You are on page 1of 145

Human Nature

PSYC 1070
Defining Human Nature
 1. Not all Behaviors/thoughts/feelings are candidates for inclusion
in a theory of human nature



 Only some behaviours/feelings/thoughts constitute human
nature.

Some
behaviours
Other
behaviours
not
Some
feelings

Other
feelings
not

Some
thoughts

Other
thoughts
not

Human Nature
 Psychological theories of human nature differed in what are the
behaviours/feelings/thoughts that constitute human nature.

Freud‟s
Theory of
Human
nature
Unconscious
(structure)
Aggression
(behavior)
Sex (desire)
Maslow‟s
Theory of
Human
nature
We are growth
oriented,
forward
moving
Personal
fulfillment
Close, intimate
relationships
with others
Ekman‟s
Theory of
Human
nature
Six basic
Emotions
Ekman’s Theory of Human Nature
2. The concept of human nature refers to what is
distinctively human about us, to what distinguishes
humans from animals


 Qualities that define us as unique species (Buss, 1999, p.
134).


 Self-Awareness; language; intelligence…etc
3. The concept of human nature refers only to
biologically based behavioral or psychological
characteristics of human beings
 Human nature is only about psychological characteristics we are
born with.

 Anything learned is not regarded as not part of human nature.


 This brings to the fore the long-standing issue of nature versus
nurture.

 Why?







Nurture: we are born with no
predispositions: all our
behaviours/thoughts/emotions/desires are
learned or acquired through socialization
Thus we are born without nature or in-
born nature that is universal
Everything learned is experience-based
We have different experiences thus
different psychological characteristics:
human nature thus is not universal





Nature: we are all born equipped
with some predispositions and
thus we are born with a specific
nature
This nature is shared by all
humans. This nature is also fixed
and unchanged
Why?
 A). All have the same biological make-up: Brains


Biologically
the same:
The brain is the cause of our
behaviours/thoughts/feelings
Thus we are born with
the same psychological
characteristics
 B). We all come from the same descendant;


The same
descendent
Thus: inherited the same
genes
Thus we must be born
with similar shared
psychological
characteristics
Nurture
All human
psychology
is learned
Born
without a
nature
There is
no human
nature
Nature
Share the
same biological
make-
up/descendant
Born with a
nature
There is
human nature
Aggression:
learned and
innate
Learn it
through
socialization
There is no
human nature
Nurture
Born with the
predisposition
to aggress
A
consequence
of biological
properties
Part of human
nature: it is
universally
shared
Nature
Using
forks/desire to
eat
Learn it
through
socialization
Not part of
human nature:
Not all cultures
use forks
Nurture
Born with the
desire to eat
A consequence
of biological
properties
Part of human
nature: it is
universally
shared
Nature
Nativism and Empiricism
 The origin of this dichotomy was philosophy:



René Descartes
(1596–1650)
Nature (i.e. biology)
determines certain
abilities, rather than
learning and
experience
Nativism
John Locke (1632–
1704)
Human mind: a tabula
rasa (or „blank
slate‟), which is
gradually „filled in‟ by
learning and
experience.
Empiricism
Tabula rasa:
born without
built-in mental
content /empty
Nativism (Freud) and Empiricism (Watson/
Skinner)



All human behaviour is
biologically based;
We have a universal
predisposition to
aggression; sex is the
basis of ALL behaviours
for ALL humans.
Nativism:
Freud
Give me a dozen healthy
infants, well-formed, and
my own specified world
to bring them up in and
I‟ll guarantee to take any
one at random and train
him to become any type
of specialist I might select
– a doctor, lawyer, artist,
merchant-chief and, yes,
even into beggar-man and
thief, regardless of his
talents, penchants,
abilities, vocations and
race of his ancestors
(Watson, 1925/26)
Empiricism:
Watson
There is
human
nature
NO
human
nature
Human Nature and mainstream
Psychology: Problems
 The definition of human nature is not all-encompassing;

 Leaves out some very important issues; called meta-questions:








Purpose
(raison
d'être) of
creation
Role of
the human
being in
life
His
destiny
His
creation
 These meta-questions: not within the scope of psychology and thus,
human nature in this form is not desired in psychology.




 Philosophy is the suitable place for discussions of human nature.

Reductionism is the belief that:





 The best way to understand how complex systems operate is to look
closely at how its simplest parts function.

 Application of reductionism to the study of the human being:





The best way to
understand why
humans behave the
way they do:
Look at the simplest
parts that make up
them as a system
and use them to
understand how
they holy work
Example: Signing a Cheque

 This very act can be explained at different levels.


 Yet, a reductionist tends to explain it by starting at the
bottom level (the most reductionist);


 And works upward to the least reduced level or the most
holistic.

Sociological/political
level
Social-psychological
level
Psychological level
Physical/muscular
level
Physiological systems
Physiological units
level
Neurological
Holistic
Reductionist






7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Hand receives
instruction from the
brain: the motor cortex
It works in conjunction
with the cerebellum
It will be „programmed‟
within this part of the
brain
It becomes
automatically triggered
from this area

1. Neurological: Writer‟s brain
must be involved

Only overt behaviour should be the data
for psychology
What is available to the observer is
The movements of the writer‟s arm and
hand in cheque-signing behaviour

2.Physical/muscular level: The interest of the strict
behaviourist

„I‟m exhibiting behaviour
mainly consisting of arm
movements.
Why do you ask? Is it
not obvious?‟
taken as sarcasm.
The writer feels or thinks a number of
things which are unobservable to others
These could be far more important than
the behavioural level
(a) pride, „I seem to be coping well with
my finances this month‟
(b) resentment, „I resent writing this
cheque. Why should parents have to pay
tuition fees to universities attended by
their children?‟

3. Psychological level: Less tangible/less
immediately observable

The writer feels or thinks a number of things
which are unobservable to others
(a) God-consciousness, „this money may lead
me to be one of the seven people shaded by
Allah‟s shade on the day of judjment
This related to his/her destiny: this is a meta-
question that should not be part of
psychology‟s portrait of human nature

Religious level: The Most Holistic

 Narrated Abu Huraira:
 The Prophet salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam said, "Seven people will be
shaded by Allah under His shade on the day when there will be no
shade except His. They are: (1) a just ruler;
 (2) a young man who has been brought up in the worship of Allah, (i.e.
worship Allah (Alone) sincerely from his childhood),
 (3) a man whose heart is attached to the mosque (who offers the five
compulsory congregational prayers in the mosque);
 (4) two persons who love each other only for Allah's sake and they
meet and part in Allah's cause only;
 (5) a man who refuses the call of a charming woman of noble birth for
an illegal sexual intercourse with her and says: I am afraid of Allah;
 (6) a person who practices charity so secretly that his left hand does
not know what his right hand has given (i.e. nobody knows how much
he has given in charity).
 (7) a person who remembers Allah in seclusion and his eyes get
flooded with tears."


Human Nature: An Islamic Perspective
 The formative component of the human being:



 The human being is of a dual nature.




 The two interact to produce the human character/behaviour.

 Al-Qur‟an mentions that the human being was created in two stages:


Who perfected everything which He created and began the creation
of man from clay. Then He made his posterity out of the extract of a
liquid disdained. Then He proportioned him and breathed into him
from His [created] soul and made for you hearing and vision and
hearts; little are you grateful. (As-Sajdah: 32: 7-9)

And certainly did We create man from an extract of clay. Then We
placed him as a sperm-drop in a firm lodging. Then We made the sperm-
drop into a clinging clot, and We made the clot into a lump [of flesh], and
We made [from] the lump, bones, and We covered the bones with flesh;
then We developed him into another creation. So blessed is Allah, the
best of creators. (Al-Mu'minūn: 23: 12-14)

 The two stages are:



 1. Creation and proportioning into perfection



 2. The blowing of His spirit into him

a sperm-
drop

clinging clot

a lump [of
flesh]

bones
covered the
bones with
flesh
developed
into another
creation
The
blowing
of His
Spirit
1. Creation and proportioning into perfection

2. The blowing of His spirit into him: The last creation is totally different
in kind from the first one
 The physical aspects were formed and proportioned into perfection;


 But what makes this creation so unique in kind is not its physical
aspect but is the blowing of Allah‟s spirit into him.





 Based on the dual formation man has two components:

 1. The physical Body:


 Islam calls for taking care of the body.




 The body is important. It allows the appropriate operation of regular
functions including acts of worship.

 'A'isha radiya Allahu anha reported that the Messenger of Allah
Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam said,



 "When one of you dozes off while he is praying, he should go and lie
down until he is no longer sleepy. If someone prays when he is drowsy,
he may not know whether he is asking for forgiveness or asking for
something bad for himself." [Agreed upon]
 The prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam said,


 “Ask Allah for certitude and wellness, for next to certitude, wellness is
the best thing one can receive.” [narrated by Ahmad]
 The Spiritual Component



 It is the result of Allah‟s subhanahu wa ta‟alah breathing of His spirit
into Adam alayhi assalam.




Duality and its Implications

 Duality and Freewill

 The body has needs desires and urges.


 Needs are pressing and require immediate gratification.


 Yet, the ability to make choices that derives from the spiritual aspect
helps delaying gratification.




A need to
eat
Abstain
How
When
Choice
 The human being thus is a free agent according to Islam.


 What is freewill, determinism, and fatalism?




 Does psychology adhere to freewill, determinism, or fatalism?



Freewill versus Determinism
 Determinism


 Every thing in the natural world has specific causes.




 This means that the world is determined to act in a specific way.


Dropping Falling Gravity
Water
subjected to
fire
boils
The boiling
point of water
is 100°C or
212° F
Cause Effect
Law:
Gravity
Is there a possibility that: water boils at 100°C
without the water boiling?
Thus: the boiling of the water at 100°C is
deterministic:
It will always boil given that the water
reaches100°C or 212° F
 The human being may be complex compared to water;



 Nonetheless we are an integral part of the physical world;




 Thus human behaviour also deterministic.
Freewill
 You have a multitude of choices from which you can choose.


 Assume you are water:


 Water: subjected to fire but you choose not to boil;


 Instead you choose to freeze.


 Freewill thus means:


 Under the same conditions you could have chosen to behave
differently.
 Example

 You were faced with a number of choices:


 A friend of you asked you to accompany her shopping: will you
choose to go?


 Watching TV?


 Revising for an exam?

Inner realities
• I am tired
• I like my friend
• Don‟t want to upset her
• I want to watch TV
• I need to revise for my exam
• I got a low mark in the
midterm
External realities
• It is raining
• No car
• The supermarket has an
awesome café
Choose to accompany
your friend
 Would you choose otherwise under the same “inner and external
realities?”

 Yes: means you have freewill;


 You are not determined by some internal or external causes.
 A determinist would claim that:


 accompanying your friend was the only outcome and you could
not have chosen otherwise because you are directed by a
whole array of internal and external causes surrounding your
decision some of which you may not be aware of.
 Yet, we believe we are free and that our life is based on
the choices we made.


 A determinist would reply:
There is a difference between feeling you are
free and being free

 A person subjected to hypnosis will act according to post-hypnotic
suggestions:


 Asked to open the door, the person goes over and opens the door.



 When asked why did he acted in the way he did?
 He starts rationalising his actions as if he has chosen to act in the way
he acted;



 And yet his behaviour was caused by suggestions of the hypnotizer.





 What he takes as behaviours freely produced behaviours are nothing
but the outcome of hypnotic suggestions.

 Likewise, freewill is something we feel we have but actually we do not
really act freely.





 Freewill thus is nothing but an illusion.
Freud: Psychic determinism
 Freud‟s theory: Freewill is an illusion



 We believe we are free because we are unaware of the true
unconscious causes of our actions.
 His theory is deterministic because:




 Every action/thought/feeling is caused by death and life instincts.
Cause
behaviours
Repressed
thoughts and
feelings and
desires
Unconscious:
life and death
instincts
“See you on Monday”
instead of Sunday
Caused by
death instincts:
a dislike of a
person
Maslow
 The person is free.


 One can be anything he wants without being obstructed by
unconsciousness.


 All of a person‟s motives are conscious and thus free and
responsible.
Freud
• Motives are unconscious and we act on
them without knowing that we have
them.


Maslow
• The conscious awareness of
needs/choices and personal
responsibility.



Are motives conscious?

Freewill, Determinism and Responsibility
 A mental disorder:


 A partial or complete breakdown of the control a person normally
has over his behaviour.






Obsessions:


 Recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that are
experienced, at some time during the disturbance, as intrusive and
inappropriate, and that cause marked anxiety or distress.



 Compulsions:

 Repetitive behaviors (such as hand washing, ordering, checking) or
mental acts (e.g.,counting, repeating words silently) that the person
feels driven to perform in response to an obsession, or according to
rules that must be applied rigidly.


 "I am really afraid of getting AIDS or another disease, so that may
be a problem when it comes to meeting a good guy. I'm also afraid
that I may say weird things in public and embarrass my family and
myself. I'm really afraid of this happening at work, since it might
get me fired. Sometimes I don't go in because of this fear. The
arranging thing is really important for me. All of my things at
home and at work have to be in the set order before I can continue.
It takes awhile but it needs to get done. I also have to be clean
always.
 It takes a long time each day to get to that point. The weird thing
is, I know this stuff makes little sense. Everyone does these things,
but my mom and friends tell me I do it to excess. The thing is I
can't help myself. It's like an itch you know you shouldn't scratch,
but you have to, no matter what."
 The first semester at the university, Charles worked hard but found
it increasingly difficult to study. He often stayed up late at night
reading the same text again and again, trying to comprehend and
retain information. Always uncomfortable with new acquaintances,
he began to suspect that his roommate was somehow poisoning
him, and he became increasingly agitated.
 One day, the dormitory supervisor was notified that Charles had
locked himself in his room and refused to come out. The school
intervened, and he was brought to the school infirmary. There,
Charles reported that he was hearing Gabriel the Archangel
warning him of the impending end of the world. Charles was
admitted to the university psychiatric hospital and was eventually
diagnosed with schizophrenia.
 Mental disorder and responsibility:






Compelled
to act in a
certain way
If you are
compelled
Thus you
did not act
freely
Thus you
are not
responsible
 Are these people responsible for their behaviours?
 Criminal Law/court highly consider the soundness of mental state
in deciding the verdict.



 A verdict:


 1
st
degree murder or acquittal is based on the extent to which the
psychiatrist thinks one was mentally sound when committing the
crime.
 A verdict will be based on:


 1. What a Forensic psychiatry decides.



 So there should be a forensic psychiatrist/forensic psychologist in
a trial.



 Forensic psychiatry is a sub-specialty of psychiatry and an
auxiliary science of criminology.



 The forensic psychologist/psychiatrist will have to decide based
on:



 1. Competency to stand trial (CST)


 Determine that a defendant has the mental capacity to understand
the charges.




 2. Mental state opinion:

 Whether a defendant was able to understand what he was doing at
the time of the crime.
 Forensic psychiatry is guided by significant Court laws which
include the following standards:




 M'Naghten rule:


 Excuses a defendant who, by virtue of a defect of reason or disease
of the mind, does not know the nature and quality of the act, or, if
he does, does not know that the act is wrong.



 عفر ملقلا نع ةثلث نع مئانلا ىتح ،ظقيتسي نعو يبصلا ىتح ،غلبي نعو نونجملا ىتح
لقعي " ( هاور ماملا دمحأ يف هدنسم )




 Prophet Muhammad (salla Allahu „alayhi wa sallam) said,


 “The pen is raised from (the book) of three (individuals): the
sleeper until he awakes, the child until he reaches puberty, and the
insane until he regains his sanity.”
 Durham rule:


 Excuses a defendant whose conduct is the product of mental
disease or defect.



 Homicide Act 1957 introduced the plea of diminished
responsibility for murder charges.

 If accepted, there is no trial and a sentence of manslaughter is
passed; if not, a trial is held and the jury must decide whether at
the material time (the time when the actual crime(s) was/were
committed) the accused was suffering from an abnormality of
mind and, if so, whether it was such as to substantially impair
his/her responsibility.


 Manslaughter: The crime of killing a human being without malice
aforethought, or otherwise in circumstances not amounting to
murder.

 If he finds out that:



Mentally
unsound
Cannot
understand the
charges/During
the crime
Acquittal
/manslaughter
/hospitalized
Mentally
sound
Can understand
the
charges/During
the crime
Capital
Offense/
punishment
First degree-
murder/prison
/execution
 Put differently,




Mentally
unsound
Cannot
understand the
charges/During
the crime
Acquittal
/manslaughter
/hospitalized
Not in
control: Not
free/have no
choice
Not responsible
Not accountable




Mentally
sound
Can understand
the
charges/During
the crime
Capital
Offense/
punishment
First degree-
murder/prison
/execution
In control:
free/have a
choice
Responsible
Accountable
Sleepwalking


 Case 1
 Scott Falater, 43 years old, was accused of murdering his wife in
1997. A neighbor, looking over a fence, witnessed Scott holding his
wife‟s head underwater in the swimming pool. He called the police,
who found a bloody pool and the body of Yamila Falater with 44
stab wounds. Falater had performed a series of very deliberate and
time-consuming actions in cleaning up after the murder. But
Falater claimed to be sleepwalking during all of these actions.
Although sleep experts for the defense stated that Falater s story
was possible, the prosecution pointed to marital troubles as motive.
Most damaging to his case was the witness who stated that three
weeks before the murder, Falater had been discussing the case of a
Canadian man‟s acquittal for murder based on a sleepwalking
defense.The jury found Falater guilty of murder in the first degree,
and he was given a life sentence (Martin, 2004; Tresniowski, 1999).


 Case 2



 In July of 2008 Brian Thomas of South Wales in Great Britain, a
devoted husband and father of two children, killed his wife while
dreaming of intruders breaking into their camper. Thomas had a
history of sleepwalking and normally slept apart from his wife.
Experts found that he suffered from night terrors, and he was
acquitted of her murder by reason of temporary insanity (Morris,
2009).



We are held accountable thus we are free
 The underlying assumption of these legal rulings is:



 The presupposition that people are able to control their behaviour
and to choose between different courses of action.
Fate and freewill: An Islamic view
 Distinction between two types of al-qadar (fate):


 1. Determined fate


 Things that are not by any means determined by the human‟s
choice.
 This may include:

 A. Human-related aspects:


 When and where death;


 The day of birth;


 Sickness;


 The nature of the body: stature, colour.
 Some other examples of this kind of fate:


 Forgetting;



 Ignorance (mistake);



 Being forced to act.



 نع نبا سابع يضر ا امهنع ، نأ لوسر ا ىلص ا هيلع ملسو لاق : ( نإ ا زواجت
يل نع يتمأ أطخلا نايسنلاو امو اوهركتسا هيلع ) .


 On the authority of Ibn Abbas radiya Allahu anh, The Prophet
(salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


 Verily Allah has pardoned [or been lenient with] for me my
ummah: their mistakes, their forgetfulness, and that which they
have been forced to do under duress.



 B. Universe-related aspects:

 Raining;


 Sunset;

 Sickness;

 Succession of day and night;

 Earthquakes, volcanoes…..
Qur‟anic verses






 Wherever you may be, death will overtake you, even if you should
be within towers of lofty construction. But if good comes to them,
they say, "This is from Allah "; and if evil befalls them, they say,
"This is from you." Say, "All [things] are from Allah ." So what is
[the matter] with those people that they can hardly understand any
statement? (An-Nisā„: 4: 78)







 And it is not [possible] for one to die except by permission of Allah
at a decree determined. And whoever desires the reward of this
world - We will give him thereof; and whoever desires the reward of
the Hereafter - We will give him thereof. And we will reward the
grateful. ('Āli `Imrān: 3: 145)

"Even if you had been inside your houses, those decreed to be
killed would have come out to their death beds.“ ('Āli `Imrān: 3:
154)
And if Allah were to impose blame on the people for their
wrongdoing, He would not have left upon the earth any creature,
but He defers them for a specified term. And when their term has
come, they will not remain behind an hour, nor will they precede
[it]. (An-Naĥl: 16: 61)
 Once the angel of death appeared in the form of a human being in
the court of Prophet Sulaiman (alayhi assalam) and gazed
continuously at a person present there for some time. When the
angel of death vanished, that person asked Prophet Sulaiman
(alayhi assalam): "Who was that person?" He told him that was the
angel of death. He remarked: "The angel of death had gazed at
me in such a manner as if he had determined to take my life."
Prophet Sulaiman (peace be upon him) asked him: "What do you
want?" He requested him to drop him in India. Sulaiman (alayhi
assalam) commanded the air to carry him up and drop him in
India. Consequently the air carried him to India (which was very
far from where he was). The angel of death came to Prophet
Sulaiman (alayhi assalam). He asked him "Why did you fix your
gaze at that person?" Angel of death told: "I wondered that the
Almighty Allah had commanded me to take the life of this person
in India whereas he is sitting here in your presence."

The Prophet, salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam :
"No slave of Allah will truly believe until he believes in al-Qadr its
good and evil, and until he realizes that what has befallen him was
not going to miss him and that which missed him was not going to
befall him."
It is He who forms you in the wombs however He wills. There is no
deity except Him, the Exalted in Might, the Wise. ('Āli `Imrān: 3: 6)
Indeed, Allah [alone] has knowledge of the Hour and sends down
the rain and knows what is in the wombs. And no soul perceives what
it will earn tomorrow, and no soul perceives in what land it will die.
Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted. (Luqmān: 31: 6)
2. Choiceful fate


 CHOICEFUL FATE?









 A). Allah‟s subhanahu wa ta‟alah absolute Knowledge has preceded
determining fate.




 AL-'ALIM ; The ALL-KNOWING;



 B). Fate/destiny is the result of HIS Attribute of AL-'ALIM The
All-Knowing ;




 Allah subhanah determines our fate out of Knowledge.




 This proves HIS absolute Justice.





 C). Choice: He knows what will be your choices;



 D). HIS Will: Determines what will happen.









 PUT DIFFERENTLY:




 1. HE Knows before Creating us the choice we will make.



 2. Based on this Knowledge HE Destined our fate.












 A). Allah‟s subhanahu wa ta‟alah absolute Knowledge has
preceded determining fate.















And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the
angels, "Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive
authority." They said, "Will You place upon it one who causes
corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise
and sanctify You?" Allah said, "Indeed, I know that which you
do not know.“ (Al-Baqarah: 2: 30)
 When HE determined that Adam alayhi assalam and his children
will be khulafa‟ or vicegerents:




 Angels asked why honoring humans knowing that they will cause
corruption and shed blood.





 Allah said, "Indeed, I know that which you do not know."









 It means:



 My Knowledge preceded MY Fate;




 I Know how Adam‟s children will do before I destined them to be
vicegerents.









 B). Fate/destiny is the result of HIS Attribute of AL-'ALIM The
All-Knowing;















 Allah subhanah determines that Adam alayhi assalam to be sent
down to Earth;














Adam alayhi assalam disobeyed
Allah subhnah
Corruption and blood shed
abound
The important question: HAS Allah
subhanahu wa ta‟alah Forced Adam
alyhi assalam and his children to act
in the way they act(ed)
 Adam alyhi assalm: Was he free or determined?










 And We said, "O Adam, dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise and
eat therefrom in [ease and] abundance from wherever you will. But
do not approach this tree, lest you be among the wrongdoers."
 But Satan caused them to slip out of it and removed them from
that [condition] in which they had been. And We said, "Go down,
[all of you], as enemies to one another, and you will have upon the
earth a place of settlement and provision for a time."
 Then Adam received from his Lord [some] words, and He
accepted his repentance. Indeed, it is He who is the Accepting of
repentance, the Merciful. (Al-Baqarah: 2: 30-37).








Allah subhanah
Knows that
Adam
To eat from
the forbidden
tree
So HE
Determined
that Adam will
be sent down
to earth
 Where is choice here?
























Was he forced to
eat by Allah
subhanah?
Adam made the
choice to eat
But Allah
subhanah
Knows about it
before it
happened
HIS Will: determined Adam to
come down
A….fate?
……fate?












One intends to go to the
mosque
• thus HE determined that he
enters the mosque;
One intends to go to a
pub
• thus HE determined that he
enters the pub.
They make their free
choices and Allah
subhanah has determined
their behaviours based on
their choices
Two men:
Allah subhanah
Knows that:
Were they forced
to behave in
certain ways? No












HE Knew that you will be
studying hard for the exam:
thus, HE determined you
(make it easy) for you to study
hard
He Knew that you will choose
to spend your time with a
friend chatting instead of
studying hard for the exam:
HE did not make you revise
They make their free choices
and Allah subhanah has
determined their behaviours
based on their choices
Two men:
Allah subhanah
Knows that:
Were they forced
to behave in
certain ways? No













HIS
Complete
Knowledge
Your
Choice
HIS WILL
FATE:
behaviour
Your
choice
HIS
WILL
FATE IS
Inclusive
of both












Only of behaviours
he could make
decisions about
Thus punishment
and reward are
based on behaviours
one is free to choose
Choiceful fate and Responsibility
The human
being is
responsible
 Being forced to act in some way means:


 Acting without freedom and thus one is not accountable.


























 Misconceptions about fate, freewill and determinism














 1. Allah‟s subhanah guidance is not random: Justice






 And We have not made the keepers of the Fire except angels. And
We have not made their number except as a trial for those who
disbelieve - that those who were given the Scripture will be
convinced and those who have believed will increase in faith and
those who were given the Scripture and the believers will not doubt
and that those in whose hearts is hypocrisy and the disbelievers
will say, "What does Allah intend by this as an example?" Thus
does Allah leave astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills.
And none knows the soldiers of your Lord except Him. And
mention of the Fire is not but a reminder to humanity.














 a. You need to take the decision and then Allah subhanah will give
you the permission to do it.



 b. ءاشي: the human being himself: Allah subhanah would guide
those who want to be guided and lead astray those who want to
deviate.



 Your choice is inclusive in fate.











 That is why Allah subhanah mentions in surat Al-Kahf:







 And say, "The truth is from your Lord, so whoever wills - let him
believe; and whoever wills - let him disbelieve." Indeed, We have
prepared for the wrongdoers a fire whose walls will surround them.
And if they call for relief, they will be relieved with water like
murky oil, which scalds [their] faces. Wretched is the drink, and
evil is the resting place. (Al-Kahf: 18: 29)














 And those who are guided - He increases them in guidance and
gives them their righteousness. (Muĥammad: 47:17)


 Moving towards HIM will facilitate one‟s guidance by HIM.
















 And Joseph had already come to you before with clear proofs, but
you remained in doubt of that which he brought to you, until when
he died, you said, 'Never will Allah send a messenger after him.'
Thus does Allah leave astray he who is a transgressor and skeptic.”
(Ghāfir: 40:34)







 2. Interpret these verses as being forced to be bad or good


 A. It is illogical:




 Being punished for actions you were forced to do.










 B. It contradicts the fact that Allah subhanah has created us to
worship HIM.







 And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.
(Adh-Dhāriyāt: 51: 56)










 C. It contradicts the fact that Allah subhanah Loves people who are
worshipers, repentful, and Dislikes the disobedient. If so, why does
HE then Force some to be disobedients.







 If you disbelieve - indeed, Allah is Free from need of you. And He
does not approve for His servants disbelief. And if you are grateful,
He approves it for you; and no bearer of burdens will bear the
burden of another. Then to your Lord is your return, and He will
inform you about what you used to do. Indeed, He is Knowing of
that within the breasts. (Az-Zumar: 39: 7)










 D. It contradicts Allah‟s subhanah WILL: He HAS given freedom
to choose religion.







 There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion. The
right course has become clear from the wrong. So whoever
disbelieves in taghut and believes in Allah has grasped the most
trustworthy handhold with no break in it. And Allah is Hearing and
Knowing. (Al-Baqarah: 2: 256)










Determinism is not Al-Qadar
 Determinism means that:


 There is no choice and that to every cause there must be an
outcome and only one outcome.



 God is not the source of this determinism.
Freewill versus (Determinism) and Al-Qadar: A comparison
between The Islamic Perspective and Scientific approach
Freewill
Al-Qadar:
Choice
Determinism:
Choice is an
illusion













HIS
Complete
Knowledge
Your
Choice
HIS WILL
FATE:
behaviour
Your
choice
HIS
WILL
FATE IS
Inclusive
of both













Cause
Outcome
Freewill
is an
illusion
God Intervention
God does not
intervene:
Unconscious; Brain;
Environment
Determinism
Allah Subhanah
intervenes but the
choice is part of Al-
Qadar
Al-Qadar
Causes
Specific causes will
always lead to specific
outcomes
Determinism
Allah Subhanah
intervenes and
nullifies the causes:
the causes are not
themselves
responsible for the
outcomes: Mariam
alayha assalam
Al-Qadar
And shake toward you the trunk of the palm tree; it will drop upon
you ripe, fresh dates. (Maryam: 19: 25)









 So her Lord accepted her with good acceptance and caused her to
grow in a good manner and put her in the care of Zechariah. Every
time Zechariah entered upon her in the prayer chamber, he found
with her provision. He said, "O Mary, from where is this [coming]
to you?" She said, "It is from Allah . Indeed, Allah provides for
whom He wills without account. At that, Zechariah called upon his
Lord, saying, "My Lord, grant me from Yourself a good offspring.
Indeed, You are the Hearer of supplication." ('Āli `Imrān: 3: 37-
38).

 They have chosen to take all the necessary causes to burn him but
Allah subhanah has nullified the effects of these causes.









 They said, "Burn him and support your gods - if you are to act.
Allah said, "O fire, be coolness and safety upon Abraham. And
they intended for him harm, but We made them the greatest
losers." (Al-'Anbyā„: 21: 68-70)










Choiceful fate can lead to determined fate
 Choosing to act in some way may lead to determined actions:




 Choose not follow Allah‟s subhanah orders: then you start to act in
automatic less-conscious way.


 You want to get over this state but you cannot.