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Food and Nutrition Quiz

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One of the following does not belong in this food
a. banana
b. beef
c. peach
d. nectarine
e. prune

The food group in question #1 is:
a. Meat, Poultry, Fish, Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Group
b. Fats, Oils and Sweets Group
c. Fruit Group
d. Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta Group
e. Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Group

What food doesn't belong to this food group?
a. chicken
b. steak
c. lamb
d. crab
e. kiwi

The food group in question #3 is:
a. Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta Group
b. Meat, Poultry, Fish, Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Group
c. Vegetable Group
d. Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Group
e. Fats, Oils and Sweets Group

What food doesn't belong to this food group?
a. apricot
b. squash
c. zucchini
d. potato
e. broccoli

The food group in question #5 is:
a. Meat, Poultry, Fish, Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Group
b. Fruit Group
c. Vegetable Group
d. Fats, Oils and Sweets Group
e. Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta Group

What food doesn't belong to this food group?
a. chocolate milk
b. cream cheese
c. ice cream
d. salad dressing
e. yogurt

The food group in question #7 is:
a. Fruit Group
b. Dairy Group
c. Vegetable Group
d. Meat, Poultry, Fish, Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Group
e. Fats, Oils and Sweets Group

What food doesn't belong to this food group?
a. cookies
b. candy
c. sald dressing
d. cherries
e. butter

The food group in question #9 is:
a. Dairy Group
b. Vegetable Group
c. Meat, Poultry, Fish, Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Group
d. Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta Group
e. Fats, Oils and Sweets Group

What food doesn't belong to this food group?
a. noodles
b. crackers
c. scallion
d. macaroni
e. cous cous

The food group in question #11 is:
a. Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta Group
b. Meat, Poultry, Fish, Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Group
c. Vegetable Group
d. Fats, Oils and Sweets Group
e. Fruit Group

Which of the following beverages has no fat, sugar, or
a. milk
b. root beer
c. coffee with cream
d. iced tea unsweetened
e. lemonade

Test your Nutritional knowledge
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1. This food group is our body's best source of energy?
A. Meat Group
B. fats,oils and sweets
C. breads and cereals
D. milk and cheese

2. Which of these is NOT considered a nutrient?
A. vitamins
B. minerals
C. fiber
D. fats
E. Don't know

3. Which of these is added to the food label because
people sometimes don't eat ENOUGH of this?
A. fat
B. calcium
C. sodium
D. cholesterol
E. Don't know

4. Which of these is required on the food label?
A. total carbohydrate
B. sugars
C. iron
D. all of the above
E. Don't know

5. The bread, cereal, rice and pasta group is a good
source of _______?
A. carbohydrate
B. vitamin C
C. calcium
D. vitamin D
E. Don't know

6. Citrus fruits are an excellent source of _______?
A. calcium
B. vitamin c
C. vitamin B
D. calories
E. Don't know

7. Foods from the meat, poultry, fish dry beans, eggs
and nuts group are an important source of ________?
A. iron
B. fiber
C. beta carotene
D. calcium
E. Don't know

8. Which food contains the most fat?
A. graham crackers
B. brownies
C. pudding
D. angel food cake
E. Don't know

9. The milk, cheese & yogurt group are important for
A. strong bones
B. teeth
C. muscles
D. all of the above
E. Don't know

10. How many servings of vegetables do we need each
A. 6-11
B. 2-3
C. 3-5
D. 1-2
E. Don't know

1. The rice dish paella comes from what country?
2. Deer meat is known by what name?
3. Are humans omnivore, herbivore or carnivore?
4. What food is used as the base of guacamole?
5. The range of vegetables, fruits, meats, nuts, grains, herbs and spices used in cooking are known
as what?
6. True or false? India is the worlds largest producer of bananas.
7. What is the sweet substance made by bees?
8. Lures, reels, rods, hooks, baits and nets are common equipment used in what food gathering
9. True or false? McDonalds has restaurants in over 100 countries around the world.
10. The Pizza Hut franchise began in what country?
11. Foods rich in starch such as pasta and bread are often known by what word starting with the
letter C?
12. True or false? Trans fats are good for your health.
13. What is another name for maize?
14. Fruit preserves made from citrus fruits, sugar and water are known as what?
15. True or false? Beefsteak is a variety of tomato.
16. Dairy products are generally made from what common liquid?
17. Do coconut trees grow better in cold or warm climates?
18. True or false? Cooking food often transforms its chemical make up.
19. What is the popular food used to carve jack-o-lanterns during Halloween?
20. Chiffon, marble and bundt are types of what?

1. Spain 2. Venison 3. Omnivore 4. Avocado
5. Ingredients 6. True 7. Honey 8. Fishing
9. True 10. USA 11. Carbohydrates 12. False
13. Corn 14. Marmalade 15. True 16. Milk
17. Warm 18. True 19. Pumpkins 20. Cake

Are you ready?
What food is high in calcium?
What food is high in vitamin C?
What food is high in potassium?
What food should you eat to make sure you have
strong bones?
What nutrient should you eat to make strong muscles?
What food is good for women going through
menopause? Hint: it is also good for breast cancer.
Here are the answers:
The food high in calcium: Dairy foods (milk, cheese,
The food high in vitamin C: Orange Juice
The food high in potassium: Bananas
To make strong bones: Dairy foods
To make strong muscles: Meat (beef, chicken, fish)
The food good for menopause: Soy

Which body compartment is directly proportional to
basal metabolic rate?

body fat

extracellular volume

lean body mass (cell mass)

plasma volume

total body mass
For the average medical student, what is the largest
component of energy (caloric) expenditure?

basal energy expenditure (BEE)

food intake

physical work

specific dynamic action of foods

none of the above
Question 3 of 30
What two components of energy input and/or output
should you attempt to modify in a person who is
overweight or obese?
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basal energy expenditure and food intake

food intake and physical work

food intake and specific dynamic action

physical work and specific dynamic action

None of these can or should be modified.
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Question 4 of 30
A food contains 5 grams of carbohydrate, 10 grams of
fat and 5 grams of protein. How many Calories (kcal)
does this food provide?
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Question 5 of 30
With regard to protein absorption, all of the following
are true EXCEPT:
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dipeptides and tripeptides are absorbed by carrier
mediated transport.

amino acids are absorbed by broadly specific
active transport systems.

hydrolytic enzymes secreted in the
gastrointestinal tract help limit the amount of
dietary protein absorbed.

infants, unlike adults, can absorb small amounts
of undigested protein.

absorption occurs in the intestine.
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Question 6 of 30
Kwashiorkor is characterized by all of the following
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gross underweight (< 60% of standard)


depigmentation of hair and/or skin

fatty liver

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Question 7 of 30
Treatment protocols for protein-energy malnutrition
begin with
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immunization to enhance ability to fight

weight bearing exercise.

Replenishment of fluids followed by gradual
increase in high quality protein and/or calories in
the diet.

supplementation of the diet with a high
protein/high calorie drink.

none of the above.
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Question 8 of 30
In a nitrogen balance study the following data were
collected for a subject who was in nitrogen
equilibrium. What must his daily protein intake have
urinary N = 8 g N/day
fecal N = 1.5 g/day
cutaneous N = 0.5 g/day
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less than 25 g/day

50 g/day

62.5 g/day

140 g/day

none of the above
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Question 9 of 30
Which of the following are essential amino acids for
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A. histidine and arginine

B. leucine, isoleucine and valine

C. tryptophan and methionine

D. B and C

E. A, B and C
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Question 10 of 30
Fructose is
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absorbed passively in to the enterocyte against its
concentration gradient.

absorbed into the enterocyte without help of a
protein transporter.

absorbed into the enterocyte coupled to the
influx of Na

absorbed into the enterocyte by protein-
facilitated, passive diffusion.

less calorically dense than an equal weight of
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Question 11 of 30
There is competition between
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the digestion of sucrose and lactose.

the digestion of maltose and sucrose.

the transport of glucose and fructose into the

the transport of most neutral amino acids and
basic amino acids into the enterocyte.

the transport of glucose and galactose into the
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Question 12 of 30
Dietary fiber
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is digested in a fashion similar to that of dietary

is undesirable because it enhances triglyceride
formation in the liver.

is found primarily in animal products.

enhances the rate at which chyme moves through
the intestine.

tends to decrease stool bulk.
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Question 13 of 30
All of the following are true EXCEPT:
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dietary cholesterol intake should be less than 300

total fat intake should be 30% or less of total

saturated fats should predominate over
unsaturated fats in the diet.

cholesterol is not an essential nutrient.

arachidonic acid can be synthesized from linoleic
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Question 14 of 30
Which one of the following fatty acids is considered
essential from a nutritional point of view?
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arachidonic acid (20:4)

docosahexaenoic acid (22:6)

linoleic acid (18:2)

palmitic acid (16:0)

palmitoleic acid (16:1)
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Question 15 of 30
Steatorrhea is associated with all of the following
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pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.

pancreatic beta-call insufficiency.

loss of the proximal small intestine.

intestinal villous malfunction.

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Question 16 of 30
Medium chain triglycerides
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can be absorbed intact without hydrolysis

can be absorbed via the portal vein

contain mainly myristic acid (C:14)

A and B

A, B and C
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Question 17 of 30
The pancreas produces and secretes all of the
following digestive enzymes (or their precursors)
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cholesteryl ester hydrolase


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Question 18 of 30
Morbidly obese people are characterized by
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less lean body mass and more fat mass than
people at ideal body weight.

a body weight which is less than 120% of the
ideal body weight.

a body mass index greater than 120%

a thyroid disorder.

a higher basal metabolic rate than people at their
ideal body weight.
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Question 19 of 30
Bulimia is characterized by
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avoidance of carbohydrate-containing foods.

dental caries.

vitamin deficiencies.


type II diabetes mellitus.
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Question 20 of 30
Which of the following is most likely to be associated
with anorexia nervosa?
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regular menstrual cycles at widely spaced
intervals, such as every three months

binge eating

a body mass index of about 22

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Question 21 of 30
Body mass index (BMI)
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is a way to measure central obesity.

is synonymous with obesity.

of 27 corresponds to morbid obesity.

is a measure of lean body mass to fat mass.

measures obesity by considering both weight and
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Question 22 of 30
Complications of obesity include all of the following
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coronary artery disease

gall stones

obstructive sleep apnea

type I (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus
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Question 23 of 30
In a malnourished surgical patient
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immune function can be expected to be normal.

it is best to overfeed the patient because excess
nutrient speeds healing.

total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is usually the
best choice.

wound healing can be expected to be

serum albumin is usually in the range of 4.0-4.5
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Question 24 of 30
The best criterion of a surgical patient's nutritional
state is
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nitrogen balance.

mid-arm muscle circumference.

a determination of plasma albumin.

functional impairment, such as inability to walk,
work, etc.

Subjective Global Assessment (SGA).
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Question 25 of 30
All of the following are absolute contradictions to
enteral nutrition EXCEPT:
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severe pancreatitis

lack of access to the gastrointestinal tract

paralytic ileus

severe diarrhea

intractable vomiting
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Question 26 of 30
Which of the following components of human milk
blocks antigen attachment to gut epithelial receptors?
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milk leukocytes


secretory IgA
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Question 27 of 30
The composition of human milk is 1.5% protein, 3.4%
fat and 6.8% carbohydrate. We can conclude that
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breastfed human infants do not get enough

breastfed human infants should receive
supplemental carbohydrate to achieve optimal

breastfed human infants are likely to become

lipid digestion and absorption are particularly
important processes in the nutrition of breastfed
human infants.

human milk probably has a high mineral content
relative to the milk of species that grow more
rapidly than man.
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Question 28 of 30
The first attempt to breastfeed should be
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as soon as possible after delivery.

not until the baby has been weighed.

not until after at least an hour after delivery.

not until after at least 24 hours after delivery.

not until a first feeding of formula or sugar water
has been administered to replenish the baby's
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Question 29 of 30
The frequency of breastfeeding should be
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determined by hospital procedures.

determined by the baby's desires.

determined by the rate at which the mother
produces milk.

a semiflexible schedule, in which the ideal is
three-hour intervals.

a rigid three-hour schedule.
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Question 30 of 30
Breastfeeding mothers should
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avoid gassy foods because they will cause gas in
the baby.

drink enough to prevent becoming thirsty.

avoid garlic, onion and other strongly flavored
foods, because these flavors will be passed into
the milk.

avoid frequent nursing because this will deplete
their milk, resulting in inadequate supply.

minimize the duration of breastfeeding in order
to conserve their own bone calcium.
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1 - Which of the following juices are high in iron?
a) Prunes
b) Carrots
c) Apricots
d) Oranges
2 - All animal products contain cholesterol. Is it
true that trimming the fat eliminate most of the
cholesterol from meats?
a) True
b) False
3 - Only a few foods contain significant amounts of
Vitamin E. What are the best sources of vitamin E?
a) Eggs,
b) Wheat germ
c) Safflower oil,
d) Nuts
4 - Sulforaphane is a compound thought to protect
against cancer. Where can it be found?
a) Broccoli
b) Cabbage
c) Tea
d) Kale
5 - Is it true that pink grapefruit usually costs more
than white, but it's more nutritious?
a) True
b) False
6 - Which of these foods are rich in calcium?
a) Dried figs
b) Broccoli
c) Dried beans
d) Almonds.
e) All of the above
7 - Is it true that honey and brown sugar are more
nutritious than white sugar?
a) True
b) False
8 - Is it true that yogurt has more calcium and more
B vitamins than milk?
a) True
b) False
9 - Is it true that researchers have found that cocoa,
an ingredient in chocolate, may help prevent plaque
from building up in the arteries and may reduce the
risk of heart diseases?
a) True
b) False
10 - Is it true that butter and margarine have about
the same number of calories?
a) True
b) False
11 - Is it true that spinach builds strong muscles?
a) True
b) False
12 - Is it true that carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
have about the same amount of calories?
a) True
b) False
13 - Is it true that breakfast is the most important
meal of the day?
A) True
B) False
14 - Is it true that meats described as "lean" are
healthier choices?
A) True
B) False
15 - This vitamin is known as the sunshine vitamin
A) Vitamin C
B) Vitamin A
C) Vitamin K
D) Vitamin D
16 - Is it true that Indonesia produces a very
expensive kind of coffee made from beans that have
been swallowed, digested and excreted by the luak,
a small mammal?
A) True
B) False
17 - Is it true that a specific tannin found in
cranberries combats the bacteria that cause
urinary-tract infections?
A) True
B) False
18 - Fruit products provide two important
nutrients: water and ________________________?
A) - Simple carbohydrates (sugars)
B) - Milk
C) - Soda
D) - All of the above
Food and nutrition Quiz Answers:
1 - a) Prunes
2 - b) False
3 - b) Wheat germ
c) Safflower oil
d) Nuts
4 - a) Broccoli
b) Cabbage
d) Kale
5 - a) True
6 - e) All of the above
7 - b) False
8 - a) True
9 - a) True
10 - a) True
11 - b) False
12 - b) False
13 - a) True
14 - a) True
15 - d) Vitamin D
16 - a) True
17 - a) True
18 - a) Simple carbohydrates (sugars)

1. Fruits, vegetables and cereals are potent sources of:
a. Antioxidants
b. Unsaturated fat
c. Saturated fat
d. Free radicals
2. The leading source of antioxidants in the U.S. diet
a. Citrus fruits
b. Spinach
c. Coffee
d. Egg yolks
3. The essential fatty acids that must be derived from
the diet are:
a. Stearidonic acid and eicosatetraenoic acid
b. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid
c. Linoleic and alpha-linoleic acid
d. Gamma-linoleic acid and arachidonic acid
4. All of the following statements about omega-3 fatty
acids are true except:
a. They help to maintain healthy triglyceride and high-
density lipoprotein
b. They have significantly contributed to the obesity
c. They are necessary for healthy infant growth and
d. They play an important role in the production of
hormones that govern numerous metabolic and
biological processes
5. All of the following may be associated with scurvy
a. Loss of appetite and irritability
b. Diarrhea and fever
c. Tenderness and swelling in legs
d. First symptom is altered mental status
6. The only fat-soluble antioxidant synthesized in the
body is?
a. Vitamin D
b. Thiamine
c. Ascorbic acid
d. CoQ10
7. Good source of vitamin D include all except:
a. blueberries
b. Sunlight
c. Salmon, tuna sardines and mackerel
d. Fortified milk and other dairy products
8. One of the fat-soluble vitamins involved in
coagulation is:
a. Vitamin K
b. Vitamin A
c. Vitamin D
d. Vitamin E
9. Products that contain live microorganisms in
sufficient numbers to alter intestinal microflora and
promote intestinal microbial balance are known as:
a. Antibiotics
b. Probiotics
c. Fruits and vegetables
d. Digestive enzymes
10. Nondigestible food ingredients that stimulate the
growth and activity of certain bacteria in the colon are
a. Insoluble fiber
b. Probiotics
c. Prebiotics
d. Cellulose
11. A deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the diet
a. Osteopenia
b Beri-beri
c. Protein malnutrition
d. Scurvy
12. Symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia may include all
of the following except:
a. Extreme, intermittent facial pain in the jaw or cheek
b. Tingling or numbness on one side of the face
c. Pain triggered by contact with the face or facial
d. Inability to swallow
13. All of the following are true about Tourette
syndrome except:
a. Drug treatment completely eliminates symptoms
b. It is involuntary and may be a chronic condition
c. Symptoms are generally most severe during
d. Symptoms are generally detected in children
14. The USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans
a. Limiting carbohydrates to 10 percent of daily
b. Limiting total fat intake to 20 to 35 percent of
c. Limiting protein to 10 percent of daily calories
d. Limiting intake of fats and oils to 10 percent of
daily calories
15. All of the following statements about vitamin B3
(niacin) are true except:
a. It helps to release energy in carbohydrates, fat, and
b. It improves blood lipid levels
c. Deficiency causes beriberi
d. It is involved in the synthesis of sex hormones
16. The average American consumes approximately
how much sodium per day?
a. 2,300 mg
b. 230 mg
c. 340 mg
d. 3,400 mg
17. All of the following are potentially modifiable risk
factors for osteoporosis except:
a. Anorexia nervosa
b. Chronically low intake of calcium and vitamin D
c. Chronically low intake of vitamins C and B6
d. Excessive alcohol consumption
18. Consuming fewer than 130 grams of carbohydrate
per day may lead to:
a. Hypoglycemia
b. Kwashiorkor
c. Marasmus
d. Ketosis
19. Characteristics of successful dieters include all of
the following except:
a. Maintaining a daily food journal
b. Counting calories
c. Adhering to a strict eating plan
d. Eliminating all carbohydrates from their diets
20. Iron supplements are frequently recommended for
all of the following except:
a. Women who are pregnant
b. Infants and toddlers
c. Teenage girls
d. Post-menopausal women

Answers and Explanations
1. A: In addition to the above-mentioned foods,
legumes (including broad beans, pinto beans, and
soybeans) are good sources of antioxidant vitamins
and a variety of phytonutrients that often act as
antioxidants, protecting the cells of the body from the
damaging effect of free radicals. Some of the best
sources of antioxidants are berries, ginger,
pomegranate, sunflower seeds, and walnuts.
2. C: Because most Americans do not consume the
recommended number of servings of fruits and
vegetables each day, coffee is the leading source of
antioxidants in Americans' diets. It is not because
coffee is especially high in antioxidants, but because
Americans drink so much of it. Their morning coffee
gives Americans nearly 1,300 mg daily of antioxidants
in the form of polyphenols.
3. C: Although essential fatty acids are required for
human metabolism, the body does not produce linoleic
acid (LA or ?-6 or omega-6) and alpha-linoleic acid
(LNA or ?-3 or omega-3), and they must be derived
from the diet. Also known as polyunsaturated fatty
acids (PUFAs), omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play
vital roles in brain function as well as normal growth
and development.
4. B: In addition to the above-mentioned facts, omega-
3 fatty acids are necessary for the structure of cell
membranes, especially in the brain and retina. The
cardioprotective effects of omega-3 fatty acids relate to
improvements in blood pressure, cardiac function, and
arterial and vascular function as well as improved lipid
metabolism, antiplatelet, and anti-inflammatory
5. D: Scurvy is caused by insufficient consumption of
vitamin C. Although it is rare, older adults, persons
who abuse alcohol, and those who eat a diet that does
not contain fresh fruit and vegetables may be at risk of
developing scurvy. Along with the above-mentioned
symptoms, persons with scurvy may suffer bleeding
gums, petechial hemorrhage of the skin and mucous
membranes, bleeding in the eye, hyperkeratosis, and
sicca syndrome.
6. D: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a fat-soluble
quinone, a vitamin-like compound that is vital for
activities related to energy metabolism. CoQ10 is the
coenzyme for at least three mitochondrial enzymes as
well as enzymes in other parts of the cell and is
involved in the key biochemical reactions that produce
energy in cells. It also is a free radical scavenger and is
metabolized to ubiquinol, which prolongs the
antioxidant effect of vitamin E. The highest amounts
of it are found in the mitochondria of cells of organs
with high-energy requirements such as the heart
muscle, liver, kidneys, and pancreas.
7. A: Humans obtain vitamin D from two natural
sources: sunlight and consumed food. Solar UVB
radiation penetrates the skin and converts 7-
dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3, which is rapidly
converted to vitamin D3. Along with the above-
mentioned foods, cod liver oil is a potent source of
vitamin D and some orange juice, soy, and rice
beverages are fortified with vitamin D.
8. A: Vitamin K1 is a cofactor needed for the synthesis
of some of the substances that help blood to clot. In
adults, low dietary intake of vitamin K may be the
result of chronic illness, malnutrition, alcoholism,
multiple abdominal surgeries, long-term parenteral
nutrition, malabsorption, gallbladder disease, liver
disease, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease,
and long-term use of drugs such as antibiotics and
cholestyramine, which binds to bile acids, preventing
fat-soluble vitamin absorption.
9. B: Probiotics protect against harmful bacteria in the
following ways: by penetrating and binding to the
surfaces of harmful organisms; by stimulating the
lining of the digestive tract to prevent penetration by
pathogens; and by modifying immunoregulation.
Probiotics have been shown to relieve temporary
abdominal bloating and to reduce intestinal gas.
10. C: Prebiotics are primarily oligosaccharides-short
chains of sugar molecules that can only partially be
digested. Most naturally occurring oligosaccharides
are found in plants. Prebiotics are often called
bifidogenic factors because they primarily stimulate
growth of bifidobacteria. Prebiotics work in concert
with probiotics and have been found to produce many
of the same health benefits.
11. B: Beri-beri is rarely seen in the United States
because many foods are fortified with thiamine.
Persons at risk of developing beri-beri include those
who abuse alcohol, persons on dialysis, and those
taking high doses of diuretics as well as infants
breastfed by mothers who lack sufficient thiamine.
12. D: Trigeminal neuralgia is characterized by sudden
onset of severe pain that lasts less than a minute. It
presents most commonly in persons age 50 and older
and among women. The frequency and severity of
attacks recurs and remits, progressively worsening
over time. While the disorder may be debilitating, it is
not life threatening.
13. A: Tourette Syndrome is characterized by tics -
repetitive, involuntary behaviors, vocalizations and
movements such as eye blinking, grimacing and
shrugging, or jerky muscle movements. Tics also may
include self-harm such as repetitively punching oneself
as well as coprolalia and echolalia. Persons with
Tourette syndrome frequently suffer behavioral
problems such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, attention
disorders, and repetitive behaviors.
14. B: The USDA Dietary Guidelines suggest that
most dietary fats should be obtained from sources of
polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, such
as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. The Guidelines also
advise limiting intake of fats and oils high in saturated
and/or trans fatty acids.
15. C: In addition to the above-mentioned actions,
vitamin B3, also known as niacin or nicotinic acid, is a
water-soluble vitamin that is necessary for cell
respiration and supports the circulation, skin, nervous
system, and secretion of bile. Insufficient niacin intake
is associated with symptoms such as canker sores,
depression, fatigue, indigestion, weakness, skin
problems, and inflammation. Chronic niacin deficiency
is called pellagra.
16. D: The average American consumes about 50%
more sodium than the 2,300 mg per day recommended
in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Excessive
sodium consumption is associated with increased risk
for hypertension, which is associated with increased
risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
17. C: Long-term inadequate intake of calcium is
associated with low bone mass, rapid bone loss, and
high risk of fracture. In addition to the above-
mentioned risk factors, chronic use of glucocorticoids,
some anticonvulsants, inactivity, smoking, and
changes in sex hormones such as amenorrhea,
menopause, and low testosterone may increase the risk
for osteoporosis.
18. D: Low carbohydrate diets promote ketosis, the
process of breaking down fat as opposed to
carbohydrate to generate energy. Ketones are acidic
chemicals, which can build up in the blood and urine.
Diet-induced ketosis may be intentional as a treatment
for some people with epilepsy, however, for some
people, long-term adherence to a very low
carbohydrate diet may produce damage to the liver and
19. D: Along with the above-mentioned
characteristics, successful dieters monitor their weight,
practice portion control, increase physical activity, and
aim for healthy realistic weight loss ranging from 10%
to 20% of initial bodyweight in a year. Successful
dieters maintain their motivation by celebrating the
achievement of weight-loss milestones.
20. D: In addition to the above-mentioned populations,
supplemental iron may be given to treat anemia that
occurs during pregnancy or as a result of heavy
menstrual periods, kidney disease, or chemotherapy.
Supplemental iron also may be recommended for
vegetarians and women who are lactating. Iron
requirements decrease for post-menopausal women.