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UNIVERSIDAD DE GUANAJUATO

DEPARTAMENTO EN INGENIERA QUMICA


CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGA AMBIENTAL
Agosto-Diciembre 2012

EXERCISES

1. For a solution containing 200 mg/L of glycine [CH
2
(NH
2
)COOH] whose oxidation
can be represented as:
2 CH
2
(NH
2
)COOH + 3 O
2
4CO
2
+ 2H
2
O + 2NH
3

NH
3
+ 2O
2
NO
-
3
+ H
+
+ H
2
O
(a) Find the theoretical CBOD.
(b) Find the ultimate NBOD.
(c) Find the total theoretical BOD.


Solucin
a)
(


) (

)(



b)
(

) (


) (

)(


c)




2. A sample contains 200 mg/L of casein (C
8
H
12
O
3
N
2
). Calculate the theoretical
CBOD, NBOD, and total BOD. If none of the NBOD is exerted in the first five days
and k = 0.25/day, estimate the five-day BOD.

Solucin


a)
(


) (


)(


b) NH3 + 2 O2 NO3 + H+ + H2O
(

) (


)(


)(


c)


d)

) (







3. A wastewater treatment plant discharges 1.0 m
3
/s of effluent having an ultimate
BOD of 40.0 mg/L into a stream flowing at 10.0 m
3
/s. Just upstream from the
discharge point, the stream has an ultimate BOD of 3.0 mg/L. The deoxygenation
constant kd is estimated at 0.22/day.
(a) Assuming complete and instaneous mixing, find the ultimate BOD of the
mixture of waste and river just downstream from the outfall.
(b) Assuming a constant cross-sectional area for the stream equal to 55 m
2
,what
ultimate BOD would you expect to find at a point 10,000 m downstream?


Solucin
a)

)( ) (

)( )


b)

(


) (


)



()( )







4. The wastewater in Problem 3 has DO equal to 4.0 mg/L when it is discharged.
The river has its own DO, just upstream from the outfall, equal to 8.0 mg/L. Find
the initial oxygen deficit of the mixture just downstream from the discharge point.
The temperatures of sewage and river are both 15 C.




)( ) (

)( )







5. Untreated sewage with a BOD of 240 mg/L is sent to a wastewater treatment
plant where 50 percent of the BOD is removed. The river receiving the effluent has
the oxygen sag curve shown in Figure 1 (the river has no other sources of BOD).
Notice that downstream is expressed both in miles and days required to reach a
given spot.
















(a) Suppose the treatment plant breaks down and it no longer removes any BOD.
Sketch the new oxygen sag curve a long time after the breakdown. Label the
coordinates of the critical distance downriver.
(b) Sketch the oxygen sag curve as it would have been only four days after the
break-down of the treatment plant.


Determinando los coeficientes de reaccin kr

)
Con la ayuda de un software se obtienen los valores para


DBO con planta operando

()


Treatment
Plant
120 mg/L
240 mg/L
River speed 30 miles /day

Distance (miles)
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240
DO
(mg/L)
FIGURE 1
DBO con interrupcin del proceso.

()



En la siguiente grafica se Puede observar el comportamiento de















6. Suppose the only source of BOD in a river is untreated wastes that are being
discharged from a food processing plant. The resulting oxygen sag curve has a
minimum value of DO, somewhere downstream, equal to 3.0 mg/L (see Figure 2).
Just below the discharge point, the DO of the stream is equal to the saturation
value of 10.0 mg/L.












(a) By what percent should the BOD of the wastes be reduced to assure a healthy
stream with at least 5.0 mg/L of DO everywhere? Would a primary treatment plant
be sufficient to achieve this reduction?
(b) If the stream flows 60 miles per day and it has a reaeration coefficient k, equal
to 0.80/day and a deoxygenation coefficient k
d
of 0.20/day, how far downstream
(miles) would the lowest DO occur?
(c) What ultimate BOD (L
0
mg/L) of the mixture of river and wastes just
downstream from the discharge point would cause the minimum DO to be 5.0
mg/L?.
(d) Sketch the oxygen sag curve before and after treatment recommended in (a),
labeling critical points (DO
min
, location and value).
a)


X
FIGURE 2
El mnimo valor de DO es 3.0 mg/L, lo que significa que se ha usado una demanda
mxima (antes de mezclarse) de:
DO
max
= 10 - 3 =7 mg/L

Condiciones sanas la DO
min
sea igual a 5mg/L. Entonces l %DO removido es:
71 . 0
/ 7
/ 5
max
min
= =
L mg
L ml
DO
DO

Por lo tanto se tiene que reducirla un 29% ms para lograr condiciones sanas.

Una planta de tratamiento primario puede remover hasta el 35% de DBO, por lo tanto si
ser suficiente.

b)
Tiempo de recorrido.
dias
dia
dia
dia dia
Kd
Kr
Kd Kr
t
c
31 . 2
/ 2 . 0
/ 8 . 0
ln
2 . 0 8 . 0
1
ln
1
= |
.
|

\
|

= |
.
|

\
|

=


Flujo de 60millas por da, el valor mnimo ocurrir a:
Distancia ( ) millas
dia
millas
dias 6 . 139
60
31 . 2 = =

c)
Segn la frmula para calcular la demanda mxima
( )
Krt Kdt
d r
d
e e
K K
DBO K
DO

=
0

Sustituyendo los datos

( )( ) ( )( )
( )
0
3 . 2 8 . 0 3 . 2 2 . 0 0
157 . 0
2 . 0 8 . 0
2 . 0
/ 5 DBO e e
DBO
L mg =

=


L mg
L mg
DBO / 7 . 31
157 . 0
/ 5
0
= =


d)
Modelos matemticos tenemos.


Antes del tratamiento
DBO1 44.648 =
mg
L
DO
DBO1
t ( ) 10
Kd DBO1
Kr Kd
e
Kd t
e
Kr t

( )
:=

Despus del tratamiento

DO
DBO2
t ( ) 10
Kd DBO2
Kr Kd
e
Kd t
e
Kr t

( )
:= DBO2 31.7 =
mg
L


Comportamiento del oxgeno

0 2 4 6 8 10
2
4
6
8
10
DO
DBO1
t ( )
DO
DBO2
t ( )
t t ,

Mnimo se presenta a los 2.2 das con un valor de 2.9mg/L para la corriente sin
tratamiento y una vez que se ha tratado el mnimo DO el mnimo se presenta en 2
das con un valor de 5mg/L.