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Shinta R. W. (030.09.235) Trisakti Univ.

1. Nutrition is important for all stages of life cycle. What is the role of nutrition in
elderly?
a. Both innate and acquired immunity weaken in elderly even those who are
healthy
b. Adequate nutritional status is essential for efficient immune function
c. Common micronutrient deficiency in elderly: Vitamin B (B12, B2), iron,
folate, vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc
d. Vulnerability to malnutrition : poor diet, food insecurity, lack of public health
measures, low allocation of governments fund
e. Differ by region to region and even in the same country: more evidences
needed
f. Huge impact on health care system and countrys economy
g. Urgent need : Nutritional status assessment of elderly and cost effective
interventions
2. Iron requirement is increase during pregnancy, please explain iron requirement of
women before and during pregnancy? How will you advice a married woman to meet
her iron requirement for her pregnancy?

The iron requirement before pregnancy is 1-2 mg/day, while during pregnancy, its
increase in second and third trimester up to 7 mg/day for the development of fetus and
placenta, and synthesis of red blood cells.
Advices to a married woman to meet her iron requirement for pregnancy :
Shinta R. W. (030.09.235) Trisakti Univ.

She should gain her iron intake from food, to gain her iron reservoir (Ferritin)
that needed in pregnancy
She should take iron supplementation during pregnancy
3. What is the best time to introduce the complementary feeding to the infant? Please
explain why first 1000 days of live is important!
The best time to introduce the complementary feeding to the infant is at the 6th month
of age because breast milk alone will not be sufficient after 6 months.
The first 1000 days are important because :
The right nutrition in the 1000 days between a womans pregnancy and her
childs second birthday builds the foundation for a childs ability to grow,
learn, and thrive.
The impact of good nutrition early in life can reach far into the future.
Children who get the right nutrition in their first 1000 days are 10 times more
likely to overcome the most life-threatening childhood diseases, complete 4,6
more grades of school, go on to earn 21% more in wages as adults, and are
more likely as adults to have healthier families.

4. Briefly describe how do you plan for nutritional assesment of under-5-years old
children in the village!
a. ANTHROPOMETRY
Measurement of physical dimensions and gross composition of the body eg :
height, weight, head circumference, skinfold thickness
b. CLINICAL
Physical examination and/or medical history to detect signs and symptoms of
malnutrition
SYMPTOMS : disease manifestations patients are aware of and complain
about (eg: fatigue in iron deficiency)
SIGNS : observations made qualified examiner during physical examination
(eg : enlarged thyroid gland in iodine deficiency)
Shinta R. W. (030.09.235) Trisakti Univ.

c. DIETARY
Measurement of quantity of individual foods consumed during one to several
days OR pattern of food use
5. Briefly explain why inflammation is important for biochemical nutritional assesment!
Because in inflammation :
Plasma retinol & carotenoids concentrations are depressed
Plasma zinc depressed, liver zinc increased
Plasma iron depressed
Plasma ferritin and transferrin-receptors increased
Leukocyte and plasma vitamin C depressed
Prevalence of goitre higher where there is more inflammation