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A Seminar Report on


Submitted By
RAVI YADAV B80223093
A Seminar report submitted as a partial fulfillment towards Term I of
B.E.(Electronics &Telecommunication)
University of Pune, Pune.
(viay !arra"
#epartment of $%T& $n'ineerin'
Army Institute of Te()nolo'y, #i')i, Pune*+,, -,.
This is to certify that
Tipu sachan
Ravi yadav
of Army Institute of Technology, Dighi, Pune
has submitted Project report on
as a partial fulfillment of Term"I for a#ard of degree of $achelor of %&T',
from (niversity of Pune, Pune, during the Academic )ear *+,-.,/0
Project Guide Project Coordinator H.O.D.
Prof. ija! "arra Prof.A#ina$% Pati& Dr. '. P. Pati&
(Prof. ).'.)a*a&e+
I would li!e to e0press my deep 'ratitude to my Guide, Prof. 1I2A3 4ARRA, 5a(ulty of t)e
#epartment of $le(troni(s and Tele(ommuni(ation $n'ineerin', Army Institute 6f Te()nolo'y,
Pune for all t)e valuable 'uidan(e and intelle(tual stimuli t)at )e provided durin' t)e pro'ress of
t)is wor!. It was a uni7ue privile'e to wor! under )is valuable 'uidan(e and supervision. I am
'rateful to Prof.(#r." B.P Patil, 8ead of t)e #epartment of $le(troni(s and Tele(ommuni(ation
$n'ineerin' , Army Institute of Te()nolo'y, #i')i 8ills, Pune, for timely 'uidan(e and
en(oura'ement. I also wis) to t)an! t)e library staff for all t)e )elp and fa(ilities t)at t)ey
e0tended to me durin' t)is period of time.

In today9s world national se(urity )as be(ome a maor (on(ern. T)e w)ole world is fa(in' a new !ind of t)reat :
;terrorism<. As we all !now t)ere was an atta(! on t)e parliament of India a few years ba(!. T)e w)ole se(urity of
parliament was in 7uestioned.
=it) in(rease in te()nolo'y t)reat to t)reat to personal data and national se(urity )ad also in(reased. T)e met)ods
t)at were developed to se(ure important information from outside intervention were not up to safe mar!. T)ere was
a need to introdu(e a te()nolo'y t)at se(ures our data more effi(iently from unlawful interventions.
=e )ave developed a fa(e and palm aut)enti(ation te()nolo'y t)at uses palm patters and fa(ial re(o'nition as
personal identifi(ation data. 5a(e and palm re(o'nition is se(ure is be(ause t)e aut)enti(ation data e0ist inside t)e
and t)erefore very diffi(ult to for'e. It is )i')ly a((urate. T)is te()nolo'y (an be used in various fields li!e ban!in',
)ospitals, 'overnment offi(es, in passport issuin' et(. Business 'rowt) (an be a()ieved wit) t)ese solutions by
redu(in' t)e si>e of palm sensor and s)ortenin' t)e aut)enti(ation time. T)is report is about t)e fa(e and palm
aut)enti(ation te()nolo'y, its appli(ations, )ow t)is te()nolo'y is applied in real time appli(ations and t)e
advanta'es of usin' t)is te()nolo'y.
=it) in(rease in te()nolo'y t)reat to t)reat to personal data and national se(urity )ad also in(reased. T)e met)ods
t)at were developed to se(ure important information from outside intervention were not up to safe mar!. T)ere was
a need to introdu(e a te()nolo'y t)at se(ures our data more effi(iently from unlawful interventions.
=e )ave developed a fa(e and palm aut)enti(ation te()nolo'y t)at uses palm patters and fa(ial re(o'nition as
personal identifi(ation data. 5a(e and palm re(o'nition is se(ure is be(ause t)e aut)enti(ation data e0ist inside t)e
and t)erefore very diffi(ult to for'e. It is )i')ly a((urate. T)is te()nolo'y (an be used in various fields li!e ban!in',
)ospitals, 'overnment offi(es, in passport issuin' et(. Business 'rowt) (an be a()ieved wit) t)ese solutions by
redu(in' t)e si>e of palm sensor and s)ortenin' t)e aut)enti(ation time. T)is report is about t)e fa(e and palm
aut)enti(ation te()nolo'y, its appli(ations, )ow t)is te()nolo'y is applied in real time appli(ations and t)e
advanta'es of usin' t)is te()nolo'y.
5a(e and palm re(o'nition rises from t)e moment t)at ma()ine started to be(ome more and more ?intelli'ent? and
)ad t)e advan(e of fill in, (orre(t or )elp t)e la(! of )uman abilities and senses.
T)e sube(t of fa(e and palm re(o'nition is as old as (omputer vision and bot) be(ause of t)e pra(ti(al importan(e
of t)e topi( and t)eoreti(al interest from (o'nitive s(ien(e. 5a(e and palm re(o'nition is not t)e only met)od of
re(o'ni>in' ot)er people. $ven )umans between ea() ot)er use senses in order to re(o'ni>e ot)ers. @a()ines )ave a
wider ran'e for re(o'nition purposes, w)i() use t)in!s su() as fin'erprints, or iris s(ans. #espite t)e fa(t t)at t)ese
met)ods of identifi(ation (an be more a((urate, fa(e and palm re(o'nition )as always remains a maor fo(us of
resear() be(ause of its non*invasive nature and be(ause it is peopleAs primary met)od of person identifi(ation.
Several al'orit)ms and te()ni7ues for fa(e re(o'nition )ave been developed in t)e past by resear()ers. T)ese are
dis(ussed briefly in t)is se(tion.
0.1 Face Reco-nition 'a$ed on Inde2endent Co.2onent Ana&!$i$3
A number of (urrent fa(e re(o'nition al'orit)ms use fa(e representations found by unsupervised statisti(al met)ods.
Typi(ally t)ese met)ods find a set of basis ima'es and represent fa(es as a linear (ombination of t)ose ima'es.
Prin(ipal (omponent analysis (P&A" is a popular e0ample of su() met)ods. T)e basis ima'es found by P&A depend
only on pairwise relations)ips between pi0els in t)e ima'e database. In a tas! su() as fa(e re(o'nition, in w)i()
important information may be (ontained in t)e )i')*order relations)ips amon' pi0els, it seems reasonable to e0pe(t
t)at better basis ima'es may be found by met)ods sensitive to t)ese )i')*order statisti(s. Independent (omponent
analysis (I&A", a 'enerali>ation of P&A, is one su() met)od. =e used a version of I&A derived from t)e prin(iple of
optimal information transfer t)rou') si'moidal neurons. I&A was performed on fa(e ima'es in t)e 5$R$T database
under two dierent ar()ite(tures, one w)i() treated t)e ima'es as random variables and t)e pi0els as out(omes, and
a se(ond w)i() treated t)e pi0els as random variables and t)e ima'es as out(omes. T)e first ar()ite(ture found
spatially lo(al basis ima'es for t)e fa(es. T)e se(ond ar()ite(ture produ(ed a fa(torial fa(e (ode. Bot) I&A
representations were superior to representations based on P&A for re(o'ni>in' fa(es a(ross days and ()an'es in
e0pression. A (lassifier t)at (ombined t)e two I&A representations 'ave t)e best performan(e.
$i'enspa(e*based fa(e re(o'nition (orresponds to one of t)e most su((essful met)odolo'ies for t)e (omputational
re(o'nition of fa(es in di'ital ima'es. Startin' wit) t)e $i'enfa(e*Al'orit)m, dierent ei'en spa(e*based
approa()es for t)e re(o'nition of fa(es )ave been pro*posed. T)ey dier mostly in t)e !ind of proe(tion met)od
used (standard, dierential, or !ernel ei'enspa(e", in t)e proe(tion al'orit)m employed, in t)e use of simple or
dierential ima'es beforeBafter proe(tion, and in t)e similarity mat()in' (riterion or (lassifi(ation met)od
employed. T)e aim of t)is paper is to present an independent (omparative study amon' some of t)e main
ei'enspa(e*based approa()es. =e believe t)at (arryin' out independent studies is relevant, sin(e (omparisons are
normally performed usin' t)e implementations of t)e resear() 'roups t)at )ave proposed ea() met)od, w)i() does
not (onsider (ompletely e7ual wor!in' (onditions for t)e al'orit)ms. 1ery often, a (ontest between t)e abilities of
t)e resear() 'roups rat)er t)an a (omparison between met)ods is performed. T)is study (onsiders t)eoreti(al
aspe(ts as well as simulations performed usin' t)e 3ale 5a(e #atabase, a database wit) few (lasses and several
ima'es per (lass, and 5$R$T, a database wit) many (lasses and few ima'es per (lass
8uman re(o'nition pro(esses utili>e a broad spe(trum of stimuli, obtained from many, if not all, of t)e senses
(visual, auditory, olfa(tory, ta(tile, et(.". In many situations, (onte0tual !nowled'e is also applied, for e0ample,
surroundin's play an important role in re(o'ni>in' fa(es in relation to w)ere t)ey are supposed to be lo(ated. It is
futile to even attempt to develop a system usin' e0istin' te()nolo'y, w)i() will mimi( t)e remar!able fa(e
re(o'nition ability of )umans. 8owever, t)e )uman brain )as its limitations in t)e total number of persons t)at it (an
a((urately ;remember.< A !ey advanta'e of a (omputer system is its (apa(ity to )andle lar'e numbers of fa(e
ima'es. In most appli(ations t)e ima'es are available only in t)e form of sin'le or multiple views of /# intensity
data, so t)at t)e inputs to (omputer fa(e re(o'nition al'orit)ms are visual only. 5or t)is reason, t)e literature
reviewed in t)is se(tion is restri(ted to studies of )uman visual per(eption of fa(es. @any studies in psy()olo'y and
neuros(ien(e )ave dire(t relevan(e to en'ineers interested in desi'nin' al'orit)ms or systems for ma()ine
re(o'nition of fa(es. 5or e0ample, Cndin's in psy()olo'y DBru(e ,EFFG S)e p)erdetal.,EF,H about t)e relative
importan(e of different fa(ial features )ave been noted in t)e en'ineerin' literature .6n t)e ot)er )and, ma()ine
systems provide tools for (ondu(tin' studies in psy()olo'y and neuros(ien(e . 5or e0ample, a possible en'ineerin'
e0planation of t)e bottom li')tin' effe(ts studied in 2o)nston et al. D,EE/H is as followsI w)en t)e a(tual li')tin'
dire(tion is opposite to t)e usually assumed dire(tion, a s)ape from s)adin' al'orit)m re(overs in (orre(t stru(tural
information and )en(e ma!es re(o'nition of fa(es )arder. A detailed review of relevant studies in psy()o p)ysi(s
and neuro s(ien(e is beyond t)e s(ope of t)is paper. =e only summari>e Cndin's t)at are potentially relevant to t)e
desi'n of fa(e re(o'nition systems. 5or details t)e reader is referred to t)e papers (ited below. Issues t)at are of
potential interest to desi'ners are/I JIs fa(e re(o'nition a dedi(ated pro(essK . It is traditionally believed t)at fa(e
re(o'nition is a dedi(ated pro(ess different from ot)er obe(t re(o'nition tas!s. $viden(e for t)e e0isten(e of a
dedi(ated fa(e pro(essin' system (omes from several sour(es . (a" 5a(es are more easily remembered by )umans
t)an ot)er obe(ts w)en presented in an upri')t orientation. (b" Prosopa'nosia patients are unable to re(o'ni>e
previously familiar fa(es, but usually )ave no ot)er profound a 'nosia. T)ey re(o'ni>e people by t)eir voi(es, )air
(olor, dress, et(. It s)ould be noted t)at prosopa'nosia patients re(o'ni>e w)et)er a 'iven obe(t is a fa(e or not, but
t)en )ave difC(ulty in identifyin' t)e fa(e. Seven differen(es between fa(e re(o'nition and obe(t re(o'nition (an be
summari>ed, based on empiri(al eviden(eI (," (onC'ural effe(ts (related to t)e ()oi(e of different types of ma()ine
re(o'nition systems", (/" e0pertise, (L" differen(es verbali>able, (+" sensitivity to (ontrast polarity and illumination
dire(tion (related to t)e illumination problem in ma()ine re(o'nition systems", (." metri( variation, (M" Rotation in
dept) (related to t)e pose variation problem in ma* ()ine re(o'nition systems", and (N" rotation in planeBinverted
fa(e. &ontrary to t)e traditionally )eld belief, some re(ent Cndin's in )uman neuropsy()olo'y and neuro ima'in'
su''est t)at fa(e re(o'nition may not be uni7ue. A((ordin' to , re(ent neuro ima'in' studies in )umans indi(ate t)at
level of (ate'ori>ation and e0pertise intera(t to produ(e t)e spe(iC(ation for fa(es in t)e middle fusiform 'yrus.L
8en(e it is possible t)at t)e en* (odin' s()eme used for fa(es may also be employed for ot)er (lasses wit) similar
0.5 Caricature$
A (ari(ature (an be for* mally deCnedas ;a symbol t)at e0a''erates measurements relative to any measure w)i()
varies from one person to anot)er.< T)us t)e len't) of a nose is a measure t)at varies from person to person, and
(ould be useful as a symbol in (ari(aturin' someone, but not t)e number of ears. A standard (ari(ature al'orit)m
DBrennan ,EF.H (an be applied to different 7ualities of ima'e data (line drawin's and p)oto'rap)s". &ari(atures of
line drawin's do not (ontain as mu()in formation as p)oto'rap)s ,but t)ey mana'eto (apture t)e important
()ara(teristi(s of a fa(eG e0periments base donn on ordinary fa(es (omparin' t)e usefulness of line* drawin'
(ari(aturesan dun e0a''erated line drawin's de(idedly favor t)e former
Fi- 13 T!2e$ of facia& e62re$$ion
0.7 Di$tincti#ene$$
Studies s)ow t)at distin(tive fa(es are better retained in memory and are re(o'ni>ed better and faster t)an typi(al
fa(es. 8owever, if a de(ision )as to be made as to w)et)er an obe(t is a fa(e or not, it ta!es lon'er to re(o'ni>e an
atypi(al fa(e t)an a typi(al fa(e. T)is may be e0plained by different me()anisms bein' used for dete(tion and for
0.8 T%e ro&e of $2atia& fre9uenc! ana&!$i$ I
$arlier studies DGinsbur' ,ENFG 8armon ,ENLH (on(luded t)at informa* tion in low spatial fre7uen(y bands plays a
dominant role in fa(e re(o'* nition. Re(ent studies DSer'ent ,EFMH )ave s)own t)at, dependin' on t)e spe* (iC(
re(o'nition tas!, t)e low, band* pass and )i')*fre7uen(y (omponents may play different roles. 5or e0ample
'ender(lassiC(ation(anbesu((essfully a((omplis)ed usin' low*fre7uen(y (om* ponents only, w)ile identiC(ation
re7uires t)e use of )i')*fre7uen(y (om* ponents DSer'ent ,EFMH. Oow*fre7uen(y (omponents (ontribute to 'lobal
de* s(ription, w)ile )i')*fre7uen(y (omponents (ontribute to t)e Cner details needed in identiC(ation. J
0.: ie*2oint;in#ariant reco-nition
@u() wor! in visual obe(t re(o'nition )as been (ast wit)in a t)eoreti(al framewor! introdu(ed in D@arr ,EF/H in
w)i() different views of obe(ts are analy>ed in a way w)i() allows a((ess to (lar'ely" viewpoint* invariant
des(riptions. Re(ently, t)ere )as been some debate about w)et)er obe(t re(o'nition is viewpoint*invariant or not .
Some e0periments su''est t)at memory for fa(es is )i')ly viewpoint*dependent. Generali>ation even from one
proCle viewpoint to anot)er is poor, t)ou') 'enerali>ation from one t)ree*7uarter view to t)e ot)er is very 'ood .
0.< Effect of &i-%tin- c%an-e3
It )as lon' been informally observed t)at p)oto'rap)i( ne'atives of fa(es are difC(ult to re(o'ni>e. 8ow* ever,
relatively little wor! )as e0plored w)y it is so difC(ult to re(o'ni>e ne'ative ima'es of fa(es. In D2o)nston et al.
,EE/H, e0periments were (ondu(ted to e0plore w)et)er difC(ulties wit) ne'ative ima'es and inverted ima'es offa(es
arise be(ause ea() of t)ese manipulations reverses t)e apparent dire(tion of li')tin', renderin' a top*lit ima'e of a
fa(e apparently lit from below. It was demonstrated in D2o)nston et al. ,EE/H t)at bottom li')tin' does indeed ma!e
it )arder to identity familiar fa(es. In t)e importan(e of top li')tin' for fa(ere(o'nition was demonstrated usin' a
different tas!I mat()in' surfa(e ima'es offa(es to determine w)et)er t)ey were identi(al.
5i' /I $ffe(t of li')t
0.= Facia& e62re$$ion$ 3
Based on neuro p)ysiolo'i(al studies, it seems t)at analysis of fa(ial e0pressions is a((omplis)ed in parallel to fa(e
re(o'nition. Some prosopa'nosi( patients, w)o )ave difC(ulties in identifyin' familiar fa(es, nevert)eless seem to
re(o'ni>e e0pressions due to emotions. Patients w)o suffer from ;or'ani( brain syndrome< suffer from poor
e0pression analysis but perform fa(e re(o'nition 7uitewell.+ Similarly, separation offa(e re(o'nition and ;fo(used
visual pro(essin' <tas!s(e.'. ,loo!in' for some one wit) a t)i(! musta()e" )ave been (laimed.
5i' LI 5a(ial e0pressions
T)e 5a(e Re(o'nition 1endor Tests (5R1T" were performed in /--- and /--/, and anot)er is planned for /--M.
T)ese evaluations built upon t)e wor! of 5$R$T and (oin(ided wit) t)e 'eneral onset of (ommer(ially available
fa(e re(o'nition produ(ts.
T)e Oondon Borou') of Pew)am, in t)e U4, previously trialled a fa(ial re(o'nition system built into t)eir borou')*
wide &&T1 system.
T)e German 5ederal Poli(e use a fa(ial re(o'nition system to allow voluntary subs(ribers to pass fully automated
border (ontrols at 5ran!furt R)ein*@ain international airport. Subs(ribers need to be $uropean
Union or Swiss (iti>ens. Sin(e /--. t)e German 5ederal &riminal Poli(e 6ffi(e offers (entrali>ed fa(ial re(o'nition
on mu's)ot ima'es for all German poli(e a'en(ies.
Re(o'nition systems are also used by (asinos to (at() (ard (ounters and ot)er bla(!listed individuals.
T)e Australian and Pew Qealand &ustoms Servi(es )ave an automated border pro(essin' system
(alled SmartGate t)at uses fa(ial re(o'nition. T)e system (ompares t)e fa(e of t)e individual wit) t)e ima'e in
t)e e*passport mi(ro()ip, (ertifyin' t)at t)e )older of t)e passport is t)e ri')tful owner.
T)e Pennsylvania 2usti(e Petwor! sear()es (rime s(ene p)oto'rap)s and &&T1 foota'e in t)e mu's)ot database of
previous arrests. A number of (old (ases )ave been resolved sin(e t)e system be(ame operational in /--.. 6t)er law
enfor(ement a'en(ies in t)e United States, in(ludin' t)e Oos An'eles &ounty S)eriff, use arrest mu's)ot databases
in t)eir forensi( investi'ative wor!. As of /-,L, t)ere is no unified nation*wide database of fa(e pi(tures mappin' to
names, but t)ere are some efforts to (reate one.
U.S. #epartment of State operates one of t)e lar'est fa(e re(o'nition systems in t)e world wit) over N. million
p)oto'rap)s t)at is a(tively used for visa pro(essin'.
T)e Tu(uman International Airport in Panama operates an airport*wide surveillan(e system usin' )undreds of live
fa(ial re(o'nition (ameras to identify wanted individuals passin' t)rou') t)e airport.
In addition to bein' used for se(urity systems, aut)orities )ave found a number of ot)er appli(ations for fa(ial
re(o'nition systems. =)ile earlier post*EB,, deployments were well publi(i>ed trials, more re(ent deployments are
rarely written about due to t)eir (overt nature.
At Super Bowl RRR1 in 2anuary /--,, poli(e in Tampa Bay, 5lorida used 1isa'e fa(ial re(o'nition software to
sear() for potential (riminals and terrorists in attendan(e at t)e event. ,E people wit) minor (riminal re(ords were
potentially identified.
In t)e /--- presidential ele(tion, t)e @e0i(an 'overnment employed fa(ial re(o'nition software to prevent voter
fraud. Some individuals )ad been re'isterin' to vote under several different names, in an attempt to pla(e multiple
votes. By (omparin' new fa(ial ima'es to t)ose already in t)e voter database, aut)orities were able to redu(e
dupli(ate re'istrations. Similar te()nolo'ies are bein' used in t)e United States to prevent people from obtainin'
fa!e identifi(ation (ards and driver9s li(enses.
T)ere are also a number of potential uses for fa(ial re(o'nition t)at are (urrently bein' developed. 5or e0ample, t)e
te()nolo'y (ould be used as a se(urity measure at AT@s. Instead of usin' a ban! (ard or personal identifi(ation
number, t)e AT@ would (apture an ima'e of t)e (ustomerAs fa(e, and (ompare it to t)e a((ount )olderAs p)oto in t)e
ban! database to (onfirm t)e (ustomerAs identity.
5a(ial re(o'nition systems are used to unlo(! software on mobile devi(es. An independently developed Android
@ar!etpla(e app (alled 1ision Applo(! ma!es use of t)e p)oneAs built*in (amera to ta!e a pi(ture of t)e user. 5a(ial
re(o'nition is used to ensure only t)is person (an use (ertain apps w)i() t)ey ()oose to se(ure.
5a(e dete(tion and fa(ial re(o'nition are inte'rated into t)e p)oto appli(ation for @a(intos), to )elp users or'ani>e
and (aption t)eir (olle(tions.
Also, in addition to biometri( usa'es, modern di'ital (ameras often in(orporate a fa(ial dete(tion system t)at allows
t)e (amera to fo(us and measure e0posure on t)e fa(e of t)e sube(t, t)us 'uaranteein' a fo(used portrait of t)e
person bein' p)oto'rap)ed. Some (ameras, in addition, in(orporate a smile s)utter, or ta!e automati(ally a se(ond
pi(ture if someone (losed t)eir eyes durin' e0posure.
Be(ause of (ertain limitations of fin'erprint re(o'nition systems, fa(ial re(o'nition systems are used as an
alternative way to (onfirm employee attendan(e at wor! for t)e (laimed )ours.
Standardi>ation is a vital portion of t)e advan(ement of t)e mar!et and state of t)e art. @u() wor! is bein' done at
bot) t)e national and international standard or'ani>ation levels to fa(ilitate t)e interoperability and data inter()an'e
formats, w)i() will )elp fa(ilitate te()nolo'y improvement on a standardi>ed platform. T)e APSIBIP&ITS (@,"
LF.*/--+ and IS6 S&LN ,ENE+*. 5a(e Re(o'nition #ata Inter()an'e 5ormat,+ are t)e maor fa(e re(o'nition
standards and address detailed )uman e0amination of fa(e ima'es, )uman verifi(ation of identity, and automated
fa(e identifi(ation and verifi(ation. T)ese standardsallow for interoperability amon' fa(e re(o'nition vendors.,.
T)e standards )ave establis)ed a defined frontal ima'e,. and are bro!en into subse(tions addressin' full*frontal and
to!en ima'es.
(A full*frontal ima'e is defined as an ima'e wit)in five de'reesfrom t)e (enter. A to!en ima'e is defined by t)e
lo(ation of t)e eyes." T)ese standards leave ot)er ima'es, su() as semi*profile,undefined,. but ensure t)at enrolled
ima'es will meet a 7uality standard needed for bot) automated fa(e re(o'nition and )uman inspe(tion of fa(e
ima'es.,+ =or! is underway at bot) t)e national and international levels to update t)e standards for L#fa(e data.
APSI PIST ITO ,*/--- is also bein' updated to in(lude moreBbetter information for Type*,- fa(e ima'es. T)ere is
also related wor! at t)e international level to provide 'uidan(e to p)oto'rap)ers on )ow to best (apture fa(e ima'es
for automated re(o'nition. T)ese standards also fa(ilitate t)e use of fa(e information in appli(ations t)at )ave
limited stora'e (e.'., passports, visas, driver9s li(enses".
6t)er standards, su() as IP&ITS LEF*/--. &ommon Biometri( $0()an'e 5ormats 5ramewor! (&B$55", deal
spe(ifi(ally wit) t)e data elements used to des(ribe t)e biometri( data in a (ommon
way. T)e IP&ITS L.F*/--/ BioAPI Spe(ifi(ation defines t)e Appli(ation Pro'rammin' Interfa(e and Servi(e
Provider Interfa(e for a standard biometri( te()nolo'y interfa(e. Pational and
international standards or'ani>ations (ontinue to wor! on t)e pro'ression of standards in a dire(tion t)at fa(ilitates
'rowt), advan(ement, and interoperabili
,. In order to prevent t)e frauds of AT@ in India, it is re(ommended to prepare t)e database of all AT@ (ustomers
wit) t)e ban!s in India % deployment of )i') resolution (amera and fa(e re(o'nition software at all AT@s. So,
w)en ever user will enter in AT@ )is p)oto'rap) will be ta!en to permit t)e a((ess after it is bein' mat()ed wit)
stored p)oto from t)e database./. #upli(ate voter are bein' reported in India. To prevent t)is a database of all voters,
of (ourse, of all (onstituen(ies, is re(ommended to be prepared. T)en at t)e time of votin' t)ere solution (amera and
fa(e re(o'nition e7uipped of votin' site will a((ept a sube(t fa(e ,--S and 'enerates t)e re(o'nition for votin' if
mat() is found.L. Passport and visa verifi(ation (an also be done usin' fa(e re(o'nition te()nolo'y as e0plained
above.+. #rivin' li(ense verifi(ation (an also be e0er(ised fa(e re(o'nition te()nolo'y as mentioned earlier... To
identify and verify terrorists at airports, railway station sand malls t)e fa(e re(o'nition te()nolo'y will be t)e best
()oi(e in India as (ompared wit) ot)er biometri( te()nolo'ies sin(e ot)er te()nolo'ies (annot be )elpful in (rowdie
pla(es.M. In defense ministry and all ot)er important pla(es t)e fa(e te()nolo'y (an be deployed for better se(urity.N.
T)is te()nolo'y (an also be used effe(tively in various important e0aminations su() as SS&, 8S&, @edi(al,
$n'ineerin', @&A, @BA, B* P)arma(y, Pursin' (ourses et( .T)e e0aminee (an be identified and verified usin'
5a(e Re(o'nition Te()ni7ue.F. In all 'overnment and private offi(es t)is system (an be deployed for identifi(ation,
verifi(ation and attendan(e.E. It (an also be deployed in poli(e station to identify and verify t)e (riminals
FIG37 BO6&4 S&8$@ATI&
Pre-proce!"# ! $pp%!e& o" !'$#e $( ()e %o*e( %e+e% o, $-(r$c(!o" $"& !( $!' !
(o re&.ce
."&e!re& &!(or(!o" $"& e")$"ce ()e !'$#e &$($ *)!c) ! .e,.% $"& !'por($"($r
,or ,.r()er
proce!"# /1401 I( ! ..$%%2 "ece$r2 $"& re3.!re& ,or !'pro+!"# ()e per,or'$"ce
o, !'$#e
proce!"# 'e()o& %!4e !'$#e (r$",or'5 e#'e"($(!o"5 ,e$(.re e6(r$c(!o" $"&
,$.%( &e(ec(!o"
5.1.1 FOR FACE3
T)e proposed met)od (ombines t)e features of 'amma (orre(tion, #6G filterin' and (ontrast
e7uali>ation te()ni7ues. 6ver all sta'es of proposed prepro(essin' met)od
5i'.. The Stages of Proposed Image Preprocessing Method
5.1.0 FOR PALM3
Prepro(essin' is used to ali'n different palmprint ima'es and to se'ment t)e (enter for feature
e0tra(tion. @ost of t)e prepro(essin' al'orit)ms employ t)e !ey points between fin'ers to set
up a (o*ordinate system. Prepro(essin' i nvolves five (ommon stepsI (," bi*nari>in' t)e palm
ima'es, (/" e0tra(tin' t)e (ontour of )and andBor fin'ers, (L" dete(tin' t)e !ey points, (+"
establis)in' a (oordination system and (." e0tra(tin' t)e (entral parts.
Palmprint resear() employs eit)er )i') or low resolution im*a'es. 8i') resolution ima'es
are suitable for forensi( appli(ations su() as (riminal dete(tion D/+H. Oow resolution ima'es
are more suitable for (ivil and (ommer(ial appli(ations su() as a((ess (ontrol. Generally
spea!in', )i') resolution refers to +--dpi or more and low resolution refers to ,.-dpi or less.
5i'. / illustrates a part of a )i')*resolution palmprint ima'e and a low resolution palmprint
ima'e. Resear()ers (an e0tra(t rid'es, sin'ular points and minutia points as features from
)i') resolution ima'es w)ile in low resolution ima'es t)ey 'enerally e0tra(t prin(ipal lines,
wrin!les and te0ture. Initially palmprint resear() fo(used on )i')*resolution ima'es but now
almost all resear() is on low resolution ima'es for (ivil and (ommer(ial appli(ations. T)is is
also t)e fo(us of t)is paper.
T)e desi'n of a biometri( system ta!es a((ount of five obe(tivesI (ost, user a((eptan(e and
environment (onstraints, a((ura(y, (omputation speed and se(urity Redu(in' a((ura(y (an
in(rease speed. Typi(al e0amples are )ierar()i(al approa()es. Redu(in' user a((eptan(e (an
improve a((ura(y. =e (an embed more sensors to (olle(t different si'nals for liveness
dete(tion. In some appli(ations, environmental (onstraints su() as memory usa'e, power
(onsumption, si>e of templates and si>e of devi(es )ave to be fulfilled. A biometri( system
installed in P#A (personal di'ital assistant" re7uires low power and memory (onsumption
but t)ese re7uirements may not be vital for biometri( a((ess (ontrol systems. A pra(ti(al
biometri( system s)ould balan(e all t)ese aspe(ts.
A typi(al palmprint re(o'nition system (onsists of five partsI palmprint s(anner,
prepro(essin', feature e0tra(tion, mat()er and database illustrated. T)e palmprint s(anner
(olle(ts palm*print ima'es. Prepro(essin' sets up a (oordinate system to ali'n palmprint
ima'es and to se'ment a part of palmprint ima'e for feature e0tra(tion. 5eature e0tra(tion
obtains effe(tive features from t)e prepro(essed palmprints. A mat()er (ompares two
palmprint features and a database stores re'istered templates T)e rest of t)is paper is
or'ani>ed as followsI Se(tion / reviews palmprint s(anners and prepro(essin' al'orit)ms,
Se(tion L lists verifi(ation al'orit)ms, Se(tion + summari>es various fusion approa()es
5.0 Fi&terin-
Poise redu(tion plays an important role as t)e pre*pro(essin' met)od in ima'e se'mentation. Be(ause of t)is
reason, various met)ods )ave been developed and almost all of t)em depend on t)e same basi( met)od for t)is tas!,
i.e. avera'in'. In prin(iple, noise is (omposed of distin(t pi0els w)i() are (learly dissimilar in appearan(e wit)
ada(ent pi0els and a((ordin' to t)is !nowled'e, noise (an be suppressed by avera'in' in t)e similar area of true
ima'e data. In fa(t, true ima'e data is able to s)are t)e similarities in t)ese avera'ed areas but noise in t)ese areas
is not. T)erefore, t)is pro(ess of filterin' will )old true ima'e data effi(iently undama'ed and noise will de(rease.
Alt)ou') t)e (on(ept of avera'in' is (lear, it is not easy to identify w)i() pi0els to avera'e. Avera'in' of many
pi0els will (ause t)e loss of detail of t)e ima'e and on t)e (ontrary, avera'in' of too few pi0els is not effi(ient on
redu(in' t)e noise D,,H. @edian filter is one of simplest and most effi(ient approa()es to remove <impulsive< or
<salt % pepper< noise and it is also well*!nown as <ed'e preservin'< nonlinear filter. @edian filter repla(es ea()
pi0el in t)e ima'e wit) t)e median of its surroundin' pi0els, uses a mas! of odd len't) and sorts t)e pi0els in t)e
window by intensity as output
a+ Ori-ina& i.a-e after con#ertin- to Gre! $ca&e ?+ Deno$in-
c+ + Cro22in- of Ori-ina& i.a-e after con#ertin- to Gre! $ca&e d+ Cro22in- Deno$in-
f+ Contour of Cro22in- of Ori-ina& i.a-e after con#ertin- -+ Contour of Cro22in- Deno$in-
to Gre! $ca&e
5i'ureL. LI Pro(essin' of mi(ros(opi( (rystal ima'e presentin' at (a" ori'inal ima'e (onversion to 'rays(ale
ima'e, (b" . T . median filterin', ((" (roppin' t)e 'rays(ale of ori'inal ima'e,
(d" (roppin' of 'rays(ale denosin' ima'e, (e,f " (ontour of (roppin' 'rays(ale ori'inal ima'e
and (ontour of (roppin' 'rays(ale denosin' ima'e
5.5 Adju$tin- of Inten$it!
Improvin' in t)e ima'e (an perform as obe(tively (e.'. filterin'" or sube(tively . Intensity adustment is an ima'e
en)an(ement te()ni7ue. Its purpose is to en)an(e t)e ima'e by ()an'in' intensity value to new ran'e . T)e basi(
tool for intensity transformations of 'rays(ale ima'es is fun(tion imadust t)at it )as t)e synta0 ' Uimadust(f, Dlow
inG )i') inH, Dlow outG )i') outH, 'amma" . T)is fun(tion maps t)e intensity values in ima'e f to new values in ',
su() as values between low in and )i') in map to values between low out and )i') out and values below low in map
to low out, and t)ose above )i') in map to )i') out DLH. A((ordin' to sele(tion of t)e (lass f ( (lass f is same as (lass
'"all inputs to fun(tion imadust are spe(ified as values between - and , (double" or between - and /.. (uintF" DLH.
Parameter 'amma spe(ifies t)e s)ape of t)e (urve t)at maps t)e intensity values in input to (reate output, so if
'amma is less t)an ,, t)e mappin' is wei')ted toward )i')er (bri')ter" output values, if 'amma is 'reater t)an ,,
t)e mappin' is wei')ted toward lower (dar!er" output values and if 'amma is e7ual to ,, t)e mappin' is linear
Resear() in automati( fa(e re(o'nition dates ba(! at least until t)e ,EM-9s D,LH. @ost (urrent fa(e re(o'nition
te()ni7ues, )owever, date ba(! only to t)e appearan(e*based re(o'nition wor! of t)e late ,EF-9s and ,EE-9s. I&A
(an be used to (reate feature ve(tors t)at uniformly distribute data samples in subspa(e D+, .H. T)is (on(eptually
very different use of I&A produ(es feature ve(tors t)at are not spatially lo(ali>ed. Instead, it produ(es feature ve(tors
t)at draw fine distin(tions between similar ima'es in order to spread t)e samples in subspa(e.
4eepin' wit) t)e terminolo'y introdu(ed in D/, .H, we refer to use of I&A to produ(e spatially independent basis
ve(tors as ar()ite(ture I, and t)e use of I&A to produ(e statisti(ally independent (ompressed ima'es as ar()ite(ture
5.8 ICA
=)ile P&A de(orrelates t)e input data usin' se(ond*order statisti(s and t)ereby 'enerates (ompressed data wit)
minimum mean*s7uared reproe(tion error, I&A minimi>es bot) se(ond*order and )i')er*order dependen(ies in t)e
input. It is intimately related to t)e blind source separation (BSS" problem, w)ere t)e 'oal is to de(ompose an
observed si'nal into a linear (ombination of un!nown independent si'nals. Oet $ be t)e ve(tor of un!nown sour(e
si'nals and 6 be t)e ve(tor of observed mi0tures. If A is t)e un!nown mi0in' matri0, t)en t)e mi0in' model is
written as
x As
It is assumed t)at t)e sour(e si'nals are independent of ea() ot)er and t)e mi0in' matri0 A is invertible. Based on
t)ese assumptions and t)e observed mi0tures, I&A al'orit)ms try to find t)e mi0in' matri0 A or t)e separatin'
matri0 > su() t)at
u Wx WAs
is an estimation of t)e independent sour(e si'nals (5i'ure ,".
source observed estimation
signal mixtures of s
Mixing separating
Process Process
Figure3. 5: Blind source separation model.
I&A (an be viewed as a 'enerali>ation of P&A. As previously dis(ussed, P&A de(orrelates t)e trainin' data so t)at
t)e sample (ovarian(e of t)e trainin' data is >ero. =)iteness is a stron'er (onstraint t)at re7uires bot)
de(orrelation and unit varian(e. T)e w)itenin' transform (an be determined as D
w)ere D is t)e dia'onal
matri0 of t)e ei'envalues and R is t)e matri0 of ort)o'onal ei'enve(tors of t)e sample (ovarian(e matri0. Applyin'
w)itenin' to observed mi0tures, )owever, results in t)e sour(e si'nal only up to an ort)o'onal transformation. I&A
'oes one step furt)er so t)at it transforms t)e w)itened data into a set of statisti(ally independent si'nals .
Si'nals are statisti(ally independent w)en
(u) =
w)ere fu is t)e probability density fun(tion of u. (It is e7uivalent to say t)at t)e ve(tors u are uniformly distributed."
Unfortunately, t)ere may not be any matri0 > t)at fully satisfies t)e independen(e (ondition, and t)ere is no (losed
form e0pression to find >. Instead, t)ere are several al'orit)ms t)at iteratively appro0imate > so as to indire(tly
ma0imi>e independen(e.
Sin(e it is diffi(ult to ma0imi>e t)e independen(e (ondition above dire(tly, all (ommon I&A al'orit)ms re(ast t)e
problem to iteratively optimi>e a smoot) fun(tion w)ose 'lobal optima o((urs w)en t)e output ve(tors u are
independent. 5or e0ample, Info@a0 relies on t)e observation t)at independen(e is ma0imi>ed w)en t)e entropy
H(u+ is ma0imi>ed, w)ereI
H (u ) f
(u )log f
(u )du
Info@a0 performs 'radient as(ent on t)e elements wi so as to ma0imi>e H(u+ DFH. (It 'ets its name from t)e
observation t)at ma0imi>in' H(u+ also ma0imi>es t)e mutual information I(u@6+ between t)e input and output
ve(tors." T)e JADE al'orit)m minimi>es t)e !urtosis of fu(u+ t)rou') a oint dia'onali>ation of t)e fourt) order
(umulants, sin(e minimi>in' !urtosis will also ma0imi>e statisti(al independen(e. FastICA is ar'uably t)e most
'eneral, ma0imi>in'
J (y) c[E{G(y)} E{G( )}]
w)ere G is a non*7uadrati( fun(tion, is a 'aussian random variable, and ( is any positive (onstant, sin(e it (an be
s)own t)at ma0imi>in' any fun(tion of t)is form will also ma0imi>e independen(e.
Info@a0, 2A#$ and 5astI&A all ma0imi>e fun(tions wit) t)e same 'lobal optima D,+, /,H. As a result, all t)ree
al'orit)ms s)ould (onver'e to t)e same solution for any 'iven data set. In pra(ti(e, t)e different formulations of t)e
independence constraint are designed to enable different approximation techniques, and the algorithms find different
solutions because of differences among these techniques. Limited empirical studies suggest that the differences in
performance between the algorithms are minor and depend on the data set. For example, Zibulevsky and Pearlmutter
test all three algorithms on a simulated blind-source separation problem, and report only small differences in the
relative error rate: 7.1% for Info Max, 8.6% for Fast ICA, and 8.8% for JADE . On the other hand, Karvanen et al
report on another simulated blind-source separation problem where JADE slightly outperforms Fast ICA, with
Info Max performing significantly worse . Ziehe et al. report no significant difference between Fast ICA and JADE
at separating noise from signal in MEG data . In studies using images, Moghaddam and Lee et al report
7ualitatively similar results for 2A#$ and 5ast I&A, but do not publis) numbers.
5.7.1 Arc%itecture I3 Stati$tica&&! Inde2endent 'a$i$ I.a-e$
Re'ardless of w)i() al'orit)m is used to (ompute I&A, t)ere are two fundamentally different ways to apply I&A to
fa(e re(o'nition. In ar()ite(ture I, t)e input fa(e ima'es in A are (onsidered to be a linear mi0ture of statisti(ally
independent basis ima'es S (ombined by an un!nown mi0in' matri0 A. T)e I&A al'orit)m learns t)e wei')t matri0
>, w)i() is used to re(over a set of independent basis ima'es in t)e rows of / (5i'ure /". In t)is ar()ite(ture, t)e
fa(e ima'es are variables and t)e pi0el values provide observations for t)e variables. T)e sour(e separation,
t)erefore, is performed in fa(e spa(e. Proe(tin' t)e input ima'es onto t)e learned wei')t ve(tors produ(es t)e
independent basis ima'es. T)e (ompressed representation of a fa(e ima'e is a ve(tor of (oeffi(ients used for linearly
(ombinin' t)e independent basis ima'es to 'enerate t)e ima'e. T)e middle row of 5i'ure L s)ows ei')t basis
ima'es produ(ed in t)is ar()ite(ture. T)ey are spatially lo(ali>ed, unli!e t)e P&A basis ima'es (top row" and t)ose
produ(ed by I&A ar()ite(ture II (bottom row".
image 1 basis image 1
image 2 basis image 2
Mixing Learned
Matrix Weights
image n basis image 1
Input Face Images Independent Basis Images
Figure 3.6: Finding statistically independent basis images.
In D+, .H, Bartlett and (ollea'ues first apply P&A to proe(t t)e data into a subspa(e of dimension m to (ontrol t)e
number of independent (omponents produ(ed by I&A. T)e Info@a0 al'orit)m is t)en applied to t)e ei'enve(tors to
minimi>e t)e statisti(al dependen(e amon' t)e resultin' basis ima'es. T)is use of P&A as a pre*pro(essor in a two*
step pro(ess allows I&A to (reate subspa(es of si>e m for any m. In DL-H, it is also ar'ued t)at pre*applyin' P&A
en)an(es I&A performan(e by (," dis(ardin' small trailin' ei'en values before w)itenin' and (/" redu(in'
(omputational (omple0ity by minimi>in' pair*wise dependen(ies. P&A de(orrelates t)e input dataG t)e remainin'
Higher -order dependencies are separated by ICA.
Figure 3.7: eight feature vectors for each technique. The top row contains the
eight eigenvectors with highest eigenvalues for PCA. The second row shows
eight localized feature vectors for ICA architecture I. The third row shows eight
(non-localized) ICA feature vectors for ICA architecture II.
To des(ribe t)e mat)emati(al basis for ar()ite(ture I, let R be a p by m matri0 (ontainin' t)e first m ei'enve(tors
of a set of n fa(e ima'es, as in Se(tion /./. Oet p be t)e number of pi0els in a trainin' ima'e. T)e rows of t)e
input matri0 to I&A are variables and t)e (olumns are observations, t)erefore, I&A is performed on R
T)e m independent basis ima'es in t)e rows of / are (omputed as / B >CR
. T)en, t)e n by m I&A (oeffi(ients
matri0 ' for t)e linear (ombination of independent basis ima'es in / is (omputed as followsI
Oet C be t)e n by m matri0 of P&A (oeffi(ients. T)en,
C = X * R and X = C * R
From U = W * R
and the assumption that W is invertible we get
X = (C *W
) *U = B *U
$a() row of ' (ontains t)e (oeffi(ients for linearly (ombinin' t)e basis ima'es to (omprise t)e fa(e ima'e in t)e
(orrespondin' row of A. Also, A is t)e re(onstru(tion of t)e ori'inal data wit) minimum s7uared error as in P&A.
3.4.2Architecture II: Statistically Independent Coefficients
While the basis images obtained in architecture I are statistically independent, the coefficients that represent input
images in the subspace defined by the basis images are not. The goal of ICA in architecture II is to find statistically
independent coefficients for input data. In this architecture, the input is transposed from architecture I, that is, the
pixels are variables and the images are observation. The source separation is performed on the pixels, and each row
of the learned weight matrix W is an image. A, the inverse matrix of W, contains the basis images in its columns.
The statistically independent source coefficients in S that comprise the input images are recovered in the columns of
U (Figure 4). This architecture was used in [9] to find image filters that produced statistically independent outputs
from natural scenes. The eight basis images shown in the bottom row of Figure 3 show more global properties than
the basis images produced in architecture I (middle row).
In this work, ICA is performed on the PCA coefficients rather than directly on the input images to reduce the
dimensionality as in [4, 5]. Following the same notation described above, the statistically independent coefficients
are computed as U = W*C
and the actual basis images shown in Figure 3 are obtained from the columns of R*A.
pixel 1 coefficient 1
pixel 2 coefficient 2
Basis Learned
Images Weights
pixel p coefficient p
Input Face Images Independent Coefficients
Figure 3.8: Finding statistically independent coefficients.
5usion is a promisin' approa() t)at may in(rease t)e a((ura(y of systems . @any biometri(
traits in(ludin' fin'erprint palm vein fin'er surfa(e, fa(e, iris, and )and s)ape )ave been
(ombined wit) palmprints at s(ore level or at representation level. &ombinin' ot)er )and fea*
tures su() as )and 'eometry and fin'er surfa(e wit) palmprints al*lows t)ese features and
palmprints to be e0tra(ted from a sin'le )and ima'e. 6nly one sensor is needed. Resear()ers
)ave e0amined various fusion rules in(ludin' sum, ma0imum, avera'e, minimum, S1@ and
neural networ!s. Resear()ers also fuse features in(ludin' appearan(e*based, line and te0ture
features from palmprints.
&lassifi(ation in(ludes a broad ran'e of de(ision*t)eoreti( approa()es to t)e identifi(ation of ima'es (or parts
t)ereof". All (lassifi(ation al'orit)ms are based on t)e assumption t)at t)e ima'e in 7uestion depi(ts one or more
features (e.., 'eometri( parts in t)e (ase of a manufa(turin' (lassifi(ation system, or spe(tral re'ions in t)e (ase of
remote sensin', as s)own in t)e e0amples below" and t)at ea() of t)ese features belon's to one of several distin(t
and e0(lusive (lasses. T)e (lasses may be spe(ified a priori by an analyst (as in super!ised classi"ication" or
automati(ally (lustered (i.e. as in unsuper!ised classi"ication" into sets of prototype (lasses, w)ere t)e analyst
merely spe(ifies t)e number of desired (ate'ories. (&lassifi(ation and sementation )ave (losely related obe(tives,
as t)e former is anot)er form of (omponent labelin' t)at (an result in se'mentation of various features in a s(ene."
8.1Ho* It >or,$3
Ima'e (lassifi(ation analy>es t)e numeri(al properties of various ima'e features and or'ani>es data into (ate'ories.
&lassifi(ation al'orit)ms typi(ally employ two p)ases of pro(essin'I trainin and testin. In t)e initial trainin'
p)ase, ()ara(teristi( properties of typi(al ima'e features are isolated and, based on t)ese, a uni7ue des(ription of
ea() (lassifi(ation (ate'ory, i.e. trainin class, is (reated. In t)e subse7uent testin' p)ase, t)ese feature*spa(e
partitions are used to (lassify ima'e features.
T)e des(ription of trainin' (lasses is an e0tremely important (omponent of t)e (lassifi(ation pro(ess. In supervised
(lassifi(ation, statistical pro(esses (i.e. based on an a priori !nowled'e of probability distribution fun(tions"
or distribution#"ree pro(esses (an be used to e0tra(t (lass des(riptors. Unsupervised (lassifi(ation relies
on clusterin al'orit)ms to automati(ally se'ment t)e trainin' data into prototype (lasses. In eit)er (ase, t)e
motivatin' (riteria for (onstru(tin' trainin' (lasses is t)at t)ey areI
independent, i.e. a ()an'e in t)e des(ription of one trainin' (lass s)ould not ()an'e t)e value of anot)er,
discriminator$, i.e. different ima'e features s)ould )ave si'nifi(antly different des(riptions, and reliable,
all ima'e features wit)in a trainin' 'roup s)ould s)are t)e (ommon definitive des(riptions of t)at 'roup.
A (onvenient way of buildin' a parametri( des(ription of t)is sort is via a feature ve(tor , w)ere n is
t)e number of attributes w)i() des(ribe ea() ima'e feature and trainin' (lass. T)is representation allows us to
(onsider ea() ima'e feature as o((upyin' a point, and ea() trainin' (lass as o((upyin' a sub*spa(e (i.e. a
representative point surrounded by some spread, or deviation", wit)in t)en*dimensional (lassifi(ation spa(e. 1iewed
as su(), t)e (lassifi(ation problem is t)at of determinin' to w)i() sub*spa(e (lass ea() feature ve(tor belon's.
5or e0ample, (onsider an appli(ation w)ere we must distin'uis) two different types of obe(ts (e.. bolts and sewin'
needles" based upon a set of two attribute (lasses (e.. lent% alon' t)e maor a0is and %ead diameter". If we assume
t)at we )ave a vision system (apable of e0tra(tin' t)ese features from a set of trainin' ima'es, we (an plot t)e result
in t)e /*# feature spa(e, s)own in 5i'ure ,.
Fi-ure 8.1 5eature spa(eI V sewin' needles, o bolts.
At t)is point, we must de(ide )ow to numeri(ally partition t)e feature spa(e so t)at if we are 'iven t)e feature ve(tor
of a test obe(t, we (an determine, 7uantitatively, to w)i() of t)e two (lasses it belon's. 6ne of t)e most simple
(alt)ou') not t)e most (omputationally effi(ient" te()ni7ues is to employ a supervised, distribution*free approa()
!nown as t)e minimum (mean) distance classi"ier. T)is te()ni7ue is des(ribed below.
&inimum (&ean) Distance Classi"ier
Suppose t)at ea() trainin' (lass is represented by a prototype (or mean" ve(torI
w)ere is t)e number of trainin' pattern ve(tors from (lass . In t)e e0ample (lassifi(ation problem 'iven
above, and as s)own in 5i'ure /.
Fi-ure8. 0 5eature spa(eI V sewin' needles, o bolts, W (lass mean
Based on t)is, we (an assi'n any 'iven pattern to t)e (lass of its (losest prototype by determinin' its pro0imity to
ea() . If $u(lidean distan(e is our measure of pro0imity, t)en t)e distan(e to t)e prototype is 'iven by
It is not diffi(ult to s)ow t)at t)is is e7uivalent to (omputin'
and assi'n to (lass if yields t)e lar'est value.
Returnin' to our e0ample, we (an (al(ulate t)e followin' de(ision fun(tionsI
5inally, t)e decision boundar$ w)i() separates (lass from is 'iven by values for for w)i()
In t)e (ase of t)e needles and bolts problem, t)e de(ision surfa(e is 'iven byI
As s)own in 5i'ure L, t)e surfa(e defined by t)is de(ision boundary is t)e perpendi(ular bise(tor of t)e line se'ment
oinin' and .
Fi-ure 8.5 5eature spa(eI V sewin' needles, o bolts, W (lass mean, line U de(ision surfa(e
In pra(ti(e, t)e minimum (mean" distan(e (lassifier wor!s well w)en t)e distan(e between means is lar'e (ompared
to t)e spread (or randomness" of ea() (lass wit) respe(t to its mean. It is simple to implement and is 'uaranteed to
'ive an error rate wit)in a fa(tor of two of t)e ideal error rate, obtainable wit) t)e statisti(al, supervised Ba$es'
classi"ier. T)e BayesA (lassifier is a more informed al'orit)m as t)e fre7uen(ies of o((urren(e of t)e features of
interest are used to aid t)e (lassifi(ation pro(ess. =it)out t)is information t)e minimum (mean" distan(e (lassifier
(an yield biased (lassifi(ations. T)is (an be best (ombatted by applyin' trainin' patterns at t)e natural rates at w)i()
t)ey arise in t)e raw trainin' set.
5a(e re(o'nition is not perfe(t and stru''les to perform under (ertain (onditions. Ralp) Gross, a resear()er at t)e
&arne'ie @ellon Roboti(s Institute, des(ribes one obsta(le related to t)e viewin' an'le of t)e fa(eI ?5a(e
re(o'nition )as been 'ettin' pretty 'ood at full frontal fa(es and /- de'rees off, but as soon as you 'o towards
profile, t)ereAve been problems.?6t)er (onditions w)ere fa(e re(o'nition does not wor! well in(lude poor li')tin',
sun'lasses, lon' )air, or ot)er obe(ts partially (overin' t)e sube(t9s fa(e, and low resolution ima'es .Anot)er
serious disadvanta'e is t)at many systems are less effe(tive if fa(ial e0pressions vary. $ven a bi' smile (anrender in
t)e system less effe(tive. 5or instan(eI &anada now allows only neutral fa(ial e0pressions in passport p)otos.
:.0. Effecti#ene$$
&riti(s of t)e te()nolo'y (omplain t)at t)e Oondon Borou') of Pew)am s()eme )as, as of /--+, never re(o'ni>ed a
sin'le (riminal, despite several (riminals in t)e systemAs database livin' in t)e Borou') and t)e system )avin' been
runnin' for several years. ?Pot on(e, as far as t)e poli(e !now,)as Pew)amAs automati( fa(ial re(o'nition system
spotted a live tar'et.? T)is information seems to (onfli(t wit) (laims t)at t)e system was (redited wit) a L+S
redu(tion in (rime w)i() better e0plains w)y t)e system was t)en rolled out to Birmin')am also. An e0periment by
t)e lo(al poli(e department in Tampa ,5lorida, )ad similarly disappointin' results. ?&amera te()nolo'y desi'ned to
spot potential terrorists by t)eir fa(ial ()ara(teristi(s at airports failed its first maor test at BostonAs Oo'an
Airport?D+H . Safe )ouse International Oimited, an Australian (ompany, patented software in(ludin' I @otion and I
&ount systems. T)e (ompany (laimed t)is system were able to tra(! movin' people and (al(ulate t)e number
of people in a (rowd. After EB,,, t)e software was (onsidered ;(ommer(ially attra(tive<by t)e US administration.
It was later revealed by #avid @apley, a US s)are)older of Safe )ouse International Oimited" t)at t)e software
a(tually never wor!ed
5a(e re(o'nition te()nolo'ies )ave been asso(iated 'enerally wit) very (ostly top se(ure appli(ations. Today t)e
(ore te()nolo'ies )ave evolved and t)e (ost of e7uipment is 'oin' down dramati(ally due to t)e inte'ration and t)e
in(reasin' pro(essin' power. &ertain appli(ations of fa(e re(o'nitionte()nolo'y are now (ost effe(tive, reliable and
)i')ly a((urate. As a result t)ere are no te()nolo'i(al or finan(ial barriers for steppin' from t)e pilot proe(t to
wide spread deployment. T)ou') t)ere are some wea!nesses of fa(ial re(o'nition system, t)ere is a tremendous
s(ope in India. T)is system (an be effe(tively used in AT@9s ,identifyin' dupli(ate voters , passport and visa
verifi(ation , drivin' li(ense verifi(ation, in defense, (ompetitive and ot)er e0ams, in 'overnments and private
se(tors. Government and PG6s s)ould (on(entrate and promote appli(ations of fa(ial re(o'nition system in India in
various fields by 'ivin' e(onomi(al support and appre(iation. 5a(e re(o'nition is a bot) ()allen'in' and important
re(o'nition te()ni7ue. Amon' all t)e biometri( te()ni7ues, fa(e re(o'nition approa() possesses one 'reat
advanta'e, w)i() is its user*friendliness (or non*intrusiveness". In t)is paper, we )ave 'iven an introdu(tory
survey for t)e fa(ere(o'nition te()nolo'y. =e )ope t)is paper (an provide t)e readers a better understandin' about
fa(e re(o'nition.
AIT /-,+*,.
= Out&oo, on future *or,
5a(e re(o'nition systems used today wor! very well under (onstrained (onditions, alt)ou') all systems wor! mu()
better wit) frontal mu'*s)ot ima'es and (onstant li')tin'. All (urrent fa(e re(o'nition al'orit)ms fail under t)e
vastly varyin' (onditions under w)i() )umans need to and are able to identify ot)er people. Pe0t 'eneration person
re(o'nition systems will need to re(o'ni>e people in real*time and in mu() less (onstrained situations.
&ameras and mi(rop)ones today are very small, li')t*wei')t and )ave been su((essfully inte'rated wit) wearable
systems. Audio and video based re(o'nition systems )ave t)e (riti(al advanta'e t)at t)ey use t)e modalities )umans
use for re(o'nition. 5inally, resear()ers are be'innin' to demonstrate t)at unobtrusive audio*and*video based person
identifi(ation systems (an a()ieve )i') re(o'nition rates wit)out re7uirin' t)e user to be in )i')ly (ontrolled
=.1Identifia?&e on&ine dater$.
An important part of online datin' is, of (ourse, anonymity. 3ou ma!e up a s(reen name be(ause you want
an element of surprise w)en you meet someone J and be(ause you don9t want (reepers s)owin' up at
your offi(e uninvited. In /-,-, A(7uisti publis)ed t)e study 8e and )is fellow resear()ers analy>ed M,---
online profiles on a datin' site in t)e same US (ity. Usin' four (loud (omputin' (ores and t)e fa(ial
re(o'nition software PittPatt, t)ey were able to identify , in ,- of t)ese anonymous daters. And remember,
t)is te()nolo'y )as improved t)ree*fold sin(e t)en.
=.0 'etter too&$ for &a* enforce.ent.
After t)e Boston @arat)on bombin', t)e Boston poli(e (ommissioner said t)at fa(ial re(o'nition software
)ad not )elped t)em identify #>)o!)ar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, despite t)e fa(t t)at t)e two were in publi(
re(ords databasesJand p)oto'rap)ed at t)e s(ene. 6nly, t)ose ima'es were ta!en from far away, t)e
brot)ers were wearin' sun'lasses and (aps, and many s)ots of t)em were in profile J all t)in's t)at ma!e
fa(ial re(o'nition diffi(ult. $0perts say t)at te()nolo'y (an over(ome t)ese diffi(ulties. In an interview
wit) Salon.(om, A(7uisti said t)at t)e in(reasin' resolution of p)otos will )elp ()ello, 'i'api0elX", as will
t)e improved (omputational (apabilities of (omputers and t)e ever*e0pandin' mountain of data available
from so(ial networ!s. In a fas(inatin' arti(le via 3a)oo, Paul S()uepp of t)e (ompany Animetri(s s)ares a
more spe(ifi( advan(eI software t)at turns /# ima'es into a simulated L# model of a person9s fa(e. In a
sin'le se(ond, it (an turn an unidentifiable partial snaps)ot into a very identifiable )eads)ot..
=.5 Fu&& ?od! reco-nitionI
Allyson Ri(e of t)e University of Te0as at #allas )as an idea for )ow fa(ial re(o'nition software (ould
be(ome even more a((urate for law enfor(ement purposes J by be(omin' bod$ re(o'nition software. In a
study publis)ed t)is mont) in (s$c%oloical )cience, Ri(e and )er fellow resear()ers as!ed (olle'e
students to dis(ern w)et)er two p)otos J w)i() )ad stumped fa(ial re(o'nition software J were indeed
of t)e same person. T)ey used eye*tra(!in' e7uipment to dis(ern )ow t)e parti(ipants were ma!in' t)e
(all. In t)e end, t)ey found t)at students were far more a((urate in t)eir answers w)en t)e fa(e and body of
t)e sube(t was s)own. And w)ile parti(ipants reported ud'in' based on fa(ial features, t)eir eyes were
spendin' more time e0aminin' body build, stan(e, and ot)er body features. ;Psy()olo'ists and (omputer
s(ientists )ave (on(entrated almost e0(lusively on t)e role of t)e fa(e in person re(o'nition,< Ri(e tells T%e
Telerap%. ;But our results s)ow t)at t)e body (an also provide important and useful identity information
for person re(o'nition.<
8.4 A face $can for !our 2%one.
D5a(e Unlo(!< is a feature t)at allows you to unlo(! Android smart p)ones usin' your ;fa(e print,< i.e. a
map of t)e uni7ue stru(ture of your fa(e. T)is is ust t)e be'innin' of fa(e*as*se(urity measure. In
2une, a((ordin' to e=ee!.(om, Goo'le patented a te()nolo'y t)at would turn 'oofy fa(ial e0pressions J a
win!, a s(run()ed nose, a smile, a stu(!*out ton'ue J into a (ode to unlo(! devi(es. T)e )opeI t)at t)is
would be )arder to spoof t)an a fa(e print. Turns out, apps su() as 5ast A((ess Anyw)ere, w)i() uses your
fa(e as a password, (an reportedly be fooled wit) a simple p)oto, says USA Today.
=.8Facia& reco-nition a$ ad#erti$in-3
&ould fa(ial re(o'nition te()nolo'y be used to influen(e w)at we buyK 1ery li!ely. In /-,/, an intera(tive
ad for &)oi(e for Girls was laun()ed at bus stops in Oondon. T)ese billboards were able to s(an passersby,
ud'e t)eir 'ender and s)ow t)em appropriate (ontent. Girls and women 'ot a video, w)ile boys and men
'ot statisti(s on a sube(t. T)is ad was for a 'ood (ause, but t)is te()nolo'y will no doubt e0pand J and
(ould allow (orporations and or'ani>ations to tap into our personal lives in unpredi(table ways.
Personali>ed ads as we wal! down t)e street, a la t)e (lassi( s(ene in &inorit$ *eport, yes. But as A(7uisti
notes in )is tal!, t)ere9s a potentially more subtle appli(ation of t)is te()nolo'y tooI ads t)at (an identify us
and our two favorite friends on 5a(eboo!. 5rom t)ere, it9s a snap to (reate a (omposite ima'e of a person
w)o9ll star in an ad tar'eted ust to us. 5or more in w)at9s (omin' in t)e fa(ial re(o'nition advertisin'
realm, ()e(! out Oeslie Sta)l9s M- @inutes se'ment ;A 5a(e in t)e &rowdI Say 'oodbye to anonymity.<
Amon' ot)er fas(inatin' tidbits, it introdu(es us to 5a(e#eals J w)i() notes w)en you9ve wal!ed into an
establis)ment, mines your 5a(eboo! li!es and te0t messa'es a deal (reated ust for you.
8.5 S%attered G&a$$.
As A(7uisti notes in )is tal!, t)e fa(t t)at someone9s fa(e (an be used to find out private information is
espe(ially dis(on(ertin' 'iven Goo'le Glass9 emer'en(e on t)e s(ene. In 2une, US lawma!ers 7uestioned
Goo'le about t)e priva(y impli(ations of t)e devi(e and, in response, Goo'le stressed t)at t)ey ;won9t be
approvin' any fa(ial re(o'nition Glassware at t)is time.< But of (ourse, it9s not (ompletely up to t)em. In
2uly, Step)en Balaban announ(ed to PPR and t)e world t)at )e )ad )a(!ed Glass in order to 'ive it fa(ial
re(o'nition powers. ;$ssentially w)at I am buildin' is an alternative operatin' system t)at runs on Glass
but is not (ontrolled by Goo'le,< )e said. 6n a similar note, one @i()ael #iGiovanni (reated a pro'ram
(alled =in!y for Glass t)at lets t)e wearer ta!e a p)oto wit) a win!, rat)er t)an usin' t)e voi(e (ommand.
=.:Your face a$ currenc!3
In 2uly, a 5innis) (ompany (alled Uni7ul released a video of a proe(t in t)e wor!s, a pay*by*fa(e
aut)enti(ation system. T)e ideaK At a store, rat)er t)an payin' wit) (as) or a (redit (ard, you 'ive a
;meanin'ful nod< to a s(anner to ma!e a pur()ase. des(ribes t)is new te(), and also 'ives a pea! at t)e
@illennial AT@, w)i() uses fa(ial re(o'nition as its primary se(urity met)od.
D,H A. 4. 2ain, A. Ross and S. Prab)a!ar, ?An Introdu(tion to Biometri( Re(o'nition?, I$$$ Trans. &ir(uits and
Systems for 1ideo Te()nolo'y, Spe(ial Issue on Ima'e* and 1ideo*Based Biometri(s, 1ol. ,+, Po. ,,pp. +*/-, /--+.
D/H ?A Performan(e $valuation 6f Biometri( Identifi(ation #evi(es?, T)e ,EE, Sandia Report, Report summary
prepared by Re(o'nition Systems, In(., )ttpIBBwww.lo'in.)uBterme!e!BrsiBw)itepapersBsandiareport.)tm, ,EE,.
DLH =. S)u and #. Q)an', ?Automated Personal Identifi(ation by Palmprint?, 6pti(al $n'ineerin' , 1ol. LN,
pp./L.E*/LM/, ,EEF.
D+H #. Q)an' and =. S)u, ?Two Povel &)ara(teristi(s in Palmprint 1erifi(ationI #atum Point Invarian(e and Oine
5eature @at()in'?, Pattern Re(o'nition, 1ol. L/, pp. ME,*N-/, ,EEE.
D.H P. #uta, A. 4. 2ain and 4. 1. @ardia, ?@at()in' of Palmprints?, Pattern Re(o'nition Oetters, 1ol. /L, pp. +NN*
+F., /--,.
DMH 2. 3ou, =. Oi and #. Q)an', ?8ierar()i(al Palmprint Identifi(ation via @ultiple 5eature $0tra(tion?, Pattern
Re(o'nition, 1ol. L., pp. F+N*F.E, /--/.
DNH &. &. 8an, 8. O. &)en', 4. &. 5an and &. O. Oin ?Personal Aut)enti(ation Usin' Palm*print 5eatures?, Pattern
Re(o'nition, 1ol. LM, pp. LN,*LF,, /--L.
DFH #. Q)an', =.4. 4on', 2. 3ou, and @. =on', ?6nline Palm Print Identifi(ation?, I$$$ Trans. Pattern Analysis
and @a()ine Intelli'en(e, 1ol. /., Po. /, pp. ,-+,*,-.-, /--L.
DEH 2. #au'man, 8ow Iris Re(o'nition =or!s, I$$$ Tran. &ir(uits and Systems for 1ideoTe()nolo'y , 1ol. ,+, Po.
,, pp. /, : L-, /--+.
D,-H A. 4on' , #. Q)an' and @. 4amel, ?Palmprint identifi(ation usin' feature*level fusion?, Pattern Re(o'nition,
1ol. LE, Po. L, pp. +NF*+FN, /--M.