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Unit 1: Cells
Unit 1: Paper 4 Section A Structured Questions 1a) A: Cell Wall B: Cell Surface/ Plasma Membrane C: Cytoplasm D: Vacuole b) The plant cell has a cell wall that is absent in an animal cell. The plant cell has a large central vacuole compared to the numerous small temporary vacuoles found in an animal cell. ci) F: Xylem vessel G: White Blood Cell (Phagocyte) ii) F Function 1- To conduct water and dissolved mineral salts from the roots to the rest of the plant. Adaptations: Long, narrow, hollow with a continuous lumen due to the absence of cross walls, to prevent obstruction of the passage of water and dissolved mineral salts. or Function 2: To provide mechanical strength to the vessel. Adaptation: Thick Lignified cell walls to prevent collapse of the vessel. We have yet to cover G in the syllabus. 2a) 1. Cell wall 2. Chloroplast b) i) Chloroplast ii) Nucleus iii) Cell wall c) i) The root hair cell has an elongated tubular outgrowth. ii) A xylem cell does not have protoplasm (cytoplasm or organelles) in it. It only has a cell wall. 3a) Part of cell cell membrane cell wall chloroplast cytoplasm nucleus Sap vacuole In plant cells only √ √ √ √ √ In animal and plant cells √

b) i) To transport oxygen around the body. ii) The red blood cell’s cytoplasm has the red pigment haemoglobin that binds reversibly to oxygen. There is an absence of nucleus in the cell so that more haemoglobin can be packed into it to increase its oxygen carrying capacity. The cell is flattened and biconcave

in shape to increase the surface area to volume ratio to increase diffusion rate of oxygen in and out of the cell. 4a) Part of cell cell membrane cell wall cytoplasm chloroplast nucleus vacuole letter C B A E F D

b) 1. Presence of cell wall 2. Presence of chloroplast / large central vacuole 5a) 1. Presence of a mouth for feeding 2. Presence of a flagellum for movement 3. Presence of a sense receptor, the eye-spot b) Presence of chloroplast c) The cellulose cell wall. 6ai) cytoplasm, cell surface/plasma membrane ii) Absence of a large central vacuole and cellulose cell wall and the irregular shape of the cell indicates that it is not a plant cell. bi) Absence of nucleus in the red blood cell. ii) 1. The red blood cell’s cytoplasm has the red pigment haemoglobin that binds reversibly to oxygen. 2. There is an absence of nucleus in the cell so that more haemoglobin can be packed into it to increase its oxygen carrying capacity. 3. The flattened biconcave shape increases the surface area to volume ratio and allows the central region to be thin to increase diffusion rate of oxygen in and out of the cell.

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