o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
thi( in min!$ 7* yo4 are 1orking 1ith thi( technology an! are pro!4cing arc( *or more than a *e1
(econ!(8 then ha3e a co4ple o* tran(i(tor ra!io( clo(e at han! t4ne! to three (eparate an! 1i!ely
place! channel( -<M8 2M8 an! GH2.$ Pay attention to ho1 m4ch noi(e i( being picke! 4p an!
take pre3entati3e mea(4re( a( nee!e!8 or el(e all o* yo4r e**ort( 1ill be ha4le! o** to the local
incinerator$ ?o4 may or may not ha3e to pay a *ine an! (ho1 4p in co4rt b4t yo4 1ill !e*initely
be tol! "@onIt e3er 1ork on thi( again$ KE K7HH CE K<TCH7'&#$
&rayI( o**ice e54ipment 1a( e3ent4ally ret4rne!8 co3ere! 1ith 2C7 e3i!ence (ticker($ <nything
that looke! electronic 1a( imme!iately !e(troye!$ Hater on &ray 1a( m4ch more concerne!
abo4t EM7 1hen 1orking in Canyon Co4ntry in 1980$ 'el(on )chla*t reporte! that 1hen he 1a(
1orking 4n!er &rayI( engineer at the time he 1a( in(tr4cte! to go o4t an! b4y 100I o* R# EMT
con!4it to *abricate (hiel!( *or the circ4it they 1ere 1orking 1ith at the time$ 7t t4rne! o4t to be
a real pl4mberI( nightmare8 b4t there 1a( a gen4ine p4rpo(e behin! thi( ab(4r!ity$
Mean1hile &ray an! Hack 1ere getting to be !o1n right e6pert( at thi( rai! an! con*i(cate
thing$ )4r3i3ing one h4miliating o4trage like that i( !i**ic4lt$ )4r3i3ing t1o (4ch a((a4lt( (peak(
o* an 4n-!ying *aith in 1hat they 1ere attempting to accompli(h8 to make matter( 1or(e they
1ere ;4(t (o clo(e that time$ Perhap( Hack con(ole! him(el* in kno1ing that he ha! *inally
*ig4re! o4t the !ecei3ingly (imple (y(tem that Cole ha! le*t behin!$ The 2C7 co4l! take the
e54ipment b4t they co4l!nIt take 1hat he ha! *inally learne! the har! 1ay$ The irony o* thi(
e3ent i( that the 2CC !i!nIt ha3e a cl4e a( to 1hat they 1ere !i(po(ing o*$ < (imple engineering
re3ie1 a( to ;4(t 1hat ha! ca4(e! (4ch an anomalo4( 2 !i(t4rbance 1itho4t a (4b(tantial
antenna might ha3e opene! 4p a ne1 page in hi(tory8 b4t b4rea4crat( are not kno1n *or thinking
like that$
Page >7 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
EM<7 9 Pole Engine "The Cl4e Engine# -1979.
&ary an! Hack contin4e! on$ )omeho1 &ray 1a( able to re-e(tabli(h a connection 1ith a
b4(ine((man he kne1 *rom Falona8 7o1a 1ho o1ne! a large tr4cking company$ 7n the early 70I(
&ray ma!e a n4mber o* b4(ine(( to4r( thro4gh the Corn Celt region$ Hi( /n! 1i*e enate ha!
*amily connection( 1ith a n4mber o* ch4rch organiAation( in that area$ The i!ea 1a( to (imply
(ell (tock in &rayI( company$ )e3eral !emon(tration( 1ere hel! !4ring ch4rch co**ee ho4r($
Khate3er it 1a( that &ray ha! to make hi( pre(entation( it 1on a lot o* con3ert($ Dne o* them
1a( the b4(ine((man 4((ell <4!rey$ 7t i( 4nkno1n ho1 the original contact 1a( ma!e8 b4t
apparently the *ail4re o* the EM<, at the me!ia e3ent !i!nIt (eem to bother him -perhap( he
1a(nIt there.$ Khen he 1a( calle! 4pon to con(i!er a ne1 b4(ine(( opport4nity he 1a( 3ery
4((ell <4!rey 1a( not intere(te! in an a4tomobile engine$ Hi( market 3i(ion 1a( the nee! *or
ine6pen(i3e irrigation p4mping$ 7t take( abo4t 1 HP o* p4mp to 1ater 1 acre o* *lat corn *iel!$
That mean( a lot o* energy i( in3ol3e! in the pro!4ction o* corn$ The co(t o* electricity *or
r4nning tho(e p4mp( i( the mo(t co(tly e6pen(e in attempting to make a pro*it in corn *arming$ <
2ree Energy-Engine 1o4l! be an age changing bene*it to the entire region8 not to mention a 3ery
pro*itable in3e(tment *or Mr$ <4!rey$ He in3e(te! hea3ily into the E$%$ &ray 3i(ion$ 7t appear(
that he 1a( hea3ily criticiAe! by hi( *amily *or !oing (o$ E3ery !ime he (pent on (nake-oil
re(earch 1a( one le(( !ime they (too! to inherit$ )e3eral call( to relati3e( 1ere ne3er ret4rne! in
(earching *or a!!itional hi(torical *act($
<ccor!ing to Mark &ray8 him(el*8 hi( *ather8 an! Mr$ Hackenberger8 all loa!e! 4p the company
3an an! tra3ele! hal* 1ay acro(( the co4ntry to (et4p (hop *or 18 month( in a *acility pro3i!e!
by Mr$ <4!rey$ They li3e! in a motel 1hile !oing a n4mber o* thing( that Mark !i!nIt
4n!er(tan!$ Then on Chri(tma( E3e 1979 Mark &ray 1a( tol!8 by hi( *ather8 to 54ietly loa! 4p
hi( per(onal thing( an! get in the tr4ck a( the trio 54ickly le*t to1n in the mi!!le o* the night$
The company tr4ck ha! alrea!y been loa!e! 1ith 1hate3er e54ipment &ray an! Hack 1ante!$
They took t4rn( !ri3ing an! ma!e a non-(top bee-line to )an @iego8 C<$ 7t 1a( 3ery col! an!
Mark &ray recall( ho1 Hack 1a( ha3ing problem( attempting to get the ga( noAAle into the tank
hole$ He 1a( probably e6ha4(te! *rom the (tre(( an! got chille! !4ring the geta1ay$ 7n t1o
1eek( he 1o4l! be !ea! *rom (ome kin! o* rapi! on(et *l4e$
7t 1o4l! appear that the !eal c4t 1ith Mr$ <4!rey 1ent (o4r (omeho1$ C4t8 be*ore the trio le*t
to1n (omething important m4(t ha3e happene! to 1ant to lea3e in the mi!!le o* the night 1ith
(tolen har!1are$ 7t ha( been (pec4late! that ichar! 1a( *inally able to *ig4re o4t 1hat he !i!nIt
kno1 the *ir(t time aro4n! an! 1a( able to p4t it all together on the ne6t try$ 7t i( a((4me! that
Page >8 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
hi( la(t creation8 an! the la(t 2ree-Energy Engine8 1a( b4ilt in Falona then bro4ght back to
&ray hi! o4t in )an @iego *or abo4t , month($ He then *o4n! *re(h *4n!ing *rom t1o b4(ine((
men *rom the Ee1i(h comm4nity$ He then 1ent to Canyon Co4ntry8 C< -'E o* H<. an! (et 4p a
b4(ine(( *ront calle! "<merican Home Health Care#$ He (till ha! a lot o* people looking *or him8
mo(tly collection agencie($ C4t he al(o ha! a 3ery angry 4((ell <4!rey (earching *or him 1ith a
co4rt or!er in han! a( 1ell$ 2or the(e rea(on( mo(t all o* &rayI( marketing e**ort( 1ere !irecte!
to1ar!( o3er(ea( c4(tomer($
&ray once again ha! a (ome1hat 1orking 2ree Energy Engine in hi( po((e((ion that ;4(t nee!e!
"a little more 1ork#$ 7n all thi( time he (till !i!nIt 4n!er(tan! eno4gh phy(ic( or electronic( to
carry on act4al technical !e3elopment him(el*$ Hi( plan thi( time 1a( the (ame a( the la(t time8
1hen hi( engineer !ie! or !i(appeare!O he ;4(t hire! another one o** the (treet$ Thi( i( ho1
'el(on )chla*t came into the pict4re$ He 1a( hire! *rom a ne1( paper a! looking *or a ;ob a( an
electronic( technician$
The b4(ine(( (aga o* Mr$ &rayI( a!3ent4re( contin4e( on *rom here *or another !eca!e8 b4t thi(
1a( the e**ecti3e en! *or any *4rther 2ree-Energy Engine a!3ancement($ <( 1a( mentione!
be*ore8 'el(on )chla*t b4tchere! the ol! P4l(e Motor( a( part o* hi( ;ob to make them rotate *or
the 3i!eo camera8 incl4!ing the ne1 "Cl4e Engine#$ 7t i( har! to belie3e that Mr$ &rayI(
technical 4n!er(tan!ing 1a( (o 1eak that he 1a( 4na1are o* 1hat 1a( going on$ The lo(( o* the
hi(toric P4l(e Motor( 1a( probably not too big o* !eal$ C4t the lo(( o* ichar!I( "Cl4e Engine#
1a( heart (topper an! &ray appear( to not ha3e been a1are o* the (it4ation$
Ke kno1 almo(t nothing abo4t the "Cl4e Engine# or the EM<7$ 7t can ea(ily be !i(ting4i(he!
*rom the P4l(e Motor era *rom the n4mber o* protr4(ion( on the comm4tator$ Thi( i( a 9-Pole
machine 1ith contact (pacing 3ery (imilar to the EM<,$ Khat i( intere(ting i( ho1 ichar! 1a(
able to make thi( !e(ign (o m4ch more compact$ 7tI( abo4t 9# in !iameter an! 18# long$ 'o
!o4bt he 4(e! permanent magnet( *or the rotor$ To ba! 1e !onIt kno1 any more abo4t it(
per*ormance$ 7t 1o4l! be intere(ting to e6amine it( internal (tr4ct4re an! note the approache(
4(e! in the electro(tatic har3e(t (4b-a((emblie($
Khate3er ichar! accompli(he! !4ring hi( la(t !ay( o* 1orking *or 4((ell <4!rey he m4(t
ha3e tho4ght it 1a( important eno4gh to (teal an! ri(k hi( health in the proce(($ Gn*ort4nately8
1hat e3ery combination o* component( that Hack 1a( able to get to 1ork 1ere (till not (imple
eno4gh *or an o** the (treet technician to *ig4re o4t let alone 4n!er(tan! or a!3ance 1itho4t
Page >9 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
< *rame capt4re *rom the 198, Promotion 3i!eo (ho1ing 1hat i( tho4ght to be the EM<7 aka "The Cl4e Engine#$
Thi( engine i( belie3e! to be the (malle(t 2ree-energy Engine e3er b4ilt an! the la(t$ < clo(e look at the *ront
comm4tator 1ith re3el eno4gh contact( to (4pport 9-Pole operation$
Thi( lo(t technology i( important a( 1ell a( po1er*4l$ There are many rea(on( to belie3e 1hy
thi( approach 1a( real an! 3ali!$ There are b4t a *e1 non-cla((ical technologie( kno1n that e3en
come clo(e to the po1er le3el( an! CDPI( ob(er3e!/mea(4re! 1ith the Cole/Hackenberger 2ree
Energy Engine($ Khat i( more important i( that all o* the material( can be p4rcha(e! *rom
McMa(ter8 Mo4(er8 an! &ranger catalog($ C4t !onIt ki! yo4r(el*O thi( i( not a (imple (y(tem$
e3er(e engineering 1hat 1a(8 *rom 1hat i( le*t8 i( a *ormable ta(k$ )o little i( kno1n abo4t ;4(t
1hat Mar3in Cole ha! 4n!er the hoo!8 let alone any (ort o* operational theory$
2or the pa(t !eca!e non-*4n!e! re(earcher( ha3e been 4nable to come to a general con(en(4( a(
to 1here the non-cla((ical proce(( act4ally take( place$ )ome ha3e *oc4(e! on the !e(ign o* the
po1er (4pply8 (ome ha3e ma!e replication p4l(e motor(8 an! many ha3e e6plore! 3ario4(
!e(ign( o* the "Con3erter Element )1itching T4be#$ )o *ar -@ec /010.8 no one ha( p4blically
reporte! any (4b(tantial (4cce(($ There are a han!*4l o* blog( an! *or4m( that !i(c4(( thi(
(4b;ect on the 7nternet$
E3eryone 1ho pro(pect( *or a (ol4tion to thi( (tory pan( *or in(piration in their partic4lar g4lley
o* i!ea($ Perhap( thi( paper 1ill pro3i!e ;4(t eno4gh a!!itional in*ormation *or (omeone to p4t
the 1hole (tory together$
Page 50 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
Additional References Mostly from Peter Lindemann's Website
1 - )o4rce @oc4ment( in the P4blic @omain
L+889085>8 - E4ne 178 1975O P4l(e! Capacitor @i(charge Electric Engine
L>85958975 - E4ne 178 198,8 E**icient Po1er )4pply )4itable 2or 7n!4cti3e Hoa!(
L>8,,187>7 - <pril /88 19878 E**icient Electrical Con3er(ion )1itching T4be )4itable 2or 7n!4cti3e Hoa!(
)hort Ciography o* E!1in &ray 2rom by @r$ Peter Hin!emann
Man Create( Engine That Con(4me( 'o 24elO The 'ational Tattler8 E4ly 18 197+8 by Tom %alentine
Miracle 'o-24el Electric EngineO The 'ational Tattler8 E4ly 88 197+8 by Tom %alentine
The Engine That 4n( 7t(el*O Probe The Gnkno1n8 E4ly 197+8 by Eack )cagnetti
)mog-2ree Engine 7gnore!O Ho( <ngele( 2ree Pre((8 @ecember /88 197+
/ 7n3entor( Kork To @e3i(e 24elle(( CarO The 'ational Tattler8 Ean4ary /+8 197>8 by Tom %alentine
7n3entor o* Korl!V( 2ir(t 'o-24el Engine i( )4ppre((e! by H< @i(trict <ttorneyO The 'ational Tattler8
March 1, 19758 by Tom %alentine http=//111$*ree-energy$cc/image(/Korl!(2ir(t1$;pg
<4to Motor 7n3entor E4(t 24eling <ro4n!BO The Progre((i3e C4lletin8 E4ly 78 1975
EM)- Electronic Po1er That Co4l! Change The Korl!V( Economic Po1er Pict4reO 'e1(real8 E4ne

Page 51 o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t
e*erence( Contin4e!
/ - "Technical @i(c4((ion# by ichar! Hackenb4rger
+ - "The Engine That 4n( 7t(el*#O Probe The Gnkno1n8 E4ly 197+ by Eack )cagnetti
> - Eohn Ce!iniI( E$%$ &ray 2iel! 'ote(8 19798 198/8 198> per(onal note( relea(e! to the
common !omain$ <3ailable *rom the Feely'et o* Eohn Ce!iniI( 1eb (ite$
5 - "The Hi(tory o* the E$%$ &ray Motor# / hr pre(entation by 'orman Kooten
Feeley'et Con*erence /001 E4ne 1,-17 @alla(8 Te6a(
The History of The E.V. Gray Motor by Norman Wootan - 2hr VIDEO
T%& '()'% *+ ,*-.//0 (&1&./&2. T%& 30+'&(0 .45)' E2 G(.0'+ EMA 35'5(+ *+ ,*-.//0 51&(. 6*'% '75 (&851&(&2
EMA 35'5( 9(5'5'09&+ 5- +'.:& .' '%& K&&/0N&' C5-,&(&-8& *- J)-& $00, N5(3.- 655'.- 2*+8)++&+
&1&(0 2&+*:- ,&.')(& 95++*4/&. E1&(0 +*-:/& 7.0 '%& (&./ 35'5(+ 2&1*.'& ,(53 '%& 2&+*:-+ (&1&./&2 *-
G(.0'+ P.'&-' .(& 2*+8)++&2 *- 2&'.*/. N57 05) 8.- +&& 7*'% 05)( 57- &0&+ %57 *' 7.+ (&.//0 25-&. T%*+
1*2&5 *+ . 3)+' ,5( +&(*5)+ (&+&.(8%&(+ 7.-'*-: '5 85-1&(' R.2*.-' E-&(:0 *-'5 3&8%.-*8./ 957&(. A :(&.'
8539.-*5- 9*&8& '5 ;T%& F(&& E-&(:0 S&8(&'+ 5, C5/2 E/&8'(*8*'0; 40 D(. L*-2&3.-- <455= 5( 1*2&5>
7%&(& '%& EMA 957&( +)99/0 *+ 2*+8)++&2. <$ %(+.>
,- "The )ecret( o* Col! Electricity# by Peter <$ Hin!emann8 @$)c$
The Free Energy Secrets of Col Electricity by !eter ". #inemann$ %.Sc.
T%*+ 455= &?9/.*-+ %57 E27*- G(.0 9(52)8&2 ;85/2 &/&8'(*8*'0; .-2 %57 '%.' (&/.'&+ '5 N*=5/. T&+/.'+
2*+851&(0 5, ;R.2*.-' E-&(:0; 51&( . 8&-')(0 .:5. A// 5, '%& *3.:&+ '%.' .99&.( .+ +/*2&+ *- '%& 1*2&5 .(&
(&9(52)8&2 *- '%& 455=, .+ 7&// .+ 8539/&'& (&9(*-'+ 5, E27*- G(.0'+ '%(&& US 9.'&-'+, .-2 '%(&& 5,
N*=5/. T&+/.'+ US P.'&-'+, 7%*8% (&/.'&2 '5 '%& +)4@&8'. T%*+ *+ .- *395('.-' +')20 3.-)./ ,5( +&(*5)+
(&+&.(8%&(+. E2 G(.0'+ EMA 35'5( 9(52)8&2 A0 '*3&+ 35(& 957&( '%.- %& '55= ,(53 %*+ 4.''&(*&+. T%&
+&8(&' *+ *- '%& 957&( +)99/0 .-2 '%*+ 455= '&//+ %57 *' 75(=+B
7- "Po1er Electronic( Con3erter(8 <pplication( an! @e(ign# 1989 Mohan8 Gn!erlan!8
obbin(8 Kiley 9 Co$
8- "The Mye Technical Man4al# )ection > - %ibrator( an! %ibrator Po1er )4pplie(8 by Mallory
Co$ a3ailable *rom a!io Era <rchi3e( at http=//111$ra!io$com
Page 5/ o* 5/ />81,,19,$o!t