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The term Marwari literally refers to someone who hails from or is an inhabitant of
Marwar - the erstwhile Jodhpur state. This term gained urreny initially in !engal"
where the traders from She#hawati and other parts of Ra$asthan established their
business empires. %istint in their dress" ustoms and language" the traders and
merhants of Ra$asthan ame to be #nown as Marwaris.
Thomas & Timberg states" 'In ollo(uial usage" outside of Ra$asthan" Marwari is
used to refer to emigrant businessmen from the )iinity of Ra$asthan.* The earliest
lin# of the Marwaris with !engal an be traed ba# to +,-." when Ra$put soldiers
under &#bar's flag ame to amp there during the reign of Suleman /irani . The
ontrat of supplying the essentials for the soldiers was awarded to the merhants
of Marwar. On their arri)al in !engal" they are supposed to ha)e introdued
themsel)es as Marwaris and sine they wore pugris 0turbans1" they were also
referred to as pugridhari Marwaris 0Marwaris who wore turbans1. These seths
ommanded a great deal of respet ba# at home in She#hawati. Rulers of different
states would )ie with eah other to offer the best possible terms to entie the seths
to set up business in their towns. The tha#urs would pro)ide them with fertile land
whih they were allowed to till without paying the obligatory ta2. They were also
gi)en armed protetion for their on)oys" harters for the onstrution of shools"
wells" temples and other haritable enterprises" and offered immunity from
ustoms" searh and sei3ure" as well as riminal proseution4 Royal letters of
reognition and admiration" and the permission to wear the tazim - the an#let of
honor" were some of the other pri)ileges bestowed on them. Their opinion was
gi)en due weightage and often" they were onsulted on the matters of the state as
well. The rulers were wise enough to reali3e it was better to get the ooperation" if
not the appro)al of the merhant ommunity" as they were dependant on them for
eonomi support. 5or instane" at an estimate" the merhant lass met half of the
+,"66"666 rupees budget of the state of Si#ar.
The rih and prosperous trader ommunity in turn" would offer e2tended loans to
the rulers and also in)est in other publi related pro$ets. Seth Mir3amal was #nown
to ha)e loaned a sum of four la#hs of rupees to Mahara$a Surat Singh. of !i#aner.
The 7oddars of Ramgarh pro)ided finanial assistane to the Raora$a of Si#ar" and
gained impliit 7owers through unwritten rules and regulations. On se)eral other
oasions" the Marwari ommunity sueeded in framing ordinanes and derees
to suit their interest. 8hen inome ta2 was imposed on them" the merhants of
9huru" Sardar Shahr" Su$angarh and :ohar protested" and got the 7roposal
postponed. In +;-;" the "Surana family protesting against the imposition of hea)y
ta2ation" left 9huru to settle in Mehansar. Sir <anga Singh" the Mahara$a of !i#aner
09huru was a part of !i#aner1 had no option but to aede to their demands and
get them ba# to 9huru. !ut some rulers were more stubborn and paid the prie.
Thakur Sheo Singh le)ied hea)y ta2es on the 7oddars of 9hurn in the early part of
the +=th entury. The 7oddars as#ed him to reonsider his deision. He refused.
The 7oddars migrated en masse" and founded a new town" Ramgarh" +, #ms.
south of Si#ar. 9huru's loss was Si#ar's gain as the 7oddars were perhaps the
biggest traders of the region and Ramgarh stands testimony to their entrepreneurial
She#hawati pro)ided an interesting 7iture of the domination of the ombined
fores of feudalism and apitalism. Howe)er" while apitalism ontinued to
dominate for a little longer" the feudal system was on the deline. 9onstant
infighting amongst the Ra$puts had wea#ened them and the >ast India 9ompany
fores were only too willing to mo)e in and ta#e ontrol.
&s the impo)erished tha#urs too# to looting and plundering the ara)ans of the
traders" the #illings and robberies on the trade routes inreased. !esides the fear
and inseurity this aused them" the merhants had additional ause for worry as
!ritish patronage of Mumbai" 9alutta and Madras ports was se)erely affeting the
e2isting ara)an routes so essential to their trade. 8hen the politial senario
started deteriorating" the Marwaris needed little enouragement to migrate to
garrison towns. ?u#ily" here too" they reei)ed protetion from the !ritish" who
were wise enough to reognise their importane.
The progress in transportation and ommuniation made migration easier and soon
there was a )eritable Marwari e2odus to the states of @ttar 7radesh" Orissa" 8est
!engal" Maharashtra" Hyderabad and Mysore. Some enterprising Marwaris 0li#e
!hagwandas !agla" who is onsidered to be the first Marwari millionaire1 e)en
proeeded abroad to !urma and settled in Rangoon. The opening of the %elhi-
9alutta rail lin# ga)e a fillip to the migration and the new migrants started lining up
for $obs in their newly adopted plaes of wor#. They were helped immensely by the
early Marwari migrants whose operations had e2panded by this time" and who
needed all the help they ould get. 5oreign ompanies wanting to sell finished
!ritish goods in India re(uired agents to represent them and offered good
bro#erage. The resoureful Marwaris reognising the potential of olonial trade"
mo)ed into the ports as bro#ers and amassed a great deal of wealth.
Sine !ritish traders had de)eloped an interest in opium" tea" $ute" sil)er and gold"
the migrant traders soon speialised in these ommodities and beame the
mainstay of foreign firms. :aturally" in the proess they reaped tremendous benefits
for themsel)es4 8hile :athuram Saraf ser)ed as a bania to the firm of Miller /insell
and <hose" Ram#umar 9ho#hani of :awalgarh was the bania for ?udwig %u#e.
Hariram <oen#a was guarantee bro#er to the Ralli !rothers" On#armal Jatia to
&ndrewe Yule and &nandiial 7oddar to Toyoto Men#a /esha. The 7oddars and
Ruias of Ramgarh had set up firms in Mumbai and Ramnarain Ruia and <o)indram
<hanshyamdas were so firmly entrenhed in the otton trade that they ame to be
#nown as 'otton #ings'.
!ilasirai /edia" <ulra$ Singhania and Ramdayal :e)atia" from 5atehpur" and
:athuram 7oddar and Jo#hiram Ruia of Ramgarh" hit the big times in the opium
trade and were referred to as the magnates of the opium mar#ets. The !irlas " too"
were ra#ing it in during the 5irst 8orld 8ar" through the supply of otton and
te2tiles. 8hile Sura$mull Jhun$hunwala and :athuram Saraf were pioneers in the
loth mar#et in 9alutta" <aneriwala of ?ahhmangarh made suh a name in
Hyderabad that he was employed as the treasurer to the State.
!y early A6th entury" ontrol o)er most of the inland trade routes was in Marwari
hands. Most of the business of ban#ing" selling of loth and trading in opium was
with them. They had also started replaing the /hatris and !engalis as bro#ers.
Then" after +=+6" they started setting up industries. Sura$mull :agarmull
established the first $ute fatory in +=++" the seond three years later" and the third
in +=+-. 5ollowing this de)elopment" the !irlas opened the first Indian $ute e2port
offie in ?ondon in +=+B. They also set up a otton mill in 9alutta in +=A6 and the
famous <walior 9otton Mill in <walior" in the following year. 8hile the Se#serias set
up te2tile mills" Ram#rishan %aimia established ement fatories. Sir Saruphand
Hu#umhand was an opium speulator" and when he opened his 9alutta offie in
+=+," he onduted business to the tune of rupees fi)e million on the first day4 He
was worth Rs. +6"666"666 at the end of that finanial year.
<radually" the She#hawati Marwaris migrated to the oastal towns of undi)ided
India" under the protetion of the !ritish. The latter needed agents to" handle the
)ast imports they were thrusting upon the loal eonomy" as well as suppliers to
produe otton" muslin" opium and spies for e2port to >urope. The Marwari traders
in turn" weary of the looting tha#urs in their home towns" readily mo)ed out to set
up shop in Mumbai" 9alutta and Indore" while some e)en mo)ed as far as
Rangoon. The rest is" as they say" is history.
Marwari businesses flourished" their net worth rose beyond limits that e)en they
had set for themsel)es. & lot of this was rein)ested in their hometowns" in an
interesting manner. 5irstly" they onstruted huge palatial havelis for their lo)ed
ones who had been left behind. These handsome homes were adorned with some
of the finest most memorable fresoes in the world" by bringing in painters from the
neighboring towns of Jaipur and !i#aner.
Their ne2t at of bene)olene was toward their towns" where they had spent their
hildhood. Shools" temples" wells" hospitals" e)en olleges were built in memory
of their forefathers and donated to the town" for the de)elopment of its people. !irla
Institute of Tehnial Training" the IlTs" Ruia 9ollege" 7oddar Shool" are all results
of these ats of harity and bene)olene. 8ell-established Marwaris in)ited
nephews" unles" ousins and well wishers to ome to the ities to lend a helping
hand in the e2pansion" di)ersifiation and the onsolidation of their business there.
Other trustworthy persons were appointed ba# at home to ensure regular
prourement and supply of goods from the hinterland to the ports and other
proessing units. ?a#hs of rupees of business was onduted daily" and the
influene and the fortunes of these enterprising men rose tremendously. &fter the
Mahara$as and the thakurs ba# home" it was now the !ritishers' turn to
a#nowledge Marwari ontributions and bestow )arious honours upon the
ommunity. They were ele)ated to ity ounils" and their ad)ie sought on the
smooth running of their adopted ities. The onset of the Seond 8orld 8ar might
ha)e disrupted the seafaring routes that the Marwaris were so hea)ily dependent
on" but then the large &llied fores ould not ob)iously marh on empty stomahs.
The fores needed food" uniforms" shoes and ammunition. The more suessful
Marwaris (ui#ly di)ersified" and mills and fatories in Mumbai" Indore and 9alutta
were soon spinning out newer re(uirements. So by the time the freedom fighters
managed to get the !ritishers out of the ountry" India already had its first rop of
self-made millionaire industrialists" and abo)e all" a reasonably good industriali3ed
setor. 7andit :ehru" despite his other short-sighted deisions" reali3ed the
immense potential of this nasent" fast growing setor" and set about enouraging
the !irlas" <oen#as" %almias" Ruias" 7oddars and Singhanias amongst others" to
e2pand" di)ersify" and get into ore setors. Today" these )ery names figure in the
who's who of Indian industry and eonomy. 9orporations and groups now bear the
names of those industrious few" whose sions still hold ontrolling shares in large
ompanies run by board of diretors" ompany seretaries" and other tehnorats"
armed with M!&s" IIT degrees and what not. The old order hanges for the better"
one hopes. &s a modern eonomy stri)ing towards liberali3ation" we ob)iously
need modern methods to run these ompanies" whih started with meager
beginnings from towns and )illages that today are but a tourist destination for the
art lo)ers from >urope.
Rarely has the world seen so rih a uisine from so little that was a)ailable from the
land. 8hile the eastern region of the state has fertile soil apable of growing rops
from wheat and mai3e to millets and orn" the desertCs dry terrain prone to
droughts" was inapable of produing e)en basi neessities of sur)i)al. Yet" li)e
and eat they did" reating an e2oti uisine from the soil that threw up a few pulses"
rops of millet" and trees with beans that were dried and stored for use" when in the
summers" nothing would grow.
9ommuniation and faster means of transportation ha)e brought in a re)olution in
the hoie of )egetables and fruits that are now a)ailable throughout the state" but
this was not always so. 8hih is why the )illagers diet still remains sparse and
onsists of dairy produe" bread of millets and aompaniments of gram flour and
sour buttermil#" whih dietiians aross the world say" is a high-protein" low-fat
uisine. 7erhaps that is what gi)es the people of the desert their eret gait and
slender build.
Though the Ra$asthani #ithen was able to reate muh from little" it had also to
ater to different ommunities with their own ritual obser)anes. The Ra$put warrior"
for e2ample" was not a)erse to shikar, #illing game to put in his pot at night. The
Daishna)s" followers of /rishna were )egetarian" and stritly so" as were the
!ishnois" a ommunity #nown for their passion to onser)e both animal and plant
life. >)en among the Ra$puts" there were numerous royal #ithens where nothing
other than )egetarian meals were oo#ed. The Marwaris were )egetarians too" but
their uisine" though not too different from the Ra$puts" was riher in its method of
preparation. &nd then there were the Jains" who were not only )egetarians" but who
would not eat after sundown and whose food had to be de)oid of garli and onions"
whih were otherwise" important ingredients in the Ra$asthani pot. TO7E
To begin with the Ra$put" then" as a hunter-warrior" he often bagged his game"
whih is why the Ra$asthani repertoire has e)erything from )enison and hare to wild
boar on its menu. Howe)er" sine the go)ernment" for fear of endangering these
wild speies bans these" the Ra$asthani meal has almost ome to imply mutton.
The Ra$put is a reent" relutant on)ert to hi#en and e)en though the la#es
abound in fish" it rarely finds its way into his #ithen.
&n important feature of non-)egetarian oo#ing in the Ra$put #ithen was that it
was rarely oo#ed on the main sto)e in the #ithen" and usually employed the male
head of the family as its hef. >ssential ingredients inluded onions and garli and
a )egetable alled kachri, whih is part of the uumber family" as a marinade. The
meat" first basted in the spies and then roasted in a pot o)er a wood fire" was
turned into gra)y and eaten with millet rotis.
9olonel James TodCs treatise" Annals and Antiquities of Rajputana, notes that Fthe
Ra$put...hunts and eats the boar and deer" and shoots du#s and wild fowlG. !ut
though the Ra$put is a meat-eater" he is by no means a passionate one who has to
ha)e mutton on his table for e)ery meal. Degetarian food too forms a large part of
his diet. <ame" in fat" had been a part of the reed of the warriorH when out
amping in the desert" what is a)ailable forms the basis of the ne2t meal. &nd so
too" when the rest of the ountry follows stritly rigid )egetarian protool as during
the elebration of :a)ratri" the festi)al of nine nights" the Ra$put offers his %e)i a
goat as sarifie" beheading the beast with one blow of his sword. On all nine days"
a similar offering is made" and the oo#ed meat eaten as onserated food. In
Ra$asthan" most families will arrange for at least one suh sarifie during the
festi)al and sometimes goats are speially reared in family ba#yards for the ritual
hikar pro)ided a meal for the family" or for the )illage" or else e2pedition members
shared the spoils to ta#e their indi)idual portions home. Howe)er" if there was more
meat than ould be onsumed" it was pi#led for later onsumption. Denison and
por#" espeially" were oo#ed in rih masalas before being preser)ed in oil and
)inegar. 7or# fat" alled sauth, was #ept for winter days" when it would be hewed
as pre)ention against olds.
Sine men often did the oo#ing themsel)es and sine e2peditions away from
home for reasons of war rarely allowed the lu2ury of well-e(uipped #ithens" a
more rudimentary method of barbeuing reated its distinti)e style of desert
oo#ing. 8hen small animals were bagged" suh as a desert hare" the animal was
leaned" stuffed and allowed to oo# in a sand pit with a bed of li)e oals o)ering
it" often o)ernight. 8ith large animals" this was not possible" so the meat was
marinated using kachri to impart its distinti)e tang" and then this was barbeued
o)er a bed of li)e oals. This" alled sula" is still onsidered a deliay and has a
tangy fla)our on aount of the sour marinade.
The women" whether the family was )egetarian or meat eating" had their tas# ut
out for them. They would dry the meagre sangri and gwarphali beans that are
edible and store them for future use. They would also ma#e papads and endless
other )ariations and dry them later to be turned into urries for the family. One
again" using onions" garli and mustard" red hilli powder and a handful of other
spies" these would be put on the family pot in the #ithen" with yoghurt for
&ompaniments rarely hanged o)er the region. !arhi, more popularly #nown as
khatta" formed -- as it ontinues to today -- a part of the staple diet. Made with
buttermil# 0or sometimes" yogurt1" it is mi2ed with hi#pea flour and allowed to
oo# with mustard seeds and rushed garli lo)es. The longer it stays on the fire"
the better its taste. @sual )egetables are sangri and gwarphali " beans stored for
the length of the year after drying" and oo#ed in yogurt and masalas. #apads"
eaten roasted elsewhere in India" are also prepared in a gra)y in Ra$asthan" as is
bhuji$a, a popular moth-lentil sna#. 9hi#pea flour an be freshly rolled out as
dumplings to ma#e gatte"ka"saag, while sun-dried moth-lentil dumplings are also
oo#ed as badi"ka"saag.
These are all eaten with either bread onsisting of bajra rotis" unlea)ened millet
bread" oo#ed o)er wood fires" or a porridge made using millet grains and moth
lentils oo#ed together with water" a little spie and some ghee" to ma#e khichra, a
more filling" more potent )ersion of what elsewhere in India is alled khichri 0though
this uses rie as its base1. !hichra, the night mainstay of the stateCs farming
ommunities" is eaten with ghee" and aompanied by either $aggery or karhi. The
dayCs meal for the wor#ing lass onsists of ba$ra rotis eaten with moth-daal" or with
a fiery red-hilli-and-garli hutney and washed down with raabori, millet flour
oo#ed in buttermil#" belie)ed to be e2tremely ooling in the summer heat of the
%esserts were" by and large rare" though e2oti onotions from )egetables were
sometimes ser)ed. 5or most" for festi)e oasions" these would onsist of seera, a
halwa made of oo#ed wheat flour in ghee, or laapsi" a porridge made with
desiated grains of wheat. Rie" a deliay in Ra$asthan" was ser)ed as a sweet
with the addition of sugar" saffron and dried nuts and raisins.
Many more )egetables are now a)ailable in Ra$asthan" with e)en little towns made
olourful with the produe of )egetable )endors. Most of these )egetables are
oo#ed in the same way as its hi#pea and lentil-based urries and there are
usually no distinti)e reipes that allow the taste of one )egetable to differ from
The Marwaris" howe)er" were onsiderably more la)ish with the inputs in their
#ithen. & typial meal for them ould onsist of pishta"lonj ser)ed with a glass of
mil# laed with ream. Then" puris fried in hot oil" made with both wheat flour as
well as with matar added to turn them a lo)ely green. 8ith it" tamatar"ki"sabji, a
tomato urry" at one sweet and sour and hot, gatte"ka"saag with sha)ings of
ashew added" and sangri"ker"ka"saag with the oil oo3ing out" and dahi"bhallas" of
ourse. This would be followed by sooji"ka"halwa, a pudding thatCs easy to ma#e
but still a daily fa)ourite and perhaps a glass of lassi at the end of the meal.
Marwari food uses the same basi ingredients of the Ra$puts" but is a riher
)ersion" with more spies and herbs being added to the masala and oo#ed in
more fat. The Marwaris eat two meals" in the morning and at sundown. !oth onsist
of a great )ariety of rotis and puris puffed in piping hot oil. There are a large number
of aompaniments by way of chutne$s, some sweet" others sour. %atta, sangri
and a tomato )egetable urry are fa)ourites" all of them oo#ed in a good deal of
larified butter" the sour taste of the fla)ouring ingredients utting through the fat to
reate its own distinti)e taste. !er, a hard desert berry" is often added to pi#les" or
sangri" or oo#ed on its own. The amount of hillies used is somewhat more
urtailed" and mango powder 0amchur& and rai 0mustard seeds1 dominate. The
Marwaris also prefer heeng or asafoetida to the Ra$put preferene for garli.
The Marwari sweet tooth is legendary and sine they were traders" they had
greater aess to the mar#ets not only of India but also south-east &sia. They were"
therefore" able to store dry fruits suh as almonds" pistahios" ashews and poppy
seeds 0khus& and were able to use them in their puddings. 'alwas, barfis and
ladoos are part of the Marwari repertoire" along with til" sesame" whih was used
for both sweets as well as main ourses.
%airy has played an important role in the eonomy of the desert" espeially sine
agriulture ould ne)er be ta#en for granted. The onsumption of mil#" buttermil#
and yogurt formed a part of the main diet" but with the e2eption of those regions
with aess to rie-growing areas" the rie-porridge kheer, ne)er beame popular in
Ra$asthan. !ut mil#-based sweets" barfis" didI so muh so that to date" sweet
sellers all o)er the ountry refer to themsel)es as !i#aneri sweet speialists.
9ontrarily" the otherwise popular Indian dessert is the prinipal offering during the
Muslim @rs and >id festi)als at &$mer when auldrons of it are prepared at the
%argah of /hwa$a Moinuddin 9hishti. The auldrons are up to three metres in
diameter. One the rie" mil#" sugar" larified butter" nuts" spies" dry fruits are
blended and oo#ed" attendants at the shrine $ump into its salding entre" to ser)e
it as a holy offering to the pilgrims" the ontents dramatially diminishing as the
waiting rowds onsume it as prasad. This" of ourse" is an oasional offering.
Most days" the large tureens ser)e a mi2ture of rie" meat and lentils -- a meal in
one go.
Regional specialities
If Jaipur has its speialty" none of the other prinely states ha)e lagged behind.
!i#aner has its sa)ouries" espeially bhuji$a, whih has aounted for its fame and
the (uality of its papads and badi remains unri)alled. The lean mutton of the desert
goats of this region too is onsidered the most fa)ourable. Jodhpur has its kachoris"
puffed breads with stuffing -- those with mawa being e2traordinarily sweet" while
others ha)e biting hot green hillies laed with a masala that is also intended to
singe the palate. In !haratpur" mil# sweets" rarely ommerially a)ailable" oupy a
nihe by themsel)es. One suh sweet has mil# boiled o)er hours to a onsisteny
when it an be folded into little pana#es that" (uite literally" melt in the mouth. &
Ra$asthani deliay" lin#ed with the monsoon festi)al of Tee$" is alled ghevar,
onsisting of round a#es of white flour o)er whih sweetened syrup is poured.
Today" )ariations inlude laings with ream and kho$a" ma#ing it a delightful
onotion. Muslim food has also oupied a plae in the o)erall uisine of the
state" not $ust in po#ets suh as Ton# and ?oharu" but also in Jaipur where the
Muslim raftsmen ha)e been #nown to elebrate >id with great (uantities of #ebabs
and pasandas, and with sevai$an so fine" it annot be rolled elsewhere.
Shikar (Hunting) in Rajasthan
Till the time of independene" hunting e2peditions or shikar were organised with
fanfare. &t the top of the heap was simply the thrill of bagging tiger or panther and
mounting another trophy on the wall. %rummers and beaters would round up the
$ungleCs beasts" as they marhed towards the machan" the raised platform where
the hunters sat" with their guns ready. These were heads of Ra$asthanCs prinely
families" e)en zenana women" and sometimes the >nglish who were in)ited for the
sport to establish a soial intimay with the ruling lasses. @daipur and JaipurCs
tiger hunts were famous" and !haratpurCs du# shoots legendary 0>dward DII
bagging as many as A"AA+ du#s in a single dayCs shoot alone1. 7ig sti#ing was
fa)oured in &lwar as also in @daipur" though it was in Jodhpur that the then 7rine
of 8ales met his omeuppane.
One" on a pig sti#ing e2pedition in the ountryside" the )isiting royal from
>ngland hose to dismount" at whih the Marwar Regent" Sir 7ratap Singh solded
him in his somewhat inaurate >nglishH FYou #now you 7rine of 8ales. I #now
you 7rine of 8ales. !ut pig not #now you 7rine of 8ales.G Reportedly" the royal
)isitor immediately limbed ba# on to the saddle.
!ut it was an in)itation to the annual imperial sand grouse shoot in !i#aner that no
one dared missH it simply belonged on the top of the heap in soiety" so designed
by Mahara$a <anga Singh at the <a$ner hunting lodge. It was not all pleasure"
howe)er" for the suess of the shoot often swayed the way the !ritish granted
fa)ours and onessions to the #ingdom. :o wonder it had been turned into suh
an e)ent.
In olden days" the profession of the people deided their aste. This system
has now been bro#en. Today" indi)iduals ha)e the freedom to opt for any
profession irrespeti)e of aste. The profession based aste system has now
been transformed into birth-based aste system. 7eople of )arious astes and
sub-astes reside in Ra$asthan.
The Ra$asthanis are sturdy" heerful and simple fol#s relati)ely untouhed by
the fast pae of modern times ma#ing Ra$asthan one of the safest destinations
anywhere in the world.
Colourful and Ornamental
It is also one of the most olourful. To offset the
barren" olourless landsape and the
monotony of its loudless s#y" the people of
Ra$asthan show a distint preferene for bright
ostumes. 5rom the simple )illage fol# or tribal to
the ra$as and ranis" the preferred olours are
bright red" da33ling yellow" li)ely green or
brilliant orange" highlighted by a la)ish use of
spar#ling gold and sil)er 3ari or gota.
Tribal and nomadi women are #nown for their lo)e for sil)er $ewellery
0although men too sport ear studs and earrings1. The ornaments follow age-
old designs typial of a partiular tribe. In daily use the ladies wear normal
ornaments of ne#" hand" nose and ear but on speial oasions and soial
funtions. 8omen wear all the ornaments of different parts of the body to loo#
beautiful and attrati)e. 5or its e2(uisite designs and deliay of art Ra$asthan
Jewelry is a rage not only for ladies of India but also for women of foreign
Mind!oggling "ur!ans
In India" the turban is popularly #nown as a pagdi. There are different
)ariations of the turban" depending on the religion and region. In fat" in
Ra$asthan" it is said that the turban style hanges with e)ery +,#m you tra)el.
&nd Ra$put turbans are different from Si#h turbans" whih are in turn different
from the lassial &rab turbans. Then" there are the royal turbans from
different parts of India" and the rural turban whih is often $ust a towel wound
round the head. India is a land of di)ersities. &nd it is all the more pronouned
in Ra$asthan. &n old loal saying sums it up -
*The dialet" uisine" water and turbans in Ra$asthan hange e)ery +A miles.*
In fat there are about +"666 different styles and types of turbans in Ra$asthan"
eah denoting the lass" aste and region of the wearer.Turbans ome in all
shapes" si3es and oloursI and there are speifi turbans for speifi
oasions as well.
# lineage of !eautiful women
Ra$asthani women ha)e been renowned for their grae and beauty. &lauddin
/hil$i" the Sultan of %elhi" was so smitten by the beauty of the legendary
Maharani 7admini %e)i of 9hittaurgarh that he waged a war -in )ain - for her
hand. In her heydays" the present day Ra$mata of Jaipur" Maharani <ayatri
%e)i" was onsidered by Dogue to be amongst the Ten Most !eautiful 8omen
in the 8orld. &nd her harm hasn't diminished one bit till today4
Marwaris the $ews of %ndia
The term Marwari literally refers to someone who hails from or is an inhabitant
of Marwar - the erstwhile Jodhpur state. This term gained urreny initially in
!engal" where the traders from She#hawati and other parts of Ra$asthan
established their business empires. %istint in their dress" ustoms and
language" the traders and merhants of Ra$asthan ame to be #nown as
Marwaris. Ra$asthan's greatest ontribution to the ountry's eonomy has
been in the field of Human Resoures. The term Marwari is a misnomer.
?iterally spea#ing" it signifies a person from the Marwar0Jodhpur1 region of
Ra$asthan" although the ma$ority of Ra$asthan's businessmen are from the
She#ha)ati belt. Howe)er" ollo(uially it has ome to denote emigrant
businessmen from the )iinity of Ra$asthan.
Traditionally" traders par e2ellene" they migrated from their home state way
ba# in the +-th entury and established trading outposts as far away as
&ssam - the eastern orner of India. 8ith their ingrained thrift and
perse)erane 0in those days" people had to wal# miles and miles o)er
sorhing sands for a pot of water41 and business aumen" they soon
on)erted these small businesses into industrial empires. Today" the marwaris
dominate India's business and eonomy. &s an &merian soiologist put it"
*more than half the assets in the modern setor of the Indian eonomy are
ontrolled by the trading astes originating in the northern half of Ra$asthan.*

'ija or germ is the su!tlest form of this uni(erse. &ording to 7urusha
Su#tha" the sublime )edi song" one fourth of the JSupreme 7ersonC has beome
this manifest world and the rest is unmanifest maintaining its essential status.
Thus the di)inity and purity of the phenomenal world is un(uestionable. It should
not be lowered when passing through media. The funtion of the mind is )ital
behind the onept of purity and impurity. The primordial onept of this uni)erse
being di)ine and pure" the germ or !i$a forming out of food has its original halo
around it. &s the germ de)elops into the <iganti mass of the @ni)erse e)ery are
must be ta#en to $ustify the purified onept of the germ.
&gain Purusha Sukta e2plains that the Supreme 7urusha" the manifest reality
behind the osmi world has infinite heads" eyes and legs. 8hat are these infinite
organs other than those beings ranging from the lowest to the highest le)el. If we lay
hand on any li)e substane for our physial maintenane" we are utting off one of
the organs of the Supreme 7urusha of whom we are also made. This being the
truth" origin of the nature is not materialisti. 8e an onnet the onept of Yoga
with the different stages of de)elopment. Spirit is not essentially different from
matter. Hene proeeds the di)inity of life and the onept of non-)iolene 0&himsa1.
Hene it is the santion of Degetarianism" whih purify eah organ of the uni)erse
through the ageny of the Human body. Human beings alone are apable of higher
understanding and realisation. !alaning purity in the body through )egetables
leads to the balaned purity in the mehanism of the uni)erse.
It is pro)ed that the )egetable world also manifests life. !ut it is JThamasiC in
harater" ie." inati)e and a )egetarian has tra)ersed three or four subtler regions in
the spiritual life than the non-)egetarian. That plants are sensiti)e to musi" apable
of feeling et." is at present a pro)en fat. !ut their de)eloping anything to organi
e2pression or mind-stuff is not yet supported by e)idene. The JthamasiC nature of
the )egetable world may be onfirmed. 7lants ha)e to tra)erse ountless regions to
assert in the realm of spirituality. The spiritual mehanism of the world is rele)ant
when the osmi person is desribed as ha)ing indefinite heads" arms and legs. The
energy o)erflowing from the supreme <od-head is supporting e)ery limb and
mo)ement in the uni)erse. &ny attempt to e2plain away the world by the appliation
of material siene is fatal to the spiritual goal of man. The Yogi disards e)en dry
lea)es wholly depends on the inta#e of air. JSwayam Disheernadrumaparna)rttiha
7ara hi /ashta ThapasaC. The supreme stage of penane onsists in the eating of
lea)es dropping from the trees on their own. This (uotation is from J )umara
Sam!ha(amC of /alidasa.
Philosoph* !ehind (egetarianism
Degetarianism is not merely a ode of eating habits. There is a
grand philosophy behind it whih demands deeper
understanding. Degetarian food an de)elop the finer struture
of the mind whih is helpful in the realisation of the final end of
humanity. The apaity of the mind to grasp purer ideas and
de)elop on subtler lines is amply inreased by the inta#e of
Sat)i food. The mind itself is the refleted e2periene of life in
the body. 7urity of the mind depends on the purity of the body
also. Hene the rele)ane of Sat)i food is implied. The mind
grows steadfast and is ne)er sha#en by e)il impulses. The relation of the mind to
the osmi purpose of reation is e)ident from the following paragraph. Indian
philosophy attempts to reonile e)ery mo)ement in the world with the osmi
purpose. :ot a single element is relegated to the ba#ground. J&nnat !ha)anti
Status of the animal world
&ll forms of life" as integral parts of nature" must be respeted. Indian
religious system insists on the reognition of the sub-human le)els of e2istene. &n
appreiation of all forms of life is essential to transend the domain of nature. In our
metaphysial (uest as suh" we may respet the laws of nature and pass almly
through her. >ating of meat is )iolation of nature and leads to the degeneration of
human nature. The animal world has also to be preser)ed to ser)e the di)ine
purpose behind reation. Imbalane in nature is ne)er in fa)our of the preser)ation
of the world.
+ife on the water* le(el
7lants and shrubs are of more watery ontent than the animals. 7ain is absent on
the watery le)el. The )egetable world is more serene and nobler that a moderate
onsumption of )egetables does not send aute pain through the inner and subtler
region. The onept of ausal waters 0/aran Jalam1 is a dominant fator. &ll the pain
and agony of phenomenal e2istene is ultimately merged into the primordial waters
at the phase of total dissolution. This dissolute waters turns into life waters at the
beginning of reation" out of whih is pro$eted the different stages of the reated
world. The all embraing power of the ausal waters also sends its pure fore
through the )egetable world. &t the time of reation spae is issued out of the
priniple of J&ham#araC 0ego1. &ir proeeds from spae" 5ire from &ir" 8ater from
5ire and finally >arth from 8ater. This proess fa)ours the onept of the self-same
base" the primal substratum of the uni)erse. Spae gi)es rise to the (uality of
Sound" &ir to Touh" 5ire to 5orm" 8ater to Taste and >arth to Smell. This is all
desribed in the !haga)atha Mahapurana. It is lear that water is a finer element
than >arth. Man plu#ing and eating )egetables seldom disturbs the balaned state
of the reated world.
Man not carni(orous !* nature
The struture of the human body is not in fa)our of eating flesh. The sharp laws
and the pointed teeth are remar#ably absent in man. 9arni)orous animals are
endowed with suitable intestines" #idney and li)er in order to support their meat
eating habits. The small intestines in the arni)orous animals are onspiuously
shorter and unbelie)ably lengthy in man. >)en arni)orous animals eat the
herbi)orous ones not the arni)orous speies. The herbi)ores feeding on herbs and
shrubs are supported by nature and in turn helping the arni)ores. Thus the herbal
system 0yli system of life remembered1 ser)es as a li)ing lin# between the
herbi)ores and arni)ores. The struture and funtion of the human organs are
different and destined to be softened in the onte2t of finer tastes and disrimination.
Man is more resoureful in ad$usting himself with any irumstane.
Medicinal (alue
The mediinal )alue of herbs and plants are well #nown. The Sans#rit word for
herbs and plants is JOushadhiC. JOushadhamC made out JOushadhiC means mediine.
Remedy for all #nown diseases an be found in nature" in the )egetable world. The
)edas and the @panishads ontain lue to this. Rishis of anient India who are the
ad)oates of &himsa" are great physiians also. :ature ure is a reognised system
of mediine in India and the rest of the world.
'ad effect of eating flesh
&nimals faing slaughter de)elop a hain of psyhologial infirmities. & serum
forming out of fear would poison the blood and flesh of the #illed animal. This ats
as a negati)e fore and is harmful to health. 7art of life of the animal will be
shattering through the s#in pores of the body and the nature of fear aumulated in
the proess of #illing and deposited on the flesh will ne)er help a meat eater. Meat
eating has a bad effet on the wor#ing of the mind. The hain of frustration and
ultimate agony will disturb the subonsious le)el of the uni)ersal mind. The
indi)idual mind and the @ni)ersal mind are one and the same in the final analysis.
&ny e2ess of bad impressions is sure to upset the ideal balane of the total mind
stuff. & part of bad impressions would get entangled with the mangled flesh of the
slain animal" the earthy aspet dominating there. Moreo)er the negati)e fore
07apa1 of life would settle where)er the same fre(ueny of thought wa)es is
e2istent. &s a result the #iller and the eater will go degenerate in their subonsious
le)els. Sientists and dotors do not enourage the tendeny to meat eating.
Degetables an pro)ide the re(uired substane for a healthy life.
#ll passing through the medium of (egeta!les
&nimals easing from life" pass through the medium of )egetables. 7lants grow on
the ruins of dead animals. Thus all forms of life" disintegrating" are transformed into
the fi)e elements" the gross aspet sti#ing to the earth. &ording to the &dhyatma
Ramayana 0/ish#inda /andam - Sampathi Da#yam1 the Ji)a" depri)ed of merit
07unya1 falls down from hea)en. It has a short life in the lunar world 0the moon is the
symbol of mind1. Then ontinuing its ourse" the Ji)a sprouts as rie plant on earth.
Rie beomes food" semen and falls into the womb of woman. The life yle
ultimately depends on the medium of )egetables.
JJi)a......#sheenapunya padatyar)aganihha
7atit)a mandale hendostato neeharasamyuta"
!hoomau patit)a )reehyadau tatra stit)a hiram puna
!hoot)a hatur)idham bho$yam purushai bhu$yate tata
Reto bhootya punastena streeyoni samhitaC
0&dhyatma Ramayana1
The onept of time in measuring the ourse of a Ji)a is indefinable. Some
moments in the higher elestial worlds are e(ual to millions of years on earth. There
is an episode in the !haga)atha Mahapurana. /ing Re)ata passed a few minutes
with his daughter Re)athi beside the seat of ?ord !rahma in the Sathya ?o#a. The
musi that was going on" easing" the supreme ?ord heard the prayers of the #ing.
The perusal of the horosope of Re)athi graiously granting the ?ord dro)e the #ing
to the fat that twenty eight haturyugas had already passed on earth sine his
departure from his earthly ity. 0 A; 2 +A"666 2 K-6 human years 1. The insrutable
play of time passes the understanding of the most refined mind. It is against suh
immeasurable and inonei)able ba#ground that the merit and defet of human
beings tending to go )egetarian or non-)egetarian should be onsidered. &rgument
both ways is not ad)isable. This is not the plane of reason" but the plane of intuition.
Spiritual de(elopment
&lthough hinted at in the beginning of this essay" the spiritual rele)ane here
demands serious understanding. &himsa and )egetarianism is the basi onept of
Didi#a Sanathana %harma. &himsa is the primary e(uipment for spiritualism.
J&himsa 7aramo %harmaC. &himsa 0non-)iolene1 is a nobler onept than the so
alled olerane. &himsa aims at purity and balane" the sat)i (uality. 9ertain
)arieties of )egetables suh as onion and garli are predominantly ra$asi and are
a)oided in a spiritual life. Thus ahimsa and )egetarianism are inseparably
onneted with the Sanathana %harma. &lso onsider the selfless ser)ie" the
)egetable world is rendering. The Sanathani oneption prohibits ta#ing food from
selfish and impure agents. The innoent animals" mostly the ob$et of manCs a)arie"
ra)ing for their life are most selfish and form the most impure food when
slaughtered. Here dotrine of &himsa should do $ustie to the animal world and
delare its affinity with )egetarianism.
,ajna concept and -ni(ersal mind
Ya$na onept or ser)ie pattern of the of the )egetables is fundamental to the life
system. JSar)am Ya$ne 7ratishtithamC. The green world ma#es the earth fit for life of
the animal world ranging in )ariety from from the smallest unit of life to man. The
)egetable and the animal regions are harmoniously interwo)en into a single
household. The distributory system of ser)ie in the osmi pattern is meant to help
eah speies to ross through its present status to a higher le)el. This proess will
ontinue without hurting any aspet of the uni)ersal life system. The balaning of
7unya 0merit1 and 7apa 0defet1 is possible through this mehanism. 7unya an be
defined as the positi)e fore of life distributed in the physial system of the uni)erse
whih helps to pass through all the barriers of worldly e2istene and ulminates in
the most purified form of life" rid of all Dasanas 0instints1. The negati)e fore of life
absorbed by the life system un#nowingly" owing to the impetus of the dominant fore
of the material world is alled 7apa whih breeds relati)e and binding fores. The
implied balane of 7unya and 7apa may not be disturbed. Selfless ation arouses
purified regions in the uni)ersal mind and is blessed and blessing. Selfish impulses
ha)e the same negati)e impat. Man" on aount of his superior power for
reasoning" is e2peted to maintain this Ya$na onept of the nature and at as a
onsious agent for the spiritual well-being of the world. Impat of the indi)idual
mind on the uni)ersal mind has already been asserted. This essay proposes to halt"
in)iting a referene to the well #nown e2periment onduted under the sun. 9ertain
young rabbits were separated from their mother" ta#en far away under the sun and
#illed. The psyhologial hange o)er the mother rabbit was losely measured
simultaneously. The on)ulsion and agony that o)ertoo# the mother was so
remar#able that the subtler lin# onneting the feelings of two minds plaed at
distant plaes is baffling the intellet of man. The onept of Ya$na that is manifest in
the world ser)es the supreme di)ine purpose and finally rests on and merges into
the supreme !rahman.
#nnat 'ha(anti 'hootani
,ajnat 'ha(anti Parjan*o
,ajna )armasamud!ha(a
'rahmod!ha(an &iddhi
( 'haga(ad .ita )

Marwaris are traditionally )ery strit )egeterians and in Marwaris there are Jains
who ha)e )ery strong food taboos. Jains refrain from eating e)en tubular
)egetables and other tamsi foods li#e onion" potato et. 5ood is sarvansadha for
The season of %angaur brings Ra$asthani woman to her Maike 0mother's house1 in
Ra$asthan to elebrate this olourful festi)al. It's the time of fasting" feasting L
elebration. Speial in)itations to eat dishes li#e maida paparis, bajra !hichri and
the saabri will hum among Ra$asthan families. The mare ki kachori of Jodhpur" the
!hasta !achori of /otah" the spiy and rispy ev from !i#aner" the !alakand of
Jaipur" Alwarka mil# ade" $uiy melons of Ton#" the tilpapri of !eawar are some of
the deliious dishes of Ra$asthan. The sweet dudh ka thag is a lo)ely desert ser)ed
in e)ery marwari family.
5rom the Ra$put warrior to the marwari family lapsi, khichri, saag, chandali$a,
bajre"ki"roti, khanchra no saag, lehson ki chatni are some of the day to day food
Preser(ing /ood
Ra$asthani food is highly spied to preser)e and ontains number of berries and
roots from desert that are healthy and herbal. In a state of desert and water pauity"
marwaris had to be inno)ati)e to sur)i)e and therfore the fine art of food
preser)ation beame the greatest need. Some of the preser)ed food stuff inludesH
sangri 0radish pods1I luster beans" !air ( kumtia" large red peppers" methi seeds"
tamarind" raw mangoes for amhur" urad ( moon$ dal papads and )adis.
Maharajas0s and Maharani0s
The male oo# is alled Mahara$ and the female oo#s are alled Misranis or
!rahmanis. The oo# must always wear lean lothes before he enters the #ithen.
& great deal of importane is gi)en to the purity and leanliness of the food. >)en
today many families eat sitting on the floor on flat wooden boards alled chowkis
and the women ser)e the familiy.
In Ra$asthan those who feed others are /nown as annadatas. In the heat" foods
that protet you form heat is ser)ed. chana curds, wheat, rice, khichri, sugarcane
juice, sherbat, thandai are some of the summmer fa)ourites.
&s the name sounds" this has fi)e basi ingredients- sangri, kair ( kumtia, dried
red chillies, amchur cooked in oil and basi masalas. It's a )ery fa)ourite dish of
marwaris li#e ghevar and besan ladoos. &nother deliious ool dish is bajre ki
khich. This is a tasty #hihidi made with millet" yoghurt" masala L peas with
hopped ginger L turmeri. This is ser)ed with chaach ka khatta made from
Rarely has the world seen so rih a uisine from so little that was a)ailable
from the land. Ra$asthani oo#ing was influened by the war-li#e lifestyle of its
inhabitants and the a)ailability of ingredients in this region. 7reser)ability was
the riterion and food that ould last for se)eral days was preferred. Sarity
of water" fresh green )egetable ha)e all had their effet on the oo#ing.
Minimum use of water and a preferene for mil#" buttermil# and larified butter
an still be obser)ed. %ried lentils" beans from indigenous plants li#e #air"
sangri" et are liberally used. 7erhaps the best-#nown Ra$asthani food is the
ombination of dal" bati and hurma but besides this there is still a mar#ed
distintion in what people of different astes prefer to eat.
"raditional o!ser(ance
Though the Ra$asthani #ithen has to ater to different ommunities with their
own traditional fla)ors. The Ra$put warrior" for e2ample" is not a)erse to
shi#ar" #illing game to put in his pot at night. The Daishna)s" followers of
/rishna" are strit )egetarians. So are !ishnois" a ommunity #nown for its
passion for onser)ing animal and plant life.
The Marwaris of She#hawati" of ourse" are )egetarian too" but their uisine"
though not too different from the Ra$puts" is riher in its method of
preparation. &nd there are the Jains" who are not only )egetarians" but do not
eat after sunset and their food is de)oid of garli and onions" otherwise"
important ingredients in the Ra$asthani pot.
Regional Specialties
&ll the prinely states of the past" boast of their own regional speialties.
!i#aner has its own sa)ories" espeially bhu$iya and rasgulla" whih has
aounted for its fame and the (uality of its papads remain unri)alled.
Jodhpur has its ma#haniya lassi and #ahoris" puffed breads with stuffing
those with mawa 0ondensed mil#1" while others ha)e biting hot green hillies
laed with a 'masala' that is also intended to titillate the palate.
In !haratpur" mil# sweets oupy a nihe by themsel)es. Ra$asthani deliay
lin#ed with the monsoon festi)al of Tee$ is alled <he)ar" onsisting of round
a#es of white flour o)er whih sweetened syrup is poured. There are other
notable regional deliaies to be sa)ored li#e ?adoos from Jaisalmer" Malpua
from 7ush#ar and /ala#and from Jaipur.
M#R1#R% R2C%P22S
'R2#3S #43 R%C2
M#R1#R% RO"%
1hole wheat flour ,66 gm. ,oghurt ( a da* old ) + up
.ram flour M up "urmeric Powder + tsp
Onion seeds M tsp. /enugreek seeds N tsp.
Red Chili Powder + tsp. .inger ( finel* chopped) M tsp
#safoetida N tsp. .reen Coriander (minced) + tsp.
.reen Chilies (minced) + tsp. Oil + tbsp.
Salt to taste 1ater A ups
!lend the yogurt" gram flour" turmeri" red hilies" ginger" asafoetida" salt and water
together. The mi2ture should not be lumpy. Heat a hea)y bottom pan with oil and ra#
the fenugree# seeds and umin seeds.
&dd the yoghurt mi2ture" stirring onstantly.8hen it starts boiling" redue flame to
simmer" oo# till the mi2ture thi#ens and doesn't taste raw. &dd the green oriander
and green hilies. Set aside to ool.
!lend the flour with + up of ooled saue to a smooth homogeneous dough. %i)ide
into e(ual si3e balls and allow to rest for a while. Roll out on a dusted table and oo# on
your non-sti# pan on a low heat till oo#ed.
Ser)e hot with a #nob of white butter and sweetened ream as an aompaniment. I
also suggest that you oo# it li#e a parantha" with ghee or oil.
& tadkewali lehsuni channa dal from your mother's reipe enylopedia would be an
e2ellent aompaniment to the menu.
The best way to end this fabulous lunheon would be with fresh ut fruits..

#+OO )# R#%"#
!oiled 7otatoes 0!ig1 H .-,
Onion 0finely hopped1 H A
<reen 9hilies 0hopped1H A
9oriander ?ea)es 0hopped1H & few
Mustard OilH + tsp
Salt H +OA tsp
Red 9hilly 7owderH +OA tsp
Jeera 0roasted and powdered1H +OA tsp
7eel the potatoes and mash them oarsely. &dd all the other ingredients and mi2
Mainly to be ser)ed with !aati

'%)#42R% CH#4# 3#+ P#R#4"H#
Maida H ,66 gms
Salt L Red hilly powder H to taste
Oil H A66 gms
%haniya powder H M tsp.
9hana dal H A,6 gms
<aram masala H M tsp.
&dd salt and A tbsp oil to maida. &dd water and ma#e a soft dough. Soa# hana dal
for - hours. !oil it in a pressure oo#er with a glassful of water. 8ait for + whistle.
Turn off the gas. %rain away the water and grind the dal. Heat A tbsp oil in a #adahi.
&dd dal paste and roast it for K-. minutes. &dd all the masala powder. 8hen it
ools down stuff this paste into maida balls. The paranthas should be as thin as a
papad. Ma#e soft paranthas an hour before ser)ing. Ser)e with &loo %um Masala"
Raita and 9hutney.
R#$#S"H#4% 3#H% &#3#
Moong %al Dada 0medium si3e1 H+6
9urd H ,66 gms
Sugar H A tbsp
Salt H to taste
<aram masala H +OA tsp
Roasted Jeera 7owder H + tsp
Red 9hilly powder +H tsp
Tamarind 9hutney H + up
9oriander ?ea)es H 0finely hopped1 a few
Soa# moong-dal )ada for .-, hours. 8hile ser)ing" s(uee3e out the water. 7ut it in
a ser)ing plate. !eat the urd along with sugar and pour o)er the )adas. &lso pour
the tamarind hutney and sprin#le all the masala to taste. <arnish with hopped
Ser)esH --B persons.
Mung dal and 9hana %alH +66 gm eah
Hing H + pinh
&rhar dal H +66 gm
Te$patta H +
Salt H to taste
<inger H +*
Haldi H M tsp.
<reen H A
<hee H A tbsp.
9oriander H for fla)our
9ardamom 0small1H A
?emon H A
Jeera H + tsp.
<aram masalaH + tsp.
Soa# the dal in water for + hour. 7ut it in a pressure oo#er and add salt and haldi.
8ait for A-K whistles. Turn off the gas. Heat ghee in a #adahi. &dd $eera" hing " all
sabut garam masala" ginger and green hilly. &dd dal. 7ut lemon $uie and garam
masala powder. &dd hopped oriander. Ser)e hot with !aati" 9hurma and 7otato
3#+ )2 P#R#4"H2 (P#R#"H#)
8heat flour H ,66 gm
&$wain H M tsp.
Mung dal H +66 gm
/ala $eera H M tsp
Salt H to taste
Saunf H M tsp
Red hilly H M tsp.
Oil H *A tsp.
<aram masala H M tsp.
S9oriander 0finely hopped1 H for fla)our
%haniya H M tsp.
<hee for ma#ing parantha H +,6 gms.
Soa# mungdal for ,-- hours. Ta#e wheat flour. Mi2 salt" mungdal" red hilly" garam
masala" dhaniya" a$wain" #ala $eera" saunf" oil and hopped oriander. Ma#e a
dough with the help of water. The dough should be soft. Roll into +,-A6 parathas
and shallow fry till risp. Ser)e it with Sab3-e-Sangar
P 8est Indian Reipes
P Ra$asthani Reepies P Degetarian Reipes

3-M #+OO (PO"#"O)
7otato H A,6 gm
<aram masala H M tsp.
Tomato H +66 gm
Jeera H N tsp.
%haniya powder H +M tsp.
Hing H + pinh
Red hilly powder and Haldi powder H M tsp. eah
Oil for tada#a H A tbsp.
Salt H + tsp.
9oriander lea)es H for fla)our
7eel the potatoes. 9ut them into small ubes. <rate the tomato and #eep aside.
Heat oil in a pressure oo#er. &dd $eera and hing together. &dd tomato and oo# till
done. &dd potatoes and fry for A minutes. &dd dhaniya" red hilly" haldi" salt and
garam masala. &dd two glassfuls of water. 9o)er it with lid. &fter one whistle"
simmer the gas for ,-B minutes. Transfer it to a bowl. Sprin#le some oriander
lea)es. Ser)e hot with !edmi 7uri
Ser)esH .-, adults
M%SS% RO"%
8heat flour H +,6 gm
Red hilly powder H + tsp.
!esan H A,6 gm
%haniya H + tsp.
<hee H K tbsp.
Jeera and /aala Jeera H tsp. eah
Salt H + tsp.
&$wain H M tsp.
Mi2 the wheat flour and besan together. &dd oil" salt" red hilly powder" dhaniya"
$eera" #ala $eera and a$wain. Mi2 well. Ma#e a stiff dough. Roll into small and thi#
rotis and roast. !rush slightly with melted ghee. Ser)e hot with Shahi <atte.
Ser)esH --B adults
P#)OR2 )% )#RH%
Mungdal H +66 gm
Salt H +M tsp.
9urd H A66 gm
Red hilly powder H + tsp.
Red hilly 0sabut and dry1 H A
%haniya H + tsp.
/ari patta H K-.
Haldi H + pinh
Soda H a pinh
Oil for frying pa#ories H A up
Mustard seeds 0motti1 H M tsp.
Oil 0for tad#a1 H A tbsp.
Soa# the dal for ,-- hours. Strain it and grind in a grinder. Strain the urd through a
strainer. &dd +tsp salt" M tsp. red hilly powder" M tsp. dhaniya" A tsp. mungdal
paste and haldi. Mi2 well and #eep aside. :ow ta#e the dal and add M tsp salt" M
tsp. red hilly powder" M tsp. dhaniya and soda. Mi2 well. Heat oil in a #adahi and
fry pa#ories of small si3e to a golden brown olor. :ow heat oil in a #adahi and put
the tad#a of mustard seeds" hing and #ari patta. &dd the mi2ture of urd. 9oo# it for
+6-+, minutes. &dd the pa#ories and oo# forK-. minutes. 5inally put the tad#a of
red hilly powder. Ser)e hot it with Shahi <atte and Missi Roti.
Ser)esH --B adults.
8heat flour H ,66 gm
<hee H K66 gm
Salt H + tsp.
I:<R>%I>:TS 5OR M&/I:< ST@55I:<
7otato 0boiled1 H A,6 gm
Roasted $eera H M tsp.
<reen hilly and ginger0 paste1 H + tsp.
/ala nama# H M tsp.
%alhini H +*
Salt H M tsp.
Ja)itri H +*
<aram masala H M tsp.
9ardamom 0big1 H +
%haniya H M tsp.
Te$patta H +*
Red hilly powder H M tsp.
Jeera H M tsp.
9oriander 0finely hopped1 H 5or fla)our
Oil H A tbsp.
/a$u and /ishmish H +6-+, eah
M>THO% 5OR M&/I:< ST@55I:<
7eal the potatoes and mash them. Heat oil in a #adahi. &dd dalhini" $a)itri"
ardamom 0big1" #a$u and #ishmish" te$patta" $eera" green hilly and ginger paste.
:ow add the potatoes. &dd roasted $eera" #ala nama#" salt" garam masala"
dhaniya" red hilly powder and hopped oriander. 5ry for .-, minutes. /eep aside
till it ools down.
M>THO% 5OR M&/I:< %O@<H
Melt A66 gms of the ghee. &dd ghee and salt to the wheat flour. Ma#e a stiff dough
by using water. :ow ma#e +,-+- balls of e(ual si3e. Stuff the stuffing in the balls.
<rill it in gas tandoor. Heat the rest of the ghee" dip the baatis and ser)e with %al
and 7otato !
8heat flour H A66 gm
<hee H .66 gm
/hoya O Mawa H +66 gm
Sugar 0grounded1 H A66 gm
Soa#ed almond 0finely hopped1 H ,6 gm
9ardamom 0small1 H .
%alhiniH +*
Melt +,6 gms. of ghee and mi2 it in wheat flour. Ma#e a stiff dough using )ery little
water. Heat the rest of the ghee in a #adahi. Ma#e about +,-A6 balls with the
dough. 5ry it on low flame till it beomes golden brown. 9hurn it in grinder after it
ools down. Mi2 #hoya. Heat + tbsp. ghee in #adahi. &dd ardamom seeds and
dalhini. &dd the abo)e mi2ture of wheat flour and #hoya. 5ry it for one minute.
8hen it ools down" add sugar and hopped almonds. Mi2 well. Ser)e in a plate.
You an en$oy the taste of hurma for ;-+6 days if you #eep it in an airtight bo2.
To be ser)ed with %al and !aati
S#'52 S#4.#R
This is one of the great dishes of marwari uisine. This preperation does not really
reflet the rihness of its olourful shool of oo#ing. !eause #er and sangri are
not e2oti )egetables" but are wild berries that grow independantly in the )ast
dessert areas speaially in western ra$asthan.
The story oes that /er and Sangri were ages ago by Ra$asthani )illagers during the
time of great famine when all the other natural ingredients"whih were sare any
ways"had died and withered away. !ut /er 0 small reddish li#e pods1 flourished
unonernedly in the punishing sun.intrigued be the appearane of these berries
and delighted by their a)ailability the )illagers too# them home. There was no water
for oo#ing beause of the famineso the )illagers dried the berries and oo#ed
them with oil along with hillies and oth$er spies. They had something wonderful
with their ba$ra #i roti.
Sangar H +66 gm
Te$patta H +
Mustard oil H . tbsp.
Red hilly 0dry and sabut1H ,--
Mustard 0grounded1H + tsp.
9urd H +OA up
Hing H a pinh
&mhur 0dry and sabut1H ,-B ps.
Jeera H M tsp.
8ater for soa#ing
I:<R>%I>:TS 5OR M&/I:< M&S&?& 7&ST>
8ater H + up
Red hilly powder H M tsp.
Haldi H M tsp.
<aram masala and &mhurH + tsp. eah
%haniya powder H M tsp.
Sugar H M tsp.
Soa# the sangar in haldi water for whole night. 7ut it in a pressure oo#er and wait
for + whistle. Turn off the gas. Strain the sangar through a strainer. /eep the
strained water aside. Heat mustard oil in a #adahi. :ow gi)e tad#a by adding
mustard 0grounded1" hing" $eera and sabut red hilly. 8hen the tad#a is ready add
the masala paste. &dd urd" sangar and soa#ed amhur. 0 soa# it for a M hour1.
&dd to the #adahi. If re(uired add the strained water. 9oo# it for +6-+, minutes. You
an en$oy this )egetable for ;-+6 days if #ept in a refrigerator. Ser)e hot with %al /e
Ser)esH ,-- adults.
SH#H% .#""2
!esan H A66 gm
%haniyaH + tsp.
<hee H A tbsp.
9urd H A,6 gm
Salt H + tsp..
Oil H A tsp.
Red hilly powderH + tsp.
Haldi H a pinh
Mi2 besan while adding M tsp. salt" M tsp red hilly powder" M tsp. dhaniya powder
and ghee. Ma#e a stiff dough. Ma#e ,-- thin and long strips of the dough. 7ut these
strips in boiling water and oo# for , minutes. 9ut these gattas into small piees.
Strain the urd through a strainer. &dd M tsp. salt" M tsp red hilly powder" M tsp.
dhaniya powder and haldi to the urd. Mi2 well. &dd the gatta piees. Heat oil in a
#adahi. 7ut the tad#a of $eera and add the urd mi2ture. 9oo# it for ,-B minutes
while stirring ontinuously till it omes to a boil. Simmer the flame and oo# for
another ,-B minutes.Turn off the gas. 5inally put the tad#a of red hilly powder.
Ser)e it with Missi Roti and 7a#ori #i /adhi.
Ser)esH --B adults.
3ahi )adi
0Yoghurt 9urry1
Ser)es H .
9oo#ing timeH +, mins
Yoghurt"sour A ups
Jaggery A tbsp.
!engal gram flour A tbsp.
<inger +* piee
9urry leaf stal#s A-K nos.
9oriander lea)es +OA up
<reen hilies A nos.
Salt To taste
5or Tempering H
9innamon +* piee
9lo)es , nos.
5enugree# seeds +O. tsp.
9ummin seeds +OA tsp.
&safoetida powder +O. tsp.
Oil + tbsp.
Method 6
8hip the sour yoghurt and add enough water to obtain a pouring onsisteny. &dd
gram flour to it and set aside. Srape the ginger and finely hop and slit green
hilies in two and set aside. 9hop the $aggery" wash" hop the oriander lea)es and
set aside. To the yoghurt mi2ture add the hopped ginger" the $aggery and salt to
taste. Heat oil in a pan. &dd mustard seeds" umin seeds and urry lea)es. &dd slit
green hilies and asafoetida. &dd the yogurt mi2ture and stir onstantly till it boils.
9oo# on slow flame for ,-; minutes. Ser)e hot with white steamed rie or #hihdi
Papad ki sa!7i
Ser)es H .
%ngredients 6
A66 gm papad 0fried and bro#en into AOK inh piees1
- tbsp ghee
K66 gm yogurt
+ tsp umin seeds
A tbsp oriander powder
+ tsp red hilly powder
. tbsp ginger-garli paste
+ tsp hopped ginger
+ tbsp hopped green hillies
A tbsp hopped fresh oriander
Salt to taste .
Method 6
Heat ghee in a pan add the umin seeds.
8hen they start to ra#le add ginger garli paste" red hilly powder" oriander
powder and turmeri powder.
5ry for K-. minutes o)er medium heat" add hopped ginger and green hillies.
Then add the beaten yogurt and fry for another K minutes.
&dd + up of water and bring to a boil.
7ut the papad piees into the boiling gra)y and lower the flame to a simmer and
oo# for - - B minutes.
Season to taste" remembering that papad is already salted.
<arnish with fresh oriander.
3al 3hokli
0%umlpings in ?entil 9urry1
Ser)es H -
9oo#ing timeH K6 minutes
5or %al H
+ up tu)ar dal.
A tbsps peanuts" soa#ed in water for K6 minutes.
+ tsp umin seeds.
, lo)es garli" hopped.
. oums.
+OA tsp turmeri powder.
+OA tsp hilli powder.
+ up tu)ar dal.
A tbsps peanuts" soa#ed in water for K6 minutes.
+ tsp umin seeds.
, lo)es garli" hopped.
. oums.
+OA tsp turmeri powder.
lOA tsp hilli powder.
5or the dho#li H
+ up wheat flour 0aata1.
+OA tsp turmeri.
+OA tsp hilli powder.
lOA tsp asafetida.
Salt to taste.
Method 6
!oil the dal and the peanuts in a pressure oo#er till soft. /eep aside. Heat + tbsp
ghee in a pan and add umin seeds" garli" asafetida and finally" the boiled dal. &dd
oum" turmeri powder" hilli powder" sugar and urry lea)es. !oil and add salt to
taste. To ma#e the dho#li" mi2 the flour" salt" turmeri" hilli powder" asafetida and a
little oil and ma#e a stiff dough with water. /nead well and roll out into +6 ms
diss. 9ut the diss into diamonds or s(uares with a #nife and drop them into the
boiling dal mi2ture. 8hen all the dho#li piees are put in" boil the dal for a further +,
minutes on a low fire. <arnish with oriander lea)es and ser)e hot.
Tamarind -A tbsp
7owdered sugar-;-+6 tbsp
7epper pdr- +O. tsp
9ardamon pdr-+O. tsp
+OA tbsp bla# salt
9hilled water- K ups
+1Soa# the tamarind in + up of water for appro2 A hrs. rush the tamarind and
sie)e the pulp through a muslin loth. S(uee3e out all the tamarind pulp.
A1 &dd all the other ingredients and mi2 well.
Ser)ed hilled garnished with mint lea)es and topped with ie ubes.
/&IRI /& 7&:IH-
Raw mangoesH- Anos
SugarH- KO. ups
Roasted $eera pdrH-+ tsp
!la# saltH- + tsp
<inger pdrH-+O. tsp
SaltH- to taste
+1 !oil the mangoes till they are soft.
A1 %rain all the water and remo)e the s#in from the mangoes.
K1 Strain the mango pulp.
.1 &dd all the other ingredients.
,1 Refrigerate in a bottle and when you wish to ser)e add A tbsp and top up with
hilled water.
5ull fat mil#H- +ltr
7owdered sugarH-+OA up
7epper orns H- +6-+A nos
Saffron H- + gm
To be ground into a fine pdr.
&lmondsH-+OA up
7oppy seeds H- A tbsp
5ennel seeds I- A tbsp
9aradmon pdr H- +OA tbsp
8hite pepper orns H- A6 nos
+1 !oil the mil# and allow it to ool ompletely.
A1 &dd the ground pdr and mi2 well.
K1 Strain the mi2ture through a sie)e and the sugar" pepperorns ans saffron and
mi2 well.
.1 Ser)e hilled.
These were traditionally made for weddings and other oassions li#e holi" diwali
These risp tea time delights are also #nown as *M&THIS* . these an be relished
with a hot up of masala tea or a dollop of mango delight.
7lain flour H- + up
&$wain H- + tsp
9umin seedsH-+ tsp
<hee H- A tbsp
+1 ombine all the ingredients with enough water to ma#e a soft dough" /nead
A1 %i)ide the dough into +, e(ual parts.
K1 Roll out eah prt into A,mm diameter irle and - mm thi#ness.
.1 %o# ea rolled piee.
,1 %eep fry the suhalis on a )ery low flametill they golden brown in olor.
-1 Ser)e at room temp.
Yellow mng dal:- 1 !"
A#a$oe%&da:- ' %#"
G&nge( g(een )&ll* "a#%e:- 2 %#"
1. lean wa#) and #oa/ %)e m!ng dal $o( 6-8 )(#0 d(a&n and /ee" a#&de0
2. G(&nd %)e m!ng dal %o a $&ne "a#%e w&%)o!% !#&ng an* e1%(a wa%e(0
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g(ea#ed %)al&0
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#""2 )# M#+P-#6
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<oa(#el* g(o!nd w)ole w)ea% $lo!(:- 1 !"
6!ga( :- ' !"
=ennel #eed# :- 1 %3#"
2e""e(o(n# :- 10 no#
<!(d# :- > !"
M&l/ :- ' !"
O%)e( Ing(ed&en%#:-
G)ee $o( dee" $(*&ng0
=o( ga(n&#):-
2 %#" )o""ed "&#%a)&o#0
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well %o ma/e a #moo%) 3a%%e(0 Lea7e a#&de $o( 45 m&n#0
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2la&n $lo!( :-200 gm#
<o(n $lo!( :- 1 %3#"
Mel%ed g)ee :- > !"
5ewda e##ene :- $ew d(o"#
=O: ,-+ 68GA: 6Y:82:-
6!ga( :-200 gm#
;a%e( :- ' !"
/OR "H2 R#'3%6
=!ll $a% m&l/ :- ' l&%e(
6!ga( :- 1 %3#"
A $ew #a$$(on #%(and#
G)ee $o( dee" $(*&ng
<)o""ed "&#%a)&o# $o( ga(n&#)0
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&n%o %)e en%(e o$ %)e mo!ld &n a %)&n #%(eam0
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mo!ld &n a %)&n #%(eam0
10. :e"ea% 7 %&me# ma/&ng a )ole &n %)e en%(e o$ %)e g)ewa( !#&ng a ooden #/ewe(
#%&/0 2o!( %)e 3a%%e( &n%o %)&# en%(e ea) %&me0
11. In(ea#e %)e $lame and allow &% %o oo/ &n %)e en%(e 3* "o!(&ng ladle$!l# o$ )o% g)ee
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MO"%CH-R +#33-6
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and a(e no% $(&ed %&ll %)e* da(/en0
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6emol&na :- 1 ' %3#"
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6!ga( :- 250 gm#
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=ew d(o"# o$ #a$$(on
O,-+: ING:+DI+N,6:-
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:o#e wa%e(:- 2 %#"
=o( %)e 3a%%e(:-
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on%&n!o!#l* %&ll %)e #!ga( d&##ol7e#0 ;)en %)e #!ga( ome# %o a 3o&l all %)e
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5. And %)e #a$o(n %o &% and ma/e &% %o one #%(&ng on#&#%en*0
-O; ,O 2:O<++D
1. -ea#% %)e g)ee &n /ada& 0 w)en )o% )old %)e "e($o(a%ed #"oon o7e( )o% g)ee ad "o!(
l&%%le 3!nd& a% a %me !#&ng %)e ladle o7e( %)e "e($o(a%ed #"oo0 6"(ead %)e 3a%%e( w&%)
%)e 3a/ o$ %)e #"oon #o %)a% %)e 3!nd& $all# &n%o %)e g)ee0
2. :* %)e 3!nd&# %o a l&g)% golden olo(A %a/&ng a(e %o en#!(e %)a% %)e* a(e no% 7e(*
3. 6oa/ %)e 3!nd&# &n %)e wa(m #!ga( #*(!"0
4. Allow %)e m&1%!(e %o ool om"le%el*
5. Add %wo %3#" o$ )o% wa%e(A %)e #a$(onA )o""ed almond#A )o""ed "&#%a)&o#A
"owde(ed a(damon and (o#e wa%e( and m&1 well
6. 6)a"e %)e m&1%!(e %o ma/e 20-22 ladd!# and ga(n&#) w&%) #&l7e( 7a(C0
M#)#% $#$#R%#6
,)&# &# a 7e(* "o"!la( )alwa ea%en &n and a(o!nd %)e a(ea# #!((o!nd&ng 8da&"!(0 -e(e o(n
&# e1%en#&7el* !l%&7a%ed #"e&all* w)&%e o(n w)en &% &# *ellow0
<o(n o3# g(a%ed:- 2 no#
M&l/:- 1 !"
6!ga( :- ' !"
<a(damon :- > %#"
G)ee :- 2 %3#"
=O: ,-+ GA:NI6-:-
4 <O:N L+AG+6
4 2I6,A<-IO6
1. )ea% %)e g)ee &n a non #%&/ "anA ad %)e g(a%ed o(n and oo/ o7e( a #low $lame $o(
10-12 m&n# w)&le #%&((&ng on%&n!o!#l* %&ll %)e m&1%!(e l&g)% 3(own &n olo(0
2. Add %)e m&l/ and one !" o$ wa%e( and #&mme( %&ll %)e l&C!&d )a# e7a"o(a%edA #%&((&ng
3. Add %)e #!ga( and a(damon "d(A m&1 well %&ll %)e #!ga( )a# d&##ol7ed0
4. 6e(7e )o% on 4 o(n lea7e# and ag(n&) w&%) l&ed "&#%a)&o#0

MA;A 5A<-O:I:-
9od)"!( &# $amo!# $o( &%# mawa /a)o(&0 :&) d(* $(!&% and mawa #%!$$ed (&#" dee" $(&ed
/a)o(&# a(e oa%ed &n #!ga( #*(!"0 ,)e#e /a)o(&# a(e a welome %(ea% a% an* %&me o$ %)e
=O: ,-+ DO8G-:-
2la&n $lo!(:- 1 !"
Mel%ed G)ee:- 2 %#"
A "&n) o$ #al%
G(a%ed /)o*a:- 1D2 !"
6l&ed Almond# :- 5-6 no#
6l&ed "&#%a)&o# :- 5-6 n0#
<a(damon 2d(:- 1D2 %#"
6!l%ana#:-1 %3#"
6!ga(:- 1 %3#"
6a$$(on :- $ew #%(and#
M+,-OD =O: ,-+ DO8G-:-
1. <om3&ne all %)e &ng(ed&en%# and /nead &n%o a $&(m do!g) !#&ng eno!g) wa%e(0
2. Allow %)e do!g) %o (e#% $o( 10-15 m&n#
3. D&7&de %)e do!g) &n%o 12 eC!al "(%#0
4. D&7&de %)e $&ll&ng &n%o 12 "(%#0
5. :oll o!% ea) "(% o$ %)e do!g) &n%o 75 mm d&ame%e( &(le0
6. 2lae %)e "(% o$ %)e $&ll&ng &n%o %)e en%e( o$ %)e (olled o!% do!g)A o7e( w&%) ano%)e(
do!g) &(le and #eal %)e end# w&%) l&%%le wa%e(0
7. Dee" $(* %)e /a)o(&# &n )o% g)ee o7e( a low $lame0 ,)e#e %a/e a long %&me a# %)e (!#%
&# %)&/ and %a/e# %&me %o ge% oo/ed $(om &n#&de0
8. D&" %)e#e /a)o(&# &n )o% #*(!"0 6e(7e ga(n&#)ed w&%) #a$$(on #%(and# and "&#%a)&o#0
O%)e( $amo!# ma(wa(& de##e(%# a(e doodhiya kheech,dilkhushar, chenna malpuagaund ke
laddu and jaripalla churma.

,)e Ma(wa(& ,)al& a"%!(e# %)e (o*al and %(ad&%&onal $la7o!(# o$ I:a#eela
:aJa#%)anI and 3(&ng# %o $ood en%)!#&a#%# l!#&o!# d&#)e# (ang&ng $(om %)e ea(%)*
%o %)e e1o%&0 ,)e a""e%&4&ng Panchmele ki DalA %)e #(!m"%&o!# Gatte ke SaagA
Dal ki Poori and %)e mo!%) wa%e(&ng Zari Palle ka Choorma - all 3(&ng al&7e %)e
#"&(&% o$ %)&# land o$ /&ng#0 O%)e( d&#)e# &nl!de SangarA Parval Bhutte ki Sookhi
Subzi and Phogle ka Raita0
MA:;A:I ,-ALI:-
Ma(wa(& ,)al& a"%!(e# %)e (o*al and %(ad&%&onal $la7o!(# o$ I:a#eela :aJa#%)anI and 3(&ng#
%o $ood en%)!#&a#%# l!#&o!# d&#)e# (ang&ng $(om %)e ea(%)* %o %)e e1o%&0 ,)e a""e%&4&ng
Panchmele ki DalA %)e #(!m"%&o!# Gatte ke SaagA Dal ki Poori and %)e mo!%) wa%e(&ng
Zari Palle ka Choorma - all 3(&ng al&7e %)e #"&(&% o$ %)&# land o$ /&ng#0 O%)e( d&#)e# &nl!de
SangarA Parval Bhutte ki Sookhi Subzi and Phogle ka Raita0

COMP%+23 ',6 #.).S%4.H