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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
STUDENTS INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES)
1.0 AN OVERVIEW
The Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) is a training programme
approved as minimum academic standard in the various degree programmes in
Nigerian universities. It serves to bridge the gap existing between theoretical work
and the actual practice of the various degree programmes in Nigerian tertiary
institutions. It also aims at exposing students to basic laboratory skills acquiring
essential techniques and general experience.
1.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE SCHEME
1. To expose students to work methods and techniques in handling equipment
and machineries that may not be available in schools laboratory.
2. To provide an avenue for students to acquire both individual skills and
experience in their course of study. It makes the transition from school to the
world of labour market easier and enhances students contact for latter job
placement.
3. It enlists and strengthens the employers involvement in the entire
educational process of preparing the participating students for employment
in industries.
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1.2 COMPANY PROFILE
NIGERIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY AGENCY (NGSA)
VISION: To become a proactive, open, flexible and knowledge organization
working actively with partners in providing geosciences information and
knowledge for wealth creation, infrastructure and sustainable development
and to re-engage as the ultimate referral point for geosciences information in
Nigeria.
MISSION: An open, transparent and flexible organization working with partners
to provide geosciences information and knowledge to create wealth and for the
good of the nation.
FUNCTIONS: The statutory functions of the Geological Survey of Nigeria
Agency include inter alia:
(a) Carry out detailed geological investigations, including analytical and
laboratory works, photo geology and other interpretations, core
drilling, well-logging, geostatistics, and other mineral reserve
estimations, and valuations;
(b) Produce geological, mineral and other thematic maps of Nigeria on
various scales;
(c) Promote the search for and exploitation of minerals in Nigeria;
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(d) Undertake research in the field of geosciences and minerals resources
in Nigeria;
(e) Compile and develop a comprehensive and integrated collection and
dissemination of knowledge of Geology, geochemistry, Geophysics,
engineering geology, economic geology, geochronology marine
geology and geomagnetism;
(f) Serve as national depository of all geoscientist information relating to
the earth the marine environment and geomagnetic space;
(g) Study the use of the surface and subsurface of the land, and from
geoscientific viewpoint, advice government institutions and the
general public on the judicious and safe se thereof;
(h) Develop and maintain the National Geosciences information centre
and their such centre as may be approved by the Board, the National
Geological Data Infrastructure the National Geological Research
Laboratory, the National Borehole Core Depository, the test sites and
the Geological Museum;

(i) Conduct investigation and render specialized geological services to
the public and private institutions;
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(j) Undertake research on behalf of the Federal and State Governments,
and any other government institutions, support such research
financially or otherwise;
(k) Undertake joint research project with Ministries, extra ministerial
departments and agencies, universities and other tertiary institutions
and other persons;
(l) Cooperate with educational authorities and scientific or technical
experts and other supporting personnel in technical institution and
universities;
(m) Cooperate with persons and institution undertaking geological and
mineralogical research in other countries by exchange of geo-
scientific knowledge and means of international meetings and
research projects; and
(n) Establish, organize , run, operate, conduct and participate in such
training courses, lectures, seminars, conferences, symposia and
similar study group as may enhance the activities of the Agency or the
efficiency of any of its officers and employees.



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1.3 HIERARCHY
The organizational chart of the company is the distribution of power and positions
in the company. Correct and effective distribution of power in the company aids
management and improves productivity.
The organizational chart of Nigeria Geological Survey Agency (NGSA) is shown
diagrammatically below;




GENERAL MANAGER

GENERAL MANAGER
MANAGER
TECHNICAL
TECHNICAL
SUPERVISOR
LABOURERS
MANAGER SERVICES
SUPERVISOR
HUMAN RESOURCES
ADMIN OFFICER
ADMIN OFFICER
MANAGER
MARKETING
Accountant
COMPANY
SECRETARY
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CHAPTER TWO
GEOHAZARDS MONITORING
2.1 WHAT ARE GEOHAZARDS
A geohazard is any natural hazard that is caused by the Earth, for example
volcanoes, earthquakes, floods, tsunamis and cyclones. These and other geohazards
can cause great loss of life and damage to property when they occur so
governments are always looking for ways of reducing the impacts of geohazards.
Remember it is impossible to stop a volcano erupting or an earthquake happening!
It is sometimes possible to predict when certain geohazards will occur, such as
volcanoes and cyclones. For example the eruption of a volcano can be predicted
when scientists observe the following warning signs:
1. The gases that volcanoes give off suddenly change.
2. Small earthquakes happen in the local area.
3. The volcano starts to get bigger as it fills with magma.
Examples of geohazards
(Submarine) Landslides
Debris flows
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Shallow gas accumulation
Overpressured zones (including gas and shallow water flows)
Naturally occurring gas hydrates and their climate-controlled meta-stability
Mud flows, diapirism and volcanism/volcanoes
Earthquakes and seismicity
Tsunamis from tectonics and landslides
Rock falls and landslides

2.2 MONITORING GEOHAZARDS
Geohazards are natural hazards of a geotechnical, geological, hydrological, or
tectonic nature that represents threats to pipelines and their rights of way (RoW).
Ground activity causes strain on pipelines and it is the cumulative effect of strain
on the pipe as a result of geohazard activity on or near the RoW that threatens the
integrity of a pipeline, eventually causing deformation or rupture.
The presence of ground movements can be identified by their surface expression.
Where the surface of an RoW is moving, this surface expression is commonly
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identified during aerial patrol. For example, a slope movement can be recognised
by tilting trees in the downslope direction or tension cracking on the slope.
Once geohazard threats are identified, a plan to monitor slope movements (cause)
and pipeline impacts (effect) is implemented to assess and understand what
triggered the movement and what natural processes are at work to maintain
movements, and to assess the impact on the pipeline. Table 1 summarises the
technologies available to monitor both geohazards (cause) and pipeline responses
(effect).
2.3 GEOHAZARD MONITORING INSTRUMENTS
Airborne LiDAR: An instrument used to detect a cloud of 3D points used to
extract digital terrain models (DTM) and surfaces (DSM). The GMG has at its
disposal an IGI Litemapper 6800 , equipped with a photographic camera for
photogrammetric surveys. The system is mounted on a pod certified for flight in
helicopters like Eurocopter AS 350 .
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Terrestrial LiDAR : This system is used to detect 3D point cloud and get digital
terrain models. In addition to topographic data, the system is also equipped with a
camera semimetrica used to return a solid image of the item again. The data
collected from the terrestrial LiDAR are very useful for the analysis of sub-vertical
rock walls. GMG has a Riegel LMS-Z420i .

GPS: indispensable tool in the field of monitoring, both for the construction of
networks of type measure geodetic, both as a support for georeferencing of the data
collected by other methods. The GMG has seven receivers Leica , equipped for
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measurements of static and RTK GNSS permanent station in addition to
a Topcon installed at its headquarters.

Inclinometer probe: essential tool for the implementation of measures aimed at
inclinometer deformation monitoring deep. The instrument is used in manual mode
to monitor over time the deformation of inclinometer tubes specially made within
and in the neighborhood of the body of the landslide. The GMG has inclinometer
probes OTR and Slope Indicator . The probe can also be used in the automated
monitoring system inclinometer (SIA) patented by GMG.

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CHAPTER TWO
WATER BOREHOLE DRILLING AND INSTALLATION
2.1 WATER BOREHOLE DRILLING FUNDAMENTALS
During my stay at National Geohazards Monitoring Centre I was also exposed to
the whole process of borehole drilling. Water borehole drilling generally involves
drilling to a diameter of 150mm (6). The hole is drilled using a variety of drilling
tools from a simple drag bit through to high impact, high penetration Down The
Hole Air Hammers.
2.2 AIR FLUSH OR MUD FLUSH WATER BOREHOLE DRILLING
The borehole is drilled to the required depth and water levels within the hole are
monitored during the drilling. Geologic uses either air flush or mud flush drilling.
A majority of the time we use the air flush method. This uses compressed air to
drive the drilling tools attached to a rotary drilling rig. The air enables the drilling
residue to be driven out of the hole to enable drilling to continue. A by-product of
air flush water borehole drilling is that once the water is found it too is driven out
of the hole, the driller monitors the flow of water coming from the hole and uses
this data to estimate the water level, quantity and re-charge rate of the borehole.

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2.3 PREVENTING THE COLLAPSE OF THE WATER BOREHOLE
Depending on the geology being drilled we may have to install temporary steel
casing to stop collapses during drilling. These sections of steel casing are screwed
together to form a continuous run of casing that supports the side of the borehole
and enables drilling to continue into harder and self supporting geology. The
requirement for casing can be established from the geological survey information
supplied about the site.
2.4 INSTALLING THE WATER BOREHOLE
Once the water borehole drilling has been completed and the borehole is drilled to
depth, the tools are removed from the hole, and the borehole is constructed by
installing 3 meter lengths of screen and casing with a diameter of 100mm (4) into
the hole. The lower parts of the borehole are created using screen. These are 3
meter lengths of Water Regulation Advisory Scheme (WRAS) approved slotted
pipe. These precision cut 1mm slots allow water to percolate into the borehole. The
top sections of pipe are solid WRAS approved pipe which prevent any surface
water or contamination entering the water supply. The void between the 150mm
hole and the 100mm installation is back filled with a recycled glass gravel
material. This glass media filter pack serves two purposes, the first of which is to
act as an initial water filter, holding any sediment and preventing it from entering
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the borehole. It also supports the sides of the borehole preventing any collapse.
This glass pack is installed to a depth of 6 meters below the surface. The top 6
meter is double lined with a 125mm diameter WRAS approved pipe which is
inserted over the 100mm install and acts as a further barrier to prevent surface
contamination. This pipe is grouted into place with a bentonite grout being
installed both around the outside and between the 100mm and 125mm pipe. This
grout seals the pipes in place and prevents movement whilst protecting the
installation.

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2.5 SEALING THE BOREHOLE
Although water borehole drilling may seem invasive, once drilled there is very
little visible sign of the borehole. The borehole is terminated within a purpose
made poly well head sump. This is a sealed manhole 600mmx450mm in dimension
which is covered with a manhole cover. These can be simple lightweight steel
covers through to reinforced weight rated covers to allow traffic to pass over the
borehole.
2.6 EQUIPPING THE WATER BOREHOLE
Pump work is installed into the borehole using submersible pumps to supply water
for any number of applications. These systems are invariably direct pressure
providing water on demand at 34bar into a network of new or existing pipe work.
These systems can also pump into holding tanks and the water pumped around the
network from these tanks.
2.7 WATER ANALYSIS
NGSA also provide a full chemical suite B water analysis certificate and can
design, supply and install water treatment systems to ensure any system supplying
potable water (domestic drinking water) meets and exceed the current drinking
water regulations.
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CHAPTER THREE
GIS (GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM)
3.1 INTRODUCTION
A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for
capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically
referenced information.
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store,
manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. The
acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographical information science or geospatial
information studies to refer to the academic discipline or career of working with
geographic information systems and is a large domain within the broader academic
discipline of Geoinformatics.
A GIS can be thought of as a system that provides spatial data entry, management,
retrieval, analysis, and visualization functions. The implementation of a GIS is
often driven by jurisdictional (such as a city), purpose, or application requirements.
Generally, a GIS implementation may be custom-designed for an organization.
Hence, a GIS deployment developed for an application, jurisdiction, enterprise, or
purpose may not be necessarily interoperable or compatible with a GIS that has
been developed for some other application, jurisdiction, enterprise, or purpose.
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What goes beyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure, a concept that has no such
restrictive boundaries.
In a general sense, the term describes any information system that integrates,
stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information for informing
decision making. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive
queries (user-created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data in maps, and
present the results of all these operations. Geographic information science is the
science underlying geographic concepts, applications, and systems.
The first known use of the term "Geographic Information System" was by Roger
Tomlinson in the year 1968 in his paper "A Geographic Information System for
Regional Planning". Tomlinson is also acknowledged as the "father of GIS".
GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data in many
ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes,
reports, and charts.
A GIS helps you answer questions and solve problems by looking at your data in a
way that is quickly understood and easily shared.
GIS technology can be integrated into any enterprise information system
framework.
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3.2 BENEFITS OF GIS
GIS benefits organizations of all sizes and in almost every industry. There is a
growing awareness of the economic and strategic value of GIS. The benefits of
GIS generally fall into five basic categories:
Cost Savings and Increased Efficiency
Better Decision Making
Improved Communication
Better Recordkeeping
Managing Geographically
1. Cost Savings and Increased Efficiency
GIS is widely used to optimize maintenance schedules and daily fleet movements.
Typical implementations can result in a savings of 10 to 30 percent in operational
expenses through reduction in fuel use and staff time, improved customer service,
and more efficient scheduling.

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2. Better Decision Making
GIS is the go-to technology for making better decisions about location. Common
examples include real estate site selection, route/corridor selection, evacuation
planning, conservation, natural resource extraction, etc. Making correct decisions
about location is critical to the success of an organization.
3. Improved Communication
GIS-based maps and visualizations greatly assist in understanding situations and in
storytelling. They are a type of language that improves communication between
different teams, departments, disciplines, professional fields, organizations, and the
public.
4. Better Recordkeeping
Many organizations have a primary responsibility of maintaining authoritative
records about the status and change of geography. GIS provides a strong
framework for managing these types of records with full transaction support and
reporting tools.
5. Managing Geographically
GIS is becoming essential to understanding what is happeningand what will
happenin geographic space. Once we understand, we can prescribe action. This
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new approach to managementmanaging geographicallyis transforming the
way that organizations operate.
3.3 USES OF A GIS
Here is a list of how other organizations are using GIS, and which you may be able
to relate to something which could be of benefit to your own organization:
A. Retail
Most new out-of-town supermarkets are sited with the aid of a sophisticated GIS.
The GIS is used to store socio-economic details of possible customers within the
proposed area. A catchment area for a store may be developed by calculating the
drive-time the time it would take to drive to the stores location and by
modeling the influence of competing stores. GIS is also used for facilities
management and routing of deliveries.
B. Utilities
The utility companies are amongst the most active GIS users; GIS is used to build
asset databases which often form a central part of their IT strategies. Vector GIS
commonly dominates in this sector, extensive use being made of modeling
functions which are used to test the response of the network to demand
fluctuations. The largest application in utilities is in the area of Automated
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Mapping and Facilities Management (AM/FM). AM/FM functions are used to
manage the plant of the organization, such as the location of cables, valves,
customer boxes etc. This application demands up to the minute accurate large scale
mapping in digital form.
C. Environment
As some of the earliest users of GIS, there are many mature applications within
organizations interested in environmental data. At the simplest level GIS is used as
an inventory of environmental information, for example the location and attributes
of forest stands. More complex applications use the analytical capabilities of GIS
to model environmental processes such as soil erosion, or the response of a river
basin to a large rainfall event. As the data collected often relates to areas and
complex analytical functions are common, the raster data model tends to
predominate.
D. Local Government
Local government is one of the largest application areas for GIS, as it is one of the
largest users of spatial information. All areas of a local authority may benefit from
GIS. GIS may be used in land searches and planning control, replacing existing
paper records. Local authorities may also use GIS for property and highways
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maintenance. GIS may be used in command and control centres for monitoring the
emergency services.
E. Health care
In addition to the asset management tasks in which GIS is commonly used, the
analytical capabilities of GIS may also be used in health care applications. GIS
may be used, for example, to identify the fastest route between the current location
of an ambulance and a patient, based on a database of road conditions. GIS can
also be used as an epidemiological tool to analyse the outbreak and spread of
illness and disease within the community.
F. Transportation
GIS has considerable potential for applications in transportation. The planning and
maintenance of a transport infrastructure is an obvious application area, but there is
now increasing interest in innovative technology such as in-vehicle navigation, and
electronic chart displays. These typically require GIS in a support role.
G. Financial Services
GIS is used in the financial services sector in much the same way as in retail
applications. It is used to locate new branches of Banks and Building societies. GIS
is increasingly being used as a profiling tool for risk assessment and insurance
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purposes, identifying in greater detail those areas of highest/lowest risk. This
requires databases as diverse as crime patterns, geology, weather and property
values.
3.4 GIS DATA CONVERSION
You will need to make a decision over the type of data model you wish to use -
Raster or Vector and it is important to realize that a particular data model may
be better suited to your application. However, the choice of data structure you can
use for any particular application is often an arbitrary decision, since GIS software
will generally support one particular model as fully as another.
Data structure is a logical arrangement of your data in a format suitable for you and
your system to manage it. Whichever model and structure you choose, you will, of
course, need to convert the data you already have into a format which can be used
by the GIS. Converting data into digital format is a labour intensive activity, and
can account for up to 80% of the total system cost. Therefore, time spent on fact-
finding and planning is time well spent.
A. The Internal Data Audit
Central to any data capture plan is a thorough internal data audit. This will help
you determine the size, scope, and cost of the task ahead. Given that few
organizations are able to redeploy staff to tackle a data capture exercise, two
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realistic alternatives remain. Either you can hire, train, and equip a dedicated team,
or you contract the job to a specialist bureau. The latter will almost certainly be
able to undercut the in-house option, but you need to ascertain that this will not be
at the expense of quality control and flexibility. Data capture can also be an
opportunity to improve the quality of your data by incorporating new information
with the old.
B. Scanning vs. Vectorisation
You also have a choice to make between methods of converting your
data: scanning and vectorisation. Scanning offers ease and speed, but the resulting
raster images lack the intelligence needed for vector-based GIS. A fair degree of
operator expertise is also required, and compression techniques (typically run-
length encoding) will need to be applied to keep the files to a manageable size.
Vectorisation can be applied automatically or interactively to produce intelligent
vector files. Table digitizing has the advantage of employing inexpensive digitizing
equipment. However, operator training is needed to obtain good results, especially
from indifferent originals. Conversely, the procedure is laborious, time-consuming
and, hence, costly. Other possibilities such as raster-to-vector conversion and
pattern recognition are worth considering in this trade-off between productivity,
cost, quality, and usability. While scanning and table digitizing will accommodate
the bulk of conversion needs, from text documents to line art and even video
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images, special techniques have been developed to enter material from other
sources. These range from simple programs that facilitate the keyboard entry of
survey co- ordinates to techniques that reconcile aerial photographs with base
maps. Photogrammetric, remotely-sensed and CAD-generated data represent yet
further potential input sources.


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CHAPTER FOUR
GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM)
4.1 INTRODUCTION
Global Positioning System was developed by the United States' Department of
Defense. It uses between 24 and 32 Medium Earth Orbit satellites that transmit
precise microwave signals. This enables GPS receivers to determine their current
location, time and velocity. The GPS satellites are maintained by the United States
Air Force.
GPS is often used by civilians as a navigation system. On the ground, any GPS
receiver contains a computer that "triangulates" its own position by getting
bearings from at least three satellites. The result is provided in the form of a
geographic position - longitude and latitude - to, for most receivers, within an
accuracy of 10 to 100 meters. Software applications can then use those coordinates
to provide driving or walking instructions.
Getting a lock on by the GPS receivers on the ground usually takes some time
especially where the receiver is in a moving vehicle or in dense urban areas. The
initial time needed for a GPS lock is usually dependent on how the GPS receiver
starts. There are three types of start - hot, warm and cold.
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The hot start is when the GPS device remembers its last calculated position and
the satellites in view, the almanac used (information about all the satellites in the
constellation), the UTC Time and makes an attempt to lock onto the same satellites
and calculate a new position based upon the previous information. This is the
quickest GPS lock but it only works if you are generally in the same location as
you were when the GPS was last turned off.
The warm start is when the GPS device remembers its last calculated position,
almanac used, and UTC Time, but not which satellites were in view. It then
performs a reset and attempts to obtain the satellite signals and calculates a new
position.
The receiver has a general idea of which satellites to look for because it knows its
last position and the almanac data helps identify which satellites are visible in the
sky. This takes longer than a hot start but not as long as a cold start.
And finally the cold start is when the GPS device dumps all the information,
attempts to locate satellites and then calculates a GPS lock. This takes the longest
because there is no known information.
The GPS receiver has to attempt to lock onto a satellite signal from any available
satellites, basically like polling, which takes a lot longer than knowing which
satellites to look for. This GPS lock takes the longest.
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In an attempt to improve lock times, cellphone manufacturers and operators have
introduced the Assisted GPS technology, which downloads the current ephemeris
for a few days ahead via the wireless networks and helps triangulate the general
users position with the cell towers thus allowing the GPS receiver to get a faster
lock at the expense of several (kilo)bytes.
4.2 USES OF GPS
The use of GPS has expanded considerably in the past four or five years.
Applications include:
Land surveying
Intelligent vehicle/highway systems
Marine navigation
Geo-referencing of satellite imagery
Mapping quality control
Service vehicle tracking
Transportation planning
Original mapping
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The potential uses of GPS include any situation that requires locational information
of some map feature. There are several advantages of using GPS over using
existing maps or air photos to determine the location of a feature on the earth. Not
all features are mapped at an appropriate scale for project requirements. For
example, the location of individual trees might be necessary for a park
development project. In other cases, the information might be available on a map,
but the quality of the map may be in question. Mapping firms, which might have
been hired to do field surveys in the past, may be replaced by the GIS analyst
armed with GPS.
4.3 GPS APPLICATIONS WITH GIS
Three important areas of GPS applications with GIS are:
Original mapping of unmapped features
Geo-referencing of imagery
Quality control.
A. Original Mapping with GPS
As a tool for original mapping, GPS is particularly powerful. A few examples from
a GPS applications contest reported by GPS World (a magazine published by GPS
World, Eugene, Oregon) in May, 1992 illustrates a variety of such uses.
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UNICEF used GPS to map remote villages in West Africa in order to
include attributes about the villages in a GIS database. They used this
information as part of their fight against the disease dracunculiasis. The
disease had persisted partly because of difficulty in tracking it in villages
that moved frequently and were virtually uncharted.
A small town in Montana used a GPS receiver mounted on a jeep to record
the 20 mile path of a proposed road through mountainous, remote terrain.
The project was completed in less than two days.
An engineering firm gathered the geographic locations of 15,000 telephone
poles with GPS for a public utility GIS.
GIS users are no longer constrained to using existing maps and air photos when
they need to locate uncharted attributes.
B. GPS for Image Rectification and Geo-Referencing
Satellite (and other remotely sensed) imagery is often a part of the GIS database. In
order to align the image with other GIS data layers, it must be corrected
geometrically and referenced to ground locations. Ground control points (GCPs)
are used to reduce distortion and to place the image pixels in proper geographic
space.
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Using GPS for Quality Control
One direct use of GPS with GIS is to provide data for quality control of the GIS
database. The GPS receiver is used to log coordinate values associated with
features in the project area. The true location of the feature compared to its location
in the database will reveal the magnitude and nature of the spatial data
discrepancies.
GPS is often used for mapping projects, which subsequently contribute to GIS
database development. All maps require some form of ground control points. GPS
units can be used to accomplish this. If current trends continue, and as more land
surveyors rely on GPS technology to perform surveys, GPS will touch virtually all
mapping projects. The new technology that affects the mapping industry in
general, affects GIS, in turn.
4.4 MAPPING APPLICATIONS
Mapping applications and land information systems make up part of the services
NGSA offer in various projects which include service and resource mapping.
National Geohazards Monitoring Centre also provide detailed maps for Mapping
projects, Flood Plain Mapping projects, large and small scale mapping for
development. Our experience includes the use of the latest technology including:
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Global Positioning Systems( GPS)
Total Station and Data Collection Equipment
Large scale digitizing equipment
Scanning to raster and vectorization
Digitizing Official Plan and Zoning By-Law Maps
Small and Large Scale Mapping
Property Mapping
Digitizing Existing Mapping Information
Topographic Mapping
Watershed and Flood Plain Mapping
Resource Mapping (Forestry, Mining, Wildlife & Fishery Habitat)




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CHAPTER FIVE
RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
5.1 RECOMMENDATION
I recommend that SIWES should provide places for industrial attachment for
students, industrial training fund should pay some allowances to student and the
company should provide more safety equipments to prevent further environmental
and health hazards.
5.2 CONCLUSION
My six month industrial attachment with Melbourne Services Limited has been one
of the most interesting, productive and instructive experience in my life. Through
this training, I have gained new insight and more comprehensive understanding
about the real industrial working condition and practice, it has also improved my
soft and functional skills. All these valuable experiences and knowledges that I
have gained were not only acquired through the direct involvement in task but also
through other aspects of the training such as : work observation, interaction with
collogues, superior and other people related to the field. It also exposed me on
some certain things about the Geological environment. And from what I have
undergone, I am sure that industrial training programm has achieved its primary
objective. As a result of the programm I am now more confident to build my future
career which I have already started with
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REFERENCES
http://pipelinesinternational.com/news/monitoring_geohazards/083228/
http://www.geologicboreholes.co.uk/water-boreholes/water-borehole-drilling-
installation/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System
http://www.hrlimited.com/land-surveyor-services/geographic-information-
system/gis-data-conversion/