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Bluetooth is a wireless LAN technology used to connect devices of different functions such
as telephones, computers (laptop or desktop), notebooks, cameras, printers and so on.
Bluetooth project was started by SIG (Special Interest Group) formed by four companies -
IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba for interconnecting computing and communicating devices
using short-range, lower-power, inexpensive wireless radios.
The project was named Bluetooth after the name of Viking king Harald Blaatand who
unified Denmark and Norway in 10th century.
Nowadays, Bluetooth technology is used for several computer and non computer
1. It is used for providing communication between peripheral devices like wireless mouse or
keyboard with the computer.
2. It is used by modern healthcare devices to send signals to monitors.
3. It is used by modern communicating devices like mobile phone, PDAs, palmtops etc to
transfer data rapidly.
4. It is used for dial up networking. Thus allowing a notebook computer to call via a mobile
5. It is used for cordless telephoning to connect a handset and its local base station.
6. It also allows hands-free voice comml1nication with headset.
7. It also enables a mobile computer to connect to a fixed LAN.
8. It can also be used for file transfer operations from one mobile phone to another.
Bluetooth devices have a built-in short range radio transmitter. The rate provided is 1Mbps
and uses 2.4 GHz bandwidth.
Bluetooth Architecture
Bluetooth architecture defines two types of networks:

1. Piconet
2. Scattemet

1. Piconet

Piconet is a Bluetooth network that consists of one primary (master) node and seven active
secondary (slave) nodes.
Thus, piconet can have upto eight active nodes (1 master and 7 slaves) or stations within the
distance of 10 meters.
There can be only one primary or master station in each piconet.
The communication between the primary and the secondary can be one-to-one or one-to-

All communication is between master and a slave. Salve-slave communication is not
In addition to seven active slave station, a piconet can have upto 255 parked nodes. These
parked nodes are secondary or slave stations and cannot take part in communication until it is
moved from parked state to active state.
2. Scatternet
Scattemet is formed by combining various piconets.
A slave in one piconet can act as a master or primary in other piconet.
Such a station or node can receive messages from the master in the first piconet and deliver
the message to its slaves in other piconet where it is acting as master. This node is also called
bridge slave.
Thus a station can be a member of two piconets.
A station cannot be a master in two piconets.

Bluetooth layers and Protocol Stack

Bluetooth standard has many protocols that are organized into different layers.
The layer structure of Bluetooth does not follow OS1 model, TCP/IP model or any other
known model.
The different layers and Bluetooth protocol architecture.

Radio Layer

The Bluetooth radio layer corresponds to the physical layer of OSI model.
It deals with ratio transmission and modulation.
The radio layer moves data from master to slave or vice versa.
It is a low power system that uses 2.4 GHz ISM band in a range of 10 meters.
This band is divided into 79 channels of 1MHz each. Bluetooth uses the Frequency
Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) method in the physical layer to avoid interference from
other devices or networks.
Bluetooth hops 1600 times per second, i.e. each device changes its modulation frequency
1600 times per second.
In order to change bits into a signal, it uses a version of FSK called GFSK i.e. FSK with
Gaussian bandwidth filtering.

Baseband Layer

Baseband layer is equivalent to the MAC sublayer in LANs.
Bluetooth uses a form of TDMA called TDD-TDMA (time division duplex TDMA).
Master and slave stations communicate with each other using time slots.
The master in each piconet defines the time slot of 625 sec.
In TDD- TDMA, communication is half duplex in which receiver can send and receive data
but not at the same time.
If the piconet has only no slave; the master uses even numbered slots (0, 2, 4, ...) and the
slave uses odd-numbered slots (1, 3, 5, .... ). Both master and slave communicate in half
duplex mode. In slot 0, master sends & secondary receives; in slot 1, secondary sends and
primary receives.
If piconet has more than one slave, the master uses even numbered slots. The slave sends in
the next odd-numbered slot if the packet in the previous slot was addressed to it.
In Baseband layer, two types of links can be created between a master and slave. These are:

1. Asynchronous Connection-less (ACL)

It is used for packet switched data that is available at irregular intervals.
ACL delivers traffic on a best effort basis. Frames can be lost & may have to be
A slave can have only one ACL link to its master.
Thus ACL link is used where correct delivery is preferred over fast delivery.
The ACL can achieve a maximum data rate of 721 kbps by using one, three or more slots.
2. Synchronous Connection Oriented (SCO)
sco is used for real time data such as sound. It is used where fast delivery is preferred over
accurate delivery.
In an sco link, a physical link is created between the master and slave by reserving specific
slots at regular intervals.
Damaged packet; are not retransmitted over sco links.
A slave can have three sco links with the master and can send data at 64 Kbps.
Logical Link, Control Adaptation Protocol Layer (L2CAP)

The logical unit link control adaptation protocol is equivalent to logical link control
sublayer of LAN.
The ACL link uses L2CAP for data exchange but sco channel does not use it.
The various function of L2CAP is:
1. Segmentation and reassembly

L2CAP receives the packets of upto 64 KB from upper layers and divides them into frames
for transmission.
It adds extra information to define the location of frame in the original packet.
The L2CAP reassembles the frame into packets again at the destination.

2. Multiplexing

L2CAP performs multiplexing at sender side and demultiplexing at receiver side.
At the sender site, it accepts data from one of the upper layer protocols frames them and
deliver them to the Baseband layer.
At the receiver site, it accepts a frame from the baseband layer, extracts the data, and
delivers them to the appropriate protocol1ayer.

3. Quality of Service (QOS)

L2CAP handles quality of service requirements, both when links are established and during
normal operation.
It also enables the devices to negotiate the maximum payload size during connection

Bluetooth Frame Format

The various fields of blue tooth frame format are:

1. Access Code: It is 72 bit field that contains synchronization bits. It identifies the master.
2. Header: This is 54-bit field. It contain 18 bit pattern that is repeated for 3 time.
The header field contains following subfields:
(i) Address: This 3 bit field can define upto seven slaves (1 to 7). If the address is zero, it is
used for broadcast communication from primary to all secondaries.
(ii)Type: This 4 bit field identifies the type of data coming from upper layers.
(iii) F: This flow bit is used for flow control. When set to 1, it means the device is unable to
receive more frames.
(iv) A: This bit is used for acknowledgement.
(v) S: This bit contains a sequence number of the frame to detect retransmission. As stop and
wait protocol is used, one bit is sufficient.
(vi) Checksum: This 8 bit field contains checksum to detect errors in header.
3. Data: This field can be 0 to 2744 bits long. It contains data or control information coming
from upper layers

Introduction to Satellite Communication
Satellite is powerful long distance and point-to multi point communication system. A
communication satellite is an R.F (Radio Frequency) repeater. To overcome disadvantage of
Line of sight communication which is only 45 - 55 km, the transmitting antenna is placed on
the satellite and the satellite is placed in the orbit high above the earth. The function of
satellite is to communicate between different earth stations around the earth, thus with the
help of satellite, it is easy to communicate over thousands of km, a com-satellite is a
combination of ROCKET to put the satellite in the orbit, micro wave electronic devices for
the communication, solar cells are used to convert the solar energy into a power supply
(ELECTRICAL ENERGY) for the electronic equipment.
The satellite placed in GEO-
STATIONARY and placed at an altitude
of 22300 miles or 35900 km above the
ground level.
The satellite travels at the same speed at
which the earth rotates around the sun.
The rotation of satellite is synchronized
with earth rotation as a result satellite
appears to be stationary in the sky w.r.t
the earth station is constant. There are 3
satellites are placed at angle 120 in GEO-
STATIONARY orbit, they provide 100% coverage from one earth station to any where on
the earth, this concept is shown below
Block Diagram of Satellite Communication System

The uplink frequencies (5.9---6.4 GHZ) are used for T/N from the earth station to the satellite
and down link frequencies (3.74.2GHZ).
The above frequencies are used for T/N from the satellite to the earth station , the uplink
frequencies are converted to lower frequencies by the mixer and local Osc, the com satellite
acts as a repeater station it receives the signal, amplifiers it and then transmitted over a next
frequencies to avoid interference between the uplink signal and down link , the two way
communication is established with the help of transponder , a com satellite has multi
transponder per satellite has in creased over the year ,a satellite with 2 transponder can
support a signal T.V channel or 240 telephone lines , a satellite with 48 transponder can
accommodate 4000T.P CKTS and 2 T.V channels now-a-days in satellite using a digital tech
, due to which 0ne satellite can handle 120,000 T.P4 channels and more then 500 T.V
Satellite Communication Earth Station

The equipment used in satellite earth station are shown in fig , the earth station consist of a
dish antenna transmitter which can transmit a high frequencies (5.96.4GHZ) micro wave
signals, some earth stations also called ground station , which can transmit and receive the
signals while others can only receive signals.

A high directive and a high gain antenna is necessary at the earth station , because the losses
over the long T/N path is very high , the signals power reaching back to the earth station from
satellite is very small . there fore at receiving end a parabolic dish antenna with 61m diameter
provides a high gain and thus amplify the signal power , it is important to have a low noise
amplifier before the mixer stage in the receiver C,K,T at the satellite earth terminal.
Geostationary Satellite
The satellites were placed in low earth orbit. as a result the satellite at a such high speed that
it visible to the ground only for a short time at each day , the satellite appeared below the
horizon and dies appear below the opposite horizon , the ground station was cut-off for long
time in day , to maintain the communication link another station had to be activated , this
problem was solved by placing the satellite in circular orbit of approximately 22300 miles or
35900 km radius, as the satellite height increases from the earth surface , the speed of satellite
decreases by the same manner , at that height the angular velocity of satellite will be
proportional to the angular velocity of earth , the satellite rotates with the same speed as that
of the earth due to which the satellite will always be at the same place where it has been fixed
, this type of satellite is called geo stationary satellite.
Telephone Link via Satellite
The satellite communication can be used for Telephone telecom. Around the world, the block
diagram of such a system is shown in fig. The block diagram of earth station working with
three satellites here, the national long distance Telephone network of a 4 countries (A,B,C,D,)
through international switching center are connected, consider country A the 0/p of the
Telephone exchange is applied to the MUX, the multiplexed signal is send to the micro-wave
station and from there to the satellite earth station , at the earth station the signal is
multiplexed and directly applied to the modulator stage of earth station where it demodulated
with a high frequency signal and transmitted towards the satellite as uplink , in other case the
earth station A receive three down link signal , the 3 carriers are demodulated and then
transmitted toward the micro-wave station and from there international switching center.
Many earth stations are designed to transmit several carriers from direct communication with
other station through one satellite; the other wire (OW) facilities are transmitted for message
carriers from the band of 300HZ----12KHZ,

Merits and Demerits of the Satellite Communication
Following are the merits and demerits of satellite communication system.
1. No tracking is required by Geostationary Satel.ites.
2. Multiple access points are available in Satellite communication.
3. 24 hour communication can be achieved with the help of satellite.
4. The signal quality of Satellite communication is higher.
5. To put more information on the carrier a broad band can be used.
6. Satellite Communication is used for long distance communication or across oceans.
7. low transmitting Power and low receiver sensitivity is required by the Satellite in
close elliptical orbits.
1. The transmitter and receiver used in satellite communication requires high power,
most sensitive transmitters and large diameter antenna's.
2. Satellite communication is disturbed by solar activities and cyclones in the space.
3. Due to ageing effect the efficiency of Satellite components decreases.
4. The longer propagation times (APPOX,300 ms) is one of a disadvantage of satellite
5. The cost for Initial design and launching of the satellite in the orbit results in
extremely high.