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BWD30203

(FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY II)

Lecture Week 1

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION TO FOOD PRESERVATION

Pn. Norazlin Abdullah

FOOD FIT FOR CONSUMPTION

FOOD FIT FOR CONSUMPTION Cont.
FOOD FIT FOR CONSUMPTION Cont.
FOOD FIT FOR CONSUMPTION Cont.
FOOD FIT FOR CONSUMPTION Cont.
FOOD FIT FOR CONSUMPTION Cont.

Cont.

DETERIORATION OF FOOD QUALITY

DETERIORATION OF FOOD QUALITY Cont.
DETERIORATION OF FOOD QUALITY Cont.
DETERIORATION OF FOOD QUALITY Cont.
DETERIORATION OF FOOD QUALITY Cont.
DETERIORATION OF FOOD QUALITY Cont.

Cont.

WHAT IS SHELF LIFE?

time during which the food product will:

remain safe;

be certain to retain desired sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics;

comply with any label declaration of nutritional data,

when stored under the recommended conditions

FACTORS INFLUENCING FOOD SHELF LIFE

AND STABILITY

Intrinsic factors

Water activity

pH value and total acidity

Redox potential

Available oxygen

Nutrients

Natural microflora and surviving microbiological counts

Natural biochemistry of the product

formulation (enzymes, chemical reactants)

Use of preservatives in product formulation (e.g. salt)

Extrinsic factors

Time-temperature profile during processing; pressure in the headspace

Temperature control during storage and distribution

Relative humidity (RH) during processing,

storage and distribution

Exposure to light (UV and IR) during processing, storage and distribution

Environmental microbial counts during processing, storage and distribution

Composition of atmosphere within packaging

Subsequent heat treatment (e.g. reheating or cooking before consumption)

Consumer handling

EXTENDING SHELF LIFE

Raw material selection and quality

Product formulation and assembly

Processing environment

Processing and preservation techniques

Packaging

Processing environment Processing and preservation techniques Packaging Storage and distribution Consumer handling
Processing environment Processing and preservation techniques Packaging Storage and distribution Consumer handling
Processing environment Processing and preservation techniques Packaging Storage and distribution Consumer handling
Processing environment Processing and preservation techniques Packaging Storage and distribution Consumer handling

Storage and distribution

CAUSES OF FOOD SPOILAGE

Microorganisms, their growth and activity

Action of native enzymes

Insects, rodents and parasites

Action of native enzymes Insects, rodents and parasites Chemical reactions of the constituents of food Environmental

Chemical reactions of the constituents of food

Environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, air and light

Time

1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS

1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS Cont.

Cont.

1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS

1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS Cont.
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS Cont.
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS Cont.
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS Cont.
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS Cont.
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS Cont.

Cont.

1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS

1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS Cont.
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS Cont.
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS Cont.

Cont.

1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS

1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS Cont.
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS Cont.
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS Cont.
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS Cont.
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS Cont.

Cont.

Cont.

1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS

Cont. 1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS
Cont. 1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS
Cont. 1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS
Cont. 1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS
Cont. 1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS
Cont. 1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS

2) ACTION OF NATIVE ENZYMES

2) ACTION OF NATIVE ENZYMES
2) ACTION OF NATIVE ENZYMES

3) INSECTS, PARASITES AND RODENTS

3) INSECTS, PARASITES AND RODENTS
3) INSECTS, PARASITES AND RODENTS

4) CHEMICAL REACTIONS

4) CHEMICAL REACTIONS
4) CHEMICAL REACTIONS

5) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Temperature

5) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Temperature Moisture and humidity Cont.

Moisture and humidity

5) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Temperature Moisture and humidity Cont.
5) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Temperature Moisture and humidity Cont.

Cont.

Cont.

5) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Air

Cont. 5) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Air Light

Light

Cont. 5) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Air Light

6) TIME

6) TIME
6) TIME

FOOD PRESERVATION

FOOD PRESERVATION
FOOD PRESERVATION

WHY PRESERVATION?

To overcome inappropriate planning in agriculture

 

The agricultural industry produces raw food materials in different sectors.

Inadequate management or improper planning in agricultural production can be overcome by avoiding inappropriate areas, times, and amounts of raw food materials as well as by increasing storage life using simple methods of preservation.

To produce value-added products

 

Value-added food products can give better-quality foods in terms of improved nutritional, functional, convenience, and sensory properties.

Consumer demand for healthier and more convenient foods also affects the way food is preserved.

To provide variation in diet

Eating should be pleasurable to the consumer and not boring.

People like to eat wide varieties of foods with different tastes and flavors.

Variation in the diet is important, particularly in underdeveloped countries to reduce

reliance on a specific type of grain (i.e. rice or wheat)

FOR WHOM TO PRESERVE?

Nutritional requirements and food restrictions apply differently to different population groups.

Food poisoning can be fatal, especially in infants, pregnant women, the elderly, and those with depressed immune

pregnant women, the elderly, and those with depressed immune systems.  The legal aspects of food

systems.

The legal aspects of food preservation are different in case of foods produced for human and for animal consumption. Thus, it is necessary to consider the group for whom the products are being manufactured.