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Contents

1 WiMAX 1
1.1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2.1 Internet access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2.2 Middle-mile backhaul to bre networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2.3 Triple-play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 Connecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3.1 Gateways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3.2 External modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3.3 Mobile phones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4 Technical information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4.1 The IEEE 802.16 Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4.2 Physical layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4.3 Media access control layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4.4 Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4.5 Integration with an IP-based network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4.6 Spectrum allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4.7 Spectral eciency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4.8 Inherent limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4.9 Silicon implementations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4.10 Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.5 Conformance testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.6 Associations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.6.1 WiMAX Forum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.6.2 WiMAX Spectrum Owners Alliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.6.3 Telecommunications Industry Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.7 Competing technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.7.1 Harmonization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.7.2 Comparison with other mobile Internet standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.8 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.9 Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.10 Deployments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
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1.11 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.12 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.13 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.14 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2 LTE (telecommunication) 11
2.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.3 Voice calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.3.1 Enhanced voice quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.4 Frequency bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.5 Patents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.8 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.9.1 White papers and other technical information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3 Internet protocol suite 17
3.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.1.1 Early research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.1.2 Specication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.1.3 Adoption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.2 Key architectural principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.3 Abstraction layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.3.1 Link layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.3.2 Internet layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.3.3 Transport layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.3.4 Application layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.4 Layer names and number of layers in the literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.5 Comparison of TCP/IP and OSI layering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.6 Implementations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.9 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4 Transmission Control Protocol 25
4.1 Historical origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.2 Network function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.3 TCP segment structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.4 Protocol operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
CONTENTS iii
4.4.1 Connection establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.4.2 Connection termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.4.3 Resource usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.4.4 Data transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.4.5 Maximum segment size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.4.6 Selective acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.4.7 Window scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.4.8 TCP timestamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.4.9 Out-of-band data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.4.10 Forcing data delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.5 Vulnerabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.5.1 Denial of service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.5.2 Connection hijacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.5.3 TCP veto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.6 TCP ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.7 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.8 TCP over wireless networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.9 Hardware implementations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.10 Debugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.11 Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.12 Checksum computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.12.1 TCP checksum for IPv4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.12.2 TCP checksum for IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.12.3 Checksum ooad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.13 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.14 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.15 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.16 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.16.1 RFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.16.2 Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5 Mobile operating system 39
5.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.2 Current software platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.2.1 Android . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.2.2 iOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.2.3 Windows Phone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.2.4 Firefox OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.2.5 Sailsh OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.2.6 Tizen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.2.7 Ubuntu Touch OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.2.8 Blackberry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
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5.3 Discontinued software platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.3.1 Symbian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.3.2 Windows Mobile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.3.3 Palm OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.3.4 webOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.3.5 Maemo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.3.6 MeeGo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.3.7 LiMo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.4 Customer satisfaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.5 Market share . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.5.1 Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.5.2 Mobile internet trac share . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6 Android (operating system) 46
6.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
6.2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.2.1 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.2.2 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.2.3 Memory management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.3 Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
6.4 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
6.4.1 Update schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.4.2 Linux kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.4.3 Software stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6.4.4 Open-source community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6.5 Security and privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
6.6 Licensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.6.1 Leverage over manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6.7 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6.7.1 Market share . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
6.7.2 Platform usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
6.7.3 Application piracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
6.8 Legal issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.9 Use outside of smartphones and tablets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.10 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.11 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
CONTENTS v
7 IOS 67
7.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.1.1 Software updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.2.1 Home Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.2.2 Included applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.2.3 Multitasking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.2.4 Siri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
7.2.5 Game Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
7.3 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.3.1 SDK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.4 Jailbreaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.5 Unlocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.6 Digital rights management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.7 Kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.8 Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.11 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.12 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
8 Windows Phone 76
8.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
8.1.1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
8.1.2 Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
8.1.3 Partnership with Nokia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
8.2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
8.2.1 User interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
8.2.2 Text input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
8.2.3 Web browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
8.2.4 Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
8.2.5 Email . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
8.2.6 Multimedia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
8.2.7 Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
8.2.8 Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
8.2.9 Oce suite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
8.2.10 Multitasking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
8.2.11 Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
8.2.12 Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
8.2.13 Advertising platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
8.2.14 Bluetooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
8.2.15 Feature additions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
vi CONTENTS
8.3 Store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
8.3.1 Music and videos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
8.3.2 Applications and games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
8.4 Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
8.5 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
8.5.1 Modern UI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
8.5.2 Market share . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
8.5.3 Manufacturer market share . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
8.5.4 Developer interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
8.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
8.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
9 Firefox OS 88
9.1 Project inception and roll-out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
9.1.1 Commencement of project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
9.1.2 Development history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
9.1.3 Demonstrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
9.2 Core technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
9.2.1 GONK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
9.2.2 Gecko . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
9.2.3 XULRunner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
9.2.4 Gaia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
9.3 Release history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
9.4 Criticisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
9.5 Unocially-supported devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
9.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
9.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
9.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
10 Tizen 93
10.1 System architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
10.1.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
10.1.2 Open environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
10.1.3 Licensing model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
10.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
10.3 Market release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
10.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
10.4.1 Related projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
10.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
10.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
11 Ubuntu Touch 98
CONTENTS vii
11.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
11.1.1 Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
11.2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
11.2.1 Lock screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
11.2.2 Included applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
11.2.3 Side Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
11.3 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
11.4 Target market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
11.5 Hardware requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
11.6 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
11.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
11.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
11.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
12 BlackBerry 10 102
12.1 Launch announcements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
12.2 User interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
12.3 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
12.3.1 Gestures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
12.3.2 Multitasking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
12.3.3 BlackBerry Hub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
12.3.4 BlackBerry Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
12.3.5 Time shift camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
12.3.6 BBM video/screen share . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
12.3.7 Android layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
12.3.8 Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
12.3.9 Voice control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
12.3.10 BlackBerry Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
12.4 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
12.4.1 Pre-Loaded Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
12.4.2 Third-party applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
12.4.3 Android applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
12.4.4 Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
12.5 Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
12.6 Developer activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
12.6.1 Engagement strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
12.6.2 Prototype smartphones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
12.6.3 Portathons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
12.7 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
12.8 Version history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
12.8.1 BlackBerry 10.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
12.8.2 BlackBerry 10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
viii CONTENTS
12.8.3 BlackBerry 10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
12.8.4 BlackBerry 10.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
12.9 Branding controversy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
12.10Licensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
12.11See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
12.12References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
12.13External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
12.14Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
12.14.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
12.14.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
12.14.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Chapter 1
WiMAX
WiMAX base station equipment with a sector antenna and
wireless modem on top
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
Access) is a wireless communications standard designed
to provide 30 to 40 megabit-per-second data rates,
[1]
with
the 2011 update providing up to 1 Gbit/s
[1]
for xed sta-
tions. The name WiMAX was created by the WiMAX
Forum, which was formed in June 2001 to promote con-
formity and interoperability of the standard. The forum
describes WiMAX as a standards-based technology en-
abling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access
as an alternative to cable and DSL".
[2]
1.1 Terminology
WiMAX refers to interoperable implementations of the
IEEE 802.16 family of wireless-networks standards rat-
ied by the WiMAX Forum. (Similarly, Wi-Fi refers
to interoperable implementations of the IEEE 802.11
Wireless LANstandards certied by the Wi-Fi Alliance.)
WiMAX Forum certication allows vendors to sell xed
or mobile products as WiMAX certied, thus ensuring a
level of interoperability with other certied products, as
long as they t the same prole.
The original IEEE 802.16 standard (now called Fixed
WiMAX) was published in 2001. WiMAX adopted
some of its technology from WiBro, a service marketed
in Korea.
[3]
Mobile WiMAX (originally based on 802.16e-2005) is
the revision that was deployed in many countries, and is
the basis for future revisions such as 802.16m-2011.
WiMAX is sometimes referred to as Wi-Fi on
steroids
[4]
and can be used for a number of applica-
tions including broadband connections, cellular backhaul,
hotspots, etc. It is similar to Wi-Fi, but it can enable us-
age at much greater distances.
[5]
1.2 Uses
The bandwidth and range of WiMAXmake it suitable for
the following potential applications:
Providing portable mobile broadband connectivity
across cities and countries through a variety of de-
vices.
Providing a wireless alternative to cable and digital
subscriber line (DSL) for "last mile" broadband ac-
cess.
Providing data, telecommunications (VoIP) and
IPTV services (triple play).
Providing a source of Internet connectivity as part
of a business continuity plan.
Smart grids and metering
1.2.1 Internet access
WiMAX can provide at-home or mobile Internet access
across whole cities or countries. In many cases this has
resulted in competition in markets which typically only
had access through an existing incumbent DSL (or simi-
lar) operator.
Additionally, given the relatively low costs associated
with the deployment of a WiMAX network (in compar-
ison with 3G, HSDPA, xDSL, HFC or FTTx), it is now
economically viable to provide last-mile broadband In-
ternet access in remote locations.
1
2 CHAPTER 1. WIMAX
1.2.2 Middle-mile backhaul to bre net-
works
Mobile WiMAXwas a replacement candidate for cellular
phone technologies such as GSM and CDMA, or can be
used as an overlay to increase capacity. Fixed WiMAX is
also considered as a wireless backhaul technology for 2G,
3G, and 4G networks in both developed and developing
nations.
[6][7]
In North America, backhaul for urban operations is typ-
ically provided via one or more copper wire line con-
nections, whereas remote cellular operations are some-
times backhauled via satellite. In other regions, urban
and rural backhaul is usually provided by microwave
links. (The exception to this is where the network is op-
erated by an incumbent with ready access to the cop-
per network.) WiMAX has more substantial backhaul
bandwidth requirements than legacy cellular applications.
Consequently the use of wireless microwave backhaul is
on the rise in North America and existing microwave
backhaul links in all regions are being upgraded.
[8]
Ca-
pacities of between 34 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s
[9]
are rou-
tinely being deployed with latencies in the order of 1 ms.
In many cases, operators are aggregating sites using wire-
less technology and then presenting trac on to ber net-
works where convenient. WiMAX in this application
competes with microwave, E-line and simple extension
of the ber network itself.
1.2.3 Triple-play
WiMAX directly supports the technologies that make
triple-play service oerings possible (such as Quality of
Service and Multicasting). These are inherent to the
WiMAX standard rather than being added on as Carrier
Ethernet is to Ethernet.
On May 7, 2008 in the United States, Sprint Nextel,
Google, Intel, Comcast, Bright House, and Time Warner
announced a pooling of an average of 120 MHz of spec-
trum and merged with Clearwire to market the service.
The new company hopes to benet from combined ser-
vices oerings and network resources as a springboard
past its competitors. The cable companies will provide
media services to other partners while gaining access to
the wireless network as a Mobile virtual network operator
to provide triple-play services.
Some analysts questioned how the deal will work out: Al-
though xed-mobile convergence has been a recognized
factor in the industry, prior attempts to form partnerships
among wireless and cable companies have generally failed
to lead to signicant benets to the participants. Other
analysts point out that as wireless progresses to higher
bandwidth, it inevitably competes more directly with ca-
ble and DSL, inspiring competitors into collaboration.
Also, as wireless broadband networks grow denser and
usage habits shift, the need for increased backhaul and
media service will accelerate, therefore the opportunity
to leverage cable assets is expected to increase.
1.3 Connecting
A WiMAX USB modem for mobile access to the Internet
Devices that provide connectivity to a WiMAX network
are known as subscriber stations (SS).
Portable units include handsets (similar to cellular
smartphones); PC peripherals (PC Cards or USB don-
gles); and embedded devices in laptops, which are now
available for Wi-Fi services. In addition, there is much
emphasis by operators on consumer electronics devices
such as Gaming consoles, MP3 players and similar de-
vices. WiMAX is more similar to Wi-Fi than to other
3G cellular technologies.
The WiMAX Forum website provides a list of certied
devices. However, this is not a complete list of devices
available as certied modules are embedded into laptops,
MIDs (Mobile Internet devices), and other private labeled
devices.
1.3.1 Gateways
WiMAXgateway devices are available as both indoor and
outdoor versions from several manufacturers including
Vecima Networks, Alvarion, Airspan, ZyXEL, Huawei,
and Motorola. The list of deployed WiMAX networks and
WiMAX Forum membership list
[10]
provide more links to
specic vendors, products and installations. The list of
vendors and networks is not comprehensive and is not in-
tended as an endorsement of these companies above oth-
ers.
Many of the WiMAX gateways that are oered by man-
ufactures such as these are stand-alone self-install indoor
units. Such devices typically sit near the customers win-
dow with the best signal, and provide:
An integrated Wi-Fi access point to provide the
WiMAX Internet connectivity to multiple devices
throughout the home or business.
1.4. TECHNICAL INFORMATION 3
Ethernet ports to connect directly to a computer,
router, printer or DVR on a local wired network.
One or two analog telephone jacks to connect a land-
line phone and take advantage of VoIP.
Indoor gateways are convenient, but radio losses mean
that the subscriber may need to be signicantly closer
to the WiMAX base station than with professionally in-
stalled external units.
Outdoor units are roughly the size of a laptop PC, and
their installation is comparable to the installation of a res-
idential satellite dish. A higher-gain directional outdoor
unit will generally result in greatly increased range and
throughput but with the obvious loss of practical mobil-
ity of the unit.
1.3.2 External modems
USB can provide connectivity to a WiMAX network
through what is called a dongle.
[11]
Generally these de-
vices are connected to a notebook or net book computer.
Dongles typically have omnidirectional antennas which
are of lower gain compared to other devices. As such
these devices are best used in areas of good coverage.
1.3.3 Mobile phones
HTCannounced the rst WiMAXenabled mobile phone,
the Max 4G, on November 12, 2008.
[12]
The device was
only available to certain markets in Russia on the Yota
network.
HTC and Sprint Nextel released the second WiMAX en-
abled mobile phone, the EVO 4G, March 23, 2010 at
the CTIA conference in Las Vegas. The device, made
available on June 4, 2010,
[13]
is capable of both EV-
DO(3G) and WiMAX(pre-4G) as well as simultaneous
data & voice sessions. Sprint Nextel announced at CES
2012 that it will no longer be oering devices using the
WiMAX technology due to nancial circumstances, in-
stead, along with its network partner Clearwire, Sprint
Nextel will roll out a 4G network deciding to shift and
utilize LTE 4G technology instead.
1.4 Technical information
1.4.1 The IEEE 802.16 Standard
WiMAX is based upon IEEE Std 802.16e-2005,
[14]
ap-
proved in December 2005. It is a supplement to the IEEE
Std 802.16-2004,
[15]
and so the actual standard is 802.16-
2004 as amended by 802.16e-2005. Thus, these speci-
cations need to be considered together.
IEEE 802.16e-2005 improves upon IEEE 802.16-2004
by:
Adding support for mobility (soft and hard handover
between base stations). This is seen as one of the
most important aspects of 802.16e-2005, and is the
very basis of Mobile WiMAX.
Scaling of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to the
channel bandwidth in order to keep the carrier spac-
ing constant across dierent channel bandwidths
(typically 1.25 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz or 20 MHz).
Constant carrier spacing results in a higher spec-
trum eciency in wide channels, and a cost reduc-
tion in narrow channels. Also known as scalable
OFDMA (SOFDMA). Other bands not multiples of
1.25 MHz are dened in the standard, but because
the allowed FFT subcarrier numbers are only 128,
512, 1024 and 2048, other frequency bands will not
have exactly the same carrier spacing, which might
not be optimal for implementations. Carrier spacing
is 10.94 kHz.
Advanced antenna diversity schemes, and hybrid au-
tomatic repeat-request (HARQ)
Adaptive antenna systems (AAS) and MIMO tech-
nology
Denser sub-channelization, thereby improving in-
door penetration
Intro and low-density parity check (LDPC)
Introducing downlink sub-channelization, allowing
administrators to trade coverage for capacity or vice
versa
Adding an extra quality of service (QoS) class for
VoIP applications.
SOFDMA (used in 802.16e-2005) and OFDM256
(802.16d) are not compatible thus equipment will have
to be replaced if an operator is to move to the later stan-
dard (e.g., Fixed WiMAX to Mobile WiMAX).
1.4.2 Physical layer
The original version of the standard on which WiMAX
is based (IEEE 802.16) specied a physical layer op-
erating in the 10 to 66 GHz range. 802.16a, up-
dated in 2004 to 802.16-2004, added specications for
the 2 to 11 GHz range. 802.16-2004 was updated
by 802.16e-2005 in 2005 and uses scalable orthogonal
frequency-division multiple access
[16]
(SOFDMA), as
opposed to the xed orthogonal frequency-division multi-
plexing (OFDM) version with 256 sub-carriers (of which
200 are used) in 802.16d. More advanced versions,
including 802.16e, also bring multiple antenna support
4 CHAPTER 1. WIMAX
through MIMO. (See WiMAX MIMO) This brings po-
tential benets in terms of coverage, self installation,
power consumption, frequency re-use and bandwidth ef-
ciency. WiMax is the most energy-ecient pre-4G
technique among LTE and HSPA+.
[17]
1.4.3 Media access control layer
The WiMAX MAC uses a scheduling algorithm for
which the subscriber station needs to compete only once
for initial entry into the network. After network entry
is allowed, the subscriber station is allocated an access
slot by the base station. The time slot can enlarge and
contract, but remains assigned to the subscriber station,
which means that other subscribers cannot use it. In addi-
tion to being stable under overload and over-subscription,
the scheduling algorithmcan also be more bandwidth e-
cient. The scheduling algorithm also allows the base sta-
tion to control Quality of Service (QoS) parameters by
balancing the time-slot assignments among the applica-
tion needs of the subscriber station.
1.4.4 Specications
As a standard intended to satisfy needs of next-generation
data networks (4G), WiMAX is distinguished by its dy-
namic burst algorithm modulation adaptive to the phys-
ical environment the RF signal travels through. Mod-
ulation is chosen to be more spectrally ecient (more
bits per OFDM/SOFDMA symbol). That is, when the
bursts have a high signal strength and a high carrier to
noise plus interference ratio (CINR), they can be more
easily decoded using digital signal processing (DSP). In
contrast, operating in less favorable environments for RF
communication, the system automatically steps down to
a more robust mode (burst prole) which means fewer
bits per OFDM/SOFDMA symbol; with the advantage
that power per bit is higher and therefore simpler accu-
rate signal processing can be performed.
Burst proles are used inverse (algorithmically dynamic)
to low signal attenuation; meaning throughput between
clients and the base station is determined largely by dis-
tance. Maximum distance is achieved by the use of the
most robust burst setting; that is, the prole with the
largest MAC frame allocation trade-o requiring more
symbols (a larger portion of the MAC frame) to be allo-
cated in transmitting a given amount of data than if the
client were closer to the base station.
The clients MAC frame and their individual burst pro-
les are dened as well as the specic time allocation.
However, even if this is done automatically then the prac-
tical deployment should avoid high interference and mul-
tipath environments. The reason for which is obviously
that too much interference causes the network to func-
tion poorly and can also misrepresent the capability of
the network.
The systemis complex to deploy as it is necessary to track
not only the signal strength and CINR (as in systems like
GSM) but also how the available frequencies will be dy-
namically assigned (resulting in dynamic changes to the
available bandwidth.) This could lead to cluttered fre-
quencies with slow response times or lost frames.
As a result the system has to be initially designed in con-
sensus with the base station product team to accurately
project frequency use, interference, and general product
functionality.
The Asia-Pacic region has surpassed the North Amer-
ican region in terms of 4G broadband wireless sub-
scribers. There were around 1.7 million pre-WIMAX
and WIMAXcustomers in Asia - 29%of the overall mar-
ket - compared to 1.4 million in the USA and Canada.
[18]
1.4.5 Integration with an IP-based net-
work
The WiMAX Forum architecture
The WiMAX Forum has proposed an architecture that
denes how a WiMAX network can be connected with
an IP based core network, which is typically chosen by
operators that serve as Internet Service Providers (ISP);
Nevertheless the WiMAX BS provide seamless integra-
tion capabilities with other types of architectures as with
packet switched Mobile Networks.
The WiMAX forum proposal denes a number of com-
ponents, plus some of the interconnections (or reference
points) between these, labeled R1 to R5 and R8:
SS/MS: the Subscriber Station/Mobile Station
ASN: the Access Service Network
[19]
BS: Base station, part of the ASN
ASN-GW: the ASN Gateway, part of the ASN
CSN: the Connectivity Service Network
HA: Home Agent, part of the CSN
1.4. TECHNICAL INFORMATION 5
AAA: Authentication, Authorization and Account-
ing Server, part of the CSN
NAP: a Network Access Provider
NSP: a Network Service Provider
It is important to note that the functional architecture can
be designed into various hardware congurations rather
than xed congurations. For example, the architecture
is exible enough to allowremote/mobile stations of vary-
ing scale and functionality and Base Stations of varying
size - e.g. femto, pico, and mini BS as well as macros.
1.4.6 Spectrum allocation
There is no uniform global licensed spectrum for
WiMAX, however the WiMAX Forum has published
three licensed spectrum proles: 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz and
3.5 GHz, in an eort to drive standardisation and de-
crease cost.
In the USA, the biggest segment available is around 2.5
GHz,
[20]
and is already assigned, primarily to Sprint Nex-
tel and Clearwire. Elsewhere in the world, the most-likely
bands used will be the Forum approved ones, with 2.3
GHz probably being most important in Asia. Some coun-
tries in Asia like India and Indonesia will use a mix of 2.5
GHz, 3.3 GHz and other frequencies. Pakistan's Wateen
Telecom uses 3.5 GHz.
Analog TV bands (700 MHz) may become available
for WiMAX usage, but await the complete roll out of
digital TV, and there will be other uses suggested for
that spectrum. In the USA the FCC auction for this
spectrum began in January 2008 and, as a result, the
biggest share of the spectrum went to Verizon Wireless
and the next biggest to AT&T.
[21]
Both of these compa-
nies have stated their intention of supporting LTE, a tech-
nology which competes directly with WiMAX. EU com-
missioner Viviane Reding has suggested re-allocation of
500800 MHz spectrum for wireless communication, in-
cluding WiMAX.
[22]
WiMAX proles dene channel size, TDD/FDD and
other necessary attributes in order to have inter-operating
products. The current xed proles are dened for both
TDD and FDD proles. At this point, all of the mobile
proles are TDD only. The xed proles have channel
sizes of 3.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 7 MHz and 10 MHz. The mo-
bile proles are 5 MHz, 8.75 MHz and 10 MHz. (Note:
the 802.16 standard allows a far wider variety of chan-
nels, but only the above subsets are supported as WiMAX
proles.)
Since October 2007, the Radio communication Sector
of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R)
has decided to include WiMAX technology in the IMT-
2000 set of standards.
[23]
This enables spectrum owners
(specically in the 2.5-2.69 GHz band at this stage) to
use WiMAX equipment in any country that recognizes
the IMT-2000.
1.4.7 Spectral eciency
One of the signicant advantages of advanced wireless
systems such as WiMAX is spectral eciency. For ex-
ample, 802.16-2004 (xed) has a spectral eciency of
3.7 (bit/s)/Hertz, and other 3.54G wireless systems of-
fer spectral eciencies that are similar to within a few
tenths of a percent. The notable advantage of WiMAX
comes from combining SOFDMA with smart antenna
technologies. This multiplies the eective spectral ef-
ciency through multiple reuse and smart network de-
ployment topologies. The direct use of frequency domain
organization simplies designs using MIMO-AAS com-
pared to CDMA/WCDMA methods, resulting in more
eective systems.
1.4.8 Inherent limitations
WiMAX cannot deliver 70 Mbit/s over 50 km (31 mi).
Like all wireless technologies, WiMAX can operate at
higher bitrates or over longer distances but not both. Op-
erating at the maximumrange of 50 km(31 mi) increases
bit error rate and thus results in a much lower bitrate.
Conversely, reducing the range (to under 1 km) allows
a device to operate at higher bitrates.
A city-wide deployment of WiMAX in Perth, Australia
demonstrated that customers at the cell-edge with an in-
door Customer-premises equipment (CPE) typically ob-
tain speeds of around 14 Mbit/s, with users closer to the
cell site obtaining speeds of up to 30 Mbit/s.
Like all wireless systems, available bandwidth is shared
between users in a given radio sector, so performance
could deteriorate in the case of many active users in a
single sector. However, with adequate capacity planning
and the use of WiMAXs Quality of Service, a minimum
guaranteed throughput for each subscriber can be put in
place. In practice, most users will have a range of 4-8
Mbit/s services and additional radio cards will be added
to the base station to increase the number of users that
may be served as required.
1.4.9 Silicon implementations
A number of specialized companies produced baseband
ICs and integrated RFICs for WiMAX Subscriber Sta-
tions in the 2.3, 2.5 and 3.5 GHz bands (refer to 'Spec-
trum allocation' above). These companies include, but
are not limited to, Beceem, Sequans, and PicoChip.
6 CHAPTER 1. WIMAX
Picture of a WiMAX MIMO board
1.4.10 Comparison
Comparisons and confusion between WiMAXand Wi-Fi
are frequent, because both are related to wireless connec-
tivity and Internet access.
[24]
WiMAXis a long range system, covering many kilo-
metres, that uses licensed or unlicensed spectrum to
deliver connection to a network, in most cases the
Internet.
Wi-Fi uses unlicensed spectrumto provide access to
a local network.
Wi-Fi is more popular in end user devices.
Wi-Fi runs on the Media Access Control's
CSMA/CA protocol, which is connectionless
and contention based, whereas WiMAX runs a
connection-oriented MAC.
WiMAX and Wi-Fi have quite dierent quality of
service (QoS) mechanisms:
WiMAX uses a QoS mechanism based on
connections between the base station and the
user device. Each connection is based on spe-
cic scheduling algorithms.
Wi-Fi uses contention access all subscriber
stations that wish to pass data through a
wireless access point (AP) are competing for
the APs attention on a random interrupt basis.
This can cause subscriber stations distant from
the AP to be repeatedly interrupted by closer
stations, greatly reducing their throughput.
Both IEEE 802.11, which includes Wi-Fi, and IEEE
802.16, which includes WiMAX, dene Peer-to-
Peer (P2P) and wireless ad hoc networks, where an
end user communicates to users or servers on an-
other Local Area Network (LAN) using its access
point or base station. However, 802.11 supports
also direct ad hoc or peer to peer networking be-
tween end user devices without an access point while
802.16 end user devices must be in range of the base
station.
Although Wi-Fi and WiMAX are designed for dierent
situations, they are complementary. WiMAX network
operators typically provide a WiMAX Subscriber Unit
that connects to the metropolitan WiMAX network and
provides Wi-Fi connectivity within the home or business
for local devices, e.g., computers, Wi-Fi handsets and
smartphones. This enables the user to place the WiMAX
Subscriber Unit in the best reception area, such as a win-
dow, and still be able to use the WiMAX network from
any place within their residence.
The local area network inside ones house or business
would operate as with any other wired or wireless net-
work. If one were to connect the WiMAX Subscriber
Unit directly to a WiMAX-enabled computer, that would
limit access to a single device. As an alternative for a
LAN, one could purchase a WiMAXmodemwith a built-
in wireless Wi-Fi router, allowing one to connect multiple
devices to create a LAN.
Using WiMAXcould be an advantage, since it is typically
faster than most cable modems with download speeds be-
tween 3 and 6 Mbit/s, and generally costs less than cable.
1.5 Conformance testing
TTCN-3 test specication language is used for the pur-
poses of specifying conformance tests for WiMAX im-
plementations. The WiMAXtest suite is being developed
by a Specialist Task Force at ETSI (STF 252).
[25]
1.6 Associations
1.6.1 WiMAX Forum
The WiMAX Forum is a non prot organization formed
to promote the adoption of WiMAXcompatible products
and services.
[26]
A major role for the organization is to certify the interop-
erability of WiMAXproducts.
[27]
Those that pass confor-
mance and interoperability testing achieve the WiMAX
Forum Certied designation, and can display this mark
on their products and marketing materials. Some ven-
dors claim that their equipment is WiMAX-ready,
WiMAX-compliant, or pre-WiMAX, if they are not
ocially WiMAX Forum Certied.
Another role of the WiMAX Forum is to promote the
spread of knowledge about WiMAX. In order to do so, it
has a certied training program that is currently oered
in English and French. It also oers a series of member
events and endorses some industry events.
1.7. COMPETING TECHNOLOGIES 7
WiSOA logo
1.6.2 WiMAX Spectrum Owners Alliance
WiSOA was the rst global organization composed ex-
clusively of owners of WiMAX spectrum with plans to
deploy WiMAX technology in those bands. WiSOA fo-
cused on the regulation, commercialisation, and deploy-
ment of WiMAX spectrum in the 2.32.5 GHz and the
3.43.5 GHz ranges. WiSOA merged with the Wireless
Broadband Alliance in April 2008.
[28]
1.6.3 Telecommunications Industry Asso-
ciation
In 2011, the Telecommunications Industry Association
released three technical standards (TIA-1164, TIA-1143,
and TIA-1140) that cover the air interface and core
networking aspects of Wi-Max High-Rate Packet Data
(HRPD) systems using a Mobile Station/Access Termi-
nal (MS/AT) with a single transmitter.
[29]
1.7 Competing technologies
Within the marketplace, WiMAXs main competition
came from existing, widely deployed wireless systems
such as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
(UMTS), CDMA2000, existing Wi-Fi and mesh net-
working.
In the future, competition will be from the evolution
of the major cellular standards to 4G, high-bandwidth,
low-latency, all-IP networks with voice services built on
top. The worldwide move to 4G for GSM/UMTS and
AMPS/TIA (including CDMA2000) is the 3GPP Long
Term Evolution (LTE) eort.
The LTE Standard was nalized in December 2008, with
the rst commercial deployment of LTE carried out by
TeliaSonera in Oslo and Stockholm in December, 2009.
Since then, LTE has seen increasing adoption by mobile
carriers around the world.
In some areas of the world, the wide availability of
UMTS and a general desire for standardization has meant
spectrum has not been allocated for WiMAX: in July
Wi-Fi
WiMAX
GSM
HSPA
UMTS
Speed
Mobility
Speed vs. mobility of wireless systems: Wi-Fi, High Speed Packet
Access (HSPA), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
(UMTS), GSM
2005, the EU-wide frequency allocation for WiMAXwas
blocked.
1.7.1 Harmonization
Early WirelessMAN standards, The European standard
HiperMAN and Korean standard WiBro were harmo-
nized as part of WiMAX and are no longer seen as com-
petition but as complementary. All networks now being
deployed in South Korea, the home of the WiBro stan-
dard, are now WiMAX.
1.7.2 Comparison with other mobile Inter-
net standards
Main article: Comparison of wireless data standards
The following table only shows peak rates which are po-
tentially very misleading. In addition, the comparisons
listed are not normalized by physical channel size (i.e.,
spectrum used to achieve the listed peak rates); this ob-
fuscates spectral eciency and net through-put capabili-
ties of the dierent wireless technologies listed below.
Notes: All speeds are theoretical maximums and will
vary by a number of factors, including the use of external
antennas, distance from the tower and the ground speed
(e.g. communications on a train may be poorer than when
standing still). Usually the bandwidth is shared between
several terminals. The performance of each technology
is determined by a number of constraints, including the
spectral eciency of the technology, the cell sizes used,
and the amount of spectrum available. For more infor-
mation, see Comparison of wireless data standards.
For more comparison tables, see bit rate progress trends,
comparison of mobile phone standards, spectral e-
ciency comparison table and OFDM system comparison
table.
8 CHAPTER 1. WIMAX
1.8 Development
The IEEE 802.16m-2011 standard
[32]
was the core tech-
nology for WiMAX 2. The IEEE 802.16m stan-
dard was submitted to the ITU for IMT-Advanced
standardization.
[33]
IEEE 802.16m is one of the ma-
jor candidates for IMT-Advanced technologies by ITU.
Among many enhancements, IEEE 802.16m systems can
provide four times faster data speed than the WiMAX
Release 1.
WiMAX Release 2 provided backward compatibility
with Release 1. WiMAX operators could migrate from
release 1 to release 2 by upgrading channel cards or
software. The WiMAX 2 Collaboration Initiative was
formed to help this transition.
[34]
It was anticipated that using 4X2 MIMO in the urban mi-
crocell scenario with only a single 20 MHz TDD chan-
nel available system wide, the 802.16m system can sup-
port both 120 Mbit/s downlink and 60 Mbit/s uplink per
site simultaneously. It was expected that the WiMAX
Release 2 would be available commercially in the 2011
2012 timeframe.
[35]
1.9 Interference
A eld test conducted in 2007 by SUIRG (Satellite Users
Interference Reduction Group) with support from the
U.S. Navy, the Global VSAT Forum, and several member
organizations yielded results showing interference at 12
km when using the same channels for both the WiMAX
systems and satellites in C-band.
[36]
1.10 Deployments
Main article: List of deployed WiMAX networks
As of October 2010, the WiMAX Forum claimed
over 592 WiMAX (xed and mobile) networks de-
ployed in over 148 countries, covering over 621 million
subscribers.
[37]
By February 2011, the WiMAX Forum
cited coverage of over 823 million people, and estimate
over 1 billion subscribers by the end of the year.
[38]
South Korea launched a WiMAX network in the 2nd
quarter of 2006. By the end of 2008 there were 350,000
WiMAX subscribers in Korea.
[39]
Worldwide, by early 2010 WiMAX seemed to be
ramping quickly relative to other available technologies,
though access in North America lagged.
[40]
Yota, the
largest WiMAX network operator in the world in 4Q
2009,
[41]
announced in May 2010 that it will move new
network deployments to LTE and, subsequently, change
its existing networks as well.
[42]
A study published September 2010 by Blycroft Pub-
lishing estimated 800 management contracts from 364
WiMAX operations worldwide oering active services
(launched or still trading as opposed to just licensed and
still to launch).
[43]
1.11 See also
List of deployed WiMAX networks
Mobile broadband
WiBro (mobile WiMax in Korea)
Super Wi-Fi
Municipal broadband
Mobile VoIP
Evolved HSPA
High-Speed Packet Access
Packet Burst Broadband
Switched mesh
Wireless bridge
Wireless local loop
Cognitive radio
1.12 Notes
[1] Carl Weinschenk (April 16, 2010). Speeding Up
WiMax. IT Business Edge. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
Today the initial WiMax system is designed to provide
30 to 40 megabit-per-second data rates.
[2] WiMax Forum - Technology. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
[3] Roger Marks (June 29, 2006). IEEE 802.16 Wireless-
MAN Standard: Myths and Facts. Presentation at 2006
Wireless Communications Conference. Washington, DC:
ieee802.org. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
[4] Walton, Marsha (2006-03-31). Is 'Wi-Fi on steroids re-
ally the next big thing?". CNN.
[5] Municipal Broadband: Challenges and Perspectives
[6] Sprint Eyes WiMax Backhaul. lightreading.com. Re-
trieved 2008-03-22.
[7] WiMax signals get stronger in India. eetimes.com. Re-
trieved 2008-03-22.
[8] Overcoming the wire-line bottleneck for 3Gwireless ser-
vices. supercommnews.com. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
[9] High=speed Microwave. wimaxforum.org. Retrieved
2008-03-12.
1.13. REFERENCES 9
[10] WiMAX Forum Member Companies. Wimaxforum.org.
Retrieved on 2013-09-18.
[11] dongle. Wiktionary. Wiktionary - the free dictionary.
30 August 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
[12] Scartel And Htc Launch WorldS First Integrated
Gsm/Wimax Handset. News release (HTC Corpora-
tion). November 12, 2008. Archived from the original
on November 22, 2008. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
[13] Sprint Newsroom | News Releases. Newsre-
leases.sprint.com. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
[14] IEEE 802.16e Task Group (Mobile WirelessMAN)".
ieee802.org. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
[15] IEEE 802.16 Task Group d. ieee802.org. Retrieved
2008-03-12.
[16] Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a
method of encoding digital data on multiple carrier fre-
quencies. OFDM has developed into a popular scheme
for wideband digital communication, whether wireless or
over copper wires, used in applications such as digital tele-
vision and audio broadcasting.
[17] IEEE Xplore - Comparison of power consumption of
mobile WiMAX, HSPA and LTE access networks. Iee-
explore.ieee.org. doi:10.1109/CTTE.2010.5557715. Re-
trieved October 30, 2012.
[18] Asia takes the lead in the 4G market. Telegeogra-
phy.com. August 5, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
[19] The Access Service Network in WiMAX: The Role of
ASN-GW. mustafaergen.com. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
[20] U.S. Frequency Allocation Chart. Department of Com-
merce. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
[21] Auctions Schedule. Federal Communications Commis-
sion. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
[22] European Commission proposes TV spectrum for
WiMax. zdnetasia.com. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
[23] ITU Radiocommunication Assembly approves new de-
velopments for its 3G standards. itu.int. Retrieved 2008-
03-12.
[24] WiMAX vs. WiFi. Circleid.com (2008-02-20). Re-
trieved on 2013-09-18.
[25] HiperMAN / WiMAX Testing. ETSI. Retrieved 2008-
03-28.
[26] WiMAX Forum Overview. Retrieved 2008-08-01.
[27] WiMAX Forum Frequently Asked Questions.
wimaxforum.org. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
[28] WBA and WiSOA join eorts on WiMAX global roam-
ing. Retrieved 2008-12-10.
[29] Technical standards
[30] LTE. 3GPP web site. 2009. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
[31] WiMAXand the IEEE802.16mAir Interface Standard.
WiMax Forum. 4 April 2010. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
[32] "'WiMAX 2' coming in 2011?". Networkworld.com. Re-
trieved 2010-10-13.
[33] 802.16m submitted to ITU for IMT-Advanced standard-
ization. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
[34] WiMAX 2 Collaboration Initiative (WCI) Frequently
Asked Questions. WiMAX Forum. April 12, 2010.
[35] Global WiMAX network deployments surpass 500.
News release (WiMAX Forum). October 6, 2009. Re-
trieved August 25, 2011.
[36] SUIRGfull interference test report. suirg.org. Archived
from the original on 2009-03-04. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
[37] WiMAX Forum. WiMAX Forum. Retrieved 2010-10-
13.
[38] Wimax Forum Industry Research Report http://www.
wimaxforum.org/sites/wimaxforum.org/files/page/
2011/03/Monthly_Industry_Report_March2011.pdf
[39] The rise and rise of HSPA | telecoms.com - telecoms in-
dustry news, analysis and opinion http://www.telecoms.
com/12573/the-rise-and-rise-of-hspa/
[40] Larry Dignan (February 15, 2010). WiMax deployments
ramp globally, but U.S. lags. Between the lines blog (ZD-
Net). Retrieved September 11, 2011.
[41] Maravedis, 4Q 2009, http://www.unova.ru/article/2631,
http://www.kommersant.ru/doc.aspx?DocsID=1310343
[42] Russia Today, May 21, 2010 - Scartel dropping WiMAX,
aiming for LTE - RT - [rt.com/Business/2010-05-21/
scartel-dropping-wimax-lte.html]
[43] WiMAX Directory. Blycroft Ltd. 2010-09-01. Re-
trieved 2011-02-28.
1.13 References
K. Fazel and S. Kaiser, Multi-Carrier and Spread
Spectrum Systems: From OFDM and MC-CDMA to
LTE and WiMAX, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons,
2008, ISBN 978-0-470-99821-2
M. Ergen, Mobile Broadband - Including WiMAX
and LTE, Springer, NY, 2009 ISBN 978-0-387-
68189-4
1.14 External links
Ocial page of the WiMAX Forum
How WiMAX Works at HowStuWorks
Internet Protocol Journal Overview of Mobile
WiMAX
10 CHAPTER 1. WIMAX
Patent alliance formed for WiMAX 4G technology
WiMAX vs. LTE
Mobile WiMAX Throughput Measurements
Prashant Sharma (2009). Facts About WiMAX
And Why Is It The Future of Wireless Broad-
band"". TechPluto blog. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
Chapter 2
LTE (telecommunication)
Long term evolution redirects here. For the biological
concept, see Evolution and E. coli long-term evolution
experiment.
LTE, an abbreviation for Long-Term Evolution, com-
Adoption of LTE technology as of May 21, 2014.
Countries and regions with commercial LTE service
Countries and regions with commercial LTE network deployment
on-going or planned
Countries and regions with LTE trial systems (pre-commitment)
monly marketed as 4G LTE, is a standard for wireless
communication of high-speed data for mobile phones
and data terminals. It is based on the GSM/EDGE and
UMTS/HSPA network technologies, increasing the ca-
pacity and speed using a dierent radio interface to-
gether with core network improvements.
[1][2]
The stan-
dard is developed by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partner-
ship Project) and is specied in its Release 8 document
series, with minor enhancements described in Release 9.
LTE is the natural upgrade path for carriers with both
GSM/UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks. The
dierent LTE frequencies and bands used in dierent
countries will mean that only multi-band phones will be
able to use LTE in all countries where it is supported.
Although marketed as a 4G wireless service, LTE (as
specied in the 3GPP Release 8 and 9 document se-
ries) does not satisfy the technical requirements the 3GPP
consortium has adopted for its new standard genera-
tion, and which were originally set forth by the ITU-R
organization in its IMT-Advanced specication. How-
ever, due to marketing pressures and the signicant ad-
vancements that WiMAX, HSPA+ and LTE bring to the
original 3G technologies, ITU later decided that LTE
together with the aforementioned technologies can be
called 4G technologies.
[3]
The LTE Advanced standard
formally satises the ITU-R requirements to be consid-
ered IMT-Advanced.
[4]
To dierentiate LTE Advanced
and WiMAX-Advanced from current 4G technologies,
ITU has dened them as True 4G.
[5][6]
2.1 Overview
See also: LTE timeline and List of LTE networks
LTEis a standard for wireless data communications tech-
Telia-branded Samsung LTE modem
11
12 CHAPTER 2. LTE (TELECOMMUNICATION)
HTC ThunderBolt, the second commercially available LTE
smartphone
nology and a development of the GSM/UMTS standards.
The goal of LTEwas to increase the capacity and speed of
wireless data networks using new DSP (digital signal pro-
cessing) techniques and modulations that were developed
around the turn of the millennium. Afurther goal was the
redesign and simplication of the network architecture
to an IP-based system with signicantly reduced trans-
fer latency compared to the 3G architecture. The LTE
wireless interface is incompatible with 2G and 3G net-
works, so that it must be operated on a separate wireless
spectrum.
LTE was rst proposed by NTT DoCoMo of Japan in
2004, and studies on the new standard ocially com-
menced in 2005.
[7]
In May 2007, the LTE/SAE Trial
Initiative (LSTI) alliance was founded as a global col-
laboration between vendors and operators with the goal
of verifying and promoting the new standard in order
to ensure the global introduction of the technology as
quickly as possible.
[8][9]
The LTE standard was nal-
ized in December 2008, and the rst publicly available
LTE service was launched by TeliaSonera in Oslo and
Stockholm on December 14, 2009 as a data connection
with a USB modem. The LTE services were launched by
major North American carriers as well, with the Samsung
SCH-r900 being the worlds rst LTEMobile phone start-
ing on September 21, 2010
[10][11]
and Samsung Galaxy
Indulge being the worlds rst LTE smartphone starting
on February 10, 2011
[12][13]
both oered by MetroPCS
and HTC ThunderBolt oered by Verizon starting on
March 17 being the second LTE smartphone to be sold
commercially.
[14][15]
In Canada, Rogers Wireless was the
rst to launch LTE network on July 7, 2011 oering
the Sierra Wireless AirCard 313U USB mobile broad-
band modem, known as the LTE Rocket stick then
followed closely by mobile devices from both HTC and
Samsung.
[16]
Initially, CDMA operators planned to up-
grade to rival standards called UMB and WiMAX, but all
the major CDMA operators (such as Verizon, Sprint and
MetroPCS in the United States, Bell and Telus in Canada,
au by KDDI in Japan, SK Telecom in South Korea and
China Telecom/China Unicomin China) have announced
that they intend to migrate to LTE after all. The evolu-
tion of LTE is LTE Advanced, which was standardized
in March 2011.
[17]
Services are expected to commence
in 2013.
[18]
The LTE specication provides downlink peak rates of
300 Mbit/s, uplink peak rates of 75 Mbit/s and QoS pro-
visions permitting a transfer latency of less than 5 ms in
the radio access network. LTE has the ability to manage
fast-moving mobiles and supports multi-cast and broad-
cast streams. LTE supports scalable carrier bandwidths,
from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz and supports both frequency
division duplexing (FDD) and time-division duplexing
(TDD). The IP-based network architecture, called the
Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and designed to replace the
GPRS Core Network, supports seamless handovers for
both voice and data to cell towers with older network
technology such as GSM, UMTS and CDMA2000.
[19]
The simpler architecture results in lower operating costs
(for example, each E-UTRA cell will support up to four
times the data and voice capacity supported by HSPA
[20]
).
Below is a list of countries by 4G LTE penetration as
measured by Juniper Networks in 2013 and published by
Bloomberg.
[21][22]
2.2 Features
See also: E-UTRA
Much of the LTE standard addresses the upgrading of 3G
UMTS to what will eventually be 4G mobile communi-
cations technology. A large amount of the work is aimed
at simplifying the architecture of the system, as it tran-
sits from the existing UMTS circuit + packet switching
combined network, to an all-IP at architecture system.
E-UTRAis the air interface of LTE. Its main features are:
Peak download rates up to 299.6 Mbit/s and upload
rates up to 75.4 Mbit/s depending on the user equip-
ment category (with 44 antennas using 20 MHz of
spectrum). Five dierent terminal classes have been
dened from a voice centric class up to a high end
terminal that supports the peak data rates. All ter-
minals will be able to process 20 MHz bandwidth.
Low data transfer latencies (sub-5 ms latency for
2.3. VOICE CALLS 13
small IP packets in optimal conditions), lower la-
tencies for handover and connection setup time than
with previous radio access technologies.
Improved support for mobility, exemplied by sup-
port for terminals moving at up to 350 km/h (220
mph) or 500 km/h (310 mph) depending on the fre-
quency band.
[23]
OFDMA for the downlink, SC-FDMA for the up-
link to conserve power
Support for both FDD and TDD communication
systems as well as half-duplex FDD with the same
radio access technology
Support for all frequency bands currently used by
IMT systems by ITU-R.
Increased spectrum exibility: 1.4 MHz, 3 MHz, 5
MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz and 20 MHz wide cells are
standardized. (W-CDMA has no option for other
than 5 MHz slices, leading to some problems rolling-
out in countries where 5 MHz is a commonly allo-
cated width of spectrumso would frequently already
be in use with legacy standards such as 2GGSMand
cdmaOne.)
Support for cell sizes from tens of metres radius
(femto and picocells) up to 100 km (62 miles) ra-
dius macrocells. In the lower frequency bands to
be used in rural areas, 5 km (3.1 miles) is the op-
timal cell size, 30 km (19 miles) having reasonable
performance, and up to 100 km cell sizes supported
with acceptable performance. In city and urban ar-
eas, higher frequency bands (such as 2.6 GHz in EU)
are used to support high speed mobile broadband. In
this case, cell sizes may be 1 km(0.62 miles) or even
less.
Supports at least 200 active data clients in every 5
MHz cell.
[24]
Simplied architecture: The network side of E-
UTRAN is composed only of eNode Bs
Support for inter-operation and co-existence with
legacy standards (e.g., GSM/EDGE, UMTS and
CDMA2000). Users can start a call or transfer of
data in an area using an LTE standard, and, should
coverage be unavailable, continue the operation
without any action on their part using GSM/GPRS
or W-CDMA-based UMTS or even 3GPP2 net-
works such as cdmaOne or CDMA2000)
Packet switched radio interface.
Support for MBSFN (Multicast-Broadcast Single
Frequency Network). This feature can deliver ser-
vices such as Mobile TV using the LTE infras-
tructure, and is a competitor for DVB-H-based TV
broadcast.
2.3 Voice calls
cs domLTE CSFB to GSM/UMTS network interconnects
The LTE standard supports only packet switching with
its all-IP network. Voice calls in GSM, UMTS and
CDMA2000 are circuit switched, so with the adoption
of LTE, carriers will have to re-engineer their voice call
network.
[25]
Three dierent approaches sprang up:
Voice over LTE (VoLTE) Main article: VoLTE
Circuit-switched fallback (CSFB) In this approach,
LTE just provides data services, and when a voice
call is to be initiated or received, it will fall back to
the circuit-switched domain. When using this so-
lution, operators just need to upgrade the MSC in-
stead of deploying the IMS, and therefore, can pro-
vide services quickly. However, the disadvantage is
longer call setup delay.
Simultaneous voice and LTE (SVLTE) In this ap-
proach, the handset works simultaneously in the
LTE and circuit switched modes, with the LTE
mode providing data services and the circuit
switched mode providing the voice service. This is
a solution solely based on the handset, which does
not have special requirements on the network and
does not require the deployment of IMS either. The
disadvantage of this solution is that the phone can
become expensive with high power consumption.
One additional approach which is not initiated by opera-
tors is the usage of over-the-top content (OTT) services,
using applications like Skype and Google Talk to provide
LTE voice service. However, now and in the foreseeable
future, the voice call service is, and will still be, the main
revenue source for the mobile operators. So handing the
LTE voice service over completely to the OTT providers
is thus something which is not expected to receive much
support in the telecom industry.
[26]
Most major backers of LTE preferred and promoted
VoLTE from the beginning. The lack of software sup-
port in initial LTE devices as well as core network de-
vices however led to a number of carriers promoting
VoLGA (Voice over LTE Generic Access) as an interim
solution.
[27]
The idea was to use the same principles as
GAN (Generic Access Network, also known as UMA
14 CHAPTER 2. LTE (TELECOMMUNICATION)
or Unlicensed Mobile Access), which denes the proto-
cols through which a mobile handset can perform voice
calls over a customers private Internet connection, usu-
ally over wireless LAN. VoLGA however never gained
much support, because VoLTE (IMS) promises much
more exible services, albeit at the cost of having to up-
grade the entire voice call infrastructure. VoLTEwill also
require Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) in
order to be able to smoothly perform a handover to a 3G
network in case of poor LTE signal quality.
[28]
While the industry has seemingly standardized on VoLTE
for the future, the demand for voice calls today has led
LTE carriers to introduce CSFB as a stopgap measure.
When placing or receiving a voice call, LTE handsets will
fall back to old 2G or 3G networks for the duration of the
call.
2.3.1 Enhanced voice quality
To ensure compatibility, 3GPP demands at least AMR-
NB codec (narrow band), but the recommended speech
codec for VoLTE is Adaptive Multi-Rate Wideband, also
known as HD Voice. This codec is mandated in 3GPP
networks that support 16 kHz sampling.
[29]
Fraunhofer IIS has proposed and demonstrated Full-
HD Voice, an implementation of the AAC-ELD (Ad-
vanced Audio Coding Enhanced Low Delay) codec
for LTE handsets.
[30]
Where previous cell phone voice
codecs only supported frequencies up to 3.5 kHz and up-
coming wideband audio services branded as HD Voice up
to 7 kHz, Full-HD Voice supports the entire bandwidth
range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. For end-to-end Full-HD
Voice calls to succeed however, both the caller and re-
cipients handsets as well as networks have to support the
feature.
[31]
2.4 Frequency bands
See also: E-UTRA Frequency bands and channel
bandwidths
The LTE standard covers a range of many dierent
bands, each of which is designated by both a frequency
and a band number. In North America, 700, 750, 800,
850, 1900, 1700/2100 (AWS), 2500 and 2600 MHz
(Rogers Communications, Bell Canada) are used (bands
4, 7, 12, 13, 17, 25, 26, 41); 2500 MHz in South Amer-
ica; 800, 900, 1800, 2600 MHz in Europe(bands 3, 7,
20);
[32][33]
1800 and 2600 MHz in Asia (bands 1, 3, 5,
7, 8, 11, 13, 40);
[34]
and 1800 MHz and 2300 MHz in
Australia
[35][36]
and New Zealand (bands 3, 40).
[37]
As a
result, phones from one country may not work in other
countries. Users will need a multi-band capable phone
for roaming internationally.
2.5 Patents
According to the European Telecommunications Stan-
dards Institute's (ETSI) intellectual property rights (IPR)
database, about 50 companies have declared, as of
March 2012, holding essential patents covering the LTE
standard.
[38]
The ETSI has made no investigation on the
correctness of the declarations however,
[38]
so that any
analysis of essential LTE patents should take into account
more than ETSI declarations.
[39]
2.6 See also
Comparison of wireless data standards
eMBMS Multicast Broadcast Multimedia Services
(MBMS) enhanced for LTE
E-UTRA the radio access network used in LTE
Flat IP at IP architectures in mobile networks
LTE Advanced the successor to LTE
System architecture evolution the re-
architecturing of core networks in LTE
TD-LTE (LTE TDD) an alternative LTE standard
developed by China
UMB a proposed competitor to LTE, never com-
mercialized
WiMAX a competitor to LTE
HSPA+ an enhancement of the 3GPP HSPA stan-
dard
ZadoChu sequence
Next-generation network
2.7 References
[1] An Introduction to LTE. 3GPP LTE Encyclopedia. Re-
trieved December 3, 2010.
[2] Long Term Evolution (LTE): A Technical Overview.
Motorola. Retrieved July 3, 2010.
[3] Newsroom Press Release. Itu.int. Retrieved 2012-10-
28.
[4] ITU-R Confers IMT-Advanced (4G) Status to 3GPP
LTE (Press release). 3GPP. 20 October 2010. Retrieved
18 May 2012.
[5] pressinfo (2009-10-21). Press Release: IMT-Advanced
(4G) Mobile wireless broadband on the anvil. Itu.int.
Retrieved 2012-10-28.
2.8. FURTHER READING 15
[6] Newsroom Press Release. Itu.int. Retrieved 2012-10-
28.
[7] Work Plan 3GPP (Release 8)". 16 January 2012. Re-
trieved 1 March 2012.
[8] LSTI job complete. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
[9] LTE/SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI) Delivers Initial Re-
sults. 7 November 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
[10] Temple, Stephen. Vintage Mobiles: Samsung SCH-r900
The worlds rst LTE Mobile (2010)". History of GMS:
Birth of the mobile revolution.
[11] Samsung Craft, the worlds rst 4G LTE phone, now
available at MetroPCS. Unwired View. September 21,
2010.
[12] MetroPCS debuts rst 4GLTEAndroid phone, Samsung
Galaxy Indulge. Android and Me. 2011-02-09. Re-
trieved 2012-03-15.
[13] MetroPCS snags rst LTE Android phone. Network-
world.com. Retrieved 2012-03-15.
[14] Verizon launches its rst LTE handset. Telegeogra-
phy.com. 2011-03-16. Retrieved 2012-03-15.
[15] HTC ThunderBolt is ocially Verizons rst LTE hand-
set, come March 17th. Phonearena.com. Retrieved
2012-03-15.
[16] Rogers lights up Canadas rst LTE network today.
CNW Group Ltd. 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2012-10-28.
[17] LTE An End-to-End Description of Network Architecture
and Elements. 3GPP LTE Encyclopedia. 2009.
[18] AT&T commits to LTE-Advanced deployment in 2013,
Hesse and Mead unfazed. Engadget. 2011-11-08. Re-
trieved 2012-03-15.
[19] LTE an introduction. Ericsson. 2009.
[20] Long Term Evolution (LTE)". Motorola. Retrieved
April 11, 2011.
[21] http://www.bloomberg.com/slideshow/2013-09-19/
countries-with-the-most-4g-mobile-users.html#slide1
[22] http://gigaom.com/2013/09/20/
mapping-out-the-worlds-lte-coverage-its-in-fewer-places-than-you-think/
[23] Sesia, Touk, Baker: LTE The UMTS Long Term Evo-
lution; From Theory to Practice, page 11. Wiley, 2009.
[24] Evolution of LTE. LTE World. Retrieved October 24,
2011.
[25] Voice and SMS in LTE Technology White Paper, Rohde
& Schwarz, 2011
[26] Huawei Communicate Magazine, Issue 61, September
2011.
[27] VoLGA whitepaper
[28] Qualcomm Chipset Powers First Successful VoIP-Over-
LTE Call With Single Radio Voice Call Continuity
[29] Erricsson - LTE delivers superior voice, too
[30] Fraunhofer IIS Demos Full-HD Voice Over LTE On An-
droid Handsets
[31] Firm Set to Demo HD Voice over LTE
[32] EC makes ocial recommendation for 790862 MHz
release. 29 October 2009. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
[33] Europe plans to reserve 800MHz frequency band for
LTE and WiMAX. 16 May 2010. Retrieved 11 March
2012.
[34] CSL begins dual-band 1800/2600 LTE rollout
[35] Telstra switches on rst LTE network on 1800MHz in
Australia
[36] Optus still evaluating LTE
[37] New Zealand 4G LTE launch. 28 February 2013.
[38] Who Owns LTE Patents?". ipeg. March 6, 2012. Re-
trieved March 10, 2012.
[39] Elizabeth Woyke (2011-09-21). Identifying The Tech
Leaders In LTE Wireless Patents. Forbes. Retrieved
March 10, 2012. Second comment by the author: Thus,
any analysis of essential LTE patents should take into ac-
count more than ETSI declarations.
2.8 Further reading
Gautam Siwach, Dr. Amir Esmailpour LTE Secu-
rity Potential Vulnerability and AlgorithmEnhance-
ments, IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical
and Computer Engineering, IEEE CCECE, Toronto,
Canada, May 2014
Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Skld 4G
LTE/LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband, Aca-
demic Press, 2011, ISBN 978-0-12-385489-6
Stefania Sesia, Issam Touk, and Matthew Baker,
LTE The UMTS Long Term Evolution From
Theory to Practice, Second Edition including Re-
lease 10 for LTE-Advanced, John Wiley & Sons,
2011, ISBN 978-0-470-66025-6
Chris Johnson, "LTE in BULLETS", CreateSpace,
2010, ISBN 978-1-4528-3464-1
Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Skld, Per
Beming, 3G Evolution HSPA and LTE for Mo-
bile Broadband, 2nd edition, Academic Press,
2008, ISBN 978-0-12-374538-5
Borko Furht, Syed A. Ahson, Long Term Evolu-
tion: 3GPP LTE Radio And Cellular Technology,
Crc Press, 2009, ISBN 978-1-4200-7210-5
F. Khan, LTE for 4G Mobile Broadband Air In-
terface Technologies and Performance, Cambridge
University Press, 2009
16 CHAPTER 2. LTE (TELECOMMUNICATION)
Mustafa Ergen, Mobile Broadband Including
WiMAX and LTE, Springer, NY, 2009
H. Ekstrm, A. Furuskr, J. Karlsson, M. Meyer, S.
Parkvall, J. Torsner, and M. Wahlqvist, Technical
Solutions for the 3G Long-Term Evolution, IEEE
Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 3, March 2006, pp.
3845
E. Dahlman, H. Ekstrm, A. Furuskr, Y. Jading, J.
Karlsson, M. Lundevall, and S. Parkvall, The 3G
Long-Term Evolution Radio Interface Concepts
and Performance Evaluation, IEEE Vehicular Tech-
nology Conference (VTC) 2006 Spring, Melbourne,
Australia, May 2006
K. Fazel and S. Kaiser, Multi-Carrier and Spread
Spectrum Systems: From OFDM and MC-CDMA to
LTE and WiMAX, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons,
2008, ISBN 978-0-470-99821-2
Agilent Technologies, "LTEand the Evolution to 4G
Wireless: Design and Measurement Challenges",
John Wiley & Sons, 2009 ISBN 978-0-470-68261-
6
Sajal K. Das, John Wiley & Sons (April 2010):
Mobile Handset Design, ISBN 978-0-470-82467-
2 .
Beaver, Paul, "What is TD-LTE?", RF&Microwave
Designline, September 2011.
Dan Forsberg, Gnther Horn, Wolf-Dietrich
Moeller, Valtteri Niemi, LTE Security, Second
Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester 2013,
ISBN 978-1-118-35558-9
2.9 External links
LTE homepage from the 3GPP website
LTE A-Z Description 3GPP LTE Encyclopedia
4G/LTE community website
LTE Frequently Asked Questions
LTE Deployment Map
2.9.1 White papers and other technical in-
formation
LTE Technology Overview and Tutorial Series in-
cluding Webinars and Video presentations
The Long Term Evolution of 3G on Ericsson Re-
view, no. 2, 2005
LTE technology introduction
3G Long-Term Evolution by Dr. Erik Dahlman at
Ericsson Research
Long-Term 3G Evolution Radio Access by Dr.
Stefan Parkvall at Ericsson Research
3GPP Long-TermEvolution / SystemArchitecture
Evolution: Overview by Ulrich Barth at Alcatel
The 3G Long-Term Evolution Radio Interface
Concepts and Performance Evaluation
LTE and the Evolution to 4G Wireless Design and
Measurement Challenges LTE Security
Role of Crypto in Mobile Communications LTE
Security
Dr. Maode Ma "Security Investigation in 4G LTE
Wireless Networks", 2012.
LTE Uplink Interference Modeling
Chapter 3
Internet protocol suite
The Internet protocol suite is the computer networking
model and set of communications protocols used on the
Internet and similar computer networks. It is commonly
known as TCP/IP, because its most important protocols,
the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet
Protocol (IP), were the rst networking protocols dened
in this standard. Often also called the Internet model, it
was originally also known as the DoD model, because
the development of the networking model was funded by
DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of
Defense.
TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how
data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed
and received at the destination. This functionality is or-
ganized into four abstraction layers which are used to sort
all related protocols according to the scope of networking
involved.
[1][2]
From lowest to highest, the layers are the
link layer, containing communication technologies for a
single network segment (link), the internet layer, connect-
ing hosts across independent networks, thus establishing
internetworking, the transport layer handling host-to-host
communication, and the application layer, which provides
process-to-process application data exchange.
The TCP/IP model and related protocols are maintained
by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
3.1 History
3.1.1 Early research
The Internet protocol suite resulted fromresearch and de-
velopment conducted by the Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency (DARPA) in the late 1960s.
[3]
After
initiating the pioneering ARPANET in 1969, DARPA
started work on a number of other data transmission tech-
nologies. In 1972, Robert E. Kahn joined the DARPA
Information Processing Technology Oce, where he
worked on both satellite packet networks and ground-
based radio packet networks, and recognized the value
of being able to communicate across both. In the spring
of 1973, Vinton Cerf, the developer of the existing
ARPANET Network Control Program (NCP) protocol,
Diagram of the rst internetworked connection
A Stanford Research Institute packet radio van, site of the rst
three-way internetworked transmission.
joined Kahn to work on open-architecture interconnec-
tion models with the goal of designing the next protocol
generation for the ARPANET.
By the summer of 1973, Kahn and Cerf had worked out a
fundamental reformulation, in which the dierences be-
tween network protocols were hidden by using a common
internetwork protocol, and, instead of the network being
responsible for reliability, as in the ARPANET, the hosts
became responsible. Cerf credits Hubert Zimmermann
and Louis Pouzin, designer of the CYCLADES network,
with important inuences on this design.
The design of the network included the recognition that
it should provide only the functions of eciently trans-
17
18 CHAPTER 3. INTERNET PROTOCOL SUITE
mitting and routing trac between end nodes and that
all other intelligence should be located at the edge of
the network, in the end nodes. Using a simple design,
it became possible to connect almost any network to
the ARPANET, irrespective of the local characteristics,
thereby solving Kahns initial problem. One popular ex-
pression is that TCP/IP, the eventual product of Cerf and
Kahns work, will run over "two tin cans and a string."
(Years later, as a joke, the IP over Avian Carriers for-
mal protocol specication was created and successfully
tested.)
A computer called a router is provided with an interface
to each network. It forwards packets back and forth be-
tween them.
[4]
Originally a router was called gateway, but
the term was changed to avoid confusion with other types
of gateways.
3.1.2 Specication
From 1973 to 1974, Cerfs networking research group
at Stanford worked out details of the idea, resulting in
the rst TCP specication.
[5]
A signicant technical in-
uence was the early networking work at Xerox PARC,
which produced the PARC Universal Packet protocol
suite, much of which existed around that time.
DARPA then contracted with BBN Technologies,
Stanford University, and the University College London
to develop operational versions of the protocol on dier-
ent hardware platforms. Four versions were developed:
TCP v1, TCP v2, TCP v3 and IP v3, and TCP/IP v4.
The last protocol is still in use today.
In 1975, a two-network TCP/IP communications test was
performed between Stanford and University College Lon-
don (UCL). In November, 1977, a three-network TCP/IP
test was conducted between sites in the US, the UK,
and Norway. Several other TCP/IP prototypes were de-
veloped at multiple research centers between 1978 and
1983. The migration of the ARPANET to TCP/IP was
ocially completed on ag day January 1, 1983, when
the new protocols were permanently activated.
[6]
3.1.3 Adoption
In March 1982, the US Department of Defense de-
clared TCP/IP as the standard for all military computer
networking.
[7]
In 1985, the Internet Advisory Board (later
renamed the Internet Architecture Board) held a three-
day workshop on TCP/IP for the computer industry, at-
tended by 250 vendor representatives, promoting the pro-
tocol and leading to its increasing commercial use.
In 1985, the rst Interop conference focused on network
interoperability by broader adoption of TCP/IP. The con-
ference was founded by Dan Lynch, an early Internet ac-
tivist. From the beginning, large corporations, such as
IBM and DEC, attended the meeting. Interoperability
conferences have been held every year since then. Every
year from 1985 through 1993, the number of attendees
tripled.
IBM, AT&T and DEC were the rst major corporations
to adopt TCP/IP, despite having competing internal pro-
tocols (SNA, XNS, etc.). In IBM, from 1984, Barry Ap-
pelman's group did TCP/IP development. (Appelman
later moved to AOL to be the head of all its development
eorts.) They navigated the corporate politics to get a
stream of TCP/IP products for various IBM systems, in-
cluding MVS, VM, and OS/2. At the same time, sev-
eral smaller companies began oering TCP/IP stacks for
DOS and MS Windows, such as the company FTP Soft-
ware, and the Wollongong Group.
[8]
The rst VM/CMS
TCP/IP stack came from the University of Wisconsin.
[9]
Back then, most of these TCP/IP stacks were written
single-handedly by a few talented programmers. For ex-
ample, John Romkey of FTP Software was the author of
the MIT PC/IP package.
[10]
John Romkeys PC/IP im-
plementation was the rst IBM PC TCP/IP stack. Jay
Elinsky and Oleg Vishnepolsky of IBM Research wrote
TCP/IP stacks for VM/CMS and OS/2, respectively.
[11]
The spread of TCP/IP was fueled further in June 1989,
when AT&T agreed to place the TCP/IP code devel-
oped for UNIX into the public domain. Various ven-
dors, including IBM, included this code in their own
TCP/IP stacks. Many companies sold TCP/IP stacks
for Windows until Microsoft released a native TCP/IP
stack in Windows 95. This event was a little late in
the evolution of the Internet, but it cemented TCP/IPs
dominance over other protocols, which eventually dis-
appeared. These protocols included IBM Systems Net-
work Architecture (SNA), Open Systems Interconnec-
tion (OSI), Microsofts native NetBIOS, and Xerox Net-
work Systems (XNS).
3.2 Key architectural principles
An early architectural document, RFC 1122, emphasizes
architectural principles over layering.
[12]
End-to-end principle: This principle has evolved
over time. Its original expression put the mainte-
nance of state and overall intelligence at the edges,
and assumed the Internet that connected the edges
retained no state and concentrated on speed and sim-
plicity. Real-world needs for rewalls, network ad-
dress translators, web content caches and the like
have forced changes in this principle.
[13]
Robustness Principle: In general, an implementa-
tion must be conservative in its sending behavior,
and liberal in its receiving behavior. That is, it must
be careful to send well-formed datagrams, but must
accept any datagram that it can interpret (e.g., not
object to technical errors where the meaning is still
3.3. ABSTRACTION LAYERS 19
clear).
[14]
The second part of the principle is al-
most as important: software on other hosts may con-
tain deciencies that make it unwise to exploit legal
but obscure protocol features.
[15]
3.3 Abstraction layers
The Internet protocol suite uses encapsulation to provide
abstraction of protocols and services. Encapsulation is
usually aligned with the division of the protocol suite into
layers of general functionality. In general, an application
(the highest level of the model) uses a set of protocols to
send its data down the layers, being further encapsulated
at each level.
The layers of the protocol suite near the top are logically
closer to the user application, while those near the bot-
tomare logically closer to the physical transmission of the
data. Viewing layers as providing or consuming a service
is a method of abstraction to isolate upper layer protocols
from the details of transmitting bits over, for example,
Ethernet and collision detection, while the lower layers
avoid having to know the details of each and every appli-
cation and its protocol.
Even when the layers are examined, the assorted architec-
tural documentsthere is no single architectural model
such as ISO 7498, the Open Systems Interconnection
(OSI) modelhave fewer and less rigidly dened layers
than the OSI model, and thus provide an easier t for real-
world protocols. One frequently referenced document,
RFC 1958, does not contain a stack of layers. The lack
of emphasis on layering is a major dierence between the
IETF and OSI approaches. It only refers to the existence
of the internetworking layer and generally to upper layers;
this document was intended as a 1996 snapshot of the ar-
chitecture: The Internet and its architecture have grown
in evolutionary fashion from modest beginnings, rather
than from a Grand Plan. While this process of evolution
is one of the main reasons for the technologys success,
it nevertheless seems useful to record a snapshot of the
current principles of the Internet architecture.
RFC 1122, entitled Host Requirements, is structured in
paragraphs referring to layers, but the document refers
to many other architectural principles not emphasizing
layering. It loosely denes a four-layer model, with the
layers having names, not numbers, as follows:
The Application layer is the scope within which ap-
plications create user data and communicate this
data to other applications on another or the same
host. The applications, or processes, make use of the
services provided by the underlying, lower layers,
especially the Transport Layer which provides reli-
able or unreliable pipes to other processes. The com-
munications partners are characterized by the appli-
cation architecture, such as the client-server model
and peer-to-peer networking. This is the layer in
which all higher level protocols, such as SMTP, FTP,
SSH, HTTP, operate. Processes are addressed via
ports which essentially represent services.
The Transport Layer performs host-to-host commu-
nications on either the same or dierent hosts and
on either the local network or remote networks sep-
arated by routers. It provides a channel for the com-
munication needs of applications. UDP is the ba-
sic transport layer protocol, providing an unreliable
datagram service. The Transmission Control Proto-
col provides ow-control, connection establishment,
and reliable transmission of data.
The Internet layer has the task of exchanging data-
grams across network boundaries. It provides a
uniform networking interface that hides the actual
topology (layout) of the underlying network connec-
tions. It is therefore also referred to as the layer that
establishes internetworking, indeed, it denes and
establishes the Internet. This layer denes the ad-
dressing and routing structures used for the TCP/IP
protocol suite. The primary protocol in this scope
is the Internet Protocol, which denes IP addresses.
Its function in routing is to transport datagrams to
the next IP router that has the connectivity to a net-
work closer to the nal data destination.
The Link layer denes the networking methods
within the scope of the local network link on which
hosts communicate without intervening routers.
This layer includes the protocols used to describe
the local network topology and the interfaces needed
to eect transmission of Internet layer datagrams to
next-neighbor hosts.
The Internet protocol suite and the layered protocol stack
design were in use before the OSI model was established.
Since then, the TCP/IP model has been compared with
the OSI model in books and classrooms, which often re-
sults in confusion because the two models use dierent
assumptions and goals, including the relative importance
of strict layering.
This abstraction also allows upper layers to provide ser-
vices that the lower layers do not provide. While the orig-
inal OSI model was extended to include connectionless
services (OSIRM CL),
[16]
IP is not designed to be reli-
able and is a best eort delivery protocol. This means that
all transport layer implementations must choose whether
or how to provide reliability. UDP provides data integrity
via a checksumbut does not guarantee delivery; TCP pro-
vides both data integrity and delivery guarantee by re-
transmitting until the receiver acknowledges the recep-
tion of the packet.
This model lacks the formalism of the OSI model and as-
sociated documents, but the IETF does not use a formal
model and does not consider this a limitation, as illus-
trated in the comment by David D. Clark, We reject:
20 CHAPTER 3. INTERNET PROTOCOL SUITE
kings, presidents and voting. We believe in: rough con-
sensus and running code. Criticisms of this model, which
have been made with respect to the OSI model, often do
not consider ISOs later extensions to that model.
For multiaccess links with their own addressing systems
(e.g. Ethernet) an address mapping protocol is needed.
Such protocols can be considered to be below IP but
above the existing link system. While the IETF does
not use the terminology, this is a subnetwork depen-
dent convergence facility according to an extension to the
OSI model, the internal organization of the network layer
(IONL).
[17]
ICMP & IGMP operate on top of IP but do not transport
data like UDP or TCP. Again, this functionality exists
as layer management extensions to the OSI model, in its
Management Framework (OSIRM MF)
[18]
The SSL/TLS library operates above the transport layer
(uses TCP) but below application protocols. Again, there
was no intention, on the part of the designers of these
protocols, to comply with OSI architecture.
The link is treated like a black box. The IETF explicitly
does not intend to discuss transmission systems, which is
a less academic but practical alternative to the OSI model.
The following is a description of each layer in the TCP/IP
networking model starting from the lowest level.
3.3.1 Link layer
The link layer has the networking scope of the local net-
work connection to which a host is attached. This regime
is called the link in TCP/IP literature. It is the lowest
component layer of the Internet protocols, as TCP/IP is
designed to be hardware independent. As a result TCP/IP
may be implemented on top of virtually any hardware net-
working technology.
The link layer is used to move packets between the In-
ternet layer interfaces of two dierent hosts on the same
link. The processes of transmitting and receiving pack-
ets on a given link can be controlled both in the software
device driver for the network card, as well as on rmware
or specialized chipsets. These performdata link functions
such as adding a packet header to prepare it for trans-
mission, then actually transmit the frame over a physical
medium. The TCP/IP model includes specications of
translating the network addressing methods used in the
Internet Protocol to data link addressing, such as Media
Access Control (MAC). All other aspects below that
level, however, are implicitly assumed to exist in the link
layer, but are not explicitly dened.
This is also the layer where packets may be selected to be
sent over a virtual private network or other networking
tunnel. In this scenario, the link layer data may be con-
sidered application data which traverses another instanti-
ation of the IP stack for transmission or reception over
another IP connection. Such a connection, or virtual
link, may be established with a transport protocol or even
an application scope protocol that serves as a tunnel in
the link layer of the protocol stack. Thus, the TCP/IP
model does not dictate a strict hierarchical encapsulation
sequence.
The TCP/IP models link layer corresponds to the Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI) model physical and data
link layers, layers one and two of the OSI model.
3.3.2 Internet layer
The internet layer has the responsibility of sending pack-
ets across potentially multiple networks. Internetworking
requires sending data from the source network to the des-
tination network. This process is called routing.
[19]
The Internet Protocol performs two basic functions:
Host addressing and identication: This is accom-
plished with a hierarchical IP addressing system.
Packet routing: This is the basic task of sending
packets of data (datagrams) from source to destina-
tion by forwarding them to the next network router
closer to the nal destination.
The internet layer is not only agnostic of data structures
at the transport layer, but it also does not distinguish be-
tween operation of the various transport layer protocols.
IP carries data for a variety of dierent upper layer pro-
tocols. These protocols are each identied by a unique
protocol number: for example, Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMP) and Internet Group Management Pro-
tocol (IGMP) are protocols 1 and 2, respectively.
Some of the protocols carried by IP, such as ICMP which
is used to transmit diagnostic information, and IGMP
which is used to manage IP Multicast data, are layered on
top of IP but perform internetworking functions. This il-
lustrates the dierences in the architecture of the TCP/IP
stack of the Internet and the OSI model. The TCP/IP
models internet layer corresponds to layer three of the
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, where it is
referred to as the network layer.
The internet layer provides only an unreliable datagram
transmission facility between hosts located on potentially
dierent IP networks by forwarding the transport layer
datagrams to an appropriate next-hop router for further
relaying to its destination. With this functionality, the
internet layer makes possible internetworking, the inter-
working of dierent IP networks, and it essentially es-
tablishes the Internet. The Internet Protocol is the prin-
cipal component of the internet layer, and it denes two
addressing systems to identify network hosts computers,
and to locate them on the network. The original address
system of the ARPANET and its successor, the Inter-
net, is Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). It uses a 32-
3.3. ABSTRACTION LAYERS 21
bit IP address and is therefore capable of identifying ap-
proximately four billion hosts. This limitation was elimi-
nated by the standardization of Internet Protocol version
6 (IPv6) in 1998, and beginning production implementa-
tions in approximately 2006.
3.3.3 Transport layer
The transport layer establishes a basic data channel that
an application uses in its task-specic data exchange. The
layer establishes process-to-process connectivity, mean-
ing it provides end-to-end services that are independent
of the structure of user data and the logistics of exchang-
ing information for any particular specic purpose. Its
responsibility includes end-to-end message transfer in-
dependent of the underlying network, along with error
control, segmentation, ow control, congestion control,
and application addressing (port numbers). End-to-end
message transmission or connecting applications at the
transport layer can be categorized as either connection-
oriented, implemented in TCP, or connectionless, imple-
mented in UDP.
For the purpose of providing process-specic transmis-
sion channels for applications, the layer establishes the
concept of the port. This is a numbered logical con-
struct allocated specically for each of the communica-
tion channels an application needs. For many types of
services, these port numbers have been standardized so
that client computers may address specic services of a
server computer without the involvement of service an-
nouncements or directory services.
Because IP provides only a best eort delivery, some
transport layer protocols oer reliability. However, IP
can run over a reliable data link protocol such as the High-
Level Data Link Control (HDLC).
For example, the TCP is a connection-oriented protocol
that addresses numerous reliability issues in providing a
reliable byte stream:
data arrives in-order
data has minimal error (i.e., correctness)
duplicate data is discarded
lost or discarded packets are resent
includes trac congestion control
The newer Stream Control Transmission Protocol
(SCTP) is also a reliable, connection-oriented trans-
port mechanism. It is message-stream-orientednot
byte-stream-oriented like TCPand provides multiple
streams multiplexed over a single connection. It also pro-
vides multi-homing support, in which a connection end
can be represented by multiple IP addresses (represent-
ing multiple physical interfaces), such that if one fails, the
connection is not interrupted. It was developed initially
for telephony applications (to transport SS7 over IP), but
can also be used for other applications.
The User Datagram Protocol is a connectionless
datagramprotocol. Like IP, it is a best eort, unreliable
protocol. Reliability is addressed through error detection
using a weak checksum algorithm. UDP is typically used
for applications such as streaming media (audio, video,
Voice over IP etc.) where on-time arrival is more im-
portant than reliability, or for simple query/response ap-
plications like DNS lookups, where the overhead of set-
ting up a reliable connection is disproportionately large.
Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a datagram pro-
tocol that is designed for real-time data such as streaming
audio and video.
The applications at any given network address are distin-
guished by their TCP or UDP port. By convention certain
well known ports are associated with specic applications.
The TCP/IP models transport or host-to-host layer cor-
responds to the fourth layer in the Open Systems Inter-
connection (OSI) model, also called the transport layer.
3.3.4 Application layer
The application layer includes the protocols used by most
applications for providing user services or exchanging ap-
plication data over the network connections established
by the lower level protocols, but this may include some
basic network support services, such as many routing pro-
tocols, and host conguration protocols. Examples of ap-
plication layer protocols include the Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP), the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), the
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and the Dynamic
Host Conguration Protocol (DHCP).
[20]
Data coded ac-
cording to application layer protocols are encapsulated
into transport layer protocol units (such as TCP or UDP
messages), which in turn use lower layer protocols to ef-
fect actual data transfer.
The IP model does not consider the specics of format-
ting and presenting data, and does not dene additional
layers between the application and transport layers as in
the OSI model (presentation and session layers). Such
functions are the realm of libraries and application pro-
gramming interfaces.
Application layer protocols generally treat the transport
layer (and lower) protocols as black boxes which pro-
vide a stable network connection across which to com-
municate, although the applications are usually aware of
key qualities of the transport layer connection such as
the end point IP addresses and port numbers. Appli-
cation layer protocols are often associated with particu-
lar clientserver applications, and common services have
well-known port numbers reserved by the Internet As-
signed Numbers Authority (IANA). For example, the
HyperText Transfer Protocol uses server port 80 and
22 CHAPTER 3. INTERNET PROTOCOL SUITE
Telnet uses server port 23. Clients connecting to a service
usually use ephemeral ports, i.e., port numbers assigned
only for the duration of the transaction at random or from
a specic range congured in the application.
The transport layer and lower-level layers are uncon-
cerned with the specics of application layer protocols.
Routers and switches do not typically examine the en-
capsulated trac, rather they just provide a conduit for it.
However, some rewall and bandwidth throttling applica-
tions must interpret application data. An example is the
Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). It is also some-
times necessary for network address translator (NAT)
traversal to consider the application payload.
The application layer in the TCP/IP model is often com-
pared as equivalent to a combination of the fth (Session),
sixth (Presentation), and the seventh (Application) layers
of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model.
3.4 Layer names and number of
layers in the literature
The following table shows various networking models.
The number of layers varies between three and seven.
Some of the networking models are from textbooks,
which are secondary sources that may conict with the
intent of RFC 1122 and other IETF primary sources.
[28]
3.5 Comparison of TCP/IP and
OSI layering
The three top layers in the OSI modelthe application
layer, the presentation layer and the session layerare
not distinguished separately in the TCP/IP model where
it is just the application layer. While some pure OSI pro-
tocol applications, such as X.400, also combined them,
there is no requirement that a TCP/IP protocol stack
must impose monolithic architecture above the transport
layer. For example, the NFS application protocol runs
over the eXternal Data Representation (XDR) presenta-
tion protocol, which, in turn, runs over a protocol called
Remote Procedure Call (RPC). RPC provides reliable
record transmission, so it can safely use the best-eort
UDP transport.
Dierent authors have interpreted the RFCs dierently,
about whether the link layer (and the TCP/IP model) cov-
ers OSI model layer 1 (physical layer) issues, or whether
a hardware layer is assumed below the link layer.
Several authors have attempted to incorporate the OSI
models layers 1 and 2 into the TCP/IP model, since these
are commonly referred to in modern standards (for exam-
ple, by IEEE and ITU). This often results in a model with
ve layers, where the link layer or network access layer is
split into the OSI models layers 1 and 2.
The session layer roughly corresponds to the Telnet
virtual terminal functionality, which is part of text based
protocols such as the HTTP and SMTP TCP/IP model
application layer protocols. It also corresponds to TCP
and UDP port numbering, which is considered as part of
the transport layer in the TCP/IP model. Some functions
that would have been performed by an OSI presentation
layer are realized at the Internet application layer using
the MIME standard, which is used in application layer
protocols such as HTTP and SMTP.
The IETF protocol development eort is not concerned
with strict layering. Some of its protocols may not
t cleanly into the OSI model, although RFCs some-
times refer to it and often use the old OSI layer num-
bers. The IETF has repeatedly stated that Internet pro-
tocol and architecture development is not intended to be
OSI-compliant. RFC 3439, addressing Internet architec-
ture, contains a section entitled: Layering Considered
Harmful.
[28]
Conicts are apparent also in the original OSI model, ISO
7498, when not considering the annexes to this model
(e.g., ISO 7498/4 Management Framework), or the ISO
8648 Internal Organization of the Network layer (IONL).
When the IONL and Management Framework docu-
ments are considered, the ICMP and IGMP are neatly
dened as layer management protocols for the network
layer. In like manner, the IONL provides a structure
for subnetwork dependent convergence facilities such
as ARP and RARP.
IETF protocols can be encapsulated recursively, as
demonstrated by tunneling protocols such as Generic
Routing Encapsulation (GRE). GREuses the same mech-
anism that OSI uses for tunneling at the network layer.
3.6 Implementations
The Internet protocol suite does not presume any specic
hardware or software environment. It only requires that
hardware and a software layer exists that is capable of
sending and receiving packets on a computer network.
As a result, the suite has been implemented on essen-
tially every computing platform. A minimal implemen-
tation of TCP/IP includes the following: Internet Pro-
tocol (IP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Internet
Control Message Protocol (ICMP), Transmission Con-
trol Protocol (TCP), User DatagramProtocol (UDP), and
IGMP. In addition to IP, ICMP, TCP, UDP, Internet
Protocol version 6 requires NDP, ICMPv6, and IGMPv6
and is often accompanied by an integrated IPSec security
layer.
Application programmers are typically concerned only
with interfaces in the application layer and often also in
the transport layer, while the layers below are services
provided by the TCP/IP stack in the operating system.
3.9. BIBLIOGRAPHY 23
Most IP implementations are accessible to programmers
through sockets and APIs.
Unique implementations include Lightweight TCP/IP, an
open source stack designed for embedded systems, and
KA9QNOS, a stack and associated protocols for amateur
packet radio systems and personal computers connected
via serial lines.
Microcontroller rmware in the network adapter typi-
cally handles link issues, supported by driver software
in the operating system. Non-programmable analog and
digital electronics are normally in charge of the physi-
cal components below the link layer, typically using an
application-specic integrated circuit (ASIC) chipset for
each network interface or other physical standard. High-
performance routers are to a large extent based on fast
non-programmable digital electronics, carrying out link
level switching.
3.7 See also
BBN Report 1822
FLIP (protocol) (fast local Internet protocol stack)
List of automation protocols
List of information technology acronyms
List of network protocols
List of TCP and UDP port numbers
3.8 References
[1] RFC 1122, Requirements for Internet Hosts Communi-
cation Layers, R. Braden (ed.), October 1989.
[2] RFC 1123, Requirements for Internet Hosts Application
and Support, R. Braden (ed.), October 1989
[3] The DoD Internet Architecture Model, Vinton G. Cerf
and Edward Cain, Computer Networks, 7 (1983), North-
Holland, pp. 307-318
[4] RFC 1812, Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers, F.
Baker (June 1995)
[5] RFC 675, Specication of Internet Transmission Control
Protocol, V. Cerf et al. (December 1974)
[6] Internet History
[7] Ronda Hauben. From the ARPANET to the Internet.
TCP Digest (UUCP). Retrieved 2007-07-05.
[8] Wollongong
[9] A Short History of Internet Protocols at CERN
[10] About | romkey
[11] Barry Appelman
[12] RFC1958, Architectural Principles of the Internet, B. Car-
penter (June 1996)
[13] Rethinking the design of the Internet: The end-to-end ar-
guments vs. the brave new world, Marjory S. Blumenthal,
David D. Clark, August 2001
[14] p.23 INTERNET PROTOCOL DARPA INTERNET
PROGRAMPROTOCOL SPECIFICATIONSeptember
1981 Jon Postel Editor
[15] Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Communication Lay-
ers p.13 October 1989 R. Braden, Editor
[16] [ OSI: Reference Model Addendum 1: Connectionless-
mode Transmission,ISO7498/AD1],ISO7498/AD1, May
1986
[17] Information processing systems -- Open Systems In-
terconnection -- Internal organization of the Network
Layer, ISO 8648:1988.
[18] Information processing systems -- Open Systems Inter-
connection -- Basic Reference Model -- Part 4: Manage-
ment framework, ISO 7498-4:1989.
[19] IP Packet Structure
[20] TCP/IP Illustrated: the protocols, ISBN 0-201-63346-9,
W. Richard Stevens, February 1994
[21] Mark A. Dye, Rick McDonald, Antoon W. Ru, Network
Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide,
2007, ISBN 1-58713-208-7
[22] James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross, Computer Networking:
A Top-Down Approach, 2008, ISBN 0-321-49770-8
[23] Behrouz A. Forouzan, Data Communications and Net-
working, 2003
[24] Douglas E. Comer, Internetworking with TCP/IP: Prin-
ciples, Protocols and Architecture, Pearson Prentice Hall
2005, ISBN 0-13-187671-6
[25] Charles M. Kozierok, The TCP/IP Guide, No Starch
Press 2005
[26] William Stallings, Data and Computer Communications,
Prentice Hall 2006, ISBN 0-13-243310-9
[27] Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, Prentice
Hall 2002, ISBN 0-13-066102-3
[28] R. Bush; D. Meyer (December 2002), Some Internet Ar-
chitectural Guidelines and Philosophy, Internet Engineer-
ing Task Force
3.9 Bibliography
Douglas E. Comer. Internetworking with TCP/IP
- Principles, Protocols and Architecture. ISBN 86-
7991-142-9
24 CHAPTER 3. INTERNET PROTOCOL SUITE
Joseph G. Davies and Thomas F. Lee. Microsoft
Windows Server 2003 TCP/IP Protocols and Ser-
vices. ISBN 0-7356-1291-9
Forouzan, Behrouz A. (2003). TCP/IPProtocol Suite
(2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-246060-1.
Craig Hunt TCP/IP Network Administration.
O'Reilly (1998) ISBN 1-56592-322-7
Maufer, Thomas A. (1999). IP Fundamentals.
Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-975483-0.
Ian McLean. Windows(R) 2000 TCP/IP Black Book.
ISBN 1-57610-687-X
Ajit Mungale Pro .NET 1.1 Network Programming.
ISBN 1-59059-345-6
W. Richard Stevens. TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1:
The Protocols. ISBN 0-201-63346-9
W. Richard Stevens and Gary R. Wright. TCP/IP
Illustrated, Volume 2: The Implementation. ISBN 0-
201-63354-X
W. Richard Stevens. TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 3:
TCP for Transactions, HTTP, NNTP, and the UNIX
Domain Protocols. ISBN 0-201-63495-3
Andrew S. Tanenbaum. Computer Networks. ISBN
0-13-066102-3
Clark, D. (1988). The Design Philosophy of
the DARPA Internet Protocols. SIGCOMM
'88 Symposium proceedings on Communications
architectures and protocols (ACM): 106114.
doi:10.1145/52324.52336. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
3.10 External links
Internet HistoryPages on Robert Kahn, Vinton
Cerf, and TCP/IP (reviewed by Cerf and Kahn).
RFC 675 - Specication of Internet Transmission
Control Program, December 1974 Version
TCP/IP State Transition Diagram (PDF)
RFC 1180 A TCP/IP Tutorial - from the Internet
Engineering Task Force (January 1991)
TCP/IP FAQ
The TCP/IP Guide - A comprehensive look at the
protocols and the procedures/processes involved
A Study of the ARPANET TCP/IP Digest
TCP/IP Sequence Diagrams
Daryls TCP/IP Primer - Intro to TCP/IP LAN ad-
ministration, conversational style
Introduction to TCP/IP
Chapter 4
Transmission Control Protocol
For other uses, see TCP (disambiguation).
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of
the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite (IP), and
is so common that the entire suite is often called TCP/IP.
TCP provides reliable, ordered and error-checked deliv-
ery of a stream of octets between programs running on
computers connected to a local area network, intranet or
the public Internet. It resides at the transport layer.
Web browsers use TCP when they connect to servers on
the World Wide Web, and it is used to deliver email
and transfer les from one location to another. HTTP,
HTTPS, SMTP, POP3, IMAP, SSH, FTP, Telnet and a
variety of other protocols are typically encapsulated in
TCP.
Applications that do not require the reliability of a TCP
connection may instead use the connectionless User Data-
gram Protocol (UDP), which emphasizes low-overhead
operation and reduced latency rather than error checking
and delivery validation.
4.1 Historical origin
In May 1974 the Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers (IEEE) published a paper titled "A Protocol
for Packet Network Intercommunication."
[1]
The papers
authors, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, described an inter-
networking protocol for sharing resources using packet-
switching among the nodes. A central control compo-
nent of this model was the Transmission Control Pro-
gram that incorporated both connection-oriented links
and datagram services between hosts. The monolithic
Transmission Control Program was later divided into a
modular architecture consisting of the Transmission Con-
trol Protocol at the connection-oriented layer and the In-
ternet Protocol at the internetworking (datagram) layer.
The model became known informally as TCP/IP, although
formally it was henceforth called the Internet Protocol
Suite.
4.2 Network function
The protocol corresponds to the transport layer of TCP/IP
suite. TCP provides a communication service at an inter-
mediate level between an application program and the In-
ternet Protocol (IP). That is, when an application program
desires to send a large chunk of data across the Internet
using IP, instead of breaking the data into IP-sized pieces
and issuing a series of IP requests, the software can issue
a single request to TCP and let TCP handle the IP details.
IP works by exchanging pieces of information called
packets. Apacket is a sequence of octets (bytes) and con-
sists of a header followed by a body. The header describes
the packets source, destination and control information.
The body contains the data IP is transmitting.
Due to network congestion, trac load balancing, or
other unpredictable network behavior, IP packets can be
lost, duplicated, or delivered out of order. TCP detects
these problems, requests retransmission of lost data, re-
arranges out-of-order data, and even helps minimize net-
work congestion to reduce the occurrence of the other
problems. Once the TCP receiver has reassembled the se-
quence of octets originally transmitted, it passes them to
the receiving application. Thus, TCP abstracts the appli-
cations communication from the underlying networking
details.
TCP is utilized extensively by many of the Internets most
popular applications, including the World Wide Web
(WWW), E-mail, File Transfer Protocol, Secure Shell,
peer-to-peer le sharing, and some streaming media ap-
plications.
TCP is optimized for accurate delivery rather than timely
delivery, and therefore, TCP sometimes incurs relatively
long delays (on the order of seconds) while waiting for
out-of-order messages or retransmissions of lost mes-
sages. It is not particularly suitable for real-time appli-
cations such as Voice over IP. For such applications, pro-
tocols like the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) run-
ning over the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) are usually
recommended instead.
[2]
TCP is a reliable stream delivery service that guarantees
that all bytes received will be identical with bytes sent
and in the correct order. Since packet transfer over many
25
26 CHAPTER 4. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL
networks is not reliable, a technique known as positive
acknowledgment with retransmission is used to guaran-
tee reliability of packet transfers. This fundamental tech-
nique requires the receiver to respond with an acknowl-
edgment message as it receives the data. The sender
keeps a record of each packet it sends. The sender also
maintains a timer from when the packet was sent, and
retransmits a packet if the timer expires before the mes-
sage has been acknowledged. The timer is needed in case
a packet gets lost or corrupted.
[2]
While IP handles actual delivery of the data, TCP keeps
track of the individual units of data transmission, called
segments, that a message is divided into for ecient rout-
ing through the network. For example, when an HTML
le is sent from a web server, the TCP software layer of
that server divides the sequence of octets of the le into
segments and forwards them individually to the IP soft-
ware layer (Internet Layer). The Internet Layer encap-
sulates each TCP segment into an IP packet by adding a
header that includes (among other data) the destination
IP address. When the client program on the destination
computer receives them, the TCP layer (Transport Layer)
reassembles the individual segments and ensures they are
correctly ordered and error free as it streams them to an
application.
4.3 TCP segment structure
Transmission Control Protocol accepts data from a data
stream, divides it into chunks, and adds a TCP header
creating a TCP segment. The TCP segment is then
encapsulated into an Internet Protocol (IP) datagram, and
exchanged with peers.
[3]
The term TCP packet appears in both informal and for-
mal usage, whereas in more precise terminology segment
refers to the TCP Protocol Data Unit (PDU), datagram
[4]
to the IP PDU, and frame to the data link layer PDU:
Processes transmit data by calling on the
TCP and passing buers of data as arguments.
The TCP packages the data from these buers
into segments and calls on the internet module
[e.g. IP] to transmit each segment to the desti-
nation TCP.
[5]
A TCP segment consists of a segment header and a data
section. The TCP header contains 10 mandatory elds,
and an optional extension eld (Options, pink background
in table).
The data section follows the header. Its contents are the
payload data carried for the application. The length of the
data section is not specied in the TCP segment header.
It can be calculated by subtracting the combined length
of the TCP header and the encapsulating IP header from
the total IP datagram length (specied in the IP header).
Source port (16 bits) identies the sending port
Destination port (16 bits) identies the receiving port
Sequence number (32 bits) has a dual role:
If the SYN ag is set (1), then this is the ini-
tial sequence number. The sequence number
of the actual rst data byte and the acknowl-
edged number in the corresponding ACK are
then this sequence number plus 1.
If the SYN ag is clear (0), then this is the
accumulated sequence number of the rst data
byte of this segment for the current session.
Acknowledgment number (32 bits) if the ACK ag is
set then the value of this eld is the next sequence
number that the receiver is expecting. This acknowl-
edges receipt of all prior bytes (if any). The rst
ACK sent by each end acknowledges the other ends
initial sequence number itself, but no data.
Data oset (4 bits) species the size of the TCP header
in 32-bit words. The minimum size header is 5
words and the maximum is 15 words thus giving
the minimum size of 20 bytes and maximum of 60
bytes, allowing for up to 40 bytes of options in the
header. This eld gets its name from the fact that it
is also the oset from the start of the TCP segment
to the actual data.
Reserved (3 bits) for future use and should be set to
zero
Flags (9 bits) (aka Control bits) contains 9 1-bit ags
NS (1 bit) ECN-nonce concealment protec-
tion (added to header by RFC 3540).
CWR (1 bit) Congestion Window Reduced
(CWR) ag is set by the sending host to indi-
cate that it received a TCP segment with the
ECE ag set and had responded in congestion
control mechanism (added to header by RFC
3168).
ECE (1 bit) ECN-Echo has a dual role, de-
pending on the value of the SYN ag. It indi-
cates:
If the SYN ag is set (1), that the
TCP peer is ECN capable.
If the SYN ag is clear (0), that
a packet with Congestion Experi-
enced ag in IP header set is re-
ceived during normal transmission
(added to header by RFC 3168).
URG(1 bit) indicates that the Urgent pointer
eld is signicant
4.4. PROTOCOL OPERATION 27
ACK (1 bit) indicates that the Acknowledg-
ment eld is signicant. All packets after the
initial SYN packet sent by the client should
have this ag set.
PSH (1 bit) Push function. Asks to push the
buered data to the receiving application.
RST (1 bit) Reset the connection
SYN (1 bit) Synchronize sequence numbers.
Only the rst packet sent fromeach end should
have this ag set. Some other ags and elds
change meaning based on this ag, and some
are only valid for when it is set, and others
when it is clear.
FIN (1 bit) No more data from sender
Window size (16 bits) the size of the receive window,
which species the number of window size units (by
default, bytes) (beyond the sequence number in the
acknowledgment eld) that the sender of this seg-
ment is currently willing to receive (see Flow control
and Window Scaling)
Checksum (16 bits) The 16-bit checksum eld is used
for error-checking of the header and data
Urgent pointer (16 bits) if the URGag is set, then this
16-bit eld is an oset from the sequence number
indicating the last urgent data byte
Options (Variable 0320 bits, divisible by 32) The
length of this eld is determined by the data oset
eld. Options have up to three elds: Option-Kind
(1 byte), Option-Length (1 byte), Option-Data
(variable). The Option-Kind eld indicates the
type of option, and is the only eld that is not
optional. Depending on what kind of option we
are dealing with, the next two elds may be set:
the Option-Length eld indicates the total length
of the option, and the Option-Data eld contains
the value of the option, if applicable. For example,
an Option-Kind byte of 0x01 indicates that this is
a No-Op option used only for padding, and does
not have an Option-Length or Option-Data byte
following it. An Option-Kind byte of 0 is the End
Of Options option, and is also only one byte. An
Option-Kind byte of 0x02 indicates that this is
the Maximum Segment Size option, and will be
followed by a byte specifying the length of the MSS
eld (should be 0x04). Note that this length is the
total length of the given options eld, including
Option-Kind and Option-Length bytes. So while
the MSS value is typically expressed in two bytes,
the length of the eld will be 4 bytes (+2 bytes of
kind and length). In short, an MSS option eld
with a value of 0x05B4 will show up as (0x02 0x04
0x05B4) in the TCP options section.
Some options may only be sent when SYN is set; they
are indicated below as
[SYN]
. Option-Kind and stan-
dard lengths given as (Option-Kind,Option-Length).
0 (8 bits) End of options list
1 (8 bits) No operation (NOP, Padding) This
may be used to align option elds on 32-bit
boundaries for better performance.
2,4,SS (32 bits) Maximum segment size (see
maximum segment size)
[SYN]
3,3,S (24 bits) Window scale (see window
scaling for details)
[SYN][6]
4,2 (16 bits) Selective Acknowledgement
permitted.
[SYN]
(See selective acknowledg-
ments for details)
[7]
5,N,BBBB,EEEE,... (variable bits, N is either
10, 18, 26, or 34)- Selective ACKnowledge-
ment (SACK)
[8]
These rst two bytes are fol-
lowed by a list of 14 blocks being selectively
acknowledged, specied as 32-bit begin/end
pointers.
8,10,TTTT,EEEE (80 bits)- Timestamp and
echo of previous timestamp (see TCP times-
tamps for details)
[9]
14,3,S (24 bits) TCP Alternate Checksum
Request.
[SYN][10]
15,N,... (variable bits) TCP Alternate
Checksum Data.
(The remaining options are obsolete, experimental, not
yet standardized, or unassigned)
Padding The TCP header padding is used to ensure that
the TCP header ends and data begins on a 32 bit
boundary. The padding is composed of zeros.
[11]
4.4 Protocol operation
CLOSED (Start)
LISTEN/-
CLOSE/-
LISTEN
SYN
RECEIVED
SYN
SENT
CONNECT/ (Step 1 of the 3-way-handshake) SYN
SYN/SYN+ACK (Step 2 of the 3-way-handshake)
unusual event
client/receiver path
server/sender path
RST/-
SYN/SYN+ACK (simultaneous open)
SYN+ACK/ACK
(Step 3 of the 3-way-handshake)
Data exchange occurs
ESTABLISHED
FIN/ACK
ACK/-
CLOSE/-
SEND/ SYN
CLOSE/ FIN
CLOSE/ FIN
CLOSING
TIME WAIT
CLOSED
FIN WAIT 1
FIN WAIT 2
CLOSE WAIT
LAST ACK
CLOSE/ FIN
FIN/ACK
FIN+ACK/ACK
ACK/-
FIN/ACK
Timeout
(Go back to start)
Active CLOSE Passive CLOSE
ACK/-
ACK/-
A Simplied TCP State Diagram. See TCP EFSM diagram for
a more detailed state diagram including the states inside the ES-
TABLISHED state.
TCP protocol operations may be divided into three
phases. Connections must be properly established in a
multi-step handshake process (connection establishment)
28 CHAPTER 4. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL
before entering the data transfer phase. After data trans-
mission is completed, the connection termination closes
established virtual circuits and releases all allocated re-
sources.
A TCP connection is managed by an operating system
through a programming interface that represents the local
end-point for communications, the Internet socket. Dur-
ing the lifetime of a TCP connection the local end-point
undergoes a series of state changes:
[12]
LISTEN (server) represents waiting for a connection
request from any remote TCP and port.
SYN-SENT (client) represents waiting for a matching
connection request after having sent a connection
request.
SYN-RECEIVED (server) represents waiting for a
conrming connection request acknowledgment af-
ter having both received and sent a connection re-
quest.
ESTABLISHED (both server and client) represents an
open connection, data received can be delivered to
the user. The normal state for the data transfer phase
of the connection.
FIN-WAIT-1 (both server and client) represents wait-
ing for a connection termination request from the
remote TCP, or an acknowledgment of the connec-
tion termination request previously sent.
FIN-WAIT-2 (both server and client) represents wait-
ing for a connection termination request from the
remote TCP.
CLOSE-WAIT (both server and client) represents
waiting for a connection termination request from
the local user.
CLOSING (both server and client) represents waiting
for a connection termination request acknowledg-
ment from the remote TCP.
LAST-ACK (both server and client) represents wait-
ing for an acknowledgment of the connection ter-
mination request previously sent to the remote TCP
(which includes an acknowledgment of its connec-
tion termination request).
TIME-WAIT (either server or client) represents wait-
ing for enough time to pass to be sure the remote
TCP received the acknowledgment of its connection
termination request. [According to RFC 793 a con-
nection can stay in TIME-WAIT for a maximum of
four minutes known as a MSL (maximum segment
lifetime).]
CLOSED (both server and client) represents no con-
nection state at all.
4.4.1 Connection establishment
To establish a connection, TCP uses a three-way
handshake. Before a client attempts to connect with a
server, the server must rst bind to and listen at a port to
open it up for connections: this is called a passive open.
Once the passive open is established, a client may initiate
an active open. To establish a connection, the three-way
(or 3-step) handshake occurs:
1. SYN: The active open is performed by the client
sending a SYN to the server. The client sets the seg-
ments sequence number to a random value A.
2. SYN-ACK: In response, the server replies with
a SYN-ACK. The acknowledgment number is set
to one more than the received sequence number
i.e. A+1, and the sequence number that the server
chooses for the packet is another random number,
B.
3. ACK: Finally, the client sends an ACK back to the
server. The sequence number is set to the received
acknowledgement value i.e. A+1, and the acknowl-
edgement number is set to one more than the re-
ceived sequence number i.e. B+1.
At this point, both the client and server have received an
acknowledgment of the connection. The steps 1, 2 es-
tablish the connection parameter (sequence number) for
one direction and it is acknowledged. The steps 2, 3 es-
tablish the connection parameter (sequence number) for
the other direction and it is acknowledged. With these, a
full-duplex communication is established.
4.4.2 Connection termination
Initiator Receiver
F
I
N
F
I
N
A
C
K
ACK
ESTABLISHED
active close
CLOSED
connection
ESTABLISHED
connection
FIN_WAIT_1
CLOSE_WAIT
passive close
FIN_WAIT_2
LAST_ACK
TIME_WAIT
CLOSED
Connection termination
The connection termination phase uses a four-way
handshake, with each side of the connection terminat-
ing independently. When an endpoint wishes to stop its
half of the connection, it transmits a FIN packet, which
4.4. PROTOCOL OPERATION 29
the other end acknowledges with an ACK. Therefore, a
typical tear-down requires a pair of FIN and ACK seg-
ments from each TCP endpoint. After both FIN/ACK
exchanges are concluded, the side that sent the rst FIN
before receiving one waits for a timeout before nally
closing the connection, during which time the local port is
unavailable for new connections; this prevents confusion
due to delayed packets being delivered during subsequent
connections.
A connection can be half-open, in which case one side
has terminated its end, but the other has not. The side
that has terminated can no longer send any data into the
connection, but the other side can. The terminating side
should continue reading the data until the other side ter-
minates as well.
It is also possible to terminate the connection by a 3-way
handshake, when host A sends a FIN and host B replies
with a FIN & ACK (merely combines 2 steps into one)
and host A replies with an ACK.
[13]
This is perhaps the
most common method.
It is possible for both hosts to send FINs simultaneously
then both just have to ACK. This could possibly be con-
sidered a 2-way handshake since the FIN/ACK sequence
is done in parallel for both directions.
Some host TCPstacks may implement a half-duplex close
sequence, as Linux or HP-UX do. If such a host actively
closes a connection but still has not read all the incoming
data the stack already received from the link, this host
sends a RST instead of a FIN (Section 4.2.2.13 in RFC
1122). This allows a TCP application to be sure the re-
mote application has read all the data the former sent
waiting the FIN from the remote side, when it actively
closes the connection. But the remote TCP stack cannot
distinguish between a Connection Aborting RST and Data
Loss RST. Both cause the remote stack to lose all the data
received.
Some application protocols may violate the OSI model
layers, using the TCP open/close handshaking for the ap-
plication protocol open/close handshaking these may
nd the RST problem on active close. As an example:
s = connect(remote); send(s, data); close(s);
For a usual program ow like above, a TCP/IP stack like
that described above does not guarantee that all the data
arrives to the other application.
4.4.3 Resource usage
Most implementations allocate an entry in a table that
maps a session to a running operating system process.
Because TCP packets do not include a session identier,
both endpoints identify the session using the clients ad-
dress and port. Whenever a packet is received, the TCP
implementation must perform a lookup on this table to
nd the destination process. Each entry in the table is
known as a Transmission Control Block or TCB. It con-
tains information about the endpoints (IP and port), sta-
tus of the connection, running data about the packets that
are being exchanged and buers for sending and receiv-
ing data.
The number of sessions in the server side is limited only
by memory and can grow as new connections arrive, but
the client must allocate a random port before sending
the rst SYN to the server. This port remains allocated
during the whole conversation, and eectively limits the
number of outgoing connections from each of the clients
IP addresses. If an application fails to properly close un-
required connections, a client can run out of resources
and become unable to establish new TCP connections,
even from other applications.
Both endpoints must also allocate space for unacknowl-
edged packets and received (but unread) data.
4.4.4 Data transfer
There are a fewkey features that set TCP apart fromUser
Datagram Protocol:
Ordered data transfer the destination host rear-
ranges according to sequence number
[2]
Retransmission of lost packets any cumulative
stream not acknowledged is retransmitted
[2]
Error-free data transfer
[14]
Flowcontrol limits the rate a sender transfers data
to guarantee reliable delivery. The receiver contin-
ually hints the sender on how much data can be re-
ceived (controlled by the sliding window). When
the receiving hosts buer lls, the next acknowledg-
ment contains a 0 in the windowsize, to stop transfer
and allow the data in the buer to be processed.
[2]
Congestion control
[2]
Reliable transmission
TCP uses a sequence number to identify each byte of data.
The sequence number identies the order of the bytes
sent from each computer so that the data can be recon-
structed in order, regardless of any fragmentation, disor-
dering, or packet loss that may occur during transmission.
For every payload byte transmitted, the sequence number
must be incremented. In the rst two steps of the 3-way
handshake, both computers exchange an initial sequence
number (ISN). This number can be arbitrary, and should
in fact be unpredictable to defend against TCP sequence
prediction attacks.
TCP primarily uses a cumulative acknowledgment
scheme, where the receiver sends an acknowledgment
30 CHAPTER 4. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL
signifying that the receiver has received all data preced-
ing the acknowledged sequence number. The sender
sets the sequence number eld to the sequence number
of the rst payload byte in the segments data eld,
and the receiver sends an acknowledgment specifying
the sequence number of the next byte they expect to
receive. For example, if a sending computer sends a
packet containing four payload bytes with a sequence
number eld of 100, then the sequence numbers of the
four payload bytes are 100, 101, 102 and 103. When this
packet arrives at the receiving computer, it would send
back an acknowledgment number of 104 since that is the
sequence number of the next byte it expects to receive in
the next packet.
In addition to cumulative acknowledgments, TCP re-
ceivers can also send selective acknowledgments to pro-
vide further information.
If the sender infers that data has been lost in the network,
it retransmits the data.
Error detection
Sequence numbers allow receivers to discard duplicate
packets and properly sequence reordered packets. Ac-
knowledgments allow senders to determine when to re-
transmit lost packets.
To assure correctness a checksum eld is included; see
checksum computation section for details on checksum-
ming. The TCP checksum is a weak check by modern
standards. Data Link Layers with high bit error rates may
require additional link error correction/detection capabil-
ities. The weak checksum is partially compensated for
by the common use of a CRC or better integrity check at
layer 2, below both TCP and IP, such as is used in PPP
or the Ethernet frame. However, this does not mean that
the 16-bit TCP checksum is redundant: remarkably, in-
troduction of errors in packets between CRC-protected
hops is common, but the end-to-end 16-bit TCP check-
sum catches most of these simple errors.
[15]
This is the
end-to-end principle at work.
Flow control
TCP uses an end-to-end ow control protocol to avoid
having the sender send data too fast for the TCP receiver
to receive and process it reliably. Having a mechanism
for ow control is essential in an environment where ma-
chines of diverse network speeds communicate. For ex-
ample, if a PC sends data to a smartphone that is slowly
processing received data, the smartphone must regulate
the data ow so as not to be overwhelmed.
[2]
TCP uses a sliding window ow control protocol. In each
TCP segment, the receiver species in the receive window
eld the amount of additionally received data (in bytes)
that it is willing to buer for the connection. The sending
host can send only up to that amount of data before it must
wait for an acknowledgment and window update from the
receiving host.
U
n
fille
d
b
u
ffe
r
Data received,
but not acknowledged
D
a
ta
re
c
e
iv
e
d
, a
c
k
n
o
w
le
d
g
e
d
a
n
d
d
e
liv
e
re
d
to
a
p
p
lic
a
tio
n
Sequence numbers
(Circumference = 0 to 2^32 slots)
Data received, acknowledged,
but not yet delivered to application
Initial
sequence
number
Receiver's window
(Allocation buffer)
Up to 2^16-1 slots
Window
shifts
TCP sequence numbers and receive windows behave very much
like a clock. The receive window shifts each time the receiver
receives and acknowledges a new segment of data. Once it runs
out of sequence numbers, the sequence number loops back to 0.
When a receiver advertises a window size of 0, the sender
stops sending data and starts the persist timer. The persist
timer is used to protect TCP from a deadlock situation
that could arise if a subsequent window size update from
the receiver is lost, and the sender cannot send more data
until receiving a new window size update from the re-
ceiver. When the persist timer expires, the TCP sender
attempts recovery by sending a small packet so that the
receiver responds by sending another acknowledgement
containing the new window size.
If a receiver is processing incoming data in small incre-
ments, it may repeatedly advertise a small receive win-
dow. This is referred to as the silly window syndrome,
since it is inecient to send only a few bytes of data in a
TCP segment, given the relatively large overhead of the
TCP header.
Congestion control
The nal main aspect of TCP is congestion control. TCP
uses a number of mechanisms to achieve high perfor-
mance and avoid congestion collapse, where network per-
formance can fall by several orders of magnitude. These
mechanisms control the rate of data entering the network,
keeping the data ow below a rate that would trigger col-
lapse. They also yield an approximately max-min fair al-
location between ows.
Acknowledgments for data sent, or lack of acknowledg-
ments, are used by senders to infer network conditions be-
tween the TCP sender and receiver. Coupled with timers,
TCP senders and receivers can alter the behavior of the
4.4. PROTOCOL OPERATION 31
ow of data. This is more generally referred to as con-
gestion control and/or network congestion avoidance.
Modern implementations of TCP contain four inter-
twined algorithms: Slow-start, congestion avoidance, fast
retransmit, and fast recovery (RFC 5681).
In addition, senders employ a retransmission timeout
(RTO) that is based on the estimated round-trip time (or
RTT) between the sender and receiver, as well as the vari-
ance in this round trip time. The behavior of this timer is
specied in RFC6298. There are subtleties in the estima-
tion of RTT. For example, senders must be careful when
calculating RTT samples for retransmitted packets; typi-
cally they use Karns Algorithm or TCP timestamps (see
RFC 1323). These individual RTT samples are then av-
eraged over time to create a Smoothed Round Trip Time
(SRTT) using Jacobson's algorithm. This SRTT value is
what is nally used as the round-trip time estimate.
Enhancing TCP to reliably handle loss, minimize errors,
manage congestion and go fast in very high-speed envi-
ronments are ongoing areas of research and standards de-
velopment. As a result, there are a number of TCP con-
gestion avoidance algorithm variations.
4.4.5 Maximum segment size
The maximum segment size (MSS) is the largest amount
of data, specied in bytes, that TCP is willing to receive in
a single segment. For best performance, the MSS should
be set small enough to avoid IP fragmentation, which can
lead to packet loss and excessive retransmissions. To try
to accomplish this, typically the MSS is announced by
each side using the MSS option when the TCP connec-
tion is established, in which case it is derived from the
maximum transmission unit (MTU) size of the data link
layer of the networks to which the sender and receiver
are directly attached. Furthermore, TCP senders can use
path MTU discovery to infer the minimum MTU along
the network path between the sender and receiver, and
use this to dynamically adjust the MSS to avoid IP frag-
mentation within the network.
MSS announcement is also often called MSS negoti-
ation. Strictly speaking, the MSS is not negotiated
between the originator and the receiver, because that
would imply that both originator and receiver will nego-
tiate and agree upon a single, unied MSS that applies to
all communication in both directions of the connection.
In fact, two completely independent values of MSS are
permitted for the two directions of data ow in a TCP
connection.
[16]
This situation may arise, for example, if
one of the devices participating in a connection has an
extremely limited amount of memory reserved (perhaps
even smaller than the overall discovered Path MTU) for
processing incoming TCP segments.
4.4.6 Selective acknowledgments
Relying purely on the cumulative acknowledgment
scheme employed by the original TCP protocol can lead
to ineciencies when packets are lost. For example, sup-
pose 10,000 bytes are sent in 10 dierent TCP packets,
and the rst packet is lost during transmission. In a pure
cumulative acknowledgment protocol, the receiver can-
not say that it received bytes 1,000 to 9,999 successfully,
but failed to receive the rst packet, containing bytes 0 to
999. Thus the sender may then have to resend all 10,000
bytes.
To solve this problem TCP employs the selective ac-
knowledgment (SACK) option, dened in RFC 2018,
which allows the receiver to acknowledge discontin-
uous blocks of packets which were received correctly,
in addition to the sequence number of the last contiguous
byte received successively, as in the basic TCP acknowl-
edgment. The acknowledgement can specify a number
of SACK blocks, where each SACK block is conveyed
by the starting and ending sequence numbers of a con-
tiguous range that the receiver correctly received. In the
example above, the receiver would send SACK with se-
quence numbers 1000 and 9999. The sender thus retrans-
mits only the rst packet, bytes 0 to 999.
A TCP sender can interpret an out-of-order packet deliv-
ery as a lost packet. If it does so, the TCP sender will
retransmit the packet previous to the out-of-order packet
and slow its data delivery rate for that connection. The
duplicate-SACK option, an extension to the SACK op-
tion that was dened in RFC 2883, solves this problem.
The TCP receiver sends a D-ACK to indicate that no
packets were lost, and the TCP sender can then reinstate
the higher transmission rate.
The SACK option is not mandatory and it is used only if
both parties support it. This is negotiated when connec-
tion is established. SACK uses the optional part of the
TCP header (see TCP segment structure for details). The
use of SACK is widespread all popular TCP stacks
support it. Selective acknowledgment is also used in
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP).
4.4.7 Window scaling
Main article: TCP window scale option
For more ecient use of high bandwidth networks, a
larger TCP window size may be used. The TCP window
size eld controls the ow of data and its value is limited
to between 2 and 65,535 bytes.
Since the size eld cannot be expanded, a scaling factor is
used. The TCP window scale option, as dened in RFC
1323, is an option used to increase the maximum win-
dow size from 65,535 bytes to 1 gigabyte. Scaling up to
larger window sizes is a part of what is necessary for TCP
32 CHAPTER 4. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL
Tuning.
The window scale option is used only during the TCP 3-
way handshake. The window scale value represents the
number of bits to left-shift the 16-bit window size eld.
The window scale value can be set from 0 (no shift) to 14
for each direction independently. Both sides must send
the option in their SYN segments to enable window scal-
ing in either direction.
Some routers and packet rewalls rewrite the window
scaling factor during a transmission. This causes send-
ing and receiving sides to assume dierent TCP window
sizes. The result is non-stable trac that may be very
slow. The problem is visible on some sites behind a de-
fective router.
[17]
4.4.8 TCP timestamps
TCP timestamps, dened in RFC 1323, can help TCP
determine in which order packets were sent. TCP times-
tamps are not normally aligned to the system clock and
start at some random value. Many operating systems will
increment the timestamp for every elapsed millisecond;
however the RFC only states that the ticks should be pro-
portional.
There are two timestamp elds:
a 4-byte sender timestamp value (my timestamp) a 4-byte
echo reply timestamp value (the most recent timestamp
received from you).
TCP timestamps are used in an algorithm known as Pro-
tection Against Wrapped Sequence numbers, or PAWS (see
RFC1323 for details). PAWS is used when the TCP win-
dow size exceeds the possible numbers of sequence num-
bers (2
32
). In the case where a packet was potentially
retransmitted it answers the question: Is this sequence
number in the rst 4 GB or the second?" And the times-
tamp is used to break the tie.
Also, the Eifel detection algorithm(RFC3522) uses TCP
timestamps to determine if retransmissions are occurring
because packets are lost or simply out of order.
4.4.9 Out-of-band data
One is able to interrupt or abort the queued stream in-
stead of waiting for the stream to nish. This is done by
specifying the data as urgent. This tells the receiving pro-
gram to process it immediately, along with the rest of the
urgent data. When nished, TCP informs the application
and resumes back to the stream queue. An example is
when TCP is used for a remote login session, the user
can send a keyboard sequence that interrupts or aborts
the program at the other end. These signals are most of-
ten needed when a program on the remote machine fails
to operate correctly. The signals must be sent without
waiting for the program to nish its current transfer.
[2]
TCP OOB data was not designed for the modern Inter-
net. The urgent pointer only alters the processing on the
remote host and doesn't expedite any processing on the
network itself. When it gets to the remote host there
are two slightly dierent interpretations of the protocol,
which means only single bytes of OOB data are reliable.
This is assuming it is reliable at all as it is one of the least
commonly used protocol elements and tends to be poorly
implemented.
[18][19]
4.4.10 Forcing data delivery
Normally, TCP waits for 200 ms or for a full packet of
data to send (Nagles Algorithm tries to group small mes-
sages into a single packet). This wait creates small, but
potentially serious delays if repeated constantly during a
le transfer. For example, a typical send block would
be 4 KB, a typical MSS is 1460, so 2 packets go out on
a 10 Mbit/s ethernet taking ~1.2 ms each followed by a
third carrying the remaining 1176 after a 197 ms pause
because TCP is waiting for a full buer.
In the case of telnet, each user keystroke is echoed back
by the server before the user can see it on the screen. This
delay would become very annoying.
Setting the socket option TCP_NODELAY overrides the
default 200 ms send delay. Application programs use this
socket option to force output to be sent after writing a
character or line of characters.
The RFC denes the PSH push bit as a message to the
receiving TCP stack to send this data immediately up to
the receiving application.
[2]
There is no way to indicate
or control it in User space using Berkeley sockets and it
is controlled by Protocol stack only.
[20]
4.5 Vulnerabilities
TCP may be attacked in a variety of ways. The results
of a thorough security assessment of TCP, along with
possible mitigations for the identied issues, were pub-
lished in 2009,
[21]
and is currently being pursued within
the IETF.
[22]
4.5.1 Denial of service
By using a spoofed IP address and repeatedly sending
purposely assembled SYN packets, followed by many
ACK packets, attackers can cause the server to consume
large amounts of resources keeping track of the bogus
connections. This is known as a SYN ood attack. Pro-
posed solutions to this problem include SYN cookies
and cryptographic puzzles, though syn cookies come with
their own set of vulnerabilities.
[23]
Sockstress is a simi-
lar attack, that might be mitigated with system resource
management.
[24]
An advanced DoS attack involving the
4.6. TCP PORTS 33
exploitation of the TCP Persist Timer was analyzed in
Phrack #66.
[25]
4.5.2 Connection hijacking
Main article: TCP sequence prediction attack
An attacker who is able to eavesdrop a TCP session and
redirect packets can hijack a TCP connection. To do so,
the attacker learns the sequence number from the ongo-
ing communication and forges a false segment that looks
like the next segment in the stream. Such a simple hi-
jack can result in one packet being erroneously accepted
at one end. When the receiving host acknowledges the ex-
tra segment to the other side of the connection, synchro-
nization is lost. Hijacking might be combined with ARP
or routing attacks that allow taking control of the packet
ow, so as to get permanent control of the hijacked TCP
connection.
[26]
Impersonating a dierent IP address was not dicult
prior to RFC 1948, when the initial sequence number was
easily guessable. That allowed an attacker to blindly send
a sequence of packets that the receiver would believe to
come from a dierent IP address, without the need to
deploy ARP or routing attacks: it is enough to ensure
that the legitimate host of the impersonated IP address is
down, or bring it to that condition using denial-of-service
attacks. This is why the initial sequence number is now
chosen at random.
4.5.3 TCP veto
An attacker who can eavesdrop and predict the size of
the next packet to be sent can cause the receiver to ac-
cept a malicious payload without disrupting the existing
connection. The attacker injects a malicious packet with
the sequence number and a payload size of the next ex-
pected packet. When the legitimate packet is ultimately
received, it is found to have the same sequence number
and length as a packet already received and is silently
dropped as a normal duplicate packetthe legitimate
packet is vetoed by the malicious packet. Unlike in
connection hijacking, the connection is never desynchro-
nized and communication continues as normal after the
malicious payload is accepted. TCP veto gives the at-
tacker less control over the communication, but makes
the attack particularly resistant to detection. The large in-
crease in network trac from the ACK storm is avoided.
The only evidence to the receiver that something is amiss
is a single duplicate packet, a normal occurrence in an IP
network. The sender of the vetoed packet never sees any
evidence of an attack.
[27]
4.6 TCP ports
Main article: TCP and UDP port
TCP uses port numbers to identify sending and receiv-
ing application end-points on a host, or Internet sockets.
Each side of a TCP connection has an associated 16-bit
unsigned port number (0-65535) reserved by the send-
ing or receiving application. Arriving TCP data packets
are identied as belonging to a specic TCP connection
by its sockets, that is, the combination of source host ad-
dress, source port, destination host address, and destina-
tion port. This means that a server computer can pro-
vide several clients with several services simultaneously,
as long as a client takes care of initiating any simultaneous
connections to one destination port from dierent source
ports.
Port numbers are categorized into three basic categories:
well-known, registered, and dynamic/private. The well-
known ports are assigned by the Internet Assigned Num-
bers Authority (IANA) and are typically used by system-
level or root processes. Well-known applications running
as servers and passively listening for connections typically
use these ports. Some examples include: FTP (20 and
21), SSH (22), TELNET (23), SMTP (25), SSL (443)
and HTTP (80). Registered ports are typically used by
end user applications as ephemeral source ports when
contacting servers, but they can also identify named ser-
vices that have been registered by a third party. Dy-
namic/private ports can also be used by end user applica-
tions, but are less commonly so. Dynamic/private ports
do not contain any meaning outside of any particular TCP
connection.
4.7 Development
TCP is a complex protocol. However, while signicant
enhancements have been made and proposed over the
years, its most basic operation has not changed signi-
cantly since its rst specication RFC 675 in 1974, and
the v4 specication RFC 793, published in September
1981. RFC 1122, Host Requirements for Internet Hosts,
claried a number of TCP protocol implementation re-
quirements. RFC 2581, TCP Congestion Control, one
of the most important TCP-related RFCs in recent years,
describes updated algorithms that avoid undue conges-
tion. In 2001, RFC 3168 was written to describe explicit
congestion notication (ECN), a congestion avoidance
signaling mechanism.
The original TCP congestion avoidance algorithm was
known as TCP Tahoe, but many alternative algorithms
have since been proposed (including TCP Reno, TCP Ve-
gas, FAST TCP, TCP New Reno, and TCP Hybla).
TCP Interactive (iTCP)
[28]
is a research eort into TCP
extensions that allows applications to subscribe to TCP
34 CHAPTER 4. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL
events and register handler components that can launch
applications for various purposes, including application-
assisted congestion control.
Multipath TCP (MPTCP)
[29][30]
is an ongoing eort
within the IETF that aims at allowing a TCP connection
to use multiple paths to maximise resource usage and in-
crease redundancy. The redundancy oered by Multi-
path TCP in the context of wireless networks
[31]
enables
statistical multiplexing of resources, and thus increases
TCP throughput dramatically. Multipath TCP also brings
performance benets in datacenter environments.
[32]
The
reference implementation
[33]
of Multipath TCP is being
developed in the Linux kernel.
[34][35]
TCP Cookie Transactions (TCPCT) is an extension pro-
posed in December 2009 to secure servers against denial-
of-service attacks. Unlike SYN cookies, TCPCT does
not conict with other TCP extensions such as window
scaling. TCPCT was designed due to necessities of
DNSSEC, where servers have to handle large numbers
of short-lived TCP connections.
tcpcrypt is an extension proposed in July 2010 to provide
transport-level encryption directly in TCP itself. It is de-
signed to work transparently and not require any cong-
uration. Unlike TLS (SSL), tcpcrypt itself does not pro-
vide authentication, but provides simple primitives down
to the application to do that. As of 2010, the rst tcpcrypt
IETF draft has been published and implementations exist
for several major platforms.
TCP Fast Open is an extension to speed up the opening
of successive TCP connections between two endpoints. It
works by skipping the three-way handshake using a cryp-
tographic cookie. It is similar to an earlier proposal
called T/TCP, which was not widely adopted due to se-
curity issues.
[36]
As of July 2012, it is an IETF Internet
draft.
[37]
Proposed in May 2013, Proportional Rate Reduction
(PRR) is a TCP extension developed by Google en-
gineers. PRR ensures that the TCP window size af-
ter recovery is as close to the Slow-start threshold as
possible.
[38]
The algorithm is designed to improve the
speed of recovery and is the default congestion control
algorithm in Linux 3.2+ kernels.
[39]
4.8 TCP over wireless networks
TCP has been optimized for wired networks. Any packet
loss is considered to be the result of network congestion
and the congestion window size is reduced dramatically
as a precaution. However, wireless links are known to
experience sporadic and usually temporary losses due to
fading, shadowing, hand o, and other radio eects, that
cannot be considered congestion. After the (erroneous)
back-o of the congestion window size, due to wireless
packet loss, there can be a congestion avoidance phase
with a conservative decrease in window size. This causes
the radio link to be underutilized. Extensive research has
been done on the subject of how to combat these harm-
ful eects. Suggested solutions can be categorized as
end-to-end solutions (which require modications at the
client or server),
[40]
link layer solutions (such as RLP in
cellular networks), or proxy based solutions (which re-
quire some changes in the network without modifying end
nodes).
[40][41]
A number of alternative congestion control algorithms
have been proposed to help solve the wireless problem,
such as Vegas, Westwood, Veno and Santa Cruz.
4.9 Hardware implementations
One way to overcome the processing power requirements
of TCP is to build hardware implementations of it, widely
known as TCP Ooad Engines (TOE). The main prob-
lem of TOEs is that they are hard to integrate into com-
puting systems, requiring extensive changes in the oper-
ating system of the computer or device. One company to
develop such a device was Alacritech.
4.10 Debugging
A packet snier, which intercepts TCP trac on a net-
work link, can be useful in debugging networks, network
stacks and applications that use TCP by showing the user
what packets are passing through a link. Some network-
ing stacks support the SO_DEBUG socket option, which
can be enabled on the socket using setsockopt. That op-
tion dumps all the packets, TCP states, and events on that
socket, which is helpful in debugging. Netstat is another
utility that can be used for debugging.
4.11 Alternatives
For many applications TCP is not appropriate. One prob-
lem (at least with normal implementations) is that the ap-
plication cannot access the packets coming after a lost
packet until the retransmitted copy of the lost packet is
received. This causes problems for real-time applications
such as streaming media, real-time multiplayer games and
voice over IP (VoIP) where it is generally more useful to
get most of the data in a timely fashion than it is to get all
of the data in order.
For both historical and performance reasons, most
storage area networks (SANs) prefer to use Fibre Chan-
nel protocol (FCP) instead of TCP/IP.
Also, for embedded systems, network booting, and
servers that serve simple requests from huge numbers of
clients (e.g. DNS servers) the complexity of TCP can
be a problem. Finally, some tricks such as transmitting
4.13. SEE ALSO 35
data between two hosts that are both behind NAT (us-
ing STUN or similar systems) are far simpler without a
relatively complex protocol like TCP in the way.
Generally, where TCP is unsuitable, the User Datagram
Protocol (UDP) is used. This provides the application
multiplexing and checksums that TCP does, but does not
handle streams or retransmission, giving the application
developer the ability to code them in a way suitable for
the situation, or to replace them with other methods like
forward error correction or interpolation.
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is another
IP protocol that provides reliable streamoriented services
similar to TCP. It is newer and considerably more com-
plex than TCP, and has not yet seen widespread deploy-
ment. However, it is especially designed to be used in
situations where reliability and near-real-time considera-
tions are important.
Venturi Transport Protocol (VTP) is a patented
proprietary protocol that is designed to replace TCP
transparently to overcome perceived ineciencies
related to wireless data transport.
TCP also has issues in high bandwidth environments. The
TCP congestion avoidance algorithm works very well for
ad-hoc environments where the data sender is not known
in advance, but if the environment is predictable, a tim-
ing based protocol such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM) can avoid TCPs retransmits overhead.
Multipurpose Transaction Protocol (MTP/IP) is patented
proprietary software that is designed to adaptively achieve
high throughput and transaction performance in a wide
variety of network conditions, particularly those where
TCP is perceived to be inecient.
4.12 Checksum computation
4.12.1 TCP checksum for IPv4
When TCP runs over IPv4, the method used to compute
the checksum is dened in RFC 793:
The checksum eld is the 16 bit ones com-
plement of the ones complement sum of all 16-
bit words in the header and text. If a seg-
ment contains an odd number of header and
text octets to be checksummed, the last octet is
padded on the right with zeros to form a 16-bit
word for checksum purposes. The pad is not
transmitted as part of the segment. While com-
puting the checksum, the checksum eld itself is
replaced with zeros.
In other words, after appropriate padding, all 16-bit
words are added using ones complement arithmetic.
The sum is then bitwise complemented and inserted as
the checksum eld. A pseudo-header that mimics the
IPv4 packet header used in the checksum computation
is shown in the table below.
The source and destination addresses are those of the
IPv4 header. The protocol value is 6 for TCP (cf. List of
IP protocol numbers). The TCP length eld is the length
of the TCP header and data (measured in octets).
4.12.2 TCP checksum for IPv6
When TCP runs over IPv6, the method used to compute
the checksum is changed, as per RFC 2460:
Any transport or other upper-layer protocol that
includes the addresses from the IP header in its
checksum computation must be modied for use
over IPv6, to include the 128-bit IPv6 addresses
instead of 32-bit IPv4 addresses.
A pseudo-header that mimics the IPv6 header for com-
putation of the checksum is shown below.
Source address the one in the IPv6 header
Destination address the nal destination; if the
IPv6 packet doesn't contain a Routing header, TCP
uses the destination address in the IPv6 header, oth-
erwise, at the originating node, it uses the address in
the last element of the Routing header, and, at the
receiving node, it uses the destination address in the
IPv6 header.
TCP length the length of the TCP header and data
Next Header the protocol value for TCP
4.12.3 Checksum ooad
Many TCP/IP software stack implementations provide
options to use hardware assistance to automatically com-
pute the checksum in the network adapter prior to trans-
mission onto the network or upon reception from the net-
work for validation. This may relieve the OS from using
precious CPU cycles calculating the checksum. Hence,
overall network performance is increased.
This feature may cause packet analyzers detecting out-
bound network trac upstream of the network adapter
that are unaware or uncertain about the use of checksum
ooad to report invalid checksum in outbound packets.
4.13 See also
Connection-oriented protocol
T/TCP variant of TCP
36 CHAPTER 4. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL
TCP and UDP port
TCP and UDP port numbers for a long list of
ports/services
TCP congestion avoidance algorithms
Nagles algorithm
Karns algorithm
Maximum transmission unit
IP fragmentation
Maximum segment size
Maximum segment lifetime
Micro-bursting (networking)
Silly window syndrome
TCP segment
TCP Sequence Prediction Attack
SYN ood
SYN cookies
TCP pacing
TCP tuning for high performance networks
Path MTU discovery
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
Multipurpose Transaction Protocol (MTP/IP)
Transport protocol comparison table
Sockstress
TCP global synchronization
4.14 References
[1] Vinton G. Cerf, Robert E. Kahn, (May 1974). "A Pro-
tocol for Packet Network Intercommunication". IEEE
Transactions on Communications 22 (5): 637648.
doi:10.1109/tcom.1974.1092259.
[2] Comer, Douglas E. (2006). Internetworking with TCP/IP:
Principles, Protocols, and Architecture 1 (5th ed.). Pren-
tice Hall. ISBN 0-13-187671-6.
[3] TCP (Linktionary term)
[4] RFC 791 section 2.1
[5] RFC 793
[6] RFC 1323, TCP Extensions for High Performance, Sec-
tion 2.2
[7] RFC 2018, TCP Selective Acknowledgement Options,
Section 2
[8] RFC 2018, TCP Selective Acknowledgement Options,
Section 3
[9] RFC 1323, TCP Extensions for High Performance, Sec-
tion 3.2
[10] RFC 1146, TCP Alternate Checksum Options
[11] RFC 793 section 3.1
[12] RFC 793 Section 3.2
[13] Tanenbaum, Andrew S. (2003-03-17). Computer Net-
works (Fourth ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-066102-3.
[14] TCP Denition. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
[15] Stone; Partridge (2000). When The CRC and TCP
Checksum Disagree. Sigcomm.
[16] RFC 879
[17] TCP window scaling and broken routers [LWN.net]
[18] Gont, Fernando (November 2008). On the implementa-
tion of TCP urgent data. 73rd IETF meeting. Retrieved
2009-01-04.
[19] Peterson, Larry (2003). Computer Networks. Morgan
Kaufmann. p. 401. ISBN 1-55860-832-X.
[20] Richard W. Stevens (2006). TCP/IP Illustrated. Vol. 1,
The protocols. Addison-Wesley. pp. Chapter 20. ISBN
978-0-201-63346-7. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
[21] Security Assessment of the Transmission Control Proto-
col (TCP) at the Wayback Machine (archived March 6,
2009)
[22] Security Assessment of the Transmission Control Proto-
col (TCP)
[23] Jakob Lell. Quick Blind TCP Connection Spoong with
SYN Cookies. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
[24] Some insights about the recent TCP DoS (Denial of Ser-
vice) vulnerabilities
[25] Exploiting TCP and the Persist Timer Inniteness
[26] Laurent Joncheray, Simple Active Attack Against TCP,
1995
[27] John T. Hagen, Barry E. Mullins (2013). TCP veto: A
novel network attack and its application to SCADA pro-
tocols. Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT), 2013
IEEE PES.
[28] TCP Interactive (iTCP)
[29] RFC 6182
[30] RFC 6824
[31] TCP with feed-forward source coding for wireless down-
link networks
4.16. EXTERNAL LINKS 37
[32] Raiciu; Barre; Pluntke; Greenhalgh; Wischik; Handley
(2011). Improving datacenter performance and robust-
ness with multipath TCP. Sigcomm.
[33] MultiPath TCP - Linux Kernel implementation
[34] Barre; Paasch; Bonaventure (2011). MultiPath TCP:
From Theory to Practice. IFIP Networking.
[35] Raiciu; Paasch; Barre; Ford; Honda; Duchene; Bonaven-
ture; Handley (2012). How Hard Can It Be? De-
signing and Implementing a Deployable Multipath TCP.
USENIX NSDI.
[36] Michael Kerrisk (2012-08-01). TCP Fast Open: expe-
diting web services. LWN.net.
[37] Y. Cheng, J. Chu, S. Radhakrishnan, A. Jain
(2012-07-16). TCP Fast Open. IETF. I-D draft-
ietf-tcpm-fastopen-01. https://tools.ietf.org/html/
draft-ietf-tcpm-fastopen-01.
[38] "RFC6937 - Proportional Rate Reduction for TCP. http:
//tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6937.
[39] Grigorik, Ilya (2013). High-performance browser net-
working (1. ed. ed.). Beijing: O'Reilly. ISBN
1449344763.
[40] TCP performance over CDMA2000 RLP. Retrieved
2010-08-30
[41] Muhammad Adeel & Ahmad Ali Iqbal (2004). TCP
Congestion Window Optimization for CDMA2000
Packet Data Networks. International Confer-
ence on Information Technology (ITNG'07): 3135.
doi:10.1109/ITNG.2007.190. ISBN 978-0-7695-2776-
5.
4.15 Further reading
Stevens, W. Richard. TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1:
The Protocols. ISBN 0-201-63346-9.
Stevens, W. Richard; Wright, Gary R. TCP/IP Illus-
trated, Volume 2: The Implementation. ISBN0-201-
63354-X.
Stevens, W. Richard. TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 3:
TCP for Transactions, HTTP, NNTP, and the UNIX
Domain Protocols. ISBN 0-201-63495-3.**
4.16 External links
4.16.1 RFC
RFC 675 Specication of Internet Transmission
Control Program, December 1974 Version
RFC 793 TCP v4
RFC 1122 includes some error corrections for
TCP
RFC 1323 TCP-Extensions
RFC 1379 Extending TCP for Transactions
Concepts
RFC 1948 Defending Against Sequence Number
Attacks
RFC 2018 TCP Selective Acknowledgment Op-
tions
RFC 4614 A Roadmap for TCP Specication
Documents
RFC 5681 TCP Congestion Control
RFC 6298 Computing TCPs Retransmission
Timer
RFC 6824 - TCP Extensions for Multipath Opera-
tion with Multiple Addresses
4.16.2 Others
Oral history interviewwith Robert E. Kahn, Charles
Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Min-
neapolis. Focuses on Kahns role in the develop-
ment of computer networking from 1967 through
the early 1980s. Beginning with his work at Bolt
Beranek and Newman (BBN), Kahn discusses his
involvement as the ARPANET proposal was be-
ing written, his decision to become active in its
implementation, and his role in the public demon-
stration of the ARPANET. The interview continues
into Kahns involvement with networking when he
moves to IPTO in 1972, where he was responsible
for the administrative and technical evolution of the
ARPANET, including programs in packet radio, the
development of a new network protocol (TCP/IP),
and the switch to TCP/IP to connect multiple net-
works.
IANA Port Assignments
John Kristos Overview of TCP (Fundamental
concepts behind TCP and how it is used to transport
data between two endpoints)
TCP fast retransmit simulation animated: slow start,
sliding window, duplicated Ack, congestion window
TCP, Transmission Control Protocol
Checksum example
Engineer Francesco Buas page about Transmis-
sion Control Protocol
TCP tutorial
Linktionary on TCP segments
TCP Sliding Window simulation animated (ns2)
38 CHAPTER 4. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL
Multipath TCP
TCP Technology and Testing methodologies
Chapter 5
Mobile operating system
A mobile operating system, also referred to as mobile
OS, is an operating system that operates a smartphone,
tablet, PDA, or other mobile device. Modern mobile op-
erating systems combine the features of a personal com-
puter operating system with other features, including a
touchscreen, cellular, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GPS mobile nav-
igation, camera, video camera, speech recognition, voice
recorder, music player, near eld communication and
infrared blaster.
Mobile devices with mobile communications capabilities
(e.g. smartphones) contain two mobile operating systems
- the main user-facing software platform is supplemented
by a second low-level proprietary real-time operating sys-
tem which operates the radio and other hardware. Re-
search has shown that these low-level systems may con-
tain a range of security vulnerabilities permitting mali-
cious base stations to gain high levels of control over the
mobile device.
[1]
5.1 History
Mobile operating system milestones mirror the develop-
ment of mobile phones and smartphones:
19731992 Mobile phones use embedded systems
to control operation.
1993 The rst smartphone, the IBM Simon, has a
touchscreen, email and PDA features.
1996 Palm Pilot 1000 personal digital assistant is
introduced with the Palm OS mobile operating sys-
tem.
1996 First Windows CE Handheld PC devices are
introduced.
1999 Nokia S40 OS is ocially introduced along
with the Nokia 7110
2000 Symbian becomes the rst modern mobile OS
on a smartphone with the launch of the Ericsson
R380.
2001 The Kyocera 6035 is the rst smartphone with
Palm OS.
2002 Microsoft's rst Windows CE (Pocket PC)
smartphones are introduced.
2002 BlackBerry releases its rst smartphone.
2005 Nokia introduces Maemo OS on the rst in-
ternet tablet N770.
2007 Apple iPhone with iOS is introduced
as an iPhone, mobile phone and internet
communicator.
[2]
2007 Open Handset Alliance (OHA) formed
by Google, HTC, Sony, Dell, Intel, Motorola,
Samsung, LG, etc.
[3]
2008 OHA releases Android 1.0 with the HTC
Dream (T-Mobile G1) as the rst Android phone.
2009 Palmintroduces webOS with the PalmPre. By
2012 webOS devices were no longer sold.
2009 Samsung announces the Bada OS with the in-
troduction of the Samsung S8500.
2010 Windows Phone OS phones are released but
are not compatible with the previous Windows Mo-
bile OS.
2011 MeeGo the rst mobile Linux, combining
Maemo and Moblin, is introduced with the Nokia
N9, a collaboration of Nokia, Intel and Linux Foun-
dation
In September 2011 Samsung, Intel and the Linux
Foundation announced that their eorts will shift
from Bada, MeeGo to Tizen during 2011 and 2012.
In October 2011 the Mer project was announced,
centered around an ultra-portable Linux +
HTML5/QML/JavaScript Core for building
products with, derived from the MeeGo codebase.
2012 Mozilla announced in July 2012 that the
project previously known as Boot to Gecko was
now Firefox OS and had several handset OEMs on
board.
39
40 CHAPTER 5. MOBILE OPERATING SYSTEM
2013 Canonical announced Ubuntu Touch, a ver-
sion of the Linux distribution expressly designed for
smartphones. The OS is built on the Android Linux
kernel, using Android drivers, but does not use any
of the Java-like code of Android.
[4]
2013 BlackBerry released their new operating sys-
tem for smartphones and tablets, BlackBerry 10.
2013 Google release latest version of Android
Kitkat.
2014 Microsoft release Windows Phone 8.1 in
February 2014.
5.2 Current software platforms
See also: Comparison of Android devices, List of
Firefox OS devices, List of iOS devices and List of
Windows Phone devices
5.2.1 Android
Android (based on the Linux Kernel) is from Google
Inc..
[5]
It has the largest installed base worldwide on
smartphones. Most of Android is free and open source,
[6]
but a large amount of software on Android devices (such
as Play Store, Google Search, Google Play Services,
Google Music, and so on) are proprietary and licensed.
[7]
Androids releases prior to 2.0 (1.0, 1.5, 1.6) were used
exclusively on mobile phones. Android 2.x releases were
mostly used for mobile phones but also some tablets. An-
droid 3.0 was a tablet-oriented release and does not of-
cially run on mobile phones. The current Android ver-
sion is 4.4. Androids releases are nicknamed after sweets
or dessert items like Cupcake (1.5), Donut (1.6), Eclair
(2.0), Frozen Yogurt (Froyo) (2.2), Ginger Bread (2.3),
Honeycomb (3.0), Ice Cream Sandwich (4.0), Jelly Bean
(4.1), (4.2), (4.3) and Kit Kat (4.4). Most major mobile
service providers carry an Android device. Since HTC
Dreamwas introduced, there has been an explosion in the
number of devices that carry Android OS. From second
quarter of 2009 to the second quarter of 2010, Androids
worldwide market share rose 850% from 1.8% to 17.2%.
On November 15, 2011, Android reached 52.5% of the
global smartphone market share.
[8]
On September 2014
Androids global market share rose to 85%.
[9]
5.2.2 iOS
iOS is from Apple Inc..
[5]
It has second largest installed
base worldwide on smartphones behind Android. It is
closed source and proprietary and built on open source
Darwin core OS. The Apple iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad
and second-generation Apple TVall use an operating sys-
tem called iOS, which is derived from Mac OS X. Native
third party applications were not ocially supported un-
til the release of iOS 2.0 on July 11, 2008. Before this,
"jailbreaking" allowed third party applications to be in-
stalled, and this method is still available. Currently all
iOS devices are developed by Apple and manufactured by
Foxconn or another of Apples partners. As of September
2014, iOS global market share was 11%.
[9]
5.2.3 Windows Phone
Windows Phone is fromMicrosoft. It is closed source and
proprietary. It has third largest installed base on smart-
phones behind Android and iOS. On February 15, 2010,
Microsoft unveiled its next-generation mobile OS, Win-
dows Phone. The new mobile OS includes a completely
new over-hauled UI inspired by Microsofts "Metro De-
sign Language". It includes full integration of Microsoft
services such as OneDrive and Oce, Xbox Music,
Xbox Video, Xbox Live games and Bing, but also in-
tegrates with many other non-Microsoft services such as
Facebook and Google accounts. Windows Phone devices
are made primarily by Nokia, along with HTC, Samsung.
As of September 2014, Windows Phone market share
was 3%.
[9]
5.2.4 Firefox OS
Firefox OS
[10]
is from Mozilla. It is open source and
uses Mozilla Public License. According to Ars Tech-
nica, Mozilla says that B2G is motivated by a desire to
demonstrate that the standards-based open Web has the
potential to be a competitive alternative to the existing
single-vendor application development stacks oered by
the dominant mobile operating systems.
[11]
5.2.5 Sailsh OS
Sailsh OS is from Jolla. It is partly open source and
adopts GPL (core and middleware), however the user in-
terface is closed source. After Nokia failed in 2011 with
the MeeGo project most of the MeeGo team have left
Nokia, and established Jolla as a company to use MeeGo
and MER business opportunities. In 2012 Linux Sailsh
OS based on MeeGo and using MER core distribution
has been launched for public use. The rst device, Jolla
(mobile phone) was unveiled on 20 May 2013.
5.2.6 Tizen
Tizen is hosted by the Linux Foundation and support from
the Tizen Association, guided by a Technical Steering
Group composed of Intel and Samsung. Tizen is an op-
erating systemfor devices including smartphones, tablets,
5.3. DISCONTINUED SOFTWARE PLATFORMS 41
in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) devices, and smart TVs. It
is an open source system that aims to oer a consistent
user experience across devices. Tizens main compo-
nents are the Linux kernel and the WebKit runtime. Ac-
cording to Intel, Tizen combines the best of LiMo and
MeeGo. HTML5apps are emphasized, with MeeGo en-
couraging its members to transition to Tizen, stating that
the future belongs to HTML5-based applications, out-
side of a relatively small percentage of apps, and we are
rmly convinced that our investment needs to shift to-
ward HTML5. Tizen will be targeted at a variety of plat-
forms such as handsets, tablets, smart TVs and in-vehicle
entertainment.
[12][13]
On May 17, 2013, Tizen released
version 2.1, code-named Nectarine.
[14]
5.2.7 Ubuntu Touch OS
Ubuntu Touch OS is from Canonical Ltd.. It is open
source and uses GPL.
5.2.8 Blackberry
BlackBerry 10 (based on the QNX OS) is from
BlackBerry. As a smart phone OS, it is closed source and
proprietary. It is used mostly by Government employees.
BlackBerry 10 is the next generation platform for Black-
Berry smartphones and tablets. All phones and tablets are
manufactured by Blackberry itself. One of the dominant
platforms in the world, its global market share has been
reduced to less than 1% in late 2014.
[9]
5.3 Discontinued software plat-
forms
5.3.1 Symbian
the Symbian platform was developed by Nokia for cer-
tain models of smartphones. It is proprietary software.
The operating system was discontinued in 2012, although
a slimmed down version for basic phones was still de-
veloped until July 2014. Microsoft ocially shelved the
platform in favor of Windows Phone after the acquisition
of Nokia.
[15]
5.3.2 Windows Mobile
Windows Mobile was from Microsoft.
[5][16]
It was closed
source and proprietary. The Windows CE operating sys-
tem and Windows Mobile middleware are widely spread
in Asia. The two improved variants of this operating sys-
tem, Windows Mobile 6 Professional (for touch screen
devices) and Windows Mobile 6 Standard, were unveiled
in February 2007. It was criticized for having a user in-
terface which is not optimized for touch input by ngers;
instead, it is more usable with a stylus. However, unlike
iOS, it supports both touch screen and physical keyboard
congurations. Windows Mobiles market share sharply
declined to just 5% in Q2 of 2010.
[17]
Microsoft phased
out the Windows Mobile OS to focus on Windows Phone.
5.3.3 Palm OS
Palm OS/Garnet OS was from Access Co. It is closed
source and proprietary. webOS was introduced by Palm
in January 2009 as the successor to Palm OS with Web
2.0 technologies, open architecture and multitasking ca-
pabilities.
5.3.4 webOS
webOS was from LG, although some parts are open
source. webOS is a proprietary mobile operating sys-
tem running on the Linux kernel, initially developed by
Palm, which launched with the Palm Pre. After being
acquired by HP, two phones (the Veer and the Pre 3) and
a tablet (the TouchPad) running webOS were introduced
in 2011. On August 18, 2011, HP announced that we-
bOS hardware was to be discontinued
[18]
but would con-
tinue to support and update webOS software and develop
the webOS ecosystem.
[19]
HP released webOS as open
source under the name Open webOS, and plans to update
it with additional features.
[20]
On February 25, 2013 HP
announced the sale of WebOS to LG Electronics, who
planned to use the operating system for its smart or
Internet-connected TVs. However HP retained patents
underlying WebOS as well as cloud-based services such
as the App Catalog.
5.3.5 Maemo
Maemo was a platform developed by Nokia for
smartphones and Internet tablets. It is open source and
GPL, based on Debian GNU/Linux and draws much of
its GUI, frameworks and libraries from the GNOME
project. It uses the Matchbox window manager and the
GTK-based Hildon as its GUI and application frame-
work.
5.3.6 MeeGo
MeeGo was from non-prot organization The Linux
Foundation. It is open source and GPL. At the 2010
Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Nokia and Intel
both unveiled 'MeeGo', a mobile operating system that
combined Moblin and Maemo to create an open-sourced
experience for users across all devices. In 2011 Nokia an-
nounced that it would no longer pursue MeeGo in favor
of Windows Phone. Nokia announced the Nokia N9 on
42 CHAPTER 5. MOBILE OPERATING SYSTEM
June 21, 2011 at the Nokia Connection event
[21]
in Sin-
gapore. LG announced its support for the platform.
[22]
5.3.7 LiMo
LiMo was from the LiMo Foundation. LiMo Foundation
launched LiMo 4 on February 14, 2011. LiMo 4 deliv-
ers middleware and application functionality, including
a exible user interface, extended widget libraries, 3D
window eects, advanced multimedia, social network-
ing and location-based service frameworks, sensor frame-
works, multi-tasking and multi-touch capabilities. In ad-
dition, support for scalable screen resolution and consis-
tent APIs means that the platform can deliver a consistent
user experience across multiple device types and form
factors.
[23]
5.4 Customer satisfaction
According to a Readers Choice Awards survey conducted
by PC Magazine in 2013, Android and Windows Phone
customers gave their phones a rating of 8.9 on a 0 (ex-
tremely dissatised) to 10 (extremely satised) scale, an
improvement of 0.3 and 0.6 points respectively. Android
received an 8.9 (one of the highest ratings to date for an
operating system) followed by iOS (7.3)
The biggest reasons given by readers when asked why they
chose their mobile phones are as follow: operating sys-
tem (72%) and 4G capability (51%) for Android, quality
of email experience (83%) for Blackberry, availability of
apps (63%) for iOS and operating system(48%) for Win-
dows Phone (81%)
5.5 Market share
In 2006, Android, iOS and Windows Phone did not exist
and just 64 million smartphones were sold.
[24]
In 2014,
more than a billion smartphones were sold and global
market share was 85% for Android, 11% for iOS, 3% for
Windows Phone and less than 1% for all other platforms.
[25]
5.5.1 Outlook
IDC predicted high Android market share at the ex-
pense of other platforms in year 2012, but that from
year 2013 to 2016, iOS and Android would stop gaining
market share, while Windows Phone would rise to third
place.
[69][70]
A similar trend was also predicted by Dig-
iTimes Research.
[71]
Amore recent study by Canalys pre-
dicted that in 2017 Android market share would slightly
decline, iOS would decline more, and Windows Phone
would grow but not catch up with iOS.
[72]
IDC predicts
See table below for source data
See table below for source data
See table below for source data
that Windows Phone will not reach double digit market
share until 2017.
[73]
IDChad to slash the Windows Phone
predictions once again, to 7 percent of total market in
2018, because of the slow growth.
[74]
5.5.2 Mobile internet trac share
As of November 2013, mobile data usage showed
55.17% of mobile data trac to be from iOS, 33.89%
fromAndroid, 4.49% fromJava ME (Nokia S40), 4.12%
from Symbian, 1.65% from Windows Phone and 1%
from BlackBerry.
[75]
Internet Explorer Mobile can be
switched to Desktop view by users, which identies de-
vices as Internet Explorer 9.0 on Windows 7, causing case
5.7. REFERENCES 43
mobile usage to be excluded in these statistics.
5.6 See also
Comparison of mobile operating systems
List of GPS software for mobile phones
Smartphone
Tablet computer
Personal digital assistant
Smart TV
Information appliance
Mobile device
RTOS
5.7 References
[1] Thom Holwerda, OSNews, 12 November 2013, The sec-
ond operating system hiding in every mobile phone
[2] Jobs, Steve (2007-01-19). Macworld San Francisco 2007
Keynote Address. San Francisco: Apple, Inc.
[3] Helft, Miguel (2007-11-05). Google Enters the Wireless
World. New York Times. Retrieved 2011-09-07.
[4] Ubuntu phone OS announced, rst devices shipping in
early 2014.
[5] Gartner Says Worldwide Mobile Phone Sales Grew 35
Percent in Third Quarter 2010; Smartphone Sales In-
creased 96 Percent. Gartner, Inc. 2010-11-10. Table
2. Retrieved 2011-02-21.
[6] ICS is coming to AOSP.
[7] Balky carriers and slow OEMs step aside: Google is de-
fragging Android. Ars Technica. Retrieved 2013-12-24.
[8] Android takes 52.5% of smartphone market. Econsul-
tancy. Retrieved on 2012-07-03.
[9] .
[10] B2G MozillaWiki. mozilla.org. 2011-08-24. Re-
trieved 2011-09-07.
[11] Paul, Ryan (2011-07-25). Mozilla eyes mobile OS land-
scape with newBoot to Gecko project. Arstechnica.com.
Retrieved 2011-09-07.
[12] Welcome to Tizen!. Tizen.org (2011-09-27). Retrieved
on 2012-07-03.
[13] Ricker, Thomas. (2011-09-28)MeeGo is dead: Meet Ti-
zen, another new open source OS based on Linux. Thisis-
mynext.com. Retrieved on 2012-07-03.
[14] Tizen 2.1 SDK and Source Code Release. Tizen.org.
[15] http://www.theverge.com/2014/7/17/5912289/
microsoft-kills-feature-phones-in-favor-of-windows-phone
[16] CEO Ballmer Reportedly Says Microsoft 'Screwed Up'
with Windows Mobile. eWeek. 28 September 2009.
[17] iPhone drops to 24% smartphone share, Android jumps
to 17%". AppleInsider. 2010-09-16. Retrieved 2011-09-
07.
[18] HP Conrms Discussions with Autonomy Corporation
plc Regarding Possible Business Combination; Makes
Other Announcements. HP. 2010-08-18. Retrieved
2011-09-13.
[19] The next chapter for webOS. HP webOS Developer
Blog. 2010-08-19. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
[20] Open webOS::Roadmap. Open webOS Project.
September 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
[21] Introducing the Nokia N9: all it takes is a swipe! | Nokia
Conversations The ocial Nokia Blog. Nokia. 2011-
06-21. Retrieved 2011-09-07.
[22] MeeGo Not Dead Yet as LG Continues the Charge
Mobile Technology News. Gigaom.com. 2011-04-29.
Retrieved 2011-09-07.
[23] Limo 4 OS Launched Devices Expected Soon. Gad-
getizor.com.
[24] 64 million smart phones shipped worldwide in 2006.
Canalys, Inc. Retrieved 2012-01-13.
[25] http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2014/01/28/
billion-smartphones_n_4679082.html
[26] 2010 Q4 contains insignicant part of Windows Phone
devices
[27] not including low cost devices
[28] including low cost devices
[29] 2011 Q2 and the more contains insignicant part of Win-
dows Mobile devices
[30] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2013 Q4. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
[31] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2013 Q3. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
[32] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2013 Q2. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
[33] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2013 Q1. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
[34] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2012 Q4. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2013-02-13.
[35] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2012 Q3. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
[36] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2012 Q2. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
44 CHAPTER 5. MOBILE OPERATING SYSTEM
[37] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2012 Q1. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
[38] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2011 Q4. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
[39] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2011 Q3. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
[40] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2011 Q2. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
[41] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2011 Q1. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
[42] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2010 Q4. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
[43] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2010 Q3. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
[44] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2010 Q2. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
[45] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2010 Q1. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
[46] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2008 Q4. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
[47] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2008 Q3. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
[48] Gartner Smart Phone Marketshare 2008 Q2. Gartner,
Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
[49] including Bada OS
[50] Smartphone OS Market Share, Q2 2014. idc.com.
2014-08-14. Retrieved 2014-08-14.
[51] Smartphone OS Market Share, Q1 2014. idc.com.
2014-06-29. Retrieved 2014-06-29.
[52] Android and iOS Continue to Dominate the Worldwide
Smartphone Market with Android Shipments Just Shy of
800 Million in 2013, - prUS24676414. idc.com. 2014-
01-12. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
[53] Android Pushes Past 80%Market Share While Windows
Phone Shipments Leap 156.0% Year Over Year in the
Third Quarter, - prUS24442013. idc.com. 2013-11-12.
Retrieved 2013-11-12.
[54] Apple Cedes Market Share in Smartphone Operating
System Market as Android Surges and Windows Phone
Gains, According to IDC - prUS24257413. Idc.com.
2013-08-07. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
[55] Android and iOS Combine for 92.3% of All Smart-
phone Operating System Shipments in the First Quarter
While Windows Phone Leapfrogs BlackBerry, According
to IDC - prUS24108913. Idc.com. 2013-05-16. Re-
trieved 2013-06-14.
[56] Android and iOS Combine for 91.1% of the Worldwide
Smartphone OS Market in 4Q12 and 87.6% for the Year,
According to IDC - prUS23946013. Idc.com. 2013-02-
14. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
[57] Android Marks Fourth Anniversary Since Launch with
75.0%Market Share in Third Quarter, According to IDC-
prUS23771812. Idc.com. 2012-11-01. Retrieved 2013-
06-14.
[58] Android and iOS Surge to New Smartphone OS Record
in Second Quarter, According to IDC - prUS23638712.
Idc.com. 2012-08-08. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
[59] Android- and iOS-Powered Smartphones Expand Their
Share of the Market in the First Quarter, According to
IDC \u2013 prUS23503312. Idc.com (2012-05-24). Re-
trieved on 2012-07-03.
[60] including Germany, United Kingdom, France, Italy and
Spain
[61] Kantar Worldpanel ComTechs Smartphone OS market
share data Q2 2014. Kantar. Retrieved 2014-07-31.
[62] Kantar Worldpanel ComTechs Smartphone OS market
share data Q1 2014. Kantar. Retrieved 2014-05-01.
[63] Kantar Worldpanel ComTechs Smartphone OS market
share data Q4 2013. Kantar. Retrieved 2014-01-27.
[64] Kantar Worldpanel ComTechs Smartphone OS market
share data Q3 2013. Kantar. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
[65] Kantar Worldpanel ComTechs Smartphone OS market
share data Q2 2013. Kantar. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
[66] Kantar Worldpanel ComTechs Smartphone OS market
share data Q1 2013. Kantar. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
[67] Kantar Worldpanel ComTechs Smartphone OS market
share data Q4 2012. Kantar. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
[68] Kantar Worldpanel ComTechs Smartphone OS market
share data Q3 2012. Kantar. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
[69] Android Expected to Reach Its Peak This Year as Mobile
Phone Shipments Slow, According to IDC | SYS-CON
MEDIA. Sys-con.com (2012-06-06). Retrieved on 2012-
07-03.
[70] Worldwide Mobile Phone Growth Expected to Drop
to 1.4% in 2012 Despite Continued Growth Of Smart-
phones, According to IDC - prUS23818212. Idc.com.
Retrieved 2013-06-14.
[71] Digitimes Research: Android phones to account for 70%
of global smartphone market in 2013. Digitimes.com.
2012-12-06. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
[72] Over 1 billion Android-based smart phones to ship in 2017
| Canalys
[73] Windows Phone 2017 market share projection: 10% |
BGR
[74] Windows Phone forecast slashed once again | SiliconBeat
[75] Mobile Data Usage. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
5.8. EXTERNAL LINKS 45
5.8 External links
Java ME
Intel Mobile Platform
Android-based smartphone shipments leapfrog Ap-
ples iPhone
Qualcomm Uplinq Mobile OS Developer Confer-
ence (Annual)
Chapter 6
Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system (OS) based on
the Linux kernel and currently developed by Google.
With a user interface based on direct manipulation, An-
droid is designed primarily for touchscreen mobile de-
vices such as smartphones and tablet computers, with
specialized user interfaces for televisions (Android TV),
cars (Android Auto), and wrist watches (Android Wear).
The OS uses touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-
world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching, and re-
verse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects, and a
virtual keyboard. Despite being primarily designed for
touchscreen input, it also has been used in game consoles,
digital cameras, and other electronics.
Android is the most popular mobile OS. As of 2013, An-
droid devices sell more than Windows, iOS, and Mac OS
devices combined,
[14][15][16][17]
with sales in 2012, 2013
and 2014
[18]
close to the installed base of all PCs.
[19]
As
of July 2013 the Google Play store has had over 1 mil-
lion Android apps published, and over 50 billion apps
downloaded.
[20]
A developer survey conducted in April
May 2013 found that 71% of mobile developers develop
for Android.
[21]
At Google I/O 2014, the company re-
vealed that there were over 1 billion active monthly An-
droid users (that have been active for 30 days), up from
538 million in June 2013.
[22]
Androids source code is released by Google under open
source licenses, although most Android devices ultimately
ship with a combination of open source and proprietary
software.
[3]
Initially developed by Android, Inc., which
Google backed nancially and later bought in 2005,
[23]
Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of
the Open Handset Alliance a consortium of hardware,
software, and telecommunication companies devoted to
advancing open standards for mobile devices.
[24]
Android is popular with technology companies which re-
quire a ready-made, low-cost and customizable operat-
ing system for high-tech devices.
[25]
Androids open na-
ture has encouraged a large community of developers and
enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation
for community-driven projects, which add new features
for advanced users
[26]
or bring Android to devices which
were ocially released running other operating systems.
The operating systems success has made it a target for
patent litigation as part of the so-called "smartphone
wars" between technology companies.
[27][28]
6.1 History
See also: Android version history
Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California in Oc-
tober 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger),
[29]
Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildre Communications,
Inc.),
[30]
Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile),
[31]
and
Chris White (headed design and interface development
at WebTV
[23]
) to develop, in Rubins words smarter mo-
bile devices that are more aware of its owners location
and preferences.
[23]
The early intentions of the company
were to develop an advanced operating system for digital
cameras, when it was realized that the market for the de-
vices was not large enough, and diverted their eorts to
producing a smartphone operating system to rival those
of Symbian and Windows Mobile.
[32]
Despite the past ac-
complishments of the founders and early employees, An-
droid Inc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was
working on software for mobile phones.
[23]
That same
year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a close
friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an enve-
lope and refused a stake in the company.
[33]
Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005; key
employees of Android Inc., including Rubin, Miner, and
White, stayed at the company after the acquisition.
[23]
Not much was known about Android Inc. at the time,
but many assumed that Google was planning to enter the
mobile phone market with this move.
[23]
At Google, the
team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform
powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the plat-
form to handset makers and carriers on the promise of
providing a exible, upgradable system. Google had lined
up a series of hardware component and software partners
and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees
of cooperation on their part.
[34][35][36]
Speculation about Googles intention to enter the mo-
bile communications market continued to build through
December 2006.
[37]
An earlier prototype codenamed
Sooner had a closer resemblance to a BlackBerry
46
6.2. FEATURES 47
phone, with no touchscreen, and a physical, QWERTY
keyboard, but was later re-engineered to support a
touchscreen, to compete with other announced de-
vices such as the 2006 LG Prada and 2007 Apple
iPhone.
[38][39]
In September 2007, InformationWeek cov-
ered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had
led several patent applications in the area of mobile
telephony.
[40][41]
Eric Schmidt, Andy Rubin, and Hugo Barra at a press conference
for the Googles Nexus 7 tablet
On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a
consortium of technology companies including Google,
device manufacturers such as HTC, Sony and Samsung,
wireless carriers such as Sprint Nextel and T-Mobile,
and chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instru-
ments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop open stan-
dards for mobile devices.
[24]
That day, Android was un-
veiled as its rst product, a mobile device platform built
on the Linux kernel version 2.6.25.
[24][42]
The rst com-
mercially available smartphone running Android was the
HTC Dream, released on October 22, 2008.
[43]
In 2010, Google launched its Nexus series of devices
a line of smartphones and tablets running the Android
operating system, and built by manufacturing partners.
HTC collaborated with Google to release the rst Nexus
smartphone,
[44]
the Nexus One. Google has since up-
dated the series with newer devices, such as the Nexus
5 phone (made by LG) and the Nexus 7 tablet (made by
Asus). Google releases the Nexus phones and tablets to
act as their agship Android devices, demonstrating An-
droids latest software and hardware features. On March
13, 2013 Larry Page announced in a blog post that Andy
Rubin had moved from the Android division to take on
new projects at Google.
[45]
He was replaced by Sundar
Pichai, who also continues his role as the head of Googles
Chrome division,
[46]
which develops Chrome OS.
Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which
have incrementally improved the operating system,
adding new features and xing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a
dessert or sugary treat; for example, version 1.5 Cupcake
was followed by 1.6 Donut. The latest released version,
4.4.4 KitKat, appeared as a security-only update; it was
released on June 19, 2014, shortly after the release of
4.4.3.
[5][47][48]
From 2010 to 2013, Hugo Barra served as product
spokesperson for the Android team, representing An-
droid at both press conferences and Google I/O, Googles
annual developer-focused conference. Barras prod-
uct involvement included the entire Android ecosystem
of software and hardware, including Honeycomb, Ice
Cream Sandwich, Jelly Bean and KitKat operating sys-
tem launches, the Nexus 4 and Nexus 5 smartphones,
the Nexus 7
[49]
and Nexus 10 tablets,
[50]
and other re-
lated products such as Google Now
[51]
and Google Voice
Search, Googles speech recognition product comparable
to Apples Siri.
[51]
In 2013 Barra left the Android team
for Chinese smartphone maker Xiaomi.
[52]
6.2 Features
See also: List of features in Android
6.2.1 Interface
Androids default user interface is based on direct manip-
ulation,
[53]
using touch inputs, that loosely correspond to
real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching, and
reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects, and
a virtual keyboard.
[53]
The response to user input is de-
signed to be immediate and provides a uid touch inter-
face, often using the vibration capabilities of the device
to provide haptic feedback to the user. Internal hard-
ware such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and proximity
sensors
[54]
are used by some applications to respond to
additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen
from portrait to landscape depending on how the device
is oriented, or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a rac-
ing game by rotating the device, simulating control of a
steering wheel.
[55]
Android devices boot to the homescreen, the primary
navigation and information point on the device, which
is similar to the desktop found on PCs. Android home-
screens are typically made up of app icons and widgets;
app icons launch the associated app, whereas widgets dis-
play live, auto-updating content such as the weather fore-
cast, the users email inbox, or a news ticker directly on
the homescreen.
[56]
A homescreen may be made up of
several pages that the user can swipe back and forth be-
tween, though Androids homescreen interface is heav-
ily customisable, allowing the user to adjust the look
and feel of the device to their tastes.
[57]
Third-party apps
available on Google Play and other app stores can exten-
sively re-theme the homescreen, and even mimic the look
of other operating systems, such as Windows Phone.
[58]
Most manufacturers, and some wireless carriers, cus-
tomise the look and feel of their Android devices to dif-
ferentiate themselves from their competitors.
[59]
Present along the top of the screen is a status bar, showing
48 CHAPTER 6. ANDROID (OPERATING SYSTEM)
Notications are accessed by sliding from the top of the display;
individual notications can be dismissed by sliding them away,
and may contain additional functions (such as on the missed
call notication seen here).
information about the device and its connectivity. This
status bar can be pulled down to reveal a notication
screen where apps display important information or up-
dates, such as a newly received email or SMS text, in
a way that does not immediately interrupt or inconve-
nience the user.
[60]
Notications are persistent until read
(by tapping, which opens the relevant app) or dismissed
by sliding it o the screen. Beginning on Android 4.1,
expanded notications can display expanded details or
additional functionality; for instance, a music player can
display playback controls, and a missed call notication
provides buttons for calling back or sending the caller an
SMS message.
[61]
Android provides the ability to run applications which
change the default launcher and hence the appearance and
externally visible behaviour of Android. These appear-
ance changes include a multi-page dock or no dock, and
many more changes to fundamental features of the user
interface.
[62]
6.2.2 Applications
See also: Android software development and Google Play
Applications ("apps"), that extend the functionality of de-
vices, are developed primarily in the Java programming
language
[63]
using the Android software development kit
(SDK). The SDK includes a comprehensive set of de-
velopment tools,
[64]
including a debugger, software li-
braries, a handset emulator based on QEMU, documenta-
tion, sample code, and tutorials. The ocially supported
integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse us-
ing the Android Development Tools (ADT) plugin. Other
development tools are available, including a Native De-
velopment Kit for applications or extensions in C or C++,
Google App Inventor, a visual environment for novice
programmers, and various cross platform mobile web
applications frameworks. In January 2014, Google un-
veiled an Apache Cordovabased framework for porting
Chrome HTML 5 applications to Android, wrapped in a
native application shell.
[65]
Android has a growing selection of third-party applica-
tions, which can be acquired by users by downloading and
installing the applications APK le, or by downloading
them using an application store program that allows users
to install, update, and remove applications from their de-
vices. Google Play Store is the primary application store
installed on Android devices that comply with Googles
compatibility requirements and license the Google Mo-
bile Services software.
[3][66]
Google Play Store allows
users to browse, download and update applications pub-
lished by Google and third-party developers; As of July
2013, there are more than one million applications avail-
able for Android in Play Store.
[67]
As of May 2013, 48
billion applications have been installed from Google Play
Store
[68]
and in July 2013, 50 billion applications were
installed.
[69][70]
Some carriers oer direct carrier billing
for Google Play application purchases, where the cost of
the application is added to the users monthly bill.
[71]
Due to the open nature of Android, a number of third-
party application marketplace also exist for Android, ei-
ther to provide a substitute for devices that are not allowed
to ship with Google Play Store, provide applications that
cannot be oered on Google Play Store due to policy vi-
olations, or for other reasons. Examples of these third-
party stores have included the Amazon Appstore, GetJar,
and SlideMe. F-Droid, another alternative marketplace,
seeks to only provide applications that are distributed un-
der free and open source licenses.
[72][3][73][74]
6.2.3 Memory management
Since Android devices are usually battery-powered, An-
droid is designed to manage memory (RAM) to keep
power consumption at a minimum, in contrast to desk-
top operating systems which generally assume they are
6.4. DEVELOPMENT 49
connected to unlimited mains electricity. When an An-
droid app is no longer in use, the system will automati-
cally suspend it in memory while the app is still techni-
cally open, suspended apps consume no resources (for
example, battery power or processing power) and sit idly
in the background until needed again. This has the dual
benet of increasing the general responsiveness of An-
droid devices, since applications do not need to be closed
and reopened from scratch each time, and also ensur-
ing that background applications do not consume power
needlessly.
[75][76]
Android manages the apps stored in memory automati-
cally: when memory is low, the system will begin killing
apps and processes that have been inactive for a while,
in reverse order since they were last used (oldest rst).
This process is designed to be invisible to the user, such
that users do not need to manage memory or the killing
of apps themselves.
[77][78]
However, confusion over An-
droid memory management has resulted in third-party
task killers becoming popular on Google Play store; these
third-party task killers are generally regarded as doing
more harm than good.
[79]
6.3 Hardware
See also: Android hardware requirements
The main hardware platform for Android is the 32-bit
ARMv7 architecture. The Android-x86 project provides
support for the x86 architecture,
[9]
and Google TV uses
a special x86 version of Android. In 2012, Intel proces-
sors began to appear on more mainstream Android plat-
forms, such as phones.
[80]
In 2013, Freescale announced
support for Android on its i.MX processor, specically
the i.MX5X and i.MX6X series.
[81]
As of November 2013, Android 4.4 recommends at least
512 MB of RAM,
[82]
while for low RAM devices 340
MB is the required minimum amount that does not in-
clude memory dedicated to various hardware compo-
nents such as the baseband processor.
[83]
Android 4.4 re-
quires a 32-bit ARMv7, MIPS or x86 architecture pro-
cessor (latter two through unocial ports),
[9][84]
together
with an OpenGL ES 2.0 compatible graphics processing
unit (GPU).
[85]
Android supports OpenGL ES 1.1, 2.0
and 3.0. Some applications explicitly require a certain
version of the OpenGL ES, thus suitable GPU hardware
is required to run such applications.
[85]
In addition to running directly on x86-based hardware,
Android can also be run on x86 architecture by using an
Android emulator which is part of the Android SDK, or
by using third-party emulators such as BlueStacks,
[86][87]
GenyMotion or Andy.
[88]
Android devices incorporate many optional hard-
ware components, including still or video cameras,
GPS, orientation sensors, dedicated gaming controls,
accelerometers, gyroscopes, barometers, magnetometers,
proximity sensors, pressure sensors, thermometers, and
touchscreens. Some hardware components are not re-
quired, but became standard in certain classes of devices,
such as smartphones, and additional requirements apply
if they are present. Some other hardware was initially
required, but those requirements have been relaxed or
eliminated altogether. For example, as Android was
developed initially as a phone OS, hardware such as
microphones were required, while over time the phone
function became optional.
[70]
Android used to require
an autofocus camera, which was relaxed to a xed-focus
camera
[70]
if it is even present at all, since the camera
was dropped as a requirement entirely when Android
started to be used on set-top boxes.
6.4 Development
Android green gure, next to its original packaging.
Android is developed in private by Google until the latest
changes and updates are ready to be released, at which
point the source code is made available publicly.
[89]
This
source code will only run without modication on se-
lect devices, usually the Nexus series of devices. The
source code is, in turn, adapted by OEMs to run on their
hardware.
[90]
Androids source code does not contain the
often proprietary device drivers that are needed for cer-
tain hardware components.
[91]
The green Android logo was designed for Google in
2007 by graphic designer Irina Blok. The design team
was tasked with a project to create a universally identi-
able icon with the specic inclusion of a robot in the -
nal design. After numerous design developments based
on science-ction and space movies, the team eventu-
ally sought inspiration from the human symbol on re-
stroom doors and modied the gure into a robot shape.
As Android is open-sourced, it was agreed that the logo
should be likewise, and since its launch the green logo has
been reinterpreted into countless variations on the origi-
nal design.
[92]
50 CHAPTER 6. ANDROID (OPERATING SYSTEM)
6.4.1 Update schedule
See also: Android version history
Google provides major upgrades, incremental in nature,
to Android every six to nine months, which most devices
are capable of receiving over the air.
[93]
The latest major
release is Android 4.4 KitKat.
[5]
Compared to its chief rival mobile operating system,
namely iOS, Android updates are typically slow to reach
actual devices. For devices not under the Nexus brand,
updates often arrive months from the time the given ver-
sion is ocially released.
[94]
This is partly due to the
extensive variation in hardware of Android devices, to
which each upgrade must be specically tailored, as the
ocial Google source code only runs on their agship
Nexus devices. Porting Android to specic hardware is
a time- and resource-consuming process for device man-
ufacturers, who prioritize their newest devices and often
leave older ones behind.
[94]
Hence, older smartphones are
frequently not updated if the manufacturer decides it is
not worth their time, regardless of whether the phone is
capable of running the update. This problem is com-
pounded when manufacturers customize Android with
their own interface and apps, which must be reapplied to
each new release. Additional delays can be introduced by
wireless carriers who, after receiving updates from man-
ufacturers, further customize and brand Android to their
needs and conduct extensive testing on their networks be-
fore sending the upgrade out to users.
[94]
The lack of after-sale support from manufacturers and
carriers has been widely criticized by consumer groups
and the technology media.
[95][96]
Some commentators
have noted that the industry has a nancial incentive not
to upgrade their devices, as the lack of updates for ex-
isting devices fuels the purchase of newer ones,
[97]
an
attitude described as insulting.
[96]
The Guardian has
complained that the method of distribution for updates
is complicated only because manufacturers and carriers
have designed it that way.
[96]
In 2011, Google partnered
with a number of industry players to announce an An-
droid Update Alliance, pledging to deliver timely up-
dates for every device for 18 months after its release;
[98]
however, there has not been another ocial word about
that alliance.
[94][99]
In 2012, Google began decoupling certain aspects of
the operating system (particularly core applications) so
they could be updated through Google Play Store, inde-
pendently of Android itself. One of these components,
Google Play Services, is a closed-source system-level pro-
cess providing APIs for Google services, installed auto-
matically on nearly all devices running Android version
2.2 and higher. With these changes, Google can add new
operating system functionality through Play Services and
application updates without having to distribute an up-
grade to the operating system itself. As a result, An-
droid 4.2 and 4.3 contained relatively fewer user-facing
changes, focusing more on minor changes and platform
improvements.
[3][100]
6.4.2 Linux kernel
Android consists of a kernel based on the Linux ker-
nel long-term support (LTS) branch. As of January
2014, current Android versions are built upon Linux
kernel 3.4 or newer,
[101][102]
but the specic kernel ver-
sion number depends on the actual Android device and
chipset.
[103][104][105]
Android has used various kernels
since its rst 2.6.25.
[42]
Androids Linux kernel has further architectural changes
that are implemented by Google outside the typical
Linux kernel development cycle, such as the inclu-
sion of components like Binder, ashmem, pmem, log-
ger, wakelocks, and dierent out-of-memory (OOM)
handling.
[106][107][108]
Certain features that Google con-
tributed back to the Linux kernel, notably a power man-
agement feature called wakelocks, were rejected by
mainline kernel developers partly because they felt that
Google did not show any intent to maintain its own
code.
[109][110][111]
Google announced in April 2010 that
they would hire two employees to work with the Linux
kernel community,
[112]
but Greg Kroah-Hartman, the
current Linux kernel maintainer for the stable branch,
said in December 2010 that he was concerned that Google
was no longer trying to get their code changes included in
mainstreamLinux.
[110]
Some Google Android developers
hinted that the Android team was getting fed up with the
process, because they were a small team and had more
urgent work to do on Android.
[113]
In August 2011, Linus Torvalds said that eventually An-
droid and Linux would come back to a common kernel,
but it will probably not be for four to ve years.
[114]
In December 2011, Greg Kroah-Hartman announced the
start of Android Mainlining Project, which aims to put
some Android drivers, patches and features back into the
Linux kernel, starting in Linux 3.3.
[115]
Linux included
the autosleep and wakelocks capabilities in the 3.5 ker-
nel, after many previous attempts at merger. The inter-
faces are the same but the upstream Linux implementa-
tion allows for two dierent suspend modes: to memory
(the traditional suspend that Android uses), and to disk
(hibernate, as it is known on the desktop).
[116]
Google
maintains a public code repository that contains their ex-
perimental work to re-base Android o the latest stable
Linux versions.
[117][118]
The ash storage on Android devices is split into several
partitions, such as /system for the operating system itself,
and /data for user data and application installations.
[119]
In contrast to desktop Linux distributions, Android de-
vice owners are not given root access to the operating
system and sensitive partitions such as /system are read-
only. However, root access can be obtained by exploit-
6.4. DEVELOPMENT 51
ing security aws in Android, which is used frequently
by the open-source community to enhance the capabili-
ties of their devices,
[120]
but also by malicious parties to
install viruses and malware.
[121]
Android is a Linux distribution according to the Linux
Foundation,
[122]
Googles open-source chief Chris Di-
Bona,
[123]
and several journalists.
[124][125]
Others, such
as Google engineer Patrick Brady, say that Android is
not Linux in the traditional Unix-like Linux distribution
sense; Android does not include the GNU C Library
and some of other components typically found in Linux
distributions.
[126]
6.4.3 Software stack
Androids architecture diagram
On top of the Linux kernel, there are the middleware,
libraries and APIs written in C, and application soft-
ware running on an application framework which in-
cludes Java-compatible libraries based on Apache Har-
mony. Development of the Linux kernel continues in-
dependently of other Androids source code bases. An-
droid uses the Dalvik virtual machine with just-in-time
compilation (JIT) to run Dalvik dex-code (Dalvik Ex-
ecutable), which is usually translated from the Java byte-
code.
[127][128]
Android 4.4 also supports new experimen-
tal runtime, Android Runtime (ART), which is not en-
abled by default.
[129]
Androids standard C library, Bionic, was developed by
Google specically for Android, as a derivation of the
BSD's standard C library code. Bionic itself has been de-
signed with several major features specic to the Linux
kernel. The main benets of using Bionic instead of the
GNU C Library (glibc) or uClibc are its dierent licens-
ing model, smaller runtime footprint, and optimization
for low-frequency CPUs.
[128]
Aiming for a more suitable licensing model, toward the
end of 2012 Google switched the Bluetooth stack in
Android from the GPL-licensed BlueZ to the Apache-
licensed BlueDroid.
[130]
Android does not have a native X Window System by de-
fault, nor does it support the full set of standard GNU li-
braries. This made it dicult to port existing Linux appli-
cations or libraries to Android,
[126]
until version r5 of the
Android Native Development Kit brought support for ap-
plications written completely in C or C++.
[131]
Libraries
written in C may also be used in Java application by in-
jection of a small Java shim and usage of the JNI.
[132]
6.4.4 Open-source community
Android has an active community of developers and
enthusiasts who use the Android Open Source Project
(AOSP) source code to develop and distribute their own
modied versions of the operating system.
[133]
These
community-developed releases often bring new features
and updates to devices faster than through the ocial
manufacturer/carrier channels, albeit without as extensive
testing or quality assurance;
[26]
provide continued support
for older devices that no longer receive ocial updates;
or bring Android to devices that were ocially released
running other operating systems, such as the HP Touch-
Pad. Community releases often come pre-rooted and
contain modications unsuitable for non-technical users,
such as the ability to overclock or over/undervolt the de-
vices processor.
[134]
CyanogenMod is the most widely
used community rmware,
[135]
and acts as a foundation
for numerous others.
Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers
have typically been unsupportive of third-party rmware
development. Manufacturers express concern about im-
proper functioning of devices running unocial soft-
ware and the support costs resulting from this.
[136]
More-
over, modied rmwares such as CyanogenMod some-
times oer features, such as tethering, for which car-
riers would otherwise charge a premium. As a result,
technical obstacles including locked bootloaders and re-
stricted access to root permissions are common in many
devices. However, as community-developed software
has grown more popular, and following a statement by
the Librarian of Congress in the United States that per-
mits the "jailbreaking" of mobile devices,
[137]
manufac-
turers and carriers have softened their position regarding
third party development, with some, including HTC,
[136]
Motorola,
[138]
Samsung
[139][140]
and Sony,
[141]
providing
support and encouraging development. As a result of
this, over time the need to circumvent hardware restric-
tions to install unocial rmware has lessened as an in-
creasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked
or unlockable bootloaders, similar to Nexus series of
phones, although usually requiring that users waive their
devices warranties to do so.
[136]
However, despite manu-
facturer acceptance, some carriers in the US still require
that phones are locked down, frustrating developers and
customers.
[142][142]
52 CHAPTER 6. ANDROID (OPERATING SYSTEM)
6.5 Security and privacy
See also: Mobile security
Android applications run in a sandbox, an isolated area
Permissions are used to control a particular applications access
to system functions.
of the system that does not have access to the rest of the
systems resources, unless access permissions are explic-
itly granted by the user when the application is installed.
Before installing an application, Play Store displays all
required permissions: a game may need to enable vibra-
tion or save data to an SD card, for example, but should
not need to read SMS messages or access the phonebook.
After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose
to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if
they accept.
[143]
The sandboxing and permissions system
lessens the impact of vulnerabilities and bugs in applica-
tions, but developer confusion and limited documentation
has resulted in applications routinely requesting unneces-
sary permissions, reducing its eectiveness.
[144]
Google
has now pushed an update to Android Verify Apps fea-
ture, which will now run in background to detect mali-
cious processes and crack them down.
[145]
The App Ops privacy and application permissions con-
trol system, used for internal development and testing
by Google, was introduced in Googles Android 4.3 re-
lease for the Nexus devices. Initially hidden, the fea-
ture was discovered publicly; it allowed users to install
a management application and approve or deny permis-
sion requests individually for each of the applications in-
stalled on a device.
[146]
Access to the App Ops was later
restricted by Google starting with Android 4.4.2 with an
explanation that the feature was accidentally enabled and
not intended for end-users; for such a decision, Google
received criticism from the Electronic Frontier Founda-
tion.
[147][148][149]
Individual application permissions man-
agement, through the App Ops or third-party tools, is cur-
rently only possible with root access to the device.
[150][151]
Research from security company Trend Micro lists pre-
mium service abuse as the most common type of An-
droid malware, where text messages are sent from in-
fected phones to premium-rate telephone numbers with-
out the consent or even knowledge of the user.
[152]
Other
malware displays unwanted and intrusive adverts on the
device, or sends personal information to unauthorised
third parties.
[152]
Security threats on Android are report-
edly growing exponentially; however, Google engineers
have argued that the malware and virus threat on Android
is being exaggerated by security companies for commer-
cial reasons,
[153][154]
and have accused the security indus-
try of playing on fears to sell virus protection software
to users.
[153]
Google maintains that dangerous malware
is actually extremely rare,
[154]
and a survey conducted by
F-Secure showed that only 0.5% of Android malware re-
ported had come from the Google Play store.
[155]
Google currently uses Google Bouncer malware scanner
to watch over and scan the Google Play store apps.
[156]
It
is intended to ag up suspicious apps and warn users of
any potential threat with an application before they down-
load it.
[157]
Android version 4.2 Jelly Bean was released
in 2012 with enhanced security features, including a mal-
ware scanner built into the system, which works in combi-
nation with Google Play but can scan apps installed from
third party sources as well, and an alert system which
noties the user when an app tries to send a premium-
rate text message, blocking the message unless the user
explicitly authorises it.
[158]
Several security rms, such
as Lookout Mobile Security,
[159]
AVG Technologies,
[160]
and McAfee,
[161]
have released antivirus software for An-
droid devices. This software is ineective as sandboxing
also applies to such applications, limiting their ability to
scan the deeper system for threats.
[162]
Android smartphones have the ability to report the lo-
cation of Wi-Fi access points, encountered as phone
users move around, to build databases containing the
physical locations of hundreds of millions of such ac-
cess points. These databases form electronic maps
to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like
Foursquare, Google Latitude, Facebook Places, and to
deliver location-based ads.
[163]
Third party monitoring
software such as TaintDroid,
[164]
an academic research-
funded project, can, in some cases, detect when personal
information is being sent from applications to remote
servers.
[165]
In August 2013, Google released Android
6.6. LICENSING 53
Device Manager (ADM), a component that allows users
to remotely track, locate, and wipe their Android de-
vice through a web interface.
[100][166]
In December 2013,
Google released ADM as an Android application on the
Google Play store, where it is available to devices running
Android version 2.2 and higher.
[167][168]
The open-source nature of Android allows security con-
tractors to take existing devices and adapt themfor highly
secure uses. For example Samsung has worked with Gen-
eral Dynamics through their Open Kernel Labs acquisi-
tion to rebuild Jelly Bean on top of their hardened micro-
visor for the Knox project.
[169][170]
As part of the broader 2013 mass surveillance disclosures
it was revealed in September 2013 that the American
and British intelligence agencies, the National Security
Agency (NSA) and Government Communications Head-
quarters (GCHQ) respectively, have access to the user
data on iPhone, BlackBerry, and Android devices. They
are reportedly able to read almost all smartphone infor-
mation, including SMS, location, emails, and notes.
[171]
Further reports in January 2014 revealed the intelligence
agencies capabilities to intercept the personal informa-
tion transmitted across the internet by social networks
and other popular apps such as Angry Birds, which col-
lect personal information of their users for advertising
and other commercial reasons. GCHQ has, according to
The Guardian, a wiki-style guide of dierent apps and
advertising networks, and the dierent data that can be
siphoned fromeach.
[172]
Later that week, the Finnish An-
gry Birds developer Rovio announced that it was recon-
sidering its relationships with its advertising platforms in
the light of these revelations, and called upon the wider
industry to do the same.
[173]
The documents revealed a further eort by the intelli-
gence agencies to intercept Google Maps searches and
queries submitted from Android and other smartphones
to collect location information in bulk.
[172]
The NSA and
GCHQ insist their activities are in compliance with all
relevant domestic and international laws, although the
Guardian stated the latest disclosures could also add to
mounting public concern about how the technology sec-
tor collects and uses information, especially for those out-
side the US, who enjoy fewer privacy protections than
Americans.
[172]
6.6 Licensing
The source code for Android is open source; it is de-
veloped in private by Google, with the source code re-
leased publicly when a new version of Android is re-
leased. Google publishes most of the code (including
network and telephony stacks) under the non-copyleft
Apache License version 2.0. which allows modica-
tion and redistribution.
[174][175]
The license does not grant
rights to the Android trademark, so device manufactur-
From left to right: HTC Dream (G1), Nexus One, Nexus S,
Galaxy Nexus
ers and wireless carriers have to license it from Google
under individual contracts. Associated Linux kernel
changes are released under the copyleft GNU General
Public License version 2, developed by the Open Hand-
set Alliance, with the source code publicly available at
all times. Typically, Google collaborates with a hard-
ware manufacturer to produce a agship device (part of
the Nexus series) featuring the new version of Android,
then makes the source code available after that device
has been released.
[176]
The only Android release which
was not immediately made available as source code was
the tablet-only 3.0 Honeycomb release. The reason, ac-
cording to Andy Rubin in an ocial Android blog post,
was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the
Motorola Xoom,
[177]
and they did not want third parties
creating a really bad user experience by attempting to
put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for
tablets.
[178]
While all of Android itself is open source software, most
Android devices ship with a large amount of propri-
etary software, such as Google Mobile Services, which
includes apps such as Google Play Store, Google Search,
and Google Play Servicesa software layer which pro-
vides APIs that integrate with Google-provided services,
among others. These apps must be licensed from Google
by device makers, and can only be shipped on de-
vices which meet its compatibility guidelines and other
requirements.
[66][100]
Custom, certied distributions of
Android produced by manufacturers (such as TouchWiz
and HTC Sense) may also replace certain stock An-
droid apps with their own proprietary variants and add
additional software not included in the stock Android
operating system.
[3]
There may also be "binary blob"
drivers required for certain hardware components in the
device.
[3][91]
Several stock apps in Androids open source code used
by previous versions (such as Search, Music, and Cal-
endar) have also been eectively deprecated by Google,
with development having shifted to newer but proprietary
versions distributed and updated through Play Store, such
as Google Search and Google Play Music. While these
older apps remain in Androids source code, they have no
longer received any major updates. Additionally, propri-
54 CHAPTER 6. ANDROID (OPERATING SYSTEM)
etary variants of the stock Camera and Gallery apps also
include certain functions (such as Photosphere panora-
mas and Google+ album integration) that are excluded
from open source versions (however, they have yet to be
completely abandoned). Similarly, the Nexus 5 uses a
non-free variation of Android 4.4s home screen that is
embedded directly within the Google Search app, adding
voice-activated search and the ability to access Google
Nowas a page on the home screen itself. Although an up-
date for Google Search app containing the relevant com-
ponents was released through Google Play for all An-
droid devices, the new home screen required an addi-
tional stub application to function, and was not provided
in Android 4.4 updates for any other devices (which still
used the existing home screen fromAndroid version 4.3).
The stub application was ocially released on Play Store
as Google Now Launcher in February 2014, initially for
Nexus and Google Play Edition devices with Android ver-
sion 4.4.
[3][179][180][181]
Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation have
been critical of Android and have recommended the us-
age of alternatives such as Replicant, because drivers and
rmware vital for the proper functioning of Android de-
vices are usually proprietary, and because Google Play
can forcibly install or deinstall apps and invites non-free
software.
[182][183]
6.6.1 Leverage over manufacturers
Google Mobile Services software, along with Android
trademarks, can only be licensed by hardware manufac-
turers for devices that meet Googles compatibility stan-
dards contained within Android Compatibility Deni-
tion Document. Thus, forks of Android that make ma-
jor changes to the operating system itself do not include
any of Googles non-free components, stay incompati-
ble with applications that require them, and must ship
with an alternative software marketplace in lieu of Google
Play Store.
[3]
Examples of such Android forks are the
Amazon's Fire OS (which is used on the Kindle Fire line
of tablets, and oriented toward Amazon services), the
Nokia X Software Platform (a fork used by the Nokia X
family, oriented primarily toward Nokia and Microsoft
services), and other forks that exclude Google apps due
to the general unavailability of Google service in that
country and licensing fees (such as in China).
[184][185]
In
2014, Google also began to require that all Android de-
vices which license the Google Mobile Services software
display a prominent Powered by Android logo on their
boot screens.
[66]
Members of the Open Handset Alliance, which include
the majority of Android OEMs, are also contractually
forbidden from producing Android devices based on
forks of the OS;
[3][186]
in 2012, Acer Inc. was forced
by Google to halt production on a device powered by
Alibaba Group's Aliyun OS with threats of removal from
the OHA, as Google deemed the platformto be an incom-
patible version of Android. Alibaba Group defended the
allegations, arguing that the OS was a distinct platform
from Android (primarily using HTML5 apps), but incor-
porated portions of Androids platform to allow back-
wards compatibility with third-party Android software.
Indeed, the devices did ship with an application store
which oered Android apps; however, the majority of
them were pirated.
[187][188][189]
6.7 Reception
Android-x86 running on an ASUS EeePC netbook; Android has
been unocially ported to generic computers for use as a desktop
operating system.
Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was un-
veiled in 2007. Although analysts were impressed with
the respected technology companies that had partnered
with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was
unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be
willing to replace their existing operating systems with
Android.
[190]
The idea of an open-source, Linux-based
development platform sparked interest,
[191]
but there
were additional worries about Android facing strong com-
petition from established players in the smartphone mar-
ket, such as Nokia and Microsoft, and rival Linux mobile
operating systems that were in development.
[192]
These
established players were skeptical: Nokia was quoted as
saying we don't see this as a threat,
[193]
and a member
of Microsofts Windows Mobile team stated I don't un-
derstand the impact that they are going to have.
[193]
Since then Android has grown to become the most widely
used smartphone operating system
[25]
and one of the
fastest mobile experiences available.
[194]
Reviewers have
highlighted the open-source nature of the operating sys-
tem as one of its dening strengths, allowing compa-
nies such as Microsoft (Nokia Xfamily),
[195][196]
Amazon
(Kindle Fire), Barnes & Noble (Nook), Ouya, Baidu and
others to fork the software and release hardware running
their own customised version of Android. As a result, it
has been described by technology website Ars Technica
as practically the default operating system for launch-
6.7. RECEPTION 55
ing new hardware for companies without their own mo-
bile platforms.
[25]
This openness and exibility is also
present at the level of the end user: Android allows ex-
tensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps
are freely available from non-Google app stores and third
party websites. These have been cited as among the main
advantages of Android phones over others.
[25][197]
Despite Androids popularity, including an activation rate
three times that of iOS, there have been reports that
Google has not been able to leverage their other products
and web services successfully to turn Android into the
money maker that analysts had expected.
[198]
The Verge
suggested that Google is losing control of Android due
to the extensive customization and proliferation of non-
Google apps and servicesAmazons Kindle Fire line
uses Fire OS, a heavily modied fork of Android which
does not include or support any of Googles proprietary
components, and requires that users obtain software from
its competing Amazon Appstore instead of Play Store.
[3]
In 2014, in an eort to improve prominence of the An-
droid brand, Google began to require that devices featur-
ing its proprietary components display an Android logo
on the boot screen.
[66]
Android has suered from fragmentation,
[199]
a situa-
tion where the variety of Android devices, in terms of
both hardware variations and dierences in the software
running on them, makes the task of developing applica-
tions that work consistently across the ecosystem harder
than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and
software varies less. For example, according to data
from OpenSignal in July 2013, there were 11,868 models
of Android device, numerous dierent screen sizes and
eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while
the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the lat-
est iteration of that OS.
[200]
Critics such as Apple Insider
have asserted that fragmentation via hardware and soft-
ware pushed Androids growth through large volumes of
low end, budget-priced devices running older versions of
Android. They maintain this forces Android developers
to write for the lowest common denominator to reach
as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to
make use of the latest hardware or software features only
available on a smaller percentage of devices.
[201]
How-
ever, OpenSignal, who develops both Android and iOS
apps, concluded that although fragmentation can make
development trickier, Androids wider global reach also
increases the potential reward.
[200]
6.7.1 Market share
Main article: Mobile operating system Market share
Research company Canalys estimated in the second quar-
ter of 2009 that Android had a 2.8% share of world-
wide smartphone shipments.
[202]
By the fourth quarter
of 2010 this had grown to 33% of the market, becom-
ing the top-selling smartphone platform,
[203]
overtaking
Symbian.
[204]
By the third quarter of 2011 Gartner es-
timated that more than half (52.5%) of the smartphone
sales belonged to Android.
[205]
By the third quarter of
2012 Android had a 75% share of the global smartphone
market according to the research rm IDC.
[206]
In July 2011, Google said that 550,000 new Android
devices were being activated every day,
[207]
up from
400,000 per day in May,
[208]
and more than 100 mil-
lion devices had been activated
[209]
with 4.4% growth
per week.
[207]
In September 2012, 500 million de-
vices had been activated with 1.3 million activations per
day.
[210][211]
In May 2013, at Google I/O, Sundar Pichai
announced that 900 million Android devices had been
activated.
[212]
Android market share varies by location. In July 2012,
mobile subscribers aged 13+" in the United States us-
ing Android were up to 52%,
[213]
and rose to 90%
in China.
[214]
During the third quarter of 2012, An-
droids worldwide smartphone shipment market share
was 75%,
[206]
with 750 million devices activated in to-
tal. In April 2013 Android had 1.5 million activations per
day.
[211]
As of May 2013, 48 billion apps have been in-
stalled from the Google Play store,
[68]
and by September
2013, 1 billion Android devices have been activated.
[215]
Android has the largest installed base of any mobile OS
and as of 2013, its devices also sell more than Win-
dows, iOS and Mac OS devices combined.
[14][15][16][17]
In the third quarter of 2013, Androids share of the
global smartphone shipment market was 81.3%, the high-
est ever.
[216]
As of July 2013 the Google Play store has
had over 1 million Android apps published, and over
50 billion apps downloaded.
[20]
A developer survey con-
ducted in AprilMay 2013 found that Android is used
by 71% of mobile developers.
[21]
The operating systems
success has made it a target for patent litigation as part
of the so-called "smartphone wars" between technology
companies.
[27][28]
Android devices account for more than half of smart-
phone sales in most markets, including the US.
[217]
In the third quarter of 2013, Androids share of the
global smartphone shipment marketled by Samsung
productswas 81.3%;
[216][218][219]
During this time pe-
riod over 261 million smartphones were sold globally,
with around 211 million of those running Android,
[218]
thereby outselling Windows, iOS and Mac OS devices
combined.
[16]
At the end of 2013, over 1.5 billion Android smartphones
have been sold in four years since 2010,
[220][221]
making
Android the most sold phone and mobile OS, smartphone
or not. Three billion Android smartphones are estimated
to be sold by the end of 2014 (including previous years).
56 CHAPTER 6. ANDROID (OPERATING SYSTEM)
The rst-generation Nexus 7 tablet
Tablets
Despite its success on smartphones, initially Android
tablet adoption was slow.
[222]
One of the main causes was
the chicken or the egg situation where consumers were
hesitant to buy an Android tablet due to a lack of high
quality tablet apps, but developers were hesitant to spend
time and resources developing tablet apps until there was
a signicant market for them.
[223][224]
The content and
app ecosystem proved more important than hardware
specs as the selling point for tablets. Due to the lack
of Android tablet-specic apps in 2011, early Android
tablets had to make do with existing smartphone apps that
were ill-suited to larger screen sizes, whereas the domi-
nance of Apples iPad was reinforced by the large number
of tablet-specic iOS apps.
[224][225]
Despite app support in its infancy, a considerable number
of Android tablets (alongside those using other operat-
ing systems, such as the HP TouchPad and BlackBerry
PlayBook) were rushed out to market in an attempt
to capitalize on the success of the iPad.
[224]
InfoWorld
has suggested that some Android manufacturers ini-
tially treated their rst tablets as a Frankenphone busi-
ness, a short-term low-investment opportunity by plac-
ing a smartphone-optimized Android OS (before An-
droid 3.0 Honeycomb for tablets was available) on a de-
vice while neglecting user interface. This approach, such
as with the Dell Streak, failed to gain market traction
with consumers as well as damaging the early reputation
of Android tablets.
[226][227]
Furthermore, several Android
tablets such as the Motorola Xoom were priced the same
or higher than the iPad, which hurt sales. An exception
was the Amazon Kindle Fire, which relied upon lower
pricing as well as access to Amazons ecosystem of apps
and content.
[224][228]
This began to change in 2012 with the release of the af-
fordable Nexus 7 and a push by Google for developers
to write better tablet apps.
[229]
According to International
Data Corporation, shipments of Android-powered tablets
surpassed iPads in Q3 2012.
[230]
At end of 2013, over 191.6 million Android tablets had
sold in three years since 2011.
[231][232]
This made An-
droid tablets the most-sold type of tablet in 2013, sur-
passing iPads in the second quarter of 2013.
[233]
6.7.2 Platform usage
KitKat (24.5%)
Jelly Bean (53.8%)
Ice Cream Sandwich (9.6%)
Gingerbread (11.4%)
Froyo (0.7%)
Charts in this section provide breakdowns of Android
versions, based on devices accessing Play Store as of
September 9, 2014,
[234]
Therefore, the statistics exclude
Android derivatives that do not access Google Play, such
as Amazons declining tablet market share from 14.4%
of the Android tablets in 2012 to 7.7% in 2013 (9.8% for
both years combined,
[235]
while it had none of the much
bigger smartphone market).
6.7.3 Application piracy
There has been some concern about the ease with which
paid Android apps can be pirated.
[236]
In a May 2012
interview with Eurogamer, the developers of Football
Manager stated that the ratio of pirated players vs legit-
imate players was 9:1 for their game Football Manager
6.9. USE OUTSIDE OF SMARTPHONES AND TABLETS 57
Handheld.
[237]
However, not every developer agreed that
piracy rates were an issue; for example, in July 2012 the
developers of the game Wind-up Knight said that piracy
levels of their game were only 12%, and most of the
piracy came from China, where people cannot purchase
apps from Google Play.
[238]
In 2010, Google released a tool for validating authorized
purchases for use within apps, but developers complained
that this was insucient and trivial to crack. Google re-
sponded that the tool, especially its initial release, was in-
tended as a sample framework for developers to modify
and build upon depending on their needs, not as a n-
ished piracy solution.
[239]
In 2012 Google released a fea-
ture in Android 4.1 that encrypted paid applications so
that they would only work on the device on which they
were originally installed from the Google Play Store, but
this feature has been temporarily deactivated due to tech-
nical issues.
[240]
6.8 Legal issues
Further information: Oracle v. Google, Smartphone
wars and Patent troll
Both Android and Android phone manufacturers have
been involved in numerous patent lawsuits. On August
12, 2010, Oracle sued Google over claimed infringement
of copyrights and patents related to the Java program-
ming language.
[241]
Oracle originally sought damages up
to $6.1 billion,
[242]
but this valuation was rejected by a
United States federal judge who asked Oracle to revise
the estimate.
[243]
In response, Google submitted multi-
ple lines of defense, counterclaiming that Android did
not infringe on Oracles patents or copyright, that Or-
acles patents were invalid, and several other defenses.
They said that Android is based on Apache Harmony,
a clean room implementation of the Java class libraries,
and an independently developed virtual machine called
Dalvik.
[244]
In May 2012, the jury in this case found that
Google did not infringe on Oracles patents, and the trial
judge ruled that the structure of the Java APIs used by
Google was not copyrightable.
[245][246]
In addition to lawsuits against Google directly, various
proxy wars have been waged against Android indirectly
by targeting manufacturers of Android devices, with the
eect of discouraging manufacturers from adopting the
platform by increasing the costs of bringing an Android
device to market.
[247]
Both Apple and Microsoft have
sued several manufacturers for patent infringement, with
Apples ongoing legal action against Samsung being a par-
ticularly high-prole case. In October 2011, Microsoft
said they had signed patent license agreements with ten
Android device manufacturers, whose products account
for 70%in the U.S.. and 55%of the worldwide revenue
for Android devices.
[248]
These include Samsung and
HTC.
[249]
Samsungs patent settlement with Microsoft in-
cludes an agreement that Samsung will allocate more re-
sources to developing and marketing phones running Mi-
crosofts Windows Phone operating system.
[247]
Google has publicly expressed its frustration for the cur-
rent patent landscape in the United States, accusing Ap-
ple, Oracle and Microsoft of trying to take down Android
through patent litigation, rather than innovating and com-
peting with better products and services.
[250]
In 201112,
Google purchased Motorola Mobility for US$12.5 bil-
lion, which was viewed in part as a defensive measure to
protect Android, since Motorola Mobility held more than
17,000 patents.
[251]
In December 2011, Google bought
over a thousand patents from IBM.
[252]
In 2013, Fairsearch, a lobbying organization supported
by Microsoft, Oracle and others, led a complaint re-
garding Android with the European Commission, alleg-
ing that its free-of-charge distribution model constituted
anti-competitive predatory pricing. The Free Software
Foundation Europe, whose donors include Google, dis-
puted the Fairsearch allegations.
[253]
6.9 Use outside of smartphones
and tablets
Ouya, a video game console which runs Android, was one
of the most successful crowdfunding campaigns on the website
Kickstarter.
The open and customizable nature of Android allows it to
be used on other electronics aside from smartphones and
tablets, including laptops and netbooks, smartbooks,
[254]
smart TVs (Android TV, Google TV) and cameras (E.g.
Galaxy Camera).
[255]
In addition, the Android operating
system has seen applications on smart glasses (Google
Glass), smartwatches,
[256]
headphones,
[257]
car CD and
DVD players,
[258]
mirrors,
[259]
portable media play-
ers,
[260]
landline
[261]
and Voice over IP phones.
[262]
Ouya,
a video game console running Android, became one of
the most successful Kickstarter campaigns, crowdfunding
US$8.5m for its development,
[263][264]
and was later fol-
lowed by other Android-based consoles, such as Nvidia's
Project Shield an Android device in a video game con-
troller form factor.
[265]
58 CHAPTER 6. ANDROID (OPERATING SYSTEM)
In 2011, Google demonstrated Android@Home, a
home automation technology which uses Android to con-
trol a range of household devices including light switches,
power sockets and thermostats.
[266]
Prototype light bulbs
were announced that could be controlled froman Android
phone or tablet, but Android head Andy Rubin was cau-
tious to note that turning a lightbulb on and ois nothing
new, pointing to numerous failed home automation ser-
vices. Google, he said, was thinking more ambitiously
and the intention was to use their position as a cloud ser-
vices provider to bring Google products into customers
homes.
[267][268]
Parrot unveiled an Android-based car stereo system
known as Asteroid in 2011,
[269]
followed by a successor,
the touchscreen-based Asteroid Smart, in 2012.
[270]
In
2013, Clarion released its own Android-based car stereo,
the AX1.
[271]
In January 2014 at Consumer Electronics
Show, Google announced the formation of the Open Au-
tomotive Alliance, a group including several major au-
tomobile makers (Audi, General Motors, Hyundai, and
Honda) and Nvidia, which aims to produce Android-
based in car entertainment systems for automobiles,
"[bringing] the best of Android into the automobile in a
safe and seamless way.
[272]
On March 18, 2014, Google announced Android Wear,
an Android-based platform specically intended for
smartwatches and other wearable devices; only a devel-
oper preview was made publicly available.
[273]
This was
followed by the unveiling of two Android Wearbased
devices, the LG G Watch and Moto 360.
[274]
On June 25, 2014, at Google I/O, it was announced
Android TV, a Smart TV platform, is replacing the pre-
viously released Google TV. On June 26, 2014, Google
announced Android Auto for the car.
6.10 See also
Android rooting
Android version history
Comparison of mobile operating systems
Index of Android OS articles
List of GPS software for mobile phones
Openmoko
Replicant (operating system) based on Android
with no proprietary software components
6.11 Notes
[1] Provided numbers give a slightly inaccurate distribution of
APIs. For example, information about the Amazon App-
store would only show a subset of the APIs/versions, that
is, those used by Amazons products.
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... For userspace (that is, non-kernel) software, we do in
fact prefer ASL2.0 (and similar licenses like BSD, MIT,
etc.) over other licenses such as LGPL. Android is about
freedom and choice. The purpose of Android is promote
openness in the mobile world, but we don't believe its pos-
sible to predict or dictate all the uses to which people will
want to put our software. So, while we encourage every-
one to make devices that are open and modiable, we don't
believe it is our place to force them to do so. Using LGPL
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[239] Paul, Ryan (August 25, 2010). Android antipiracy
cracked, Google says devs used it wrong. Ars Technica.
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[240] McAllister, Neil (August 8, 2012). Android app DRM
quietly disabled due to bug. The Register. Retrieved
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Google over Java use in Android. Computerworld. Inter-
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[242] Oracle seeks up to $6.1 billion in Google lawsuit.
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[243] Judge tosses Oracles $6.1 billion damage estimate in
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critical, Google Denies Patent Infringement. Wired. Re-
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[249] Mikael Rickns (September 28, 2011). Microsoft signs
Android licensing deal with Samsung. Computerworld.
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[250] Jacqui Cheng (August 3, 2011). Google publicly accuses
Apple, Microsoft, Oracle of patent bullying. Retrieved
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patents, buys Motorola wireless for $12.5 billion. Re-
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Founder Julie Uhrman On A New Breed Of Video Game
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make a splash by Janko Roettgers.
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your dash. Engadget. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
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66 CHAPTER 6. ANDROID (OPERATING SYSTEM)
[272] Google launches the Android-based Open Automotive
Alliance with Audi, Honda, GM, and more. The Verge.
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reveals Android Wear, an operating system for smart-
watches. The Verge. Retrieved March 20, 2014.
6.13 External links
Ocial website
Sergey Brin introduces the Android platform on
YouTube
Chapter 7
IOS
This article is about Apples mobile OS. For other uses,
see IOS (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with eyeOS.
iOS (previously iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system
developed by Apple Inc. and distributed exclusively for
Apple hardware. It is the operating system that powers
many of the companys iDevices.
Originally unveiled in 2007 for the iPhone, it has been
extended to support other Apple devices such as the
iPod Touch (September 2007), iPad (January 2010), iPad
Mini (November 2012) and second-generation Apple TV
onward (September 2010). As of June 2014, Apples
App Store contained more than 1.2 million iOS appli-
cations, 500,000 of which were optimized for iPad.
[6][7]
These apps have collectively been downloaded more than
60 billion times.
[8]
It had a 21% share of the smartphone
mobile operating system units shipped in the fourth quar-
ter of 2012, behind Googles Android.
[9]
By the mid-
dle of 2012, there were 410 million devices activated.
[10]
According to the special media event held by Apple on
September 12, 2012, 400 million devices had been sold
by June 2012.
[11]
The user interface of iOS is based on the concept of direct
manipulation, using multi-touch gestures. Interface con-
trol elements consist of sliders, switches, and buttons. In-
teraction with the OS includes gestures such as swipe, tap,
pinch, and reverse pinch, all of which have specic def-
initions within the context of the iOS operating system
and its multi-touch interface. Internal accelerometers are
used by some applications to respond to shaking the de-
vice (one common result is the undo command) or rotat-
ing it in three dimensions (one common result is switching
from portrait to landscape mode).
iOS shares with OS X some frameworks such as Core
Foundation and Foundation; however, its UI toolkit is
Cocoa Touch rather than OS Xs Cocoa, so that it pro-
vides the UIKit framework rather than the AppKit frame-
work. It is therefore not compatible with OS X for appli-
cations. Also while iOS also shares the Darwin founda-
tion with OS X, Unix-like shell access is not available for
users and restricted for apps, making iOS not fully Unix-
compatible either.
Major versions of iOS are released annually. The current
release, iOS 8, was released on September 17, 2014. In
iOS, there are four abstraction layers: the Core OS layer,
the Core Services layer, the Media layer, and the Cocoa
Touch layer. The current version of the operating sys-
tem (iOS 8.0), dedicates 1.3 - 1.5GB of the devices ash
memory for the system partition, using roughly 800 MB
of that partition (varying by model) for iOS itself.
[12][13]
It
runs on the iPhone 4S and later, iPad 2 and later, all mod-
els of the iPad Mini, and the 5th-generation iPod Touch.
7.1 History
In 2005, when Steve Jobs began planning the iPhone, he
had a choice to either shrink the Mac, which would be
an epic feat of engineering, or enlarge the iPod. Jobs
favored the former approach but pitted the Macintosh
and iPod teams, led by Scott Forstall and Tony Fadell,
respectively, against each other in an internal compe-
tition. Forstall won that erce competition to create
the iPhone OS. The decision enabled the success of the
iPhone as a platform for third-party developers: using a
well-known desktop operating system as its basis allowed
the many third-party Mac developers to write software
for the iPhone with minimal retraining.
[14]
Forstall was
also responsible for creating a software developers kit
for programmers to build iPhone apps, as well as an App
Store within iTunes.
[15][16]
The operating system was unveiled with the iPhone at
the Macworld Conference & Expo, January 9, 2007,
and released in June of that year.
[17]
At rst, Apple
marketing literature did not specify a separate name
for the operating system, stating simply what Steve
Jobs claimed: iPhone runs OS X and runs desktop
applications
[18][19]
when in fact it runs a variant of [Mac]
OS X, that doesn't run OS X software unless it has
been ported to the incompatible operating system. Ini-
tially, third-party applications were not supported. Steve
Jobs reasoning was that developers could build web ap-
plications that would behave like native apps on the
iPhone.
[20][21]
On October 17, 2007, Apple announced
that a native Software Development Kit (SDK) was un-
der development and that they planned to put it in devel-
67
68 CHAPTER 7. IOS
opers hands in February.
[22]
On March 6, 2008, Apple
released the rst beta, along with a new name for the op-
erating system: iPhone OS.
Apple had released the iPod Touch, which had most of
the non-phone capabilities of the iPhone. Apple also sold
more than one million iPhones during the 2007 holiday
season.
[23]
On January 27, 2010, Apple announced the
iPad, featuring a larger screen than the iPhone and iPod
Touch, and designed for web browsing, media consump-
tion, and reading iBooks.
[24]
In June 2010, Apple rebranded iPhone OS as iOS.
The trademark IOS had been used by Cisco for over a
decade for its operating system, IOS, used on its routers.
To avoid any potential lawsuit, Apple licensed the IOS
trademark from Cisco.
[25]
By late 2011, iOS accounted for 60% of the market share
for smartphones and tablet computers.
[26]
By the end of
2012, iOS accounted for 21% of the smartphone OS
market
[9]
and 43.6% of the tablet OS market.
[27]
7.1.1 Software updates
Main article: History of iOS
See also: iOS 4, iOS 5, iOS 6, iOS 7 and iOS 8
Apple provides major updates to the iOS operating sys-
tem approximately once a year via iTunes and also, for
devices that came with iOS version 5.0 or later, over the
air. The latest version is iOS 8, which is available for
the iPhone 4S, iPhone 5, iPhone 5C, iPhone 5S, iPhone
6, iPhone 6 Plus, iPad 2, the third and fourth generation
iPad, the iPad Air, the rst and second generation iPad
Mini, and the fth generation iPod Touch. The update
was released on September 17, 2014.
Before the iOS 4 release in 2010, iPod Touch users had
to pay for system software updates. Apple claimed that
this was the case because the iPod Touch was not a 'sub-
scription device' like the iPhone (i.e., it was a one-o
purchase).
[28]
Apple said it had 'found a way' to deliver
software updates for free to iPod Touch users at WWDC
2010 when iOS 4 was unveiled.
[29]
7.2 Features
7.2.1 Home Screen
Main article: SpringBoard
The home screen (rendered by and also known as
"SpringBoard") displays application icons and a dock at
the bottom of the screen where users can pin their most
frequently used apps. The home screen appears when-
ever the user unlocks the device or presses the Home
button (a physical button on the device) whilst in another
app. The screens background can be customized with
other customizations available through jailbreaking. The
screen has a status bar across the top to display data, such
as time, battery level, and signal strength. The rest of the
screen is devoted to the current application. When a pass-
code is set and a user switches on the device, the passcode
must be entered at the Lock Screen before access to the
Home Screen is granted.
Since iOS version 3.0, a Spotlight Search function has
been available on the leftmost page of the home screen
page allowing users to search through media (music,
videos, podcasts, etc.), applications, e-mails, contacts,
messages, reminders, calendar events, and similar les.
Third-party app les were not, and still are not, search-
able using the Spotlight feature. In iOS 7, this feature
can be accessed by pulling down anywhere on the home
screen (except for the top and bottom edges that open
Notication Center and Control Center).
[30][31]
In iOS 3.2 or later and with a supported device, the user
can set a picture as the background of the home screen.
This feature is only available on third-generation devices
or newer iPhone 3GS or newer, iPod Touch 3rd gen. or
newer, and all iPad models.
Researchers found that users organize icons on their
homescreens based on usage-frequency and relatedness
of the applications, as well as for reasons of usability and
aesthetics.
[32]
Folders
With iOS 4 came the introduction of a simple folder sys-
tem. When applications are in jiggle mode, any two
(with the exception of Newsstand in iOS 5 and iOS 6,
which acts like a folder
[33]
) can be dragged on top of each
other to create a folder, and from then on, more apps can
be added to the folder using the same procedure, up to 12
on iPhone 4S and earlier and iPod Touch, 16 on iPhone
5, and 20 on iPad. A title for the folder is automatically
selected by the category of applications inside, but the
name can also be edited by the user. When apps inside
folders receive badges, the numbers shown by the badges
is added up and shown on the folder. Folders cannot be
put into other folders, though an unocial workaround
exists that enables folders to be nested within folders.
[34]
iOS 7 updated the folders with pages like on the Spring-
Board. Each page can hold nine apps, and the Newsstand
app is now able to be placed into a folder.
Notication Center
Main article: Notication Center
Before iOS 5, notications were delivered in a blue di-
alog box. This system of notication management was
7.2. FEATURES 69
greatly criticized. In the iOS 5 update, the notications
feature was completely redesigned. Notications collate
in a window which can be dragged down from the top of
the screen.
[35]
If a user touches a received notication,
the application that sent the notication will be opened.
Notications are now delivered in small banners that ap-
pear over the status bar. The old method of delivering
notications is still available from Notication Settings if
the user wishes to enable it for some or all applications.
When an app sends a notication whilst closed, a red
badge will appear on its icon. This badge tells the user, at
a glance, how many notications that app has sent. Open-
ing the app clears the badge.
7.2.2 Included applications
The iOS home screen contains these default apps.
Some of these applications are hidden by default and ac-
cessed by the user through the Settings app or another
methodfor instance, Nike+iPod is activated through
the Settings app. Many of these apps, such as Safari, the
App Store, and Siri, can also be disabled in the Restric-
tions section of the Settings app.
[36]
On the iPhone and iPod Touch, apps such as Voice
Memos, Contacts, Calculator, and Compass are in one
folder called Utilities in iOS 4 and above.
[37][38]
Many
of the included applications are designed to share data
(e.g., a phone number can be selected from an email and
saved as a contact or dialed for a phone call). For the iOS
7 update, the folder name was changed to Extras.
The Messages app supports Apples iMessage service in
iOS 5 or above; iMessage supports sending free text or
multimedia messages to other iOS devices running iOS
5 and above (similar to BlackBerry Messenger), and to
Macs running OS X Mavericks.
Panoramic photography is available only on iPhone
4S and later models, and the fth generation iPod
Touch.
[39][40]
The bottom row of applications, called the dock, is
used to delineate the iPhones main purposes: originally
Phone, Mail, Safari, iPod. Starting with iOS 5, the iPod
app was split into two apps, Music and Videos, as it always
has been on the iPod Touch, and the Music app replaced
the iPod app in the dock.
Since the inception of the iPhone, various apps were ei-
ther integrated into iOS (e.g. Podcasts, iBooks, Siri,
Facebook, Twitter) or disintegrated (e.g. Podcasts,
iTunes U, YouTube). In iOS 6, the previously integrated
YouTube app was removed fromthe software, and moved
to the App Store. The Podcasts and iTunes U features
(previously integrated in the Music and Videos apps) also
became their own apps in the App Store. In iOS 7, the
iPhone gains a dedicated FaceTime app (previously in-
tegrated into the Phone app), as it had been on the iPod
Touch and iPad since iOS 4. In iOS 8, the iBook and
Podcast apps became integrated into iOS, though the App
Store app is still available for download.
Starting January 2008, the iPod Touch retains the same
applications that are present by default on the iPhone,
with the exception of the Phone and Compass (and also
previously, Messages before iOS 5 and Camera before
the fourth-generation iPod Touch) apps. The original
dock layout was Music, Videos, Photos, and iTunes. In
iPhone OS 3, the layout was changed to Music, Videos,
Safari, and App Store. For the fourth-generation iPod
Touch, it includes FaceTime and Camera, and the dock
layout had changed to Music, Mail, Safari, Videos, with
the release of iOS 4. With the release of the new fth-
generation iPod Touch and iOS 6, the dock layout was
changed to Messages, Mail, Safari, Music, similar to the
iPhone.
The iPad and iPad Mini come with the same applications
as the iPod Touch, excluding Stocks, Weather, Calcula-
tor, and the Nike + iPod app (and also previously, Clock
before iOS 6). Additionally, starting with the iPad 2, they
have the unique Photo Booth app. Most of the default ap-
plications, such as Safari and Mail, are completely rewrit-
ten to take advantage of the iPads and iPad Minis larger
displays. The original dock layout was Safari, Mail, Pho-
tos, iPod. Separate music and video apps are provided, as
on the iPod Touch, although (as on the iPhone) the mu-
sic app was named iPod. In iOS 5, it was changed to
Music and the dock layout became Safari, Mail, Pho-
tos, Music. In iOS 6, Videos replaced Photos in the dock.
In iOS 7, the default dock layout was changed to match
that of the iPod Touch.
7.2.3 Multitasking
Multitasking for iOS was rst released in June 2010 along
with the release of iOS 4.0.
[41][42]
Only certain devices
iPhone 4, iPhone 3GS, and iPod Touch 3rd generation
were able to use multitasking.
[43]
The iPad did not get
multitasking until the release of iOS 4.2.1 in November
2010.
[44]
Currently, multitasking is supported on iPhone
3GS or newer, iPod Touch 3rd generation or newer, and
all iPad models.
[45]
Implementation of multitasking in iOS has been criti-
cized for its approach, that limits the work that applica-
tions in the background can perform to a limited function
set, and for requiring application developers to add ex-
plicit support for it.
[43][46]
Before iOS 4, multitasking was limited to a selection of
the applications Apple included on the device. Users
could, however jailbreak their device in order to un-
ocially multitask.
[47]
Starting with iOS 4, on third-
generation and newer iOS devices, multitasking is sup-
ported through seven background APIs:
[48]
1. Background audio application continues to run in
the background as long as it is playing audio or video
70 CHAPTER 7. IOS
content
[49]
2. Voice over IP application is suspended when a
phone call is not in progress
[49]
3. Background location application is notied of lo-
cation changes
[49]
4. Push notications
5. Local notications application schedules local
notications to be delivered at a predetermined
time
[49]
6. Task completion application asks the system for
extra time to complete a given task
[49]
7. Fast app switching application does not execute
any code and may be removed from memory at any
time
[49]
In iOS 5, three new background APIs were introduced:
1. Newsstand application can download content in
the background to be ready for the user
[49]
2. External Accessory application communicates
with an external accessory and shares data at regular
intervals
[49]
3. Bluetooth Accessory application communicates
with a bluetooth accessory and shares data at reg-
ular intervals
[49]
In iOS 7, Apple introduced a new multitasking feature,
providing all apps with the ability to perform background
updates. This feature prefers to update the users most
frequently used apps and prefers to use WiFi networks
over a cellular network, without markedly reducing the
devices battery life.
Switching applications
In iOS 4.0 to iOS 6.x, double-clicking the home button
activates the application switcher. A scrollable dock-like
interface appears from the bottom, moving the contents
of the screen up. Choosing an icon switches to an appli-
cation. To the far left are icons which function as music
controls, a rotation lock, and on iOS 4.2 and above, a vol-
ume controller.
With the introduction of iOS 7, double clicking the home
button also activates the application switcher. However,
unlike previous versions it displays screenshots of open
applications on top of the icon and horizontal scrolling
allows for browsing through previous apps, and it is pos-
sible to close applications by dragging them up, similar to
how WebOS handled multiple cards.
[50]
Ending tasks
Briey holding the icons in the application switcher
makes themjiggle (similarly to the homescreen) and al-
lows the user to force quit the applications by tapping the
red minus circle that appears at the corner of the apps
icon.
[51]
Clearing applications from multitasking stayed
the same from iOS 4.0 through 6.1.6, the last version of
iOS 6. As of iOS 7, the process has become faster and
easier. In iOS 7, it is no longer necessary to hold the icons
to close them, they can simply be swiped o the screen.
Up to three apps can be cleared at a time compared to
one in versions up to iOS 6.1.6.
[52]
Task completion
Task completion allows apps to continue a certain task
after the app has been suspended.
[53][54]
As of iOS 4.0,
apps can request up to ten minutes to complete a task in
the background.
[55]
7.2.4 Siri
Main article: Siri (software)
Siri is a personal assistant and knowledge navigator which
works as an application on supported devices. The ser-
vice, directed by the users spoken commands, can do
a variety of dierent tasks, such as call or text some-
one, open an app, search the web, lookup sports infor-
mation, nd directions or locations, and answer general
knowledge questions (e.g. How many cups are in a
gallon?").
[56]
Siri was updated in iOS 7 with a new inter-
face, faster answers, Wikipedia, Twitter, and Bing sup-
port and the voice was changed to sound more human.
Siri is currently only available on the iPhone 4S and later
iPhones, the fth-generation iPod Touch, all of the mod-
els of the iPad Mini, and the third-generation and later
iPads.
7.2.5 Game Center
Main article: Game Center
Game Center is an online multiplayer social gaming
network
[57]
released by Apple.
[58]
It allows users to in-
vite friends to play a game, start a multiplayer game
through matchmaking, track their achievements, and
compare their high scores on a leaderboard. iOS 5 and
above adds support for prole photos.
[57]
Game Center was announced during an iOS 4 preview
event hosted by Apple on April 8, 2010. A preview
was released to registered Apple developers in August.
[57]
It was released on September 8, 2010 with iOS 4.1 on
iPhone 4, iPhone 3GS, and iPod Touch 2nd generation
7.4. JAILBREAKING 71
through 4th generation.
[59]
Game Center made its public
debut on the iPad with iOS 4.2.1.
[60]
There is no sup-
port for the iPhone 3G, original iPhone and the rst-
generation iPod Touch (the latter two devices did not have
Game Center because they did not get iOS 4). However,
Game Center is unocially available on the iPhone 3G
via a hack.
[61]
7.3 Development
The applications must be written and compiled speci-
cally for iOS and the 64-bit ARMarchitecture or previous
32-bit one. The Safari web browser supports web applica-
tions as with other web browsers. Authorized third-party
native applications are available for devices running iOS
2.0 and later through Apples App Store.
7.3.1 SDK
Main article: iOS SDK
On October 17, 2007, in an open letter posted to Ap-
iOS SDK 6.1 included in Xcode 4.6
ples Hot News weblog, Steve Jobs announced that a
software development kit (SDK) would be made avail-
able to third-party developers in February 2008.
[62]
The
SDKwas released on March 6, 2008, and allows develop-
ers to make applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch,
as well as test them in an iPhone simulator. However,
loading an application onto the devices is only possible
after paying an iPhone Developer Program fee.
The fees to join the respective developer programs for
iOS and OS X were each set at $99.00 per year. As
of July 20, 2011, Apple released Xcode on its Mac App
Store free to download for all OS X Lion users, instead of
as a standalone download. Users can create and develop
iOS and OS X applications using a free copy of Xcode;
however, they cannot test their applications on a physi-
cal iOS device, or publish them to the App store, without
rst paying the yearly $99.00 iPhone Developer or Mac
Developer Program fee.
[63]
Since the release of Xcode 3.1, Xcode is the development
environment for the iOS SDK. iOS applications, like
many of the higher-level frameworks and applications
that are part of iOS and OS X, are written in Objective-
C.
[64]
Developers are able to set any price above a set minimum
for their applications to be distributed through the App
Store, keeping 70% for the developer, and leaving 30%
for Apple. Alternatively, they may opt to release the ap-
plication for free and need not pay any costs to release
or distribute the application except for the membership
fee.
[65]
7.4 Jailbreaking
Main article: iOS jailbreaking
Since its initial release, iOS has been subject to a variety
of dierent hacks centered around adding functionality
not allowed by Apple. Prior to the 2008 debut of the na-
tive iOS App Store, the primary motive for jailbreaking
was to install third-party native applications, which was
not allowed by Apple at the time.
[66]
Apple claimed that
it will not release iOS software updates designed specif-
ically to break these tools (other than applications that
perform SIM unlocking); however, with each subsequent
iOS update, previously un-patched jailbreak exploits are
usually patched.
[67]
Since the arrival of Apples native iOS App Store, and
along with itthird-party applications, the general mo-
tives for jailbreaking have changed.
[68]
People jailbreak
for many dierent reasons, including gaining lesystem
access, installing custom device themes, and modifying
the device SpringBoard. On some devices, jailbreaking
also makes it possible to install alternative operating sys-
tems, such as Android and the Linux kernel. Primarily,
users jailbreak their devices because of the limitations of
iOS. It should be noted that depending on the method
used, the eects of jailbreaking may be permanent, or
can be restored to the original state.
[69]
In 2010, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) suc-
cessfully convinced the U.S. Copyright Oce to allow
an exemption to the general prohibition on circumven-
tion of copyright protection systems under the Digital
Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). The exemption al-
lows jailbreaking of iPhones for the sole purpose of al-
lowing legally obtained applications to be added to the
iPhone.
[70]
The exemption does not aect the contrac-
tual relations between Apple and an iPhone owner, for
example, jailbreaking voiding the iPhone warranty; how-
ever, it is solely based on Apples discretion on whether
they will x jailbroken devices in the event that they need
to be repaired. At the same time, the Copyright Oce
exempted unlocking an iPhone from DMCAs anticir-
cumvention prohibitions.
[71]
Unlocking an iPhone allows
72 CHAPTER 7. IOS
the iPhone to be used with any wireless carrier using the
same GSMor CDMAtechnology for which the particular
phone model was designed to operate.
[72]
7.5 Unlocking
Main article: SIM lock
Initially most wireless carriers in the US did not allow
iPhone owners to unlock an iPhone for use with other
carriers. AT&T Mobility allows iPhone owners who have
satised the requirements of their contract to unlock their
iPhone.
[73]
Instructions to unlock the device are available
from Apple,
[74]
but it is ultimately the sole discretion of
the carrier to authorize the device to be unlocked.
[75]
This
allows the use of a carrier sourced iPhone on other net-
works. However, because T-Mobile primarily uses a dif-
ferent band than AT&T for its 3Gdata signals, the iPhone
will only work at 3G speeds on the T-Mobile 1900 MHz
network.
[76]
There are programs to break these restric-
tions, but are not supported by Apple and most often not
a permanent unlock, known as soft-unlock.
[77]
7.6 Digital rights management
The closed and proprietary nature of iOS has garnered
criticism, particularly by digital rights advocates such
as the Electronic Frontier Foundation, computer engi-
neer and activist Brewster Kahle, Internet-law special-
ist Jonathan Zittrain, and the Free Software Founda-
tion who protested the iPads introductory event and
have targeted the iPad with their "Defective by De-
sign" campaign.
[78][79][80][81]
Competitor Microsoft, via
a PR spokesman, criticized Apples control over its
platform.
[82]
At issue are restrictions imposed by the design of iOS,
namely digital rights management (DRM) intended to
lock purchased media to Apples platform, the develop-
ment model (requiring a yearly subscription to distribute
apps developed for the iOS), the centralized approval pro-
cess for apps, as well as Apples general control and lock-
down of the platform itself. Particularly at issue is the
ability for Apple to remotely disable or delete apps at will.
Some in the tech community have expressed concern that
the locked-down iOS represents a growing trend in Ap-
ples approach to computing, particularly Apples shift
away from machines that hobbyists can tinker with and
note the potential for such restrictions to stie software
innovation.
[83][84]
Former Facebook developer Joe He-
witt protested against Apples control over its hardware
as a horrible precedent but praised iOSs sandboxing
of apps.
[85]
7.7 Kernel
The iOS kernel is XNU, the kernel of Darwin. The orig-
inal iPhone OS (1.0) up to iPhone OS 3.1.3 used Dar-
win 9.0.0d1. iOS 4 was based on Darwin 10.0.0. iOS
5 was based on Darwin 11.0.0. iOS 6 was based on
Darwin 13.0.0. iOS 7 is based on Darwin 14.0.0 (Dar-
win Kernel Version 14.0.0: Fri Sep 27 00:44:15 PDT
2013;root:xnu-2423.3.12~{}1/RELEASE_ARM).
[86]
7.8 Devices
Main article: List of iOS devices
Sources: Apple press release library,
[87]
Mactracker
Apple Inc. model database
[88]
7.9 See also
iOS version history
List of iOS devices
Comparison of mobile operating systems
7.10 References
[1] About Apple TV (2nd and 3rd generation) software up-
dates. Apple. Retrieved 2014-09-26.
[2] Apple iPad Air View the technical specications for
iPad Air. Apple. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
[3] Apple iPad mini View the technical specications for
iPad mini. Apple. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
[4] Apple - iPhone 5c - Technical Specications. Apple.
Retrieved January 1, 2014.
[5] Apple - iPhone 5s - Technical Specications. Apple.
Retrieved January 1, 2014.
[6] Apple Brings Vibrant Colors & iSight Camera to Most
Aordable iPod touch Model (Press release). Apple Inc.
June 26, 2014.
[7] Apple Announces Updates to iTunes U (Press release).
Apple Inc. June 30, 2014.
[8] Apple WWDC2012 Keynote Address. Apple Inc. June
11, 2012. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
[9] Android and iOS Combine for 91.1% of the Worldwide
Smartphone OS Market in 4Q12 and 87.6% for the Year,
According to IDC. IDC. February 14, 2013. Retrieved
February 5, 2013.
[10] iOS leapfrogs Android with 410 million devices sold and
650,000 apps. InsideMobileApps. July 24, 2012. Re-
trieved July 24, 2012.
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[11] TechCrunch: Apple Has Sold Over 400 Million iOS De-
vices: 9.5% Growth Since March. Retrieved September
21, 2012.
[12] Woods, Kelly (September 19, 2012). Get Enough iPhone
iPad Space for Downloading & Installing iOS 6. iMobie.
Retrieved February 18, 2013.
[13] Haslam, Karen (January 12, 2007). Macworld Expo:
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trieved October 15, 2007.
[14] Siracusa, John. Can't Help Falling in Love. Ars Tech-
nica. Conde Nast. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
[15] Satariano, Adam; Peter Burrows; Brad Stone (2011-12-
01). Scott Forstall, the Sorcerers Apprentice at Apple.
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[17] Honan, Matthew (January 9, 2007). Apple unveils
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[18] What operating system does the iPhone use? Can it run
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[19] Apple iPhone Features OS X. Archived from the
original on January 11, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2010.
[20] Gonsalves, Antone (October 11, 2007). Apple Launches
iPhone Web Apps Directory. InformationWeek. Re-
trieved February 16, 2010.
[21] Ziegler, Chris (June 11, 2007). Apple announces third-
party software details for iPhone. Engadget. Retrieved
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[22] Nik Fletcher (October 17, 2007). Apple: we plan to
have an iPhone SDK in developers hands in February"".
TUAW The Unocial Apple Weblog. Retrieved June
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[23] Apple Reports Fourth Quarter Results. Apple Inc. Oc-
tober 22, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
[24] Apple Launches iPhone Web Apps Directory. Apple.
January 27, 2010. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
[25] Tartako, Joseph (June 7, 2010). Apple Avoids iPhone-
Like Trademark Battle Thanks To Cisco, FaceTime
Deals. paidContent. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
[26] Saylor, Michael (2012). The Mobile Wave: How Mobile
Intelligence Will Change Everything. Vanguard Press. p.
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[27] Tablet Shipments Soar to Record Levels During Strong
Holiday Quarter, According to IDC. IDC. January 31,
2013. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
[28] Why Do iPod touch Software Updates Cost Money?.
Ipod.about.com (September 9, 2009). Retrieved on July
30, 2013.
[29] Truta, Filip (June 15, 2010). iOS 4 Software Update for
iPod touch Is Free. Softpedia. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
[30] Apples iOS 7 brings quick Spotlight search access to ev-
ery app page. AppleInsider. June 10, 2013. Retrieved
September 18, 2013.
[31] Search on iPad with iOS 7. October 21, 2013. Re-
trieved March 1, 2014.
[32] Matthias Bhmer, Antonio Krger. A Study on Icon Ar-
rangement by Smartphone Users. In Proceedings of the
SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing
Systems (CHI '13). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2137-
2146.
[33] iOS: Using Newsstand. Apple Inc. Retrieved Septem-
ber 29, 2012.
[34] How to create nested folders on iOS 7. Retrieved De-
cember 20, 2013.
[35] iPhone 4S - Always know whats up in Notication Cen-
ter. Apple Inc. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
[36] iOS: Understanding Restrictions. Apple Inc. Retrieved
September 29, 2012.
[37] iPhone Applications. Apple Inc. July 10, 2008. Re-
trieved July 11, 2008.
[38] iOS 3.1 Software Update. Apple Inc.
[39] How to take a panoramic photo with iOS 6
[40] Mastering panoramic photography in iOS 6
[41] iOS 4 iPhone Update RELEASED: A Guide To iOS 4.
The Hungton Post. June 21, 2010. Retrieved April 13,
2013.
[42] Albanesius, Chloe (June 21, 2010). Apple iPhone iOS 4
Software Update Expected Monday. PC Magazine. Re-
trieved April 14, 2013.
[43] Cheng, Jacqui (June 21, 2010). Ars reviews iOS 4:
whats new, notable, and what needs work. Ars Tech-
nica. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
[44] Ray, Bill (November 22, 2010). iOS 4.2 multi-tasking
comes to the iPad. The Register. Retrieved April 14,
2013.
[45] iOS: Understanding multitasking. Apple. Retrieved
2013-09-14.
[46] Newman, Jared (June 22, 2010). Multitasking With iOS
4 is Horrible: Apple Blew It. PC World. Retrieved April
14, 2013.
[47] iOS 4 walkthrough. June 14, 2010. Retrieved June 14,
2010.
[48] Apple announces multitasking for iPhone OS 4 (iPhone
3GS/iPod touch G3 only)". April 8, 2010. Retrieved June
14, 2010.
[49] iOS Application Programming Guide Executing Code
in the Background. Developer.apple.com. Retrieved
August 13, 2012.
74 CHAPTER 7. IOS
[50] Jon Rubinstein: OS X and iOS 7 borrow features from
webOS. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
[51] iOS: Force an app to close. Apple Inc. Retrieved Octo-
ber 9, 2012.
[52] iOS 7 multitasking. Tuaw. September 18, 2013. Re-
trieved March 21, 2014.
[53] Snell, Jason (April 8, 2010). Inside iPhone 4.0s multi-
tasking. Macworld. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
[54] Apple iPhone 4. CNET. June 23, 2010. Retrieved April
14, 2013.
[55] Hollington, Jesse (June 21, 2010). Instant Expert: Se-
crets & Features of iOS 4. iLounge. Retrieved April 14,
2013.
[56] iOS 6 Ask Siri to help you get things done. Apple.
Retrieved February 18, 2013.
[57] Whats New in iOS 4. Apple. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
[58] Apples Game Center debuts next week - Game Hunters:
In search of video games and interactive awesomeness.
USA Today. January 9, 2010. Retrieved September 1,
2010.
[59] Holt, Chris. iOS 4.1s GameCenter to Hit iPhone Next
Week PCWorld Business Center. Pcworld.com. Re-
trieved September 1, 2010.
[60] iOS 4.2 Software Update for iPad. Apple Inc. Re-
trieved October 9, 2012.
[61] Game Center. Apple. Sep 2010. Retrieved September
7, 2010.
[62] Jobs, Steve (October 17, 2007). Third Party Applica-
tions on the iPhone. Apple Inc.
[63] Which Developer Program is for you?". September
2012. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
[64] Did Apple Make A Mistake Choosing Objective-C For
iPhone SDK? at Simons Blog. Psynixis.com. Retrieved
May 9, 2010.
[65] Introducing the iPhone Developer Program. Apple Inc.
Retrieved June 14, 2013.
[66] Healey, Jon (August 6, 2007). Hacking the iPhone. Los
Angeles Times. Retrieved August 6, 2007.
[67] Apples Joswiak: We Don't Hate iPhone Coders.
September 11, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
[68] Baig, Edward C. (June 26, 2007). Apples iPhone isn't
perfect, but its worthy of the hype. USA Today. Re-
trieved June 28, 2007.
[69] IPad, MAX (May 6, 2010). Jailbreaking Explained.
IPad Forums. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
[70] Kravets, David (July 26, 2010). U.S. Declares iPhone
Jailbreaking Legal, Over Apples Objections. Wired.
Retrieved December 13, 2011.
[71] U.S. Copyright Oce Final 2010 Anti-Circumvention
Rulemaking. U.S. Copyright Oce. July 27, 2010. Re-
trieved August 21, 2012.
[72] Mobile, KnowYour (May 19, 2010). Locked / Unlocked
- a denition of the terms Locked and Unlocked from the
Know Your Mobile mobile phone glossary. Know Your
Mobile. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
[73] AT&T What are the eligibility requirements for un-
locking iPhone?". AT&T. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
[74] iPhone: About unlocking. Apple Inc. Website. May
22, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
[75] iPhone: Wireless Carrier Support and Features. Apple
Inc. Website. April 12, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
[76] How to unlock your AT&T iPhone. USA Today. April
9, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
[77] Unauthorized modication of iOS can cause security vul-
nerabilities, instability, shortened battery life, and other
issues. Apple Inc. Website. February 9, 2013. Retrieved
May 13, 2013.
[78] iPad DRM endangers our rights.
[79] Anderson, Nate (January 27, 2010). Protestors: iPad is
nothing more than a golden calf of DRM. Retrieved June
9, 2010.
[80] Mobile Devices and the Next Computing Revolution.
February 3, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
[81] Bobbie Johnson (February 1, 2010). Apple iPad will
choke innovation, say open internet advocates. The
Guardian. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
[82] Microsoft PR spokesman condemns iPad for being
locked down"".
[83] Apples Trend Away From Tinkering. Slashdot. Jan-
uary 31, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
[84] Steve Wozniak (Interviewee) (January 22, 2011). Campus
Party Brasil 2011 Geek Pride e Wozniak. Fragoso, Vic-
tor. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
[85] Leander Kahney (January 30, 2010). Pundits On The
iPads Closed System: Its Doom For PCs, No Its Great.
Retrieved June 9, 2010.
[86] Available via General > About > Diagnostics & Usage >
Diagnostics & Usage Data >(date and time).panic.plist,
after a kernel crash
[87] Apple Inc., Apple press release library, Retrieved
September 19, 2007.
[88] Mactracker (mactracker.ca), Apple Inc. model database,
version as of 26 July 2007.
7.12. EXTERNAL LINKS 75
7.11 Further reading
Hillegass, Aaron; Conway, Jon (March 22, 2012).
iOS Programming: The Big Nerd Ranch Guide (3rd
ed.). Pearson. p. 590. ISBN 978-0-321-82152-2.
Turner, Kirby (December 19, 2011). Learning iPad
Programming: A Hands-on Guide to Building iPad
Apps with iOS 5 (1st ed.). Pearson. p. 816. ISBN
978-0-321-75040-2.
Mark, Dave; LaMarche, Je (July 21, 2009). Be-
ginning iPhone 3 Development: Exploring the iPhone
SDK (1st ed.). Apress. p. 584. ISBN 1-4302-2459-
2.
Mark, Dave; LaMarche, Je (December 29, 2009).
More iPhone 3 Development: Tackling iPhone SDK
3 (1st ed.). Apress. p. 552. ISBN 1-4302-2505-X.
7.12 External links
iOS ocial site
iOS Dev Center on the Apple Developer Connec-
tion website
iOS Reference Library on the Apple Developer
Connection website
Chapter 8
Windows Phone
Windows Phone (WP) is a smartphone operating system
developed by Microsoft. It is the successor to Windows
Mobile,
[5]
although it is incompatible with the earlier
platform.
[6]
With Windows Phone, Microsoft created a
new user interface, featuring a design language named
Modern (which was formerly known as Metro).
[7]
Unlike its predecessor, it is primarily aimed at the con-
sumer market rather than the enterprise market.
[8]
It was
rst launched in October 2010 with Windows Phone 7.
[9]
Windows Phone 8.1, which was released in nal form
to developers on April 14, 2014 and will be pushed
out to all phones running Windows Phone 8 over the
coming months, is the latest release of the operating
system.
[10][11]
8.1 History
See also: Windows Phone version history
8.1.1 Development
Work on a major Windows Mobile update may have
begun as early as 2004 under the codename Photon,
but work moved slowly and the project was ultimately
cancelled.
[12]
In 2008, Microsoft reorganized the Win-
dows Mobile group and started work on a new mobile
operating system.
[13]
The product was to be released in
2009 as Windows Phone, but several delays prompted
Microsoft to develop Windows Mobile 6.5 as an interim
release.
[14]
Windows Phone was developed quickly. One result was
that the new OS would not be compatible with Windows
Mobile applications. Larry Lieberman, senior product
manager for Microsofts Mobile Developer Experience,
told eWeek: If we'd had more time and resources, we
may have been able to do something in terms of backward
compatibility.
[15]
Lieberman said that Microsoft was at-
tempting to look at the mobile phone market in a new
way, with the end user in mind as well as the enterprise
network.
[15]
Terry Myerson, corporate VP of Windows
Phone engineering, said, With the move to capacitive
touch screens, away from the stylus, and the moves to
some of the hardware choices we made for the Windows
Phone 7 experience, we had to break application compat-
ibility with Windows Mobile 6.5.
[16]
8.1.2 Versions
Windows Phone 7
Windows Phone 7.5 logo
Main article: Windows Phone 7
Windows Phone 7 was announced at Mobile World
Congress in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, on February 15,
2010, and released publicly on November 8, 2010 in the
United States.
Microsoft released an updated version of Windows Phone
7, Mango (also referred to as Windows Phone 7.5), in
May 2011. The update included a mobile version of
Internet Explorer 9 that supports the same web standards
and graphical capability as the desktop version, multi-
tasking of third-party apps,
[17][18]
Twitter integration for
the People Hub,
[19][20][21]
and Windows Live SkyDrive
access.
[22]
A minor update released in 2012 known as Tango,
along with other bug xes, lowered the hardware require-
ments to allow for devices with 800 MHz CPUs and 256
MB of RAM to run Windows Phone.
[23]
In January 2013, Windows Phone 7.8 was released. It
added some features from Windows Phone 8, such as an
updated start screen, additional color schemes, and ad-
ditional wallpaper options. Windows Phone 7.8 was in-
tended to prolong the life of older Windows Phone 7 de-
vices, as these were not upgradable to Windows Phone 8
due to hardware limitations. However, not all users have
received the Windows Phone 7.8 update yet.
76
8.1. HISTORY 77
Windows Phone 8
Three Windows Phone 8 devices from left to right: HTC 8X,
Lumia 920, Lumia 820.
Main article: Windows Phone 8
On October 29, 2012, Microsoft released Windows
Phone 8, a newgeneration of the operating system. Win-
dows Phone 8 replaces its previously Windows CE-based
architecture with one based on the Windows NT kernel
with many components shared with Windows 8, allow-
ing applications to be easily ported between the two plat-
forms.
Hardware support Windows Phone 8, while adding a
number of software improvements, also brought support
for updated hardware. This included support for multi-
core processors and high resolution screens.
[24]
Windows
Phone 7 and 7.5 were often criticized for a lack of high
end hardware support, but Windows Phone 8s new hard-
ware gave Windows Phone the ability to better compete
with Google and Apple smartphones.
[25]
Windows Phone 8.1
Main article: Windows Phone 8.1
Windows Phone 8.1 was announced on April 2, 2014,
after being released in preview form to developers on
February 10, 2014.
[26][27][28]
New features added include
a notication center, Internet Explorer 11 with tab sync-
ing among Windows 8.1 devices and WP devices, sep-
arate volume controls, and the option to skin and add a
third column of live tiles to the Start Screen. Starting with
this release, Microsoft has also dropped the requirement
that all Windows Phone OEMs include a camera button
and physical buttons for back, Start, and Search.
Windows Phone 8.1 also adds Cortana, a voice assis-
tant much like Siri and Google Now. Cortana replaces
the previous Bing search feature, and will be released as
a beta in the United States in the rst half of 2014, be-
fore expanding to other countries in late 2014 and early
2015.
[29]
8.1.3 Partnership with Nokia
Main article: Microsoft Mobile
On February 11, 2011, at a press event in London, Mi-
crosoft CEO Steve Ballmer and Nokia CEO Stephen
Elop announced a partnership between their compa-
nies in which Windows Phone would become the pri-
mary smartphone operating-system for Nokia, replac-
ing Symbian.
[30]
The event focused largely on setting up
a new global mobile ecosystem, suggesting competi-
tion with Android and iOS with the words It is now a
three horse race. Elops stated the reason for choos-
ing Windows Phone over Android, saying: the single
most important word is 'dierentiation'. Entering the
Android environment late, we knew we would have a
hard time dierentiating.
[31]
While Nokia would have
had more long-term creative control with Android (note
that MeeGo as used by Nokia resembles Android more
than it does Windows Phone 7), Elop enjoyed famil-
iarity with his past company where he had been a top
executive.
[32][33]
The pair announced integration of Microsoft services
with Nokias own services; specically:
[30]
Bing would power search across Nokia devices
integration of Nokia Maps with Bing Maps
integration of Nokias Ovi store with the Windows
Phone Store
The partnership involves funds changing hands for royal-
ties, marketing and ad-revenue sharing, which Microsoft
later announced as measured in billions of dollars.
[34]
Jo Harlow, whomElop tapped to run Nokias smartphone
business, rearranged her team to match the structure led
by Microsofts VP of Windows Phone, Terry Myerson.
Myerson was quoted as saying, I can trust her with what
she tells me. She uses that same direct and genuine com-
munication to motivate her team.
[35]
The rst Nokia Windows phones, the Lumia 800 and
Lumia 710, were announced in October 2011 at Nokia
World 2011 event.
[36][37]
At the Consumer Electronics Show in 2012 Nokia an-
nounced the Lumia 900, featuring a 4.3-inch AMOLED
ClearBlack display, a 1.4 GHz processor and 16 GB of
storage.
[38]
The Lumia 900 was one of the rst Windows
Phones to support LTE and was released on AT&T on
78 CHAPTER 8. WINDOWS PHONE
April 8.
[39]
An international version will launch in Q2
2012, with a UK launch expected in May.
[40]
The Lumia
610 is the rst Nokia Windows Phone to run the Tango
Variant (Windows Phone 7.5 Refresh) and is aimed at
emerging markets.
On September 2, 2013, Microsoft announced a deal to
acquire Nokias mobile phone division outright, retaining
former CEO Stephen Elop as the head of Microsofts de-
vices operation.
[41][42]
Microsoft managers revealed that
the acquisition was made because Nokia was driving the
development of the Windows Phone platform to better
match their products.
[43]
The merger was completed after
regulatory approval in all major markets in April 2014.
As a result, Nokias hardware division is now a subsidiary
of Microsoft operating under the name Microsoft Mobile.
In February 2014, Nokia released a the Nokia X series of
smartphones, using a version of Android forked from the
Android Open Source Project. The operating system was
modied; Googles software was not included in favour of
competing applications and services from Microsoft and
Nokia, with a user interface is highly modied to resem-
ble Windows Phone.
[44]
8.2 Features
8.2.1 User interface
Windows Phone features a user interface based on Mi-
crosofts Modern design concept, codenamed Metro,
[45]
and was inspired by the user interface in the Zune HD.
[46]
The home screen, called the Start screen, is made up
of Live Tiles, which have been the inspiration for the
Windows 8 live tiles. Tiles are links to applications, fea-
tures, functions and individual items (such as contacts,
web pages, applications or media items). Users can add,
rearrange, or remove tiles.
[47]
Tiles are dynamic and up-
date in real time for example, the tile for an email ac-
count would display the number of unread messages or a
tile could display a live update of the weather.
[48]
Since
Windows Phone 8, live tiles can also be resized to either
a small, medium, or large appearance.
Several features of Windows Phone are organized into
"hubs", which combine local and online content via Win-
dows Phones integration with popular social networks
such as Facebook, Windows Live, and Twitter.
[48]
For ex-
ample, the Pictures hub shows photos captured with the
devices camera and the users Facebook photo albums,
and the People hub shows contacts aggregated from mul-
tiple sources including Windows Live, Facebook, and
Gmail. From the hub, users can directly comment and
'like' on social network updates. The other built-in hubs
are Xbox Music and Video, Xbox Live Games, Windows
Phone Store, and Microsoft Oce.
[48]
Windows Phone uses multi-touch technology.
[48]
The de-
fault Windows Phone user interface has a dark theme that
prolongs battery life on OLED screens as fully black pix-
els do not emit light. Alternatively, users may choose
a light theme in their phones settings menu.
[49]
Light
theme has white background which is more energy e-
cient on LCD as white pixels are actually transparent and
do not required energy. The user may also choose from
several accent colors.
[50]
User interface elements such as
links, buttons and tiles are shown in the users chosen ac-
cent color. Third-party applications can be automatically
themed with these colors.
[51]
Windows Phone 8.1 intro-
duces transparent tiles and a customizable background
image for the Start screen. The image is visible trough
the transparent area of the tiles and features a parallax
eect when scrolling which gives an illusion of depth. If
the user does not pick a background image the tiles render
with the accent color of the theme.
8.2.2 Text input
Users input text by using an on-screen virtual keyboard,
which has a dedicated key for inserting emoticons,
[52]
and features spell checking
[52]
and word prediction.
[53]
App developers (both inhouse and ISV) may specify dif-
ferent versions of the virtual keyboard in order to limit
users to certain character sets, such as numeric charac-
ters alone. Users may change a word after it has been
typed by tapping the word,
[54]
which will invoke a list of
similar words. Pressing and holding certain keys will re-
veal similar characters. The keys are somewhat larger and
spaced farther apart when in landscape mode. Phones
may also be made with a hardware keyboard for text
input.
[55]
Users can also add accents to letters by holding
on an individual letter. Windows Phone 8.1 introduces
a new method of typing by swiping trough the keyboard
without lifting the nger.
8.2.3 Web browser
See also: Internet Explorer Mobile
Internet Explorer on Windows Phone allows the user to
maintain a list of favorite web pages and tiles linking to
web pages on the Start screen. The browser supports up
to 6 tabs, which can all load in parallel.
[56]
Other features
include multi-touch gestures, smooth zoom in/out anima-
tions, the ability to save pictures that are on web pages,
share web pages via email, and support for inline search
which allows the user to search for a word or phrase in a
web page by typing it.
[57]
Tabs are synced with Windows
8.1 devices using Internet Explorer 11.
8.2.4 Contacts
Contacts are organized via the "People hub", and can
be manually entered into contacts or imported from
8.2. FEATURES 79
Facebook, Windows Live Contacts, Twitter, LinkedIn,
Google, and Outlook. A Whats New section shows a
users Facebook news feed and a Pictures section show
pictures from those social networks, while a Me sec-
tion within the People hub shows a users own social
network status and wall and allows them to view social
network updates. Contacts can also be pinned to the
Start Screen. The contacts "Live Tile" displays their so-
cial network status and prole picture on the homescreen.
Clicking on a contacts tile or accessing their card within
the People hub will reveal their recent social network
activity as well as the rest of their contact information.
If a contact has information stored on multiple networks,
users can link the two separate contact accounts, allowing
the information to be viewed and accessed from a single
card.
[58]
As of Windows Phone 7.5, contacts can also be
sorted into Groups. Here, information fromeach of the
contacts is combined into a single page which can be ac-
cessed directly fromthe Hub or pinned to the Start screen.
8.2.5 Email
Windows Phone supports Outlook.com, Exchange,
Yahoo! Mail and Gmail natively and supports many
other services via the POP and IMAP protocols. Updates
added support for more services such as iCloud and IBM
Notes Traveler. Contacts and calendars may be synced
fromthese services as well. Users can also search through
their email by searching in the subject, body, senders, and
receivers. Emails are shown with threads, and multiple
email inboxes can be combined into a single view (a fea-
ture commonly referred to as combined inbox) or can
viewed separately.
8.2.6 Multimedia
See also: Xbox Music and Xbox Video
Xbox Music and Xbox Video are built-in multimedia
hubs providing entertainment and synchronization ca-
pabilities between PC, Windows Phone, and other Mi-
crosoft products.
[59]
The two hubs were previously com-
bined until standalone apps were released in late 2013,
shortly before Windows Phone 8.1 debuted.
[60]
The hubs
allow users to access music, videos, and podcasts stored
on the device, and links directly to the Xbox Music
Store to buy or rent music and the Xbox Video Store
to purchase movies and TV episodes. Xbox Music also
allows the user to streammusic with an Xbox Music Pass.
When browsing the music by a particular artist, users are
able to view artist biographies and photos.
[52]
The Xbox
Music hub also integrates with many other apps that pro-
vide video and music services, including, but not limited
to, iHeartRadio, YouTube, and Vevo. This hub also in-
cludes Smart DJ which compiles a playlist of songs stored
on the phone similar to the song or artist selected.
The Music + Video Hub on Windows Phone.
The Pictures hub displays the users Facebook and
OneDrive photo albums, as well as photos taken with
the phones built-in camera. Users can also upload pho-
tos to social networks, comment on photos uploaded by
other people, and tag photos posted to social networks.
[52]
Multi-touch gestures permit zooming in and out of pho-
tos.
An ocial le manager app called Files, which is avail-
able for download from the Windows Phone Store, en-
ables users to move and rearrange documents, videos,
music and other les within their devices hard drive or
to an external SD card.
[61]
Media support
Windows Phone supports WAV, MP3, WMA, AMR,
AAC/MP4/M4A/M4B and 3GP/3G2 standards. The
video le formats supported on WP include WMV,
AVI, MP4/M4V, 3GP/3G2 and MOV (QuickTime)
standards.
[62]
These supported audio and video formats
would be dependent on the codecs contained inside them.
It has also been previously reported that the DivX and
Xvid codecs within the AVI le format are also playable
on WP devices.
[63][64]
80 CHAPTER 8. WINDOWS PHONE
The image le formats that are supported include
JPG/JPEG, PNG, GIF, TIF and Bitmap (BMP).
[65][66]
Users can also add custom ringtones which are less than
1MB in size and less than 40 seconds long. DLNA
streaming and steroscopic 3D are also supported.
[60]
8.2.7 Games
Main article: List of Xbox Live games on Windows
Phone
See also: Xbox Live
The "Games hub" provides access to games on a phone
along with Xbox Live functionality, including the ability
for a user to interact with their avatar, view and edit their
prole, see their achievements and view leaderboards,
and send messages to friends on Xbox Live. The hub also
features an area for managing invitations and turn noti-
cations in turn-based multiplayer games.
[67]
Games are
downloaded from Windows Phone Store.
8.2.8 Search
See also: Bing (search engine), Bing Mobile and Bing
Maps
Bing is the default search engine on Windows Phone
handsets because its functions are deeply integrated in the
OS (which also include the utilization of its map service
for location-based searches and queries). However, Mi-
crosoft has stated that other search engine applications
can be used.
[68][69]
In the area of location-based searches, Bing Maps (which
is powered by Nokias location services) provides turn-
by-turn navigation service to Windows Phone users, and
Local Scout shows interest points such as attractions and
restaurants in the nearby area. On Nokia devices, Nokias
Here Maps is preinstalled in place of Bing Maps.
Furthermore, Bing Audio allows the user to match a song
with its name, and Bing Vision allows the user to scan
barcodes, QR codes, and other types of tags.
Cortana
Main article: Microsoft Cortana
Every Windows Phone has either a dedicated physical
Search button or an on-screen Search button, which was
previously reserved for a Bing Search app, but has been
replaced on Windows Phone 8.1 devices in the United
Kingdom and United States by Cortana, a digital per-
sonal assistant which can also double as an app for basic
searches.
Cortana on Windows Phone 8.1
Cortana allows users to do tasks such as set calendar re-
minders and alarms, and recognizes a users natural voice,
and can be used to answer questions (like current weather
conditions, sports scores, and biographies). The app also
keeps a Notebook to learn a users behavior over time
and tailor reminders for them. Users can edit the Note-
book to keep information from Cortana or reveal more
about themselves.
8.2.9 Oce suite
See also: Microsoft Oce Mobile
All Windows Phones come preinstalled with Microsoft
Oce Mobile, which provides interoperability between
Windows Phone and the desktop version of Microsoft
Oce. Word Mobile, Excel Mobile, PowerPoint Mo-
bile, and SharePoint Workspace Mobile apps are acces-
sible through a single Oce Hub, and allow most Mi-
crosoft Oce le formats to be viewed and edited di-
rectly on a Windows Phone device. The Oce Hub can
access les from OneDrive and Oce 365, as well as les
8.2. FEATURES 81
Microsoft Oce Mobile on Windows Phone 8
which are stored locally on the devices hard drive. Al-
though they are not preinstalled in Windows Phones Of-
ce Hub, OneNote Mobile, Lync Mobile, and OneDrive
for Business can be downloaded separately as standalone
applications from the Windows Phone Store.
8.2.10 Multitasking
Multitasking in Windows Phone is invoked through long
pressing the back arrow, which is present on all Win-
dows Phones. Windows Phone 7 uses a card-based task
switcher, whereas later versions of Windows Phone uti-
lize true background multitasking.
8.2.11 Sync
Windows Phone 7
Main article: Windows Phone 7 Sync
See also: Zune Software
Zune Software manages the contents on Windows Phone
7 devices and Windows Phone can wirelessly sync with
Zune Software.
Later versions
Main article: Windows Phone 8 Syncing
Syncing content between later Windows Phone versions
and Windows is provided through the Windows Phone
App, which is available for both Windows and Mac OS
X. It is the ocial successor to Zune software only for
Windows Phone 8 and Windows Phone 8.1, and allows
users to transfer content such as music, videos, and doc-
uments.
Users also have the ability to use a Tap and Send feature
that allows for le transfer between Windows phones, and
NFC-compatible devices through NFC.
8.2.12 Updates
A test notication of an update available pop-up in the Win-
dows Phone emulator.
Software updates are delivered to Windows Phone users
via Microsoft Update, as is the case with other Windows
operating systems.
[70]
Microsoft initially had the intention
to directly update any phone running Windows Phone in-
stead of relying on OEMs or wireless carriers,
[71]
but on
January 6, 2012, Microsoft changed their policy to let
carriers decide if an update will be delivered.
[72]
While Windows Phone 7 users were required to attach
their phones to a PC to install updates,
[73]
starting with
Windows Phone 8, all updates are done via over-the-air
downloads.
[74]
Since Windows Phone 8, Microsoft has
also begun releasing minor updates that add features to
a current OS release throughout the year.
[75]
These up-
dates were rst labeled General Distribution releases
(or GDRs), but were later rebranded simply as Updates.
All third-party applications can be updated automatically
from the Windows Phone Store.
[76]
82 CHAPTER 8. WINDOWS PHONE
8.2.13 Advertising platform
Microsoft has also launched an advertising platform for
the Windows Phone platform. Microsofts General Man-
ager for Strategy and Business Development, Kostas
Mallios, said that Windows Phone will be an ad-serving
machine, pushing advertising and brand-related content
to the user. The platform will feature advertising tiles
near applications and toast notications, which will bring
updating advertising notications. Mallios said that Win-
dows Phone will be able to preserve the brand experi-
ence by going directly from the web site right to the ap-
plication, and that Windows Phone enables advertisers
to connect with consumers over time.
[77]
Mallios con-
tinued: you're now able to push information as an adver-
tiser, and stay in touch with your customer. Its a dynamic
relationship that is created and provides for an ongoing
dialog with the consumer.
[78]
8.2.14 Bluetooth
Windows Phone supports the following Bluetooth pro-
les:
[79]
1. Advanced Audio Distribution Prole (A2DP 1.2)
2. Audio/Video Remote Control Prole (AVRCP 1.3)
3. Hands Free Prole (HFP 1.5)
4. Headset Prole (HSP 1.1)
5. Phone Book Access Prole (PBAP 1.1)
6. Bluetooth File Transfer (OBEX) (from Windows
Phone 7.8)
Windows Phone BTF support is available from Windows
Phone 7.8, but is limited to the transferring of pictures,
music and videos via a 'Bluetooth Share' app.
[80][81]
8.2.15 Feature additions
Microsoft keeps a site where people can submit and vote
on features they would like to see added to Windows
Phone.
[82]
8.3 Store
Main articles: Windows Phone Store, Xbox Music and
Xbox Video
The Windows Phone Store is used to digitally distribute
music, video content, podcasts, and third party applica-
tions to Windows Phone handsets. The store is accessible
using the Zune Software client or the Windows Phone
Store hub on devices (though videos are not download-
able through the store hub and must be downloaded and
synced through the Zune software).
[83]
The Store is man-
aged by Microsoft, which includes an approval process.
As of March 2012, the Windows Phone Store is available
in 54 countries.
[84]
8.3.1 Music and videos
Xbox Music oers 50 million (approx) songs up to 320
kbit/s in DRM-free MP3 format from the big four mu-
sic groups (EMI, Warner Music Group, Sony BMG and
Universal Music Group), as well as smaller music la-
bels. Xbox Video oers HD movies from Paramount,
Universal, Warner Brothers, and other studios and also
oer television shows from popular television networks.
Microsoft also oers the Xbox Music Pass music sub-
scription service, which allows subscribers to download
an unlimited number of songs for as long as their sub-
scription is active and play them in current Microsoft de-
vices.
8.3.2 Applications and games
Development
Third party applications and games for Windows Phone
can be based on XNA, a Windows Phone-specic version
of Silverlight, the GUI-based Windows Phone App Stu-
dio, or the Windows Runtime, which allows developers
to develop an app for the both the Windows Store and
Windows Phone Store simultaneously.
[85][86][87]
App de-
velopers can develop apps using C# / Visual Basic.NET
(.NET), C++ (CX) or HTML5/Javascript.
For Windows Phone apps to be designed and tested within
Visual Studio or Visual Studio Express, Microsoft of-
fers Windows Phone Developer Tools, which run only
on Windows Vista SP2 and later, as an extension
[88]
Mi-
crosoft also oers Expression Blend for Windows Phone
for free. On November 29, 2009, Microsoft announced
the Release to web (RTW) version of its Visual Basic
.NET Developer Tool, to aid development of Windows
Phone apps in Visual Basic.
Later versions of Windows Phone support the running
of managed code through a Common Language Runtime
similar to that of the Windows operating system itself as
opposed to the .NET Compact Framework. This, along
with support for native C and C++ libraries, allows some
traditional Windows desktop programs to be easily ported
to Windows Phone.
[89]
Submission
Registered Windows Phone and Xbox Live developers
can submit and manage their third party applications for
8.5. RECEPTION 83
the platforms through the App Hub web applications.
The App Hub provides development tools and support for
third-party application developers. The submitted appli-
cations undergo an approval process for verications and
validations to check if they qualify the applications stan-
dardization criteria set by Microsoft.
[90]
The cost of the
applications that are approved is up to the developer, but
Microsoft will take 20% of the revenue (the other 80%
goes to the developer).
[91]
Microsoft will only pay devel-
opers once they reach a set sales gure, and will withhold
30% tax from non-US developers, unless they rst reg-
ister with the United States Governments Internal Rev-
enue Service. Microsoft only pays developers from a list
of thirty countries.
[92]
A yearly fee is also payable for de-
velopers wishing to submit apps.
[93]
In order to get an application to appear in the Windows
Phone Store, the application must be submitted to
Microsoft for approval.
[92]
Microsoft has outlined the
content that it will not allow in the applications, which
includes content that, among other things, advocates dis-
crimination or hate, promotes usage of drugs, alcohol or
tobacco, or includes sexually suggestive material.
[94]
8.4 Hardware
Main article: List of Windows Phone devices
Windows Phone 7 devices were rst produced by Dell,
HTC, LG and Samsung. These hardware partners were
later joined by Acer, Alcatel, Fujitsu, Toshiba, Nokia,
and Chinese OEM ZTE.
Windows Phone 8 devices are currently being produced
by HTC, Huawei, Nokia, and Samsung.
At the 2014 Mobile World Congress, Microsoft an-
nounced that upcoming Windows Phone 8.1 devices
will be manufactured by Gionee, HTC, Huawei, JSR,
Karbonn, LG, Lenovo, Longcheer, Micromax, Nokia,
Samsung, Xolo, and ZTE.
[95]
Sony (under the Xperia
or Vaio brand) has also stated its intention to produce
Windows Phone devices in the near future.
[96]
Yezz an-
nounced two smartphones in May, and at Computex 2014
BYD, Compal, Pegatron, Quanta and Wistron were also
named as new Windows Phone OEMs.
[97]
In August 2014, Huawei said it was dropping support for
Windows Phone due to low sales.
[98]
8.5 Reception
8.5.1 Modern UI
The reception to the Modern UI and overall interface of
the OS has also been highly praised for its style, with ZD-
Net noting its originality and fresh clean look.
[99]
Engad-
get and ZDNet applauded the integration of Facebook
into the People Hub as well as other built-in capabilities,
such as Windows Live, etc. Since middle 2012, Metro
UI has been renamed Modern UI.
[100]
However in ver-
sion 8.1 the once tight Facebook and Twitter integration
has been removed so that updates fromthose social media
sites must be accessed via their respective apps.
[101]
8.5.2 Market share
Windows Phone 7 (2010-2012)
According to Gartner, there were 1.6 million devices
running Microsoft OS sold to customers in Q1 2011
worldwide.
[102]
1.7 million smartphones using a Mi-
crosoft mobile OS were sold in Q2 2011, for a 1.6% mar-
ket share.
[103]
In Q3 2011, Microsofts world wide mar-
ket share dropped slightly to 1.5%.
[104]
In Q4 2011 mar-
ket share increased to 1.9%,
[105]
and it stayed at 1.9%
for Q1 2012.
[106]
However it should be noted that such
reports for Q2, Q3 and Q4 of year 2011 include both
Windows Phone and small part of Windows Mobile mar-
ketshare under the same Microsoft mobile OS banner,
and do not make the distinction of separating the market-
share values of the two. According to Nielsen, Windows
Phone had a 1.7% market share in Q1 2012,
[107]
and then
dropped back to 1.3% in Q2 2012.
[108]
Windows Phone 8 (2012-present)
After the release of Windows Phone 8, Gartner reported
that Windows Phones marketshare jumped to 3% in Q4
2012, a 124% increase over the same time period in
2011.
[109]
In mid-2012, IDC had suggested that Windows Phone
might surpass the faltering BlackBerry platform and po-
tentially even Apple iOS, because of Nokia dominance in
emerging markets like Asia, Latin America, and Africa,
as the iPhone was considered too expensive for most of
these regions and BlackBerry OS possibly going to fea-
ture a similar fate as Symbian.
[110][111]
IDCs projections
were partially correct, as in Q1 2013 Windows Phone
shipments have surpassed BlackBerry shipment volume
for the rst time.
[112]
IDC had to slash the Windows
Phone predictions once again, to 7 percent of total market
in 2018, because of the slow growth.
[113]
As of the third quarter of 2013, Gartner reported that
Windows Phone holds a worldwide market share of 3.6%,
up 123% from the same period in 2012 and outpacing
Androids rate of growth.
[114]
According to Kantars Oc-
tober 2013 report, Windows Phone accounts for 10.2%
of all smartphone sales in Europe and 4.8% of all sales
in the United States.
[115]
Some analysts have attributed
this spike in sales to both Windows Phone 8 and Nokias
successful push to market low and mid-range Windows
Phones like the Lumia 520 and Lumia 620 to a younger
84 CHAPTER 8. WINDOWS PHONE
audience.
[116]
Gartner reported that Windows Phone market share n-
ished 2013 at 3.2%, which while down from the third
quarter of 2013 was still a 46.7% improvement from the
same period in 2012.
[117]
IDC reported that Windows Phone market share, having
peaked in 2013 at 3.4%, had dropped to 2.5% by the sec-
ond quarter of 2014.
[118]
8.5.3 Manufacturer market share
HTC was originally making up most of Windows Phones
sales, holding 44% of the market in January 2012. How-
ever, Nokia has come from behind, overtaking Samsung
in February 2012 and HTC a month later, and held a to-
tal of 50% share in May that year because of the pop-
ularity of the Lumia range. With the release of Lumia
devices running Windows Phone 8, Nokia reached 78%
of Windows Phones installed base in February 2013. At
the same time, HTCs share dropped to 13%.
[119]
As of October 30, 2013, Nokia now makes up a domi-
nating 89.2% Windows Phone market share worldwide,
according to AdDuplex. HTC has a 7.7% share.
8.5.4 Developer interest
Microsofts developer initiative programs and marketing
have gained attention from application developers. As of
Q3 2013, an average of 21% of mobile developers use
the Windows Phone platform, with another 35% states
they are interested in adopting it.
[120]
Some reports have
indicated that developers may be less interested in de-
veloping for Windows Phone because of lower ad rev-
enue when compared to competing platforms.
[121]
The
Verge reported that Microsoft is considering bringing An-
droid applications to the Windows Phone and desktop
platforms as a way of boosting this smaller app port-
folio, although this report has not been conrmed by
Microsoft.
[122]
The main criticism of Windows Phone is
still the lack of applications when compared to iOS and
Android.
[123][124][125]
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[76] Ziegler, Chris (March 15, 2010). Windows Phone
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Engadget. AOL. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
[77] Levine, Barry (June 25, 2010). MS Sees Windows Phone
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[78] Methvin, Dave (June 25, 2010). Microsofts Ad-Serving
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March 14, 2012.
[80] Can i send or receive les through bluetooth on windows
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[81] Send photos, Docs via Bluetooth. Microsoft Answers.
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[88] Installing the Windows Phone SDK. Microsoft Devel-
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Blog. Microsoft. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
[90] Brix, Todd (October 11, 2010). Introducing App Hub
for Windows Phone & Indie Game Developers. The
Windows Phone Developer Blog. Microsoft. Retrieved
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8.7. EXTERNAL LINKS 87
[91] Kindel, Charlie (March 15, 2010). The Right MIX. The
Windows Phone Developer Blog. Microsoft. Retrieved
October 27, 2011.
[92] App Hub faq: answers at a glance. Microsoft Devel-
oper Network (MSDN). Microsoft. Retrieved October 27,
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[93] App Hub how it works. Microsoft Developer Network
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[94] Windows Phone Marketplace Content policies.
Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN). Microsoft. July
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Windows Phone hardware partners, including LG and
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probably never heard of. Neowin. Retrieved 2013-07-
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launch_windows_phone_handsets-news-8699.php
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of 2011 Grew 16.5 Percent Year-on-Year; Smartphone
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in Third quarter of 2011; Smartphone Sales Increased 42
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www.visionmobile.com/DevEcon3Q13 - Retrieved July
2013
[121] Microsoft Windows Phone ad revenue less than Black-
Berry, Symbian | BGR
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to Windows - The Verge
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Phone Apps | Gadget Lab | Wired.com
[124] Windows Phone has an app problem, but don't tell that to
Microsoft | News | TechRadar
[125] Nokia frustrated with lack of apps, progress on Windows
Phone - latimes.com
8.7 External links
Ocial website
Windows Phone at DMOZ
Chapter 9
Firefox OS
Firefox OS
[4]
(project name: Boot to Gecko, also known
as B2G)
[5]
is a Linux kernel-based open-source operating
system for smartphones and tablet computers
[6]
and is
set to be used on smart TVs.
[7]
It is being developed by
Mozilla, the non-prot organization best known for the
Firefox web browser.
Firefox OS is designed to provide a complete
[8]
community-based alternative system for mobile devices,
using open standards and approaches such as HTML5
applications, JavaScript, a robust privilege model, open
web APIs to communicate directly with cellphone
hardware,
[5]
and application marketplace. As such, it
competes with commercially developed operating sys-
tems such as Apple's iOS, Google's Android, Microsoft's
Windows Phone
[8]
and Jolla's Sailsh OS as well as other
community-based open source systems such as Ubuntu
Touch.
Firefox OS was publicly demonstrated in February 2012,
on Android-compatible smartphones.
[9][10]
In January
2013, at CES 2013, ZTE conrmed they would be ship-
ping a smartphone with Firefox OS,
[11]
and on July 2,
2013, Telefnica launched the rst commercial Firefox
OS based phone, ZTE Open, in Spain
[12][13]
which was
quickly followed by GeeksPhone's Peak+.
[14]
Mozilla has also partnered with T2Mobile to make a Fire-
fox OS reference phone dubbed Flame which is de-
signed for developers to contribute to Firefox OS and to
test apps.
[15]
9.1 Project inception and roll-out
9.1.1 Commencement of project
On July 25, 2011, Andreas Gal, Director of Research
at Mozilla Corporation, announced the Boot to Gecko"
Project (B2G) on the mozilla.dev.platform mailing list.
[8]
The project proposal was to pursue the goal of build-
ing a complete, standalone operating system for the open
web in order to nd the gaps that keep web developers
from being able to build apps that are in every way
the equals of native apps built for the iPhone, Android,
and Windows Phone 7.
[8]
The announcement identied
these work areas: new web APIs to expose device and
OS capabilities such as telephone and camera, a privilege
model to safely expose these to web pages, applications
to prove these capabilities, and low-level code to boot on
an Android-compatible device.
This led to much blog coverage.
[16][17]
According to Ars
Technica, Mozilla says that B2Gis motivated by a desire
to demonstrate that the standards-based open Web has the
potential to be a competitive alternative to the existing
single-vendor application development stacks oered by
the dominant mobile operating systems.
[18]
In 2012, Andreas Gal expanded on Mozillas aims.
He characterized the current set of mobile OS sys-
tems as "walled gardens"
[19]
and presented Firefox OS
as more accessible: We use completely open stan-
dards and theres no proprietary software or technol-
ogy involved.
[19]
Gal also said that because the soft-
ware stack is entirely HTML5, there are already a large
number of established developers.
[19]
This assumption is
employed in Mozillas WebAPI.
[20]
These are intended
W3C standards that attempt to bridge the capability gap
that currently exists between native frameworks and web
applications.
[21]
The goal of these eorts is to enable de-
velopers to build applications using WebAPI which would
then run in any standards compliant browser without the
need to rewrite their application for each platform.
Jan Jongboom at the Simonyi Conference - 2014
88
9.2. CORE TECHNOLOGIES 89
9.1.2 Development history
In July 2012, Boot to Gecko was rebranded as 'Fire-
fox OS',
[22]
after Mozillas well-known desktop browser,
Firefox, and screenshots began appearing in August
2012.
[23]
In September 2012, analysts Strategy Analysts forecast
that Firefox OS would account for 1% of the global
smartphone market in 2013 its rst year of commer-
cial availability.
[24]
In February 2013, Mozilla announced plans for global
commercial roll-out of Firefox OS.
[25]
Mozilla an-
nounced at a press conference before the start of Mobile
World Congress in Barcelona that the rst wave of Fire-
fox OS devices will be available to consumers in Brazil,
Colombia, Hungary, Mexico, Montenegro, Poland, Ser-
bia, Spain and Venezuela. Mozilla has also announced
that LG Electronics, ZTE, Huawei and TCL Corporation
have committed to making Firefox OS devices.
[26]
In December 2013, new features were added with the 1.2
release, including conference calling, silent SMS authen-
tication for mobile billing, improved push notications,
and three state setting for Do Not Track.
[27]
Async Pan and Zoom (APZ),
[28]
included in version 1.3,
should improve user interface responsiveness.
The major work will be on the optimization of Firefox
OS running on a 128MB platform in version 1.3T.
[29]
9.1.3 Demonstrations
At Mobile World Congress 2012, Mozilla and Telefnica
announced that the Spanish telecommunications provider
intended to deliver open Web devices in 2012 based
on HTML5 and these APIs.
[30]
Mozilla also announced
support for the project from Adobe and Qualcomm,
and that Deutsche Telekoms Innovation Labs will join
the project.
[31]
Mozilla demonstrated a sneak preview
of the software and apps running on Samsung Galaxy
S II phones (replacing their usual Android operating
system).
[9][32]
In August 2012, a Nokia employee demon-
strated the OS running on a Raspberry Pi.
[33]
Firefox OS is compatible with a number of devices, in-
cluding Otoro, PandaBoard, Emulator (ARM and x86),
Desktop, Nexus S, Nexus S 4G, Samsung Galaxy S II,
Galaxy Nexus
[34]
and Nexus 4.
In December 2012, Mozilla rolled out another update and
released Firefox OS Simulator 1.0, which can be down-
loaded as an add-on for Firefox. The latest version of
Firefox OS Simulator, version 4.0, was released on July
3, 2013
[35]
and announced on July 11, 2013.
[36]
Mozillas US$25 Firefox smartphone displayed at MWC,
is built by Spreadtrum.
[37]
Mozilla has collaborated with
four handset makers and ve wireless carriers to pro-
vide ve Firefox-powered smartphones in Europe and
Mozillas Firefox OS, version Boot2Geck-prerelease on Nexus 4
(LG E960) (Code name: mako)
Latin America so far. In India, Mozilla is launching the
$25 in partnership with Intex & Spice, announced the
company.
[38]
9.2 Core technologies
The initial development work involves four major soft-
ware layers:
[39]
Gonk platform denomination for a
combination of the Linux kernel and the
HAL from Android
Gecko the web browser engine and
application run-time services layer;
XULRunner the run-time system for
anything written in XUL
Gaia an HTML5 layer and user-
interface system.
90 CHAPTER 9. FIREFOX OS
Firefox OS architecture diagram
9.2.1 GONK
Gonk consists of a Linux kernel and user-space hardware
abstraction layer (HAL). The kernel and several user-
space libraries are common open-source projects: Linux,
libusb, BlueZ, etc. Some other parts of the HAL are
shared with the Android project: GPS, camera, among
others. Gonk is basically an extremely simple Linux dis-
tribution and is therefore from Geckos perspective, sim-
ply a porting target of Gecko; there is a port of Gecko
to Gonk, just like there is a port of Gecko to OS X, and
a port of Gecko to Android. However, since the devel-
opment team have full control over Gonk, the developers
can fully expose all the features and interfaces required
for comprehensive mobile platforms such as Gecko, but
which aren't currently possible to access on other mobile
OSes. For example, using Gonk, Gecko can obtain direct
access to the full telephony stack and display framebuer,
but doesn't have this access on any other OS.
[39]
9.2.2 Gecko
Main article: Gecko
Gecko is the web browser engine of Firefox OS.
Gecko implements open standards for HTML, CSS, and
JavaScript. Gecko includes a networking stack, graphics
stack, layout engine, virtual machine (for JavaScript), and
porting layers.
[39]
9.2.3 XULRunner
Main article: XULRunner
XULRunner is the run-time system for anything written
in XUL, especially any Firefox add-ons.
9.2.4 Gaia
Gaia is the user interface of Firefox OS and controls ev-
erything drawn to screen. Gaia includes by default imple-
mentations of a lock screen, home screen, telephone di-
aler and contacts application, text-messaging application,
camera application and a gallery support, plus the classic
phone apps: mail, calendar, calculator and marketplace.
Gaia is written entirely in HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. It
interfaces with the operating system through Open Web
APIs, which are implemented by Gecko. Because it uses
only standard web APIs, it can work on other OSes and
other web-browsers.
[39]
9.3 Release history
9.4 Criticisms
Chris Ziegler of the technology blog The Verge wrote
that Firefox OS will take app distribution to pre-iPhone
era, requiring application developers to deal with multi-
ple carriers and their app stores.
[46][47]
But at the Mobile
World Congress, Gary Kovacs, the CEO of Mozilla, said
that the devices matter less than what they're able to run;
apps make or break a mobile platform these days, not
hardware, and the advantage is that users don't have to
install an app to use it. Mozilla is making the most of this
with the search functionality built into Firefox OS, a core
feature of the platform.
[48]
Janne Lindqvist, a mobile security researcher at the
Rutgers University WINLAB, expressed concerns related
to the discovery mechanism of a web-based platform, but
a Mozilla spokesperson has stated that they are requir-
ing developers to package downloadable apps in a zip le
that has been cryptographically signed by the store from
which it originated, assuring that it has been reviewed. In
addition, apps coming back from search are given only
limited access to device programming interfaces and ap-
plications, unless the user grants permission for further
access.
[49]
9.5 Unocially-supported devices
The structural similarities between Firefox OS and An-
droid allow the Mozilla platform to run on a number of
9.7. REFERENCES 91
devices that ship with Android. While some ports of Fire-
fox OS are hardly dierent from their original versions,
others are heavily modied to t the device in question.
Firefox OS has been ported to the following devices:
Sony Xperia SP
[50]
9.6 See also
Comparison of mobile operating systems
List of Firefox OS devices
HTML5 in mobile devices
9.7 References
[1] B2G/Architecture - Mozilla Wiki.
[2] Mozilla Licensing Policies
[3] http://www.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/os/notes/1.3/
[4] The rst mobile in Spain with refox OS. Geekphone
Keon y Peak. January 22, 2013.
[5] Firefox OS. Mozilla. August 21, 2012. Retrieved
September 17, 2012.
[6] Dotzler, Asa (January 6, 2014). Mozilla Launches Con-
tribution Program to Help Deliver Firefox OS to Tablets.
Retrieved March 19, 2014.
[7] Mozilla and Partners to Bring Firefox OS to New Plat-
forms and Devices. Mozilla Corporation. January 6,
2014.
[8] Gal, Andreas (June 25, 2011). Booting to
the web. mozilla.dev.platform mailing list.
http://groups.google.com/group/mozilla.dev.platform/
browse_thread/thread/7668a9d46a43e482?pli=1.
Retrieved November 20, 2011.
[9] Ginny Maies (February 28, 2012). First Look at
Mozillas Web Platform for Phones: 'Boot to Gecko'".
PCWorld. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
[10] Mozilla making mobile OS using Android. blog. I
Didn't KnowThat!. July 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
[11] CES 2013: ZTE Firefox OS Smartphone Coming In
2013 | TechWeekEurope UK. Techweekeurope.co.uk.
January 10, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
[12] Aditya Dey. Telefonica launches First Ever Firefox OS-
based Phone in Spain. TechStake. Retrieved July 2013.
[13] First Firefox OS Smartphone Has Arrived: Telefonica
Prices ZTE Open At $90 In Spain, Latin American Mar-
kets Coming Soon | TechCrunch. July 1, 2013. Re-
trieved July 15, 2013.
[14] Say 'hola' to the future Geeksphone.
Shop.geeksphone.com. Retrieved September 2,
2013.
[15] Flame. Mozilla Developer Network. Mozilla. Retrieved
August 31, 2014.
[16] The Firefox Phone? Mozilla Working on Android-Esque
OS. blog. Gagagadget. July 26, 2011. Retrieved August
4, 2011.
[17] Andrew Kameka (July 26, 2011). Mozilla borrows from
Android to create its own mobile operating system. blog.
androinica. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
[18] Ryan Paul (July 26, 2011). Mozilla eyes mobile OS land-
scape with new Boot to Gecko project. Ars Technica.
Retrieved August 4, 2011.
[19] Mozillas Boot 2 Gecko and why it could change the
world - Features. Know Your Mobile. March 2, 2012.
Retrieved August 18, 2012.
[20] WebAPI
[21] WebAPI - MozillaWiki. Wiki.mozilla.org. Retrieved
June 14, 2013.
[22] Brown, Mark (August 8, 2012). Mozillas HTML5
phone platform now called Firefox OS, launching 2013
(Wired UK)". Wired.co.uk. Retrieved August 18, 2012.
[23] Mozilla shows oFirefox OS screenshots. The Inquirer.
Retrieved August 18, 2012.
[24] Firefox OS to Capture 1 Percent Share of Global Smart-
phone Market in 2013. Strategy Analytics. Retrieved
September 27, 2012.
[25] Mozilla Announces Global Expansion for Firefox OS.
mozilla. February 24, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
[26] Mozilla reveals Firefox smartphone launch partners.
BBC. February 24, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
[27] http://www.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/os/notes/1.2/
[28] https://wiki.mozilla.org/Platform/GFX/APZ
[29] https://wiki.mozilla.org/FirefoxOS/Tarako
[30] Telefnica and Mozilla pioneer rst Open Web Devices
(Press release). Telefnica. February 27, 2012. Retrieved
March 23, 2012.
[31] Mozilla in Mobile the Web is the Platform (Press re-
lease). Mozilla. February 27, 2012. Retrieved March 23,
2012.
[32] Chloe Albanesius (February 28, 2012). Mozilla Tack-
les Walled Gardens, Demos 'Boot to Gecko' Mobile OS.
PCMag.com. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
[33] Raspberry Pi nowcomes in Firefox OS avour. Thereg-
ister.com. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
[34] B2G Build Prerequisites. Mozilla Developer Network.
Retrieved September 9, 2012.
92 CHAPTER 9. FIREFOX OS
[35] Firefox OS Simulator :: Versions :: Add-ons for Firefox.
Retrieved July 15, 2013.
[36] Angelina Fabbro (July 11, 2013). Firefox OS Simulator
4.0 released Mozilla Hacks the Web developer blog.
Retrieved July 15, 2013.
[37] Spreadtrum planning a $25 Firefox OS smartphone
[38] Mozilla to launch $25 phone in India in partnership with
Intex & Spice. IndianWeb2.com. Retrieved June 18,
2014.
[39] B2G/Architecture wiki page. Mozilla wiki. Mozilla.
June 5, 2012. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
[40] Release Management/B2G Landing - MozillaWiki.
MozillaWiki. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
[41] https://wiki.mozilla.org/B2G/Roadmap#Feature_
Complete_Dates
[42] https://wiki.mozilla.org/Release_Management/B2G_
Landing#Versions_and_Scheduling
[43] Index of /pub/mozilla.org/b2g/manifests/". Mozilla FTP
server. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
[44] Firefox OS Update (1.1) Adds New Features, Perfor-
mance Improvements and Additional Language Support
| Future Releases. Mozilla. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
[45] https://wiki.mozilla.org/Platform/2013-10-01#Notices.
2FSchedule_.28akeybl.2Flsblakk.2Fbajaj.29
[46] Chris Ziegler (February 27, 2013). With Firefox OS,
Mozilla gets a little dirty to clean the mobile web. The
Verge. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
[47] Chris Ziegler (February 28, 2013). Certied 'Powered
by Firefox OS' devices require Firefox Marketplace, min-
imum hardware specs. The Verge. Retrieved June 14,
2013.
[48] Mozilla Explains Why Firefox OS Apps Are Fundamen-
tally Better than Native Mobile Apps softpedia.com
[49] Talbot, David (February 28, 2013). Security Re-
searchers Raise Questions on How Mozillas Web-Centric
Firefox Mobile OS Will Stop Malicious Web Apps | MIT
Technology Review. Technologyreview.com. Retrieved
June 14, 2013.
[50] Free Xperia Project, . Firefox OS on SP.
9.8 External links
Ocial Firefox OS website
Firefox OS project page on MDN
Latest build version of Firefox OS Simulator
Mozilla Webmaker - HTML5 app Development
party
Chapter 10
Tizen
Tizen (/tazn/) is an operating system based on the
Linux kernel and the GNU C Library implementing
the Linux API. It targets a very wide range of de-
vices including smartphones, tablets, in-vehicle info-
tainment (IVI) devices, smart TVs, PCs, smart cam-
eras, wearable computing (such as Smartwatch), Blu-
ray Players, Printers and Smart Home Appliances
[3]
(such as Refrigerators, Lighting, Washing Machines, Air
Conditioners, Ovens/Microwaves and Robotic vacuum
cleaner
[4]
). Its licensing model involves software that uses
a variety of licenses that may be incompatible with the
Open Source Denition (see Licensing model below),
and a proprietary software development kit (SDK). Its
purpose is to oer a consistent user experience across de-
vices. Tizen is a project within the Linux Foundation and
is governed by a Technical Steering Group (TSG) com-
posed of Samsung and Intel among others.
The Tizen Association was formed to guide the indus-
try role of Tizen, including requirements gathering, iden-
tifying and facilitating service models, and overall in-
dustry marketing and education.
[5]
Members of the Ti-
zen Association represent every major sector of the mo-
bility industry and every region of the world. Current
members include telecommunications network operators,
OEMs and manufacturers: Fujitsu, Huawei, Intel, KT
Corporation, NEC Casio Mobile Communications, NTT
DoCoMo, Orange S.A., Panasonic Mobile Communi-
cations, Samsung, SK Telecom, Sprint Corporation and
Vodafone.
[6]
While the Tizen Association decides what
needs to be done in Tizen, the Technical Steering Group
determines what code is actually incorporated into the
operating system to accomplish those goals. Tizen roots
back to the Samsung Linux Platform(SLP) and the LiMo
Project and in 2013 Samsung merged its homegrown
Bada project into Tizen.
[7]
The rst week of October 2013, Samsungs NX300M
smart camera became the rst consumer product based
on Tizen; it was sold in South Korea for a month before its
OS was revealed at the Tizen Developer Summit,
[8][9][10]
then became available for pre-order in the United States
in early 2014 with a release date of March 1. The rst Ti-
zen tablet was announced by Systena in June 2013, a 10-
inch quad-core ARMwith 1920x1200 resolution that was
eventually shipped in late October 2013 as part of a de-
velopment kit exclusive to Japan.
[11][12][13]
The Samsung
Gear 2 smartwatch uses Tizen and it was released in April
2014.
[14]
The Samsung ZEQ9000 was expected to be the
rst commercially available smartphone running the op-
erating system, but its planned launch at Mobile World
Congress 2014 did not happen.
[15]
The Samsung Z, the previous attempt to produce a Tizen
phone was postponed, prompting WSJ to call Tizen an
ill-fated project.
[16]
Samsung will be introducing Tizen-based devices to the
Indian market in November 2014.
[17]
10.1 System architecture
10.1.1 Overview
The Tizen Association
[18]
was formed to guide the indus-
try role of Tizen, including gathering requirements, iden-
tifying and facilitating service models and overall indus-
try marketing and education.
Tizen provides application development tools based on
the JavaScript libraries jQuery and jQuery Mobile. Since
version 2.0, a native application framework is also avail-
able, based on an Open Services Platform from the Bada
platform.
The software development kit (SDK) allows developers
to use HTML5 and related Web technologies to write ap-
plications that run on supported devices.
oFono is the telephony stack
Smack is utilized to sandbox HTML5 web
applications.
[19]
Windowing system
The X Window System with the
Enlightenment Foundation Libraries are
used.
[20]
Wayland: Tizen up to 2.x supports Wayland
in in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) setups
[21]
and
from 3.0 onward defaults to Wayland.
[22]
93
94 CHAPTER 10. TIZEN
ZYpp was chosen as package management system
(PMS)
ConnMan was chosen over NetworkManager
10.1.2 Open environment
The Core Mobile Web Platform Community Group
[23]
(Coremob) brings developers, equipment manufacturers,
browser vendors and operators together to agree on core
features that developers can depend on.
HTML5 applications run on Tizen, Android, Firefox OS,
Ubuntu Touch, Windows Phone, and webOS without a
browser.
In late January 2013, Tizen 2.0 scored highest at the time
in an HTML5 test of any browsers.
[24]
As the old HTML5
tests were phased out on November 13, 2013, Tizen 2.2
fell below BlackBerry 10.2 at 494 out of 555 points.
[25]
However, as of December 2013 desktop browsers had re-
gained the advantage, and results for Tizen 2.2 on a Sam-
sung device score highest overall in mobile, with a score
of 497 points.
[26]
Tizen IVI (In-Vehicle Infotainment) is an operating system
from the Automotive Grade Linux Workgroup.
[27]
It is
PC-compatible.
Applications based on Qt, GTK+ and EFL frameworks
can run on Tizen IVI.
[28]
While there is no ocial sup-
port for these third-party frameworks, according to the
explanation on the Tizen SDK Web site,
[29]
Tizen applica-
tions for mobile devices can be developed without relying
on an ocial Tizen IDE as long as the application com-
plies with Tizen packaging rules. In May 2013, a com-
munity port of Qt to Tizen focused on delivering native
GUI controls and integration of Qt with Tizen OS fea-
tures for smartphones.
[30]
Based on the Qt port to Tizen,
Tizen and mer can interchange code.
10.1.3 Licensing model
Tizen 2.x has a complicated licensing model, in part due
to the patent troll problem that exists in the global smart-
phone market . While Apple has pursued patent litiga-
tion and even transferred some to known trolls to pursue
Tizen partners (HTC, LG, Samsung, and more), by early
2014 cross-licensing among hardware manufacturers was
happening more broadly. Extending open source soft-
ware and patenting the extension is an option that most
open source licenses do not restrict.
Tizens open governance model was created through pub-
lic input, suggestions, criticism, or participation, for Ti-
zen 3.0.
[31]
The operating system consists of many open source com-
ponents. A number of components internally developed
by Samsung (e.g., boot animation, calendar, task man-
ager, music player applications) are, however, released
under the Flora License, essentially a BSD- or Apache-
style license except granting patents to Tizen Certied
Platform only.
Flora is not approved by the Open Source Initiative.
[32]
Therefore, it is unclear whether developers can legally use
the native application framework and its graphical com-
ponents to make GPL applications. Source code access
is guaranteed however.
Its SDK is built on top of open source components,
[33]
but the entire SDK has been published under a non-open-
source Samsung license.
[34]
10.2 History
Maemo
(Nokia)
Moblin
(Intel)
LiMo
(Linux foundation
/Samsung)
Bada
(Samsung)
MeeGo
(Nokia/Intel)
Tizen
(Intel/Samsung/
Linux Foundation)
mer
(Mer project)
Qt-based
Tizen NG
(Intel/Samsung/
Linux Foundation)
Nemo Mobile
(Open community)
Linux kernel + mer + UI
Sailsh OS
(Jolla)
Linux kernel + mer + Jolla UI
Tizen and the mobile software distributions it is related to
2
0
0
5
2
0
0
6
2
0
0
7
2
0
0
8
2
0
0
9
2
0
1
0
2
0
1
1
2
0
1
2
1.1
2.x
3.x
4.0
4.1
5.0
maemo
0.x/1.x
2.x
Moblin
1.0
1.1.x
1.2
MeeGo
1.0
Tizen mer
Nokia Intel Samsung
Linux
Foundation
Full
Community
LiMo
Foundation
Predecessors of Tizen
Tizen came from of a long process of Linux adoption by
manufacturers. A complete family tree is available.
[35]
Samsungs collaboration with the EFL project, and espe-
cially Carsten Haitzler, was known as LiMo for years.
It was renamed Tizen when Intel joined the project in
September 2011, after leaving the MeeGo project. A
common misconception is that Tizen is a continuation
of MeeGo. In fact, it builds on Samsung Linux Plat-
form (SLP), a reference implementation delivered within
LiMo.
[36]
On January 1, 2012, the LiMo Foundation was re-
named Tizen Association. The Tizen Association is led
by a Board of Directors from Samsung, Intel, Huawei,
10.3. MARKET RELEASE 95
Fujitsu, NEC, Panasonic, KT Corporation, Sprint Cor-
poration, SK Telecom, Orange, NTT DoCoMo, and
Vodafone. The Tizen Association works closely with the
Linux Foundation, which supports the Tizen open source
project.
[37]
On April 30, 2012, Tizen released version 1.0, code-
named Larkspur.
[38]
On May 7, 2012, American wireless carrier Sprint Nex-
tel (now Sprint Corporation) announced it had agreed to
become part of the Tizen Association and planned to in-
clude Tizen-powered devices in their future lineup.
[39]
On September 16, 2012 the Automotive Grade Linux
Workgroup announced it will work with the Tizen project
as the reference distribution optimized for a broad set of
automotive applications such as Instrumentation Cluster
and In-Vehicle-Infotainment (IVI).
[27]
On September 25, 2012, Tizen released version 2.0
alpha, code-named Magnolia.
[40]
It oered an en-
hanced Web-based framework with more features, better
HTML5/W3CAPI support and more device APIs, multi-
process Webkit2-based Web Runtime and better security
for Web applications. Support for OpenGL ES has been
enhanced. Newly added Platform SDK has been pro-
vided to help with platform development based on Open
Build Service (OBS).
On February 18, 2013, Tizen released version 2.0, code-
named Magnolia.
[41]
Apart fromfurther enhancements of
the Web frameworks and APIs, native application frame-
work with Integrated development environment and as-
sociated tools have been added supporting features such
as background applications, IP push, and text-to-speech.
Inclusion of this framework is an eect of the expected
merging parts of the Open Services Platform (OSP)
framework and APIs of the Bada operating system with
the Tizen platform.
On April, 2013 Samsung announced Tizen Port-a-thon.
This campaign supports Bada developers early entry into
the Tizen market by providing technical support and
incentives.
[42]
On May 17, 2013, Tizen released version 2.1, code-
named Nectarine.
[43]
On July, 2013, Samsung announced Tizen App Chal-
lenge, with over $4 million in cash prizes.
[44]
On July 22, 2013, Tizen released version 2.2.
[45]
On November 9, 2013, Tizen released version 2.2.1.
[46]
On May 14, 2014, It was announced that Tizen:Common
would Ship with Qt Integrated.
[47]
This marks the ability
for Tizen to support Qt Native apps
On June 2, 2014, Tizen released version 2.3 alpha.
10.3 Market release
Galaxy Gear smartwatches use Tizen as their main OS.
[48]
The Samsung Zis planned to be the rst smartphone using
Tizen
[49]
Allegedly, the rst Tizen devices were planned for the
second half of 2012.
[50]
Samsung then claried that rst
quarter of 2013 is not a date of actual product launch,
but of demonstrations at Mobile World Congress.
[51]
Ti-
zen Devices made by Samsung were said to ship in 2013,
perhaps in August or September,
[52][53]
then replaced to
Later in 2013,
[54][55]
and then perhaps in early 2014.
[56]
In May 2013, Samsung released the rmware source code
for their NX2000 and NX300 cameras.
[57]
The architec-
ture of this source code is based on Tizen.
In February 2014, Samsung unveiled the Samsung Gear
2 and the Gear 2 Neo, running Tizen instead of Android
used in the original Samsung Galaxy Gear.
[58]
In April
2014, the Gear 2 and Gear 2 Neo, using Tizen, were re-
leased. On May 31, 2014, Samsung released an update
for the original Galaxy Gear, switching the OS from An-
droid to Tizen.
In 2014, Samsung will launch the rst Tizen based smart-
phone, the Samsung Z SM-Z910F.
[59]
The Samsung Z
will be released in Russia in the 3rd quarter, after that it
will be brought to more markets. In June 2014, at the Ti-
zen Developer Conference 2014 Samsung showed a pro-
totype of a Tizen based smart TVs.
[60]
Samsung announced the smartwatch Samsung Gear S -
a watch that is able to make phone calls and send SMS
without a phone - on 28 August 2014.
On September 15th 2014, Samsung released the Samsung
NX1 that also uses Tizen.
10.4 See also
Comparison of mobile operating systems
HTML5 in mobile devices
Comparison of commercial GPS software
10.4.1 Related projects
Bada, an operating system for mobile phones, forms
the native application framework of Tizen 2.0 and
later.
Cordova implementation for Tizen
[61]
is a JavaScript
wrapper library allowing to build and run Cordova
(PhoneGap) based projects on Tizen.
River Trail Intel Labs River Trail project goal is
to enable data-parallelism in Web applications. By
96 CHAPTER 10. TIZEN
leveraging multiple CPU cores and vector instruc-
tions, River Trail is signicantly faster than sequen-
tial JavaScript.
[62]
Sailsh OS, an operating system for mobile phones
that is mer-based
10.5 References
[1] Tizen UI Overview
[2] Tizen 2.2.1 Platform Release
[3] Samsung show o Tizen TV
[4] Tizen Target Market
[5] About Tizen
[6] Tizen FAQ
[7] Saxena, Anupam. Samsung to nally merge Bada with
Tizen. NDTV Gadgets. NDTV Convergence Limited.
Retrieved 11 April 2014.
[8] Steve Dent (7 October 2013). Samsung refreshes
NX300M mirrorless camera with 180 degree rotatable
display. Archived from the original on 2013-12-06.
[9] Eric Brown (11 November 2013). Tizen update: camera
debuted, Lite version, delayed phone. LinuxGizmos.com.
Retrieved 23 February 2014.
[10] Alex Colon (11 November 2013). Tizen news roundup:
Samsungs NX300M camera runs on Tizen with phones
and TV to follow, Nokia signs on for maps. GigaOm.
Archived from the original on 2014-01-22. Retrieved 23
February 2014.
[11] Brown, Eric (27 June 2013). Worlds rst Tizen tablet?".
LinuxGizmos.com. Archived from the original on 2 July
2013. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
[12] Brown, Eric. First Tizen tablet ships to developers. Lin-
uxGizmos.com. Archived from the original on 28 October
2013. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
[13] Sean Buckley (25 October 2013). First Tizen tablet
launches in Japan, caters exclusively to developers. En-
gadget. Archived from the original on 2014-01-25. Re-
trieved 23 February 2014.
[14] Ryan Whitwam (February 22, 2014). Samsung An-
nounces Gear 2 And Gear 2 Neo Smart Watches Running
Tizen, Available Worldwide In April. Android Police.
Retrieved February 22, 2014.
[15] Press render of Samsungs Tizen-based ZEQ 9000 leaks
online. Neowin. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
[16] Cheng, Jonathan (July 28, 2014). Samsung Postpones
Launch of Tizen Smartphone in Russia. WSJ.
[17] Gupta, Deepali (Sep 18, 2014). Samsung likely to launch
phone with rst in-house OS after Diwali.
[18] Home. TIZEN Association. Retrieved November 22,
2012.
[19] Onur Aciicmez, Andrew Blaich. Understanding the Ac-
cess Control Model for Tizen Application Sandboxing.
Archived from the original on 2012-09-12.
[20] Overview of Graphics and Input in Tizen (PDF). Re-
trieved 2014-02-25.
[21] IVI/IVI Setup. Tizen Wiki. Retrieved 2013-04-08.
[22] "[IVI] Tizen IVI 3.0-M1 released. Tizen.org. Retrieved
2013-07-15.
[23] Core Mobile Web Platform Community Group.
W3.org. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
[24] Tizen 2.0 tops HTML5 test. Retrieved 3 December
2013.
[25] The HTML5 Test. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
[26] HTML5 Test results of Samsung with Tizen 2.2 Dot-
CoMo device. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
[27] Automotive Grade Linux. Automo-
tive.linuxfoundation.org. Retrieved November 22,
2012.
[28] Tizen IVI Architecture. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
[29] Tizen SDK | Tizen Developers. Developer.tizen.org.
2013-02-18. Retrieved 2013-03-27.
[30] Qt for Tizen Project. Retrieved June 30, 2013.
[31] Open source governance and licensing for Tizen 3.0. ti-
zen.org. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
[32] Tizen 2.0 SDK comes in Magnolia - The H Open:
News and Features. H-online.com. 2013-02-19.
Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved
2013-07-16.
[33] https://developer.tizen.org/sites/default/files/page/sdk_
opensource_license_announcement.pdf
[34] Tizen SDKLicense Agreement | Tizen Developers. De-
veloper.tizen.org. 2013-02-18. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
[35] tizen-history/tizen-history.pdf at master
kumadasu/tizen-history GitHub. Github.com.
August 28, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
[36] "[General] What is the scope of Tizen?]". Lists.tizen.org.
2011-09-29. Retrieved 2013-03-27.
[37] Sprint News - Sprint Joins Tizen Association,
Adds to its Board of Directors. Embedded-m2m-
solutions.tmcnet.com. May 7, 2012. Retrieved
November 22, 2012.
[38] Tizen 1.0 Larkspur SDK and Source Code Release. Ti-
zen.org. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
[39] Wallace, Kristen. Sprint Joins The Tizen Association.
Sprint Newsroom. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
10.6. EXTERNAL LINKS 97
[40] Tizen 2.0 Alpha SDK and Source Code release. The
Tizen Technical Steering Group. September 25, 2012.
Retrieved October 4, 2012.
[41] Tizen 2.0 Magnolia SDK and Source Code Release. Ti-
zen.org. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
[42] Tizen Port-a-thon. tizenportathon.com.
[43] Tizen 2.1 SDK and Source Code Release. Tizen.org.
[44] Tizen App Challenge. tizenappchallenge.com.
[45] Tizen 2.2 SDK Release. Tizen.org.
[46] Tizen 2.2.1 Platform Release. Tizen.org.
[47] "Tizen:Common to Ship with Qt Integrated. tizenex-
perts.com.
[48] Galaxy Gear gets updated to Tizen
[49]
[50] TechnoBualo (2012-05-21). Tizen Smartphones and
Netbooks Allegedly Due in Second Half of 2012. Tech-
noBualo. Retrieved 2013-03-27.
[51] TechnoBualo. Samsung Aiming to Sell its First Tizen-
Based Phone in 2013, Says Report. TechnoBualo. Re-
trieved 2013-03-27.
[52] Cheng, Roger (2013-02-24). Samsung to launch rst Ti-
zen smartphone as early as July | Mobile World Congress
- CNET Reviews. Reviews.cnet.com. Retrieved 2013-
03-27.
[53] Samsung: 'the Tizen phone will be out in August or
September, and this will be in the high-end category'".
Phonearena.com. Retrieved 2013-03-27.
[54] Lee, Jungah (2013-03-14). Samsung Will Release
Tizen-Based Smartphone This Year. Bloomberg. Re-
trieved 2013-03-27.
[55] Aaron Souppouris (2013-01-03). Samsung conrms it
will launch multiple Tizen handsets this year. The Verge.
Retrieved 2013-03-27.
[56] Tizen makes stealth pitch to Samsungs Android
acolytes. CNET News. 2013-10-30. Retrieved 2013-10-
30.
[57] Photo Rumors (2013-05-18). The code of the Samsung
NX200 and NX300 mirrorless cameras is now available
as open source. Photo Rumors. Retrieved 2013-05-19.
[58] Techradar (2014-02-23). Samsungs wrist reboot: Gear
2 and Gear 2 Neo unveiled. Techradar. Retrieved 2014-
02-23.
[59] TizenWorld (2014-06-02). Samsung introduces the rst
Tizen smartphone: Samsung Z. TizenWorld. Retrieved
2014-06-02.
[60] TizenWorld (2014-06-03). Tizen TV: Samsung shows
a prototype of a TV running Tizen. TizenWorld. Re-
trieved 2014-06-03.
[61] apache/incubator-cordova-tizen GitHub. Github.com.
Retrieved November 22, 2012.
[62] RiverTrail. Home RiverTrail/RiverTrail Wiki
GitHub. Github.com. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
10.6 External links
Ocial website
SDK and forums
Wiki
Tizen Association
HTML5 Developer Zone at Intel
Chapter 11
Ubuntu Touch
Ubuntu Touch (also known as Ubuntu Phone) is a mo-
bile version of the Ubuntu operating system developed by
Canonical UK Ltd and Ubuntu Community.
[2]
It is de-
signed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as
smartphones and tablet computers.
11.1 History
Mark Shuttleworth announced, 31 October 2011, that by
Ubuntu 14.04, Ubuntu will support smartphones, tablets,
TVs and smart screens.
[3]
The Ubuntu platform for phones was unveiled on 2 Jan-
uary 2013.
[4][5]
The Ubuntu Touch Developer Preview was released on
21 February 2013.
[6]
11.1.1 Release
Canonical released Ubuntu Touch 1.0, the rst devel-
oper/partner version on 17 October 2013, along with
Ubuntu 13.10 that primarily supports the Galaxy Nexus
and Nexus 4 phones, though there are images available
for other phones and tablets,
[7]
and released a relatively
stable build for wider testing and feedback on 17 April
2014,
[8]
along with Ubuntu 14.04. A preview version of
the software is available for installation on certain addi-
tional Android handsets including the Samsung Galaxy
S4 Google Edition as a Developer Preview as of 21
February 2013. Developers have access to all of the
source code under a license allowing modication and re-
distribution of the software.
[6]
11.2 Features
Ubuntu Touch uses the Qt 5-based touch user inter-
face
[9]
and various software frameworks originally de-
veloped for Maemo and MeeGo such as oFono as tele-
phony stack,
[10]
accounts-sso for single sign-on,
[11][12]
and
Maliit for input.
[13]
Utilizing libhybris
[14][15]
the system
can often be used with Linux kernels used in Android,
Ubuntu Touch Developer Preview 13.04 on a Galaxy Nexus,
the Welcome screen displayed.
which makes it easily ported to most recent Android
smartphones.
[16]
Ubuntu Touch utilizes the same core technologies as the
Ubuntu Desktop, so applications designed for the latter
platform run on the former and vice versa. Addition-
ally, Ubuntu Desktop components come with the Ubuntu
Touch system; allowing Ubuntu Touch devices to provide
98
11.4. TARGET MARKET 99
a full desktop experience when connected to an external
monitor.
[9]
Ubuntu Touch devices can be equipped with a
full Ubuntu session and may change into a full desktop op-
erating system when plugged into a docking station.
[5]
If
plugged the device can use all the features of Ubuntu and
user can perform oce work or even play ARM-ready
games on such device.
[17]
11.2.1 Lock screen
When Ubuntu Touch is turned on no lock screen is neces-
sary as applications will unlock if needed. The center of
the Welcome Screen is a visualization of activity on the
device. It shows your status and recent events on the wel-
come screen, completed with an animated design around
the circle.
[18]
11.2.2 Included applications
Ubuntu Touch includes as core applications social media
and media applications (e.g. Facebook, YouTube, and
an RSS reader). Standard applications such as a calcula-
tor, an e-mail client, an alarm clock, a le manager, and
even a terminal are to be included as well. Twelve or
more core applications are currently being developed.
[19]
Several Ubuntu Touch applications work on the desktop,
including the Browser, Calendar, Clocks, Gallery, Notes,
Reminders, Terminal, and Weather.
[20]
11.2.3 Side Stage
Main article: Side Stage
Side Stage allows to run both tablet apps and phone
apps side by side, resizing each on the top as and when
you need to see more of them.
[21][22]
It aims to go even
further with the idea of multitasking, allowing screen
space to be divided in this manner. Examples shown in
the announcement video included a notes app being used
alongside a web browser, and a user swiping from the
right edge to bring a mobile version of the Facebook app
into view over a playing video.
11.3 Design
Users can access the whole system by swiping from the
edges of the screen. The left edge allows for instant access
to applications pinned to the launcher, and swiping all the
way across reveals the home, which displays applications,
les and contacts. This menu is available from the home
screen and any running app.
[23]
Ubuntu Touchs multitasking is accessed by swiping the
nger from the right edge of the screen to the left, which
switches to the previous application. Using the launcher
on the left side switches back. Swiping up from the bot-
tom side is used to show or hide the toolbar, which gives
Ubuntu Phone the ability to run applications with a large,
uncluttered canvas by default.
[24]
11.4 Target market
Mark Shuttleworth, the founder of the company behind
the Linux distribution believes that Ubuntu for phones
will rst nd a niche in countries where Ubuntu is well
known; more specically, developing markets such as
India and China where computers have Ubuntu pre-
installed. However, the success of Ubuntu Phone in these
markets is dicult to predict.
[25]
Ubuntu strives to be the smartphone thats also a full
PC.
[26]
Canonical reports that software for the mobile
version of Ubuntu is also compatible with versions for
PCs and televisions. This is a feature not currently of-
fered by other operating system companies, and aims to
simplify both the use and development of the product.
[27]
The aforementioned PC and mobile synergy may also
be attractive to corporate IT departments currently us-
ing Ubuntu to run their servers, as it will extend access
to a wider range of devices. This will improve accessibil-
ity and the management of devices within the company.
Mobile devices can be connected to larger displays and
other peripherals such as wireless keyboards. Windows
applications can also be accessed from corporate servers
onto a mobile device, which makes the transferring of
data more ecient.
[28]
Despite Ubuntus popularity among open source devel-
opers, penetrating the legacy-bound business market will
continue to be somewhat challenging for Ubuntu. Com-
panies employing the "Bring your own device" method
have already adapted to using Android and iOS devices
and the benets posed by Ubuntu may not be adequately
considered.
[29]
11.5 Hardware requirements
Ubuntu Touch requires that a systems CPU support cer-
tain hardware features, specically the PAE.
11.6 Reception
Adrian Covert, writing for CNN on 2 January 2013,
predicted that the operating system will not gain wide
use, stating, carving out a niche in the seemingly un-
shakable mobile spaceruled by the Android-and-Apple
duopolystill requires a critical mass of users and a
lively ecosystem of app developers. Realistically speak-
ing, the chances of this even upstaging Windows Phone
100 CHAPTER 11. UBUNTU TOUCH
or BlackBerry 10 are slim. At best, Ubuntu seems like
a sandbox for the most enthusiastic early adopters and
a cheap enterprise solution for companies on a tight
budget.
[32]
Joey Sneddon of OMG! Ubuntu disagreed with Coverts
assessment, writing, commentators like Covert are miss-
ing the point. See, Ubuntu Phones aren't really going to
claw much market share away from Apple or Google.
And this neat 'dock your phone and use it as a desk-
top' feature, whilst innovative, won't be the main lure
for many []. During his keynote address earlier this
week, Mark Shuttleworth continually referred to 'emerg-
ing' markets as the battleground on which an Ubuntu
Phone would ght it out for impact []. Its this sec-
tor, the low-end, that the battle for the hearts, minds and
hands of the less tech-savvy will take place.
[33]
Rich Trenholm writing for CNET on 27 February 2013,
"[] But on rst impression I'm hugely taken with
Ubuntu Touch. Its elegant, thoughtful, and versatile,
while remaining beautifully straightforward. [] its by
far the strongest potential rival to Android, iOS, and Win-
dows Phone. In fact, I prefer it to iOS, which long ago lost
its shine, and heck, maybe even to Android, too. Fin-
gers crossed that manufacturers and phone carriers get
behind it, because I'd happily lay down my own cash for
an Ubuntu Touch phone.
[34]
Jason Jenkins, writing for CNET on 27 February 2013,
MWC Awards 2013, "[] Lots was said about the im-
pressive number of carriers and manufacturers Firefox
OS has lined up behind it. But once put to a vote, Ubuntu
Touch was the clear winner, with Firefox OS the runner-
up. The team thought that Ubuntu Touch, the tablet ver-
sion of which we got our hands-on for the rst time at
MWC, feels more like the complete package at this point.
[]"
[35]
11.7 See also
HTML5 in mobile devices
Comparison of mobile operating systems
Ubuntu SDK
Ubuntu TV
11.8 References
[1] Daily build (2014-03-13). Ubuntu Touch 14.04 (Trusty
Tahr) Daily Build. Wiki.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 2014-
03-14.
[2] Backed by Canonical | Ubuntu
[3] Mark Shuttleworth (31 October 2011). Blog Archive
Ubuntu on phones, tablets, TVs and smart screens every-
where. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
[4] Ubuntu Phone OS Unveiled by Canonical | OMG!
Ubuntu!
[5] Canonical unveils Ubuntu phone OS that doubles as a full
PC | Ars Tehnica
[6] Ubuntu Touch Developer Preview Released, Available for
Nexus Devices | OMG! Ubuntu!
[7] SaucySalamander/ReleaseNotes - Ubuntu Wiki.
Wiki.ubuntu.com. 2013-11-15. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
[8] Revision 121 as of 2014-04-17 17:12:35Clear mes-
sage. TrustyTahr/ReleaseNotes - Ubuntu Wiki.
Wiki.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 2014-04-18.
[9] App ecosystem | Ubuntu for phones | Ubuntu
[10] Jrg Thoma (7 March 2013). Canonical: Ubuntu Touch
noch nicht ohne Android (in German). Golem.de. p. 2.
Retrieved 26 March 2013.
[11] GNOME Online Accounts: why it is the way it is. De-
barshiray.wordpress.com. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
[12] Online Accounts setup for Ubuntu Touch in Launchpad.
Launchpad.net. Retrieved on 27 September 2013.
[13] Maliit Keyboard Improvements | Murrays Blog. Mur-
rayc.com. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
[14] Carsten Munk (11 April 2013). Wayland utilizing An-
droid GPU drivers on glibc based systems, Part 1. Mer
Project. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
[15] libhybris in Launchpad. Launchpad.net. 5 February
2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
[16] Touch/FAQ - Ubuntu Wiki. Wiki.ubuntu.com. Re-
trieved 8 April 2013.
[17] Ubuntu for phones | Ubuntu
[18] Design and user experience | Ubuntu for phones | Ubuntu
[19] Ribeiro, Goncalo. First Ubuntu Phone OS Powered De-
vices Will Hit Shelves This October. Redmond Pie. Re-
trieved 11 February 2013.
[20] Sneddon, Joey. Ubuntu Touch Apps Available In Ubuntu
13.10. OMG Ubuntu.
[21] "Ubuntu unveils tablet experience with multi-tasking"
(press release). 19 February 2013. Accessed 27 Febru-
ary 2013.
[22] Jon Brodkin. "Shuttleworth: Ubuntu tablets won't be as
jarring to users as Windows 8". Ars Technica, 19 Febru-
ary 2013. Accessed 27 February 2013.
[23] UI model | Ubuntu Design. Ubuntu Design. Retrieved
10 April 2013.
[24] "'Content views | Ubuntu Design'". Ubuntu Design. Re-
trieved 10 April 2013.
[25] Simonite, Tom. Ubuntu Smartphone Aims for Success in
Developing Economies. MIT Technology Review. Re-
trieved 11 February 2013.
11.9. EXTERNAL LINKS 101
[26] Ubuntu for phones. |rst1= missing |last1= in Authors
list (help)
[27] Knight, Will. Ubuntu Invites Phone Makers to Cheat on
Google. MIT Technology Review.
[28] Scape, Tap. Android and iOS watch out, Ubuntu Phone
coming in October. TapScape. Retrieved 11 February
2013.
[29] Hickins, Michael. Ubuntu Smartphone Shipping in Oc-
tober. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 February
2013.
[30] "'Operator and OEM partners | Ubuntu for phones |
Ubuntu'". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
[31] "'Ubuntu Tablet OEM partner information | Ubuntu on
tablets | Ubuntu'". Canonical Ltd. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
[32] Covert, Adrian (2 January 2013). The Ubuntu smart-
phone (which no one will use) is a glimpse of the future.
CNN. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
[33] Sneddon, Joey (4 January 2013). CNN Predict Ubuntu
Phone 'Won't Make Inroads". OMG! Ubuntu!. Retrieved
7 January 2013.
[34] Ubuntu Touch - Operating systems - CNET Reviews.
CNET. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
[35] Ubuntu Touch beats Firefox OS to win best of MWC
from CNET Mobile World Congress - CNET Reviews.
CNET. 28 February 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
11.9 External links
Ocial website
Ubuntu Touch on the Ubuntu Wiki
Design vision | Ubuntu Design
Ubuntu Phone in Launchpad
The Ubuntu for phones Ocial Announcement on
Canonical UK Ltd. Blog
Ubuntu for phones - Industry proposition on
YouTube
The Ubuntu Phone Announcement on the Verge, 2
January 2013
Ubuntu Touch Developer Preview and SDK Alpha |
Ubuntu App Developer
Chapter 12
BlackBerry 10
BlackBerry 10 is a proprietary mobile operating sys-
tem developed by BlackBerry Limited for its BlackBerry
line of smartphone and tablet handheld devices.
[2][3][4]
Devices running BlackBerry 10 are the Z30, Z10, Z3,
Q10, Q5, P'9982,
[5]
P'9983, the BlackBerry Passport and
the upcoming BlackBerry Classic smartphones. Black-
Berry 10 is based on the QNX operating system, which
is popular in industrial computers and used in many car
computers,
[6]
which was acquired by BlackBerry in April
2010.
When BlackBerry 10.0 was rst released, it was the
third major release of a QNX based mobile operating
system, following the release of BlackBerry Tablet OS
with the BlackBerry PlayBook on April 19, 2011,
[7]
and BlackBerry Tablet OS version 2.0 on February 21,
2012.
[8]
BlackBerry 10 and BlackBerry Tablet OS have
numerous technical similarities, with BlackBerry 10 pro-
viding substantial enhancements over the earlier releases.
BlackBerry 10 has continued to improve and evolve as
can be seen by the release of newer versions which
have added increased features and functionality, free of
charge, to the devices.
The BlackBerry 10 operating system uses a combination
of gestures and touches for navigation and control, mak-
ing it possible to enter commands on the BlackBerry 10
operating system without having to press any of the phys-
ical buttons, with the exception of the power button that
switches the device on/o.
12.1 Launch announcements
On November 12, 2012, CEOThorsten Heins announced
a January 30, 2013 launch of the BlackBerry 10 op-
erating system version 10.0 and the rst smartphones
running it.
[9]
The operating system, as well as two de-
vices, the Z10 (a full touchscreen device), and the Q10
(a device equipped with a physical keyboard), were an-
nounced simultaneously around the world on January
30, 2013.
[10]
The company also announced that the
BlackBerry PlayBook tablet would receive an update to
BlackBerry 10 later in 2013.
[11]
Subsequently BlackBerry
stated when releasing their Q1 2014 nancial results that
the BlackBerry PlayBook would not be receiving an up-
date to BlackBerry 10, citing that the hardware would not
provide a good experience of BlackBerry 10 and are fo-
cusing on future devices. BlackBerry has continued to
support and develop the PlayBook with its separate Tablet
OS.
On 14 May 2013 BlackBerry OS 10.1 was launched.
This brought improvements to many features requested
by users.
On 13 September 2013, in Asia, BlackBerry announced
the launch of BlackBerry OS 10.2 and a new BlackBerry
10 device, the Z30, providing performance increases over
the previous BlackBerry 10 devices.
12.2 User interface
On 1 May 2012, Thorsten Heins, CEO of BlackBerry of-
cially unveiled the BlackBerry 10 platform. The fea-
tures shown o at the BlackBerry World conference in-
cluded a unique platform-wide ow interface, a new in-
telligent keyboard, as well as a camera app which allows
the user to time-adjust the whole photo and also time-
adjust individual faces one at a time to optimize picture
quality. The user interface also includes the ability to
run 8 Active Frames. Active Frames are applications
that are currently running within the operating system,
but minimized. These applications can either be running
or paused while in Active Frames to help with battery
longevity. Some are capable of showing a feed of live
information on the home screen.
[12]
The operating sys-
tem also features the 'Hub', a message center accessible
from anywhere in the OS where all notications includ-
ing emails, social networking notications, text messages,
and other notications are displayed and are actionable.
BlackBerry 10 uses Slate as its main typeface.
[13]
12.3 Features
102
12.3. FEATURES 103
BlackBerry Hub being viewed from BlackBerry World on a
BlackBerry Z10
12.3.1 Gestures
Gestures are largely integrated within the BlackBerry 10,
featuring four main gestures for easy navigation.
[14]
Quick
swiping up fromthe bottomedge of the bezel will result in
users returning to the home screen. Fromthere, users can
view and close active applications. Users can also swipe
from the top edge, to bring down a quick setting shade on
the home screen, or an option shade on other supported
apps. Also, while using any application, the upside down
J-hook (starting from the bottom of the bezel and moving
upward and right) allows users to peek at any notications
or messages on the BlackBerry Hub.
[14]
Finally, swiping
left to right (or vice versa) scroll through the available
screens. It is possible to navigate around and through the
apps using gestures and without needing navigation but-
tons.
12.3.2 Multitasking
Similar to BlackBerry Tablet OS, BlackBerry 10 OS also
supports multitasking with gesture integration. Swiping
up from any application brings up the running application
screen, which functions as an application switcher and a
task manager. Users can switch through running appli-
cations by tapping on any of the apps or close them by
tapping on the X on the lower right of the app itself.
[14]
Some apps also oer widget like functionality, similar to
Android.
[14]
Examples of this include, picture app cycling
through a photo albumor calendar app showing upcoming
events and meetings. Though the limit on the number of
applications running in the background has been removed
in the latest os updates, the number of Active Frames dis-
played is currently limited to eight with the most recently
accessed application appearing in the top left position of
the Active Frames screen.
[14]
12.3.3 BlackBerry Hub
BlackBerry Hub acts as a notication center, with the
users entire social and email accounts integrated into one
app. These include, at launch, standard Email client,
Twitter, Facebook, BlackBerry Messenger (BBM), and
LinkedIn (with options to turn any of these services o).
Standard notications like missed calls, voicemail, and
system updates also appear on the hub. The hub can be
accessible from any app/lock screen, by performing an
upside down j-hook gesture.
[14]
Users can perform vari-
ous tasks like compose emails, send emails, and browse
social networks, without accessing other apps. Develop-
ers are also given options to integrate apps into the Black-
Berry Hub.
[14]
12.3.4 BlackBerry Balance
BlackBerry Balance is a new feature introduced in Black-
Berry 10, enabling users to keep both personal data and
oce work data separated in its own spaces. Using
BlackBerry Enterprise Service 10, IT departments can
allow users to set up work-spaces that automatically in-
stall applications and email accounts. After completion,
users can navigate between personal and work proles, by
swiping down on the apps page. All of the users data is
secured via 256-bit AES encryption, and any les created
will stay within the prole partition.
[14]
12.3.5 Time shift camera
BlackBerry 10 features camera software that takes mul-
tiple frames of every photo. This feature allows users to
adjust a photo easily to correct issues such as closed eyes.
12.3.6 BBM video/screen share
BlackBerrys messaging application (BBM) in BB10 in-
cludes the ability to video chat and make VoIP calls as
well as the ability to share the contents of a users screen
with others for free on WiFi or on your mobile data plan.
104 CHAPTER 12. BLACKBERRY 10
12.3.7 Android layer
BlackBerry 10 introduced an Android runtime layer.
This allows developers to package and distribute their
applications designed to work on the Android platform.
As of BB10.2, applications developed for Android 4.2.2
Jelly Bean and below are supported.
12.3.8 Keyboard
BlackBerry 10 features a virtual keyboard. The keyboard
shares visual branding similarities with physical key-
boards from earlier devices.
[15]
The letters and numbers
use the same Frets and fonts as the old BlackBerry de-
vices. The software allows the keyboard to learn the
users typing preferences, and oers auto-predictions. It
does this for the current word and then the next word.
Predictions are made above the key
[14]
i.e. predicted
words appear above the letter that the keyboard thinks
you will touch next. You can ick these predictions up-
wards into place.
[16][17]
Words can be deleted by a swipe
from right to left across the keyboard.
12.3.9 Voice control
Voice Control was also introduced in BB10, allowing
users to send BBMs, schedule meetings, update social
networks, and open apps using natural speech patterns.
Voice control can also be used for typing on any screen
that accepts keyboard input.
[18]
12.3.10 BlackBerry Link
BlackBerry Link allows users to sync and organize mu-
sic, documents, photos, and videos between a BB10 de-
vice and a computer. It is compatible with Mac and PC,
and supports iTunes and Windows Media Player. Syncs
are done over Wi-Fi or USB. BlackBerry Link also fa-
cilitates device switches from Android and iOS as well
as BB10 software updates.
[19]
Link transfers contacts,
les, calendars, tasks, bookmarks, alarm clocks, SMS,
phone logs, WLAN proles and other information be-
tween devices.
[20]
12.4 Applications
12.4.1 Pre-Loaded Applications
BlackBerry 10 features a number of free pre-loaded ap-
plications that help users perform various tasks and ac-
tivities. These include maps, Web browser, Remem-
ber (Sticky notes app), Docs to Go (for Microsoft Pow-
erPoint, Word, and Excel les), Story Maker (video
and music stitching app), calculator, clock, music, me-
dia, weather, and le manager. Cloud service integra-
tions like Box and Dropbox are also integrated by de-
fault. In addition, BlackBerrys popular messaging ser-
vice, BlackBerry Messenger is included with BlackBerry
10.
12.4.2 Third-party applications
At the time of the release in January 2013, BlackBerry
10 operating system had 70,000 third party applications.
This represents a substantial increase over the BlackBerry
PlayBook which launched with only 3,000 third party
applications.
[21]
At BlackBerry Live 2013, BlackBerry
announced that they had surpassed 120,000 apps, and
that Skype would be available on the BlackBerry Z10.,
[22]
Skype and Instagram apps for BB10 are available now in
BlackBerry World.
12.4.3 Android applications
Through the Android runtime component of the plat-
form, BlackBerry 10 can run applications designed for
the Android platform. Originally, Android apps required
a special wrapping process in order to run on Black-
Berry 10, which translated API calls for certain Android-
specic functions (such as navigation buttons) into those
that can be recognized by BlackBerrys operating sys-
tem. As of the 10.2.1 update, APK les can now be in-
stalled directly; although it does not support the Google
Play Store, application platform VP Chris Smith demon-
strated at Mobile World Congress that users can install
and use the Amazon Appstore to install Android apps
to run on BlackBerry 10 phones. Smith did not rule
out the possibility of establishing formal partnerships
with non-Google app stores for use on BlackBerry in the
future.
[23][24]
On June 18, 2014, BlackBerry announced an ocial rela-
tionship with Amazon.com, which will see the upcoming
10.3 update oer ocial access to Amazon Appstore.
[25]
12.4.4 Distribution
Unlike the previous BlackBerry OS (but similar to the
BlackBerry PlayBook), applications can either be down-
loaded through BlackBerrys BlackBerry World store-
front, which comes included with BlackBerry 10, or can
be installed through various means from several Android
app stores.
12.7. RECEPTION 105
BlackBerry Z10
BlackBerry Q10
12.5 Devices
12.6 Developer activities
12.6.1 Engagement strategy
Building up to the launch, the company made substantial
changes to how it had previously engaged developers, be-
ing substantially more active at courting developers, solv-
ing issues and being transparent about development up-
dates. The company sent two teams to engage developers.
The rst, focused on acquiring premier applications from
third parties. The second team focused on engaging the
broader development community and building the plat-
forms application count.
[26]
12.6.2 Prototype smartphones
In May 2012, the company released a prototype touch
screen smartphone to BlackBerry developers as part of
the BlackBerry 10 Jam Conference in Orlando, Florida.
The Dev Alpha A' device, which resembled a small
BlackBerry PlayBook, ran an early version of the oper-
ating system and was provided as a means for develop-
ers to develop and test their applications on a physical
device.
[27]
In September 2012, a second developer prototype was re-
leased in September 2012, known as the Dev Alpha B.
It includes a faster processor and a number of internal
improvements.
[28]
A third developer device, the Dev Alpha C,
[29]
was an-
nounced on November 29, 2012, and is the rst developer
prototype to demonstrate the physical keyboard capabil-
ities of BlackBerry 10. Acquisition of a Dev Alpha C
device is based around a point system, meaning that de-
velopers who have previously developed apps for Black-
Berry, or have had the Dev Alpha A/B devices, will have
a higher chance of receiving a device than a new Black-
Berry developer. It was released at the BlackBerry Jam
Europe 2013 event in February 2013.
12.6.3 Portathons
Pre-launch Portathons held by BlackBerry have
received up to 19,000 applications submitted per
weekend.
[30]
12.7 Reception
Reviews of BlackBerry 10 have been generally positive.
David Pogue of the New York Times noted that the soft-
ware was, simple to master, elegantly designed and sur-
prisingly complete. It oers features nobody else oers,
some tailored to the corporate world that raised Black-
Berry aloft in its glory days.
[31]
Walt Mossberg of the
Wall Street Journal referred to the operating system as
logical and generally easy to use. Mossberg praised the
virtual keyboard, camera software, and messaging hub;
but criticized its application ecosystem, cloud capabilities
and the immaturity of some features. Gizmodos Kyle
Wagner states that BlackBerry 10s home screen gives
BB10 the single best implementation of multitasking of
any mobile OS right now. Wagner goes on to say that the
Hub works out to function a bit more like a junk drawer.
He also reports what he refers to as the Tragic Flaw":
Unlike every other major OS right now, BlackBerry does
not feel fully integrated..
[32]
Wagners review was based
on the 10.0 OS and it should be noted that since the initial
reviews of BB10 the OS has been updated several times
and for many the issues have been tackled.
[33][34]
In comparison to that, at launch, CrackBerry.com views
the new features more positively and takes into account
the fact that the OS is brand new. It says that the Black-
Berry Hub is a polished solution to eciently managing
the inux of messages we have coming at us....
[35]
It goes
on to mention minor discrepancies and nally pointing
out that many of the problems are getting xed in future
updates (some now released, e.g. battery life improve-
ments, call ringtone disabled in bedside mode
[36]
).
[35][37]
It criticizes the limited customization options compared
106 CHAPTER 12. BLACKBERRY 10
to BlackBerry OS (Alert tone volumes, alert light colour).
Regarding the apps in BlackBerry World really im-
pressed by the quality of apps BlackBerry World has
to oer, it notes that the application ecosystem is not
as large as Android and iOS because of its age (brand
new) and nishes with doubtlessly many more will come
around once they see the Z10 getting traction in the wild.
Its general summary of BlackBerry 10 (with thought for
its predecessor) is that BlackBerry 10 really is the best
of the old and the best of the new assembled seamlessly
into an elegant, practical, and integrated package.
As of Q2 2013, the new BlackBerry 10 platform had al-
most the same number of developers using the platform
as the legacy BlackBerry 5/6/7 had just before the re-
lease of BlackBerry 10.
[38]
Within a few months from its
launch, the BlackBerry 10 platform was used by approx-
imately 15% of mobile developers.
Some reviewers in the US have criticized US carriers,
such as Verizon, for holding back new upgrade releases
of the BB10 OS, therefore restricting the performance
of their customers BB10 devices as well as increasing
problems with compatibility with newapps, hardware and
software. There are available work-arounds to obtain cur-
rent software.
12.8 Version history
12.8.1 BlackBerry 10.0
12.8.2 BlackBerry 10.1
12.8.3 BlackBerry 10.2
12.8.4 BlackBerry 10.3
12.9 Branding controversy
The platform was originally called BBX but this was
changed when BlackBerry was blocked from using the
BBX trademark after legal action from BASIS Interna-
tional, who already uses it for their software.
[63]
The x
was simple. As X is the Roman numeral for ten, the
new platform was launched as BlackBerry 10.
12.10 Licensing
Former BlackBerry CEO, Thorsten Heins, before the
BlackBerry 10 launch, said that BlackBerry would con-
sider allowing other OEMs to use BlackBerry 10 under
license.
12.11 See also
Operating system
Mobile computing
WebOS
Symbian
Zaurus
Newton OS
BlackBerry OS
BlackBerry Tablet OS
BlackBerry Z10
BlackBerry Q10
BlackBerry Z30
12.12 References
[1] BlackBerry 10 Re-designed Re-engineered and Re-
invented - Press Releases
[2] Molen, Brad. Research in Motion announces BBX,
'combines the best of BlackBerry and QNX'". Engadget.
Retrieved 18 October 2011.
[3] Poeter, Damon (18 October 2011). RIM Unveils BBX,
BlackBerrys Platform of the Future. PC Magazine. Re-
trieved 2 March 2013.
[4] Sharp, Alastair (18 October 2011). RIM aims to rebuild
franchise on new BBX platform. Reuters. Retrieved 2
March 2013.
[5] Press Release: BlackBerry Introduces the New Black-
Berry Z30 Smartphone with 5 Display and BlackBerry
10.2 OS | CrackBerry.com
[6] 30 Ways QNX Touches Your Life
[7] RIM debuts BlackBerry PlayBook tablet. CTVnews.ca.
24 April 2011.
[8] BlackBerry PlayBook OS 2.0 arrives, built-in e-mail and
all. CNET.com. 21 February 2012.
[9] BlackBerry. BlackBerry 10 handsets conrmed for Jan-
uary 30 launch. Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-01-18.
[10] Spoonauer, Mark (12 November 2012). BlackBerry 10
launches Jan. 30 with two new phones. NBC News. Re-
trieved 12 February 2013.
[11] BlackBerry PlayBook tablet will get BlackBerry 10 up-
date. Ars Technica. 30 January 2013.
[12] Hands-on with BlackBerry 10 running on Dev Alpha B
Hardware. crackberry.com. Retrieved 21 December
2012.
12.12. REFERENCES 107
[13] RIM explains new fonts in BlackBerry 10 hints at more
language support. Berryreview.com. 25 July 2012. Re-
trieved 6 September 2013.
[14] Ion, Florence (2013-02-06). Review: BlackBerry 10 is
better, much better, late than never.
[15] McCann, John (30 January 2013). BlackBerry Hub,
BBM and keyboard. TechRadar. p. 2. Retrieved 12
February 2013.
[16] Oliver, Dave (2013-02-11). BlackBerry 10 OS review.
[17] BlackBerry 10: A Compelling Introduction. PC Mag-
azine Online 30 Jan. 2013. General OneFile. Web. 12
Feb. 2013.
[18] Blackberry 10 Features. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
[19] BlackBerry Link - BlackBerry 10 Smartphone to Com-
puter Sync - US
[20] Transfer fromiPhone &Android to BlackBerry 10 Smart-
phones - US
[21] Anthony, Robert S. (2011-04-18). RIM BlackBerry
PlayBook: The First Apps. PCWorld. Retrieved 2013-
03-07.
[22] BlackBerry Live 2013 Keynote Highlights and Announce-
ments [VIDEO] | Inside BlackBerry
[23] HowBlackBerry 10 Runs 28,000 Android Apps Without
a Back Button. PC Magazine. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
[24] BlackBerry: Run Your Android Apps Here!". PC Mag-
azine. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
[25] BlackBerry will bring thousands of apps from Amazons
store to its phones. The Verge. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
[26] Meet the man who would make BlackBerry apps cool.
Retrieved 2013-02-28.
[27] BlackBerry 10 Dev Alpha Device Announced from
Thorsten Heins | BlackBerry Empire. Retrieved 14:35,
7 May 2012. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
[28] Hands-on with the BlackBerry Dev Alpha B, is it the L-
Series in disguise? | The Verge. Retrieved 14:35, 25 Sept
2012. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
[29] This is an A-B Conversation. Well, C Too. | BlackBerry
Developer Blog
[30] Extending the Deadline for Built for BlackBerry. Re-
trieved 2013-02-28.
[31] BlackBerry, Rebuilt, Lives to Fight An-
other Day | The New York Times url=http:
//www.nytimes.com/2013/01/31/technology/
the-blackberry-refreshed-lives-to-fight-another-day.
html?pagewanted=all". Check date values in: |access-
date= (help);
[32] BlackBerry Z10 Review: Not Good Enough
| Gizmodo url=http://gizmodo.com/5984411/
blackberry-z10-review-not-good-enough". Check
date values in: |accessdate= (help);
[33] 'THEONLYREALALTERNATIVE TO5 INCHAN-
DROID PHONES..' - BlackBerry Z30 user review and
rating - CNET Reviews
[34] Mixmag | BLACKBERRY Z30
[35] BlackBerry Z10 Review | CrackBerry.com
[36] Sweet Dreams! Bedside Mode now allowing you to sleep
well and not miss calls thanks to latest BlackBerry 10 up-
date | CrackBerry.com
[37] BlackBerry 10 Review | CrackBerry.com
[38] Developer Economics Q3 2013 analyst report - http://
www.visionmobile.com/DevEcon3Q13 - Retrieved July
2013
[39] Re: Just updated to OS 10.0.9.2372 - BlackBerry Support
Community Forums
[40] BlackBerry 10 software updated to 10.0.10.85: Top 5 Im-
provements | Inside BlackBerry
[41] BlackBerry 10.1 Now Available for BlackBerry Z10 | In-
side BlackBerry
[42] Denninger, Karl (May 3, 2013). Sneak Peek: Black-
Berry 10.1 OS. The Market Ticker. Retrieved June 16,
2013. First, password paste into system elds has been
xed. If you have a password safe reload that rst and
then the rest becomes easy, since you can now paste in
your seutp information for Facebook, Twitter and such.
[43] Software version: BlackBerry Z10 | T-Mobile Support
[44] Overview| BlackBerryZ10 4GLTE| Phones &Devices
| Support | TELUS Mobility
[45] AT&T nally rolling out BlackBerry 10.1 update for the
BlackBerry Z10 | CrackBerry.com
[46] A New BlackBerry 10.1 Update Available Starting Today
| Inside BlackBerry
[47] How to Get BlackBerry 10.2 on BlackBerry Z10 and
BlackBerry Q10 | Inside BlackBerry
[48] Ocial announcement: BlackBerry 10.2.1 is here - Lets
you do more, more easily
[49] Vodafone now rolling out OS 10.2.1.2141
[50] AT&T Rolling Out BlackBerry Z10 OS 10.2.1.2179
[51] BlackBerry OS 10.2.1.2228 Now Available for All (Thx
T-Mobile!)
[52] Sprint nally rolls out BlackBerry 10.2.1
[53] Important New BlackBerry OS 10.2.1 Update: Lets You
Do More, More Easily | Inside BlackBerry
[54] The Blackberry Runtime for Android Apps Just Got a
Whole Lot Sweeter | Inside Blackberry Developer Blog
[55] BlackBerry 10 receives a minor software update in prepa-
ration for 10.3.1 later this year | MobileSyrup.com:
[56] BlackBerry OS 10.2.1.3247 now rolling out ocially
108 CHAPTER 12. BLACKBERRY 10
[57] BlackBerry Z30 OS 10.2.1.3289 Now Available from
Verizon
[58] BlackBerry OS 10.2.2.1531 now rolling out regionally |
CrackBerry.com:
[59] BlackBerry OS 10.2.2.1531 now rolling out regionally |
CrackBerry.com
[60] BlackBerry Passport Review | CrackBerry.com:
[61] Ocial OS 10.3.0.1154 for the BlackBerry Passport is
now available via Indosat | BlackBerry Empire
[62] Rogers rolling out OS 10.3.0.1418 for the BlackBerry
Passport | CrackBerry.com
[63] Lawler, Richard. RIM loses BBX trademark battle, next
OS is named BlackBerry 10. Engadget. Retrieved 7 De-
cember 2011.
12.13 External links
Ocial website
Ocial BlackBerry website
BlackBerry 10 Developer platform choice
12.14. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 109
12.14 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses
12.14.1 Text
WiMAX Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WiMAX?oldid=628113150 Contributors: Jimbo Wales, William Avery, Maury Markowitz,
KYSoh, Edward, Booyabazooka, Tompagenet, Sheldon Rampton, Frank Shearar, TakuyaMurata, Skysmith, Gbleem, Ahoerstemeier,
Haakon, Mac, TUF-KAT, Angela, Mxn, Ehn, Redjar, Darkov, Charles Matthews, Ww, Kbk, Itai, Nv8200p, LMB, Fvw, Johnleemk,
Jeq, Chealer, Vespristiano, RedWolf, ZimZalaBim, Nurg, Romanm, Rfc1394, Jondel, Davodd, Wereon, Asparagus, Mdmcginn,
Giftlite, Cokoli, 0x0077BE, Jyril, Wolfkeeper, Fudoreaper, MeirM, Filceolaire, ZeroJanvier, Mboverload, Siroxo, Adamfranco, Jaan513,
Bobblewik, Tagishsimon, Edcolins, OldakQuill, Chowbok, Pgan002, Toytoy, Mendel, CryptoDerk, Beland, ShakataGaNai, Almit39,
Mozzerati, Bk0, Kevin143, Biot, Willhsmit, BrianWilloughby, Jennypei, Mike Rosoft, AliveFreeHappy, Monkeyman, Imroy, Discospinster,
Rich Farmbrough, Rhobite, Oliver Lineham, R6144, Wk muriithi, ArnoldReinhold, Jordancpeterson, JimR, Cswilly, Closeapple, Evice,
Spearhead, RoyBoy, Just zis Guy, you know?, Agoode, Babomb, MarkWahl, NeonLego, Polluks, Chrisvls, Kensai, Blhole, Obradovic
Goran, Glaucus, Sysiphe, Johntinker, Poweroid, Alansohn, Guy Harris, Interiot, Neonumbers, Andrewpmk, K8la, Nbertram, Ahruman,
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hunter, Gary Cziko, Baryn, Fresheneesz, TeaDrinker, Selah, Jerome Colombe, BradBeattie, HalifaxRage, NSR, Adoniscik, YurikBot,
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namoya, Plamka, Gwydion The Quick, Searchme, FF2010, Kermit2, Zzuuzz, WiMAXPro, X1cygnus, Chase me ladies, I'm the Cavalry,
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bot, Chych, Sam8, Aaronproot, Gilliam, Brianski, Ohnoitsjamie, Folajimi, Kaiwen1, Chris the speller, Matt0401, Chrisedwards, Ultravio-
let777, Thumperward, Oli Filth, DJ Craig, Bazonka, Baa, ABACA, A. B., Jnavas, Danielcohn, JCWilson, J00tel, Dethme0w, JREL, Jorvik,
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ter, Brownout, Jay Gatsby, SHCarter, Cadsuane Melaidhrin, Alphaman, Gnassar, Wedgeoli, Dilane, A kornishev, 28421u2232nfenfcenc,
M8al, Stan Carver II, Cpl Syx, Gomm, Calltech, Berlo84, Conquerist, MartinBot, Sjjupadhyay, Jim.henderson, Arundpt, Nikpapag, Ret-
tetast, Kurtvonn, Socerhed, R'n'B, Jdcurtis, PStrait, Squiggleslash, J.delanoy, Mange01, BigrTex, Mojodaddy, Darin-0, Lantizia, Ditesh,
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enmonkey, Eugenian, Ormeci, TXiKiBoT, Macfanatic, Kiranwashindkar, Vipinhari, Walor, Picassob, Markdelaney, Dictouray, Qxz, Jhs-
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Meltonkt, Hserightjr, BotMultichill, Jsc83, Mam711, Chmyr, Editore99, Nopetro, Rajeshsweb, Jimthing, Mat du Lac, Helloife, Paulrosen-
thal, Da keldsen, Nuttycoconut, Lightmouse, Autumn Wind, Ingenieurmt, Jfromcanada, Ktassin, C0nanPayne, Gran knee, Elch Yenn, Tuxa,
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eye, Dan Aquinas, Mwolleben, Svgalbertian, Fred the Oyster, ErkinBatu, Wca08, Alexius08, Addbot, Guoguo12, Tcncv, Saxtonrob, CL,
Umerqureshi, Kumaramitabh, MrOllie, Download, Joycloete, Numbo3-bot, Lightbot, Vasi, Ramiza Tasneem, Vakaris, , Luckas-bot,
Yobot, TaBOT-zerem, Povlhp, Kmolnar, Sureshraspayle, Dkang, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, Bugnot, Govinda1pk, Abaqus, Viking59,
Jalal0, HidariMigi, Gataya, Backslash Forwardslash, AnomieBOT, Andrewrp, Bctwriter, EEgirl18, Rubinbot, Preamt, Docanand, An-
naPfeier, Ashroney, Blandine01, Kingpin13, Vikrant singh dadwal, Flewis, Materialscientist, 90 Auto, TheRealNightRider, Xqbot,
Poetnk, Capricorn42, Gensanders, Stephenthornton, Monaarora84, Wizardist, Ultraman2008, Yurigagarin1, Tabledhote, Sesu Prime, SD5,
Smitprakash, Engineernm25, Jepuente, Slingbroadband, Nasir1973, KirbyRandolf, Kk0071987, Lonaowna, ScriitorulAnonim, W Now-
icki, Noloop, StaticVision, Doedoejohn, Poettx, Miguel.rodrigez, Palash bco, Vishal Singhal, Louperibot, Raydex, Vicenarian, BRUTE,
Mrman208, Amn12, DixonDBot, Ashu vns, Markstar, Thisisabore, Sg gower, Ctownsend1000, Firefoxian, Surajit.gupta08, RjwilmsiBot,
Najeeb.H, Basangbur, Steve03Mills, EmausBot, WikitanvirBot, Abeijon, Grillmaster423, Gnulinux, Xomm, Kkm010, John Cline, Anony-
mousWikier, Mar4d, Ankit Maity, Shermaineliu, Gsarwa, 28bot, ClueBot NG, Ethear, Satellizer, Nanners14, MerlIwBot, Alirezanoo-
rian, Frmin, Duncan23, Cyprianio, Compfreak7, Greenpacket, NorthCoastReader, Mypslim, JYBot, Junkyardsparkle, Liamklay14,
Spencer.mccormick, I am One of Many, Richagd, Xpxpsi, WikiU2013, Captain Conundrum, Wikiuser13, , TerryAlex, Douglas Mwangi
and Anonymous: 1341
LTE (telecommunication) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LTE_(telecommunication)?oldid=628919470 Contributors: Damian
Yerrick, Tommy, Mrwojo, Nealmcb, Ronz, Julesd, Conti, Tali, Wikiborg, Andrewman327, Omegatron, Bevo, Jni, Robbot, Cedars,
Fudoreaper, Joconnor, St3vo, Edcolins, Chowbok, Paradoxian, Maikel, DmitryKo, Oliyoung, Rich Farmbrough, Alexkon, FT2, Andros
1337, Bender235, Mwanner, MaxHund, Mikel Ward, Guspaz, ChadCloman, Fatphil, Rajivts, Guy Harris, Wdfarmer, Jb 007clone, SidP,
Tomlzz1, Mindmatrix, Camw, David Haslam, Tabletop, Mheart, Uvb, BD2412, David Levy, Rjwilmsi, Iolaire, Nightscream, NotJack-
horkheimer, Chobot, Siddhant, McGinnis, MMuzammils, Groogle, Manop, Gaius Cornelius, ZacBowling, Aler, ICanAlwaysChangeTh-
isLater, Opt 05, Tony1, Closedmouth, Arthur Rubin, Fstorino, Nelson50, John Broughton, EXonyte, Maryhit, SmackBot, Semiautomata,
110 CHAPTER 12. BLACKBERRY 10
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clown will eat me, , Tamfang, KevM, Metageek, Escottf, ProtocolOH, Lostart, DylanW, Malambis, Daniel.Cardenas,
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caro, JustinRossi, Iansanderson, Paultt, CmdrObot, Tanthalas39, Kushal one, Jesse Viviano, Cycloneopp, Phatom87, Cydebot, Raamin,
Mblumber, Kanags, Altaphon, Myscrnnm, Kozuch, SpK, Ashokec, Chris01720, Uruiamme, Dawnseeker2000, SvenAERTS, Mattew,
Firetwuck, Vernapp, Yellowdesk, Hayesgm, Hijklmno, Harryzilber, MER-C, Dhkkim, Magioladitis, TheAllSeeingEye, Adrianski, Kev-
inmon, Orionist, SandStone, Tbleher, Boob, Fbiots, JefeMixtli, Retroneo, JaGa, Conquerist, RP88, Jim.henderson, Nikpapag, Squig-
gleslash, Mange01, Mojodaddy, Darin-0, Kaltros, Hgmyung, Acalamari, Cfeet77, Bryanshook, Mafeu, Goingstuckey, Garthps2002, Iso-
man00, Santiperez, Benignbala, Epameinondas, Muhdbunahmad, Mills00013, Fishbert, VolkovBot, A yacout, Je G., Wrev, Prasad ark,
Avamsik, Jpat34721, Don4of4, Wordsmith, Spiral5800, Billinghurst, Charliearcuri, Adamr81, Lamro, Dcarriso, GoLLoMboje, Allebor-
goBot, Kbrose, MC-CDMA, Jamessungjin.kim, Mvadu, Chmyr, Mwaisberg, Editore99, CutOTies, Rupert baines, Byrialbot, Lightmouse,
AlanUS, Go2Null, Illegal Operation, Kartks, M2Ys4U, Tuxa, ClueBot, Aintneo, MichaelVernonDavis, 1983px, Spotticus, Scrapking,
Balaji280283, Jlf, Scatter98, Psigmon, LukeTheSpook, Bbb2007, Excirial, QueueNut, Muhandes, Brotheryu, Louisarogers, BOTarate,
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Letireur, Bctwriter, Flexar, Jim1138, Grolltech, Elisabeth Hillman, Eikoseidel, Materialscientist, Citation bot, Brian2wood, MauritsBot,
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mind me never, Miguelameida, Konst1977, Saini613, FrescoBot, KirbyRandolf, Nageh, Mynetworks, Lisa Andersson, Sanpitch, Sunow-
ermalta, Dipankar biswas, Haeinous, Vishal Singhal, Dagamer34, Orgio89, OgreBot, Soyguapa, Javert, Chenopodiaceous, Biker Biker,
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abum, Ptrlow, Dalyswe, RjwilmsiBot, Xaltotun, TjBot, Basangbur, Envelopetracker, EmausBot, John of Reading, Jsung123, Ehugne,
Merf64, Gcfreeland, Nasula, Mpelcat, AsceticRose, Ponydepression, Dariel 01, Alakh.jai, Wksam, H3llBot, Cactusman2, DaMan92,
Alansu, Secator, TechWriterNJ, Marv moskowitz, Gsarwa, Daithibaru, ChuispastonBot, Blin22, Dorsacato, Joerasmussen, Rmashhadi,
Doris Meier, ClueBot NG, Jorny32, Rashed-NJITWILL, Amjadk, Dru of Id, C. Jeremy Wong, Pnk3-NJITWILL, Masssly, Widr, Luca
Lategan, GosiLomKj2, Frmin, Ejder.bastug, Bouteloua, Encyclopedant, Doodlebug777, Buddy12345, AvocatoBot, Sandakelum, Zach
Vega, Kcipsirhc, Reebsauce, LogicalFinance33, Royal misha, Ajklein5211, HTML2011, IRedRat, Skunk44, Hasenburg, Pratyya Ghosh,
Withemy, TheComputerMan, SFK2, Prashantlte, MrCellular, Awesomeguy529, Carolinamed, Spetalnick, Epicgenius, TheFrog001, Ace-
totyce, Ipod3g, Camobrien, JaconaFrere, Skr15081997, Carbonoatom, Ritajeerson, YJAX, Maverick972, OutlawStar6891, Telecomwiz
and Anonymous: 528
Internet protocol suite Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_protocol_suite?oldid=628843146 Contributors: Damian Yerrick,
AxelBoldt, Tobias Hoevekamp, Matthew Woodcraft, Brion VIBBER, Mav, Zundark, The Anome, Tarquin, Koyaanis Qatsi, Etu, Gsl,
XJaM, Aldie, Matusz, Paul, William Avery, Shii, Imran, B4hand, Mintguy, Branko, Nknight, Edward, Nealmcb, Michael Hardy, Nixdorf,
Ixfd64, Paul A, Ellywa, Ahoerstemeier, Haakon, Ronz, Typhoon, Theresa knott, Glenn, IMSoP, Palfrey, Arteitle, Edmilne, Timwi, Do-
radus, Zoicon5, Kaare, Saltine, Itai, Nv8200p, Jnc, Ed g2s, Shizhao, Topbanana, Betterworld, Bloodshedder, Olathe, Robbot, TomPhil,
Yas, RedWolf, Sunray, Hadal, Pps, Miles, Carnildo, Smjg, Kim Bruning, Wolfkeeper, Ferkelparade, Zigger, Marcika, Rick Block, Nite-
owlneils, AlistairMcMillan, SWAdair, Tagishsimon, Golbez, Mendel, Beland, Dnas, Zfr, Biot, Daniel Staal, Chadernook, Ukexpat, Abdull,
Zondor, EagleOne, RevRagnarok, Mike Rosoft, Ta bu shi da yu, DanielCD, JTN, Rich Farmbrough, JesterXXV, DerekLaw, Dmeranda,
Jackqu7, Bender235, Tr606, Plugwash, Violetriga, STHayden, Joanjoc, Jantangring, Sietse Snel, Coolcaesar, John Vandenberg, Xojo,
Obradovic Goran, Wrs1864, Helix84, Krellis, Martyman, PioM, Mrzaius, Alansohn, Sully, Arcenciel, Duman, Guy Harris, Nealcardwell,
Darkhalfactf, Hoary, Kocio, Snowolf, Here, Rick Sidwell, Cburnett, Stephan Leeds, Suruena, Evil Monkey, Fixman88, RaNo, Kusma,
Freyr, Mattbrundage, Ericl234, MilesMi, Ramnath R Iyer, GaelicWizard, Woohookitty, Camw, Ilario, ^demon, Wikiklrsc, Eyreland,
Mckoss, Pfalstad, Leapfrog314, Mandarax, Runis57, Graham87, Magister Mathematicae, Casey Abell, Jorunn, Sjakkalle, Rjwilmsi, KY-
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Otets, Intgr, Bmicomp, Chobot, DVdm, Bgwhite, SuperWiki, Albanaco, Wavelength, Hairy Dude, Jimp, Mukkakukaku, Hyad, Bhavin,
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Yudiweb, Tim Watson, Robost, Phgao, Maltest, Kevin, Katieh5584, Snaxe920, Eptin, Finell, That Guy, From That Show!, Luk, Yakudza,
Erik Sandberg, SmackBot, Paulkramer, KnowledgeOfSelf, Rayward, Unyoyega, MeiStone, Thunderboltz, Elwood j blues, Ruthherrin,
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tron9, JustAGal, Ekashp, Perfectpasta, Xeesh, Mentisto, AntiVandalBot, Konman72, Luna Santin, Widefox, Seaphoto, Smartse, Labongo,
Storkk, JAnDbot, Harryzilber, Mwarren us, Holylampposts, Acroterion, Enjoi4586, Magioladitis, Parsecboy, VoABot II, AuburnPilot,
JamesBWatson, Swpb, Tedickey, AliMaghrebi, Jatkins, Rich257, Jrogern, Avicennasis, Edwardando, Logictheo, Techpro30, Papadopa,
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ech, Yintan, Mothmolevna, Bentogoa, Martyvis, EnOreg, Oxymoron83, Ydalal, Tmaufer, DavidDW, BenoniBot, Ngrieth, Svick, Denis-
arona, Sitush, Elassint, ClueBot, Zeerak88, Axcess, The Thing That Should Not Be, Rjd0060, Quinxorin, Alek Baka, CounterVandalism-
Bot, Patilravi1985, Mzje, DragonBot, Jusdafax, Anon lynx, Wiki104, Eeekster, Zac439, Tyler, Shiro jdn, Cynthia Rhoads, Dorgan65,
Thingg, Johnuniq, Punjabi101, Dgtsyb, Thatguyint, Addbot, Atethnekos, Jncraton, Coasting, Jmdavid1789, Glane23, Amungale, Favo-
nian, West.andrew.g, Tassedethe, Tide rolls, Lightbot, Avono, Globemasterthree, SasiSasi, Legobot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, TaBOT-zerem,
Fmrauch, ArchonMagnus, Wadamja, AnomieBOT, Rubinbot, Jim1138, Piano non troppo, Law, Materialscientist, OttoTheFish, Citation
bot, Aneah, Merlissimo, Xqbot, TinucherianBot II, Oxwil, Karlos77, RibotBOT, SassoBot, Kyng, , JediMaster362, Ctm314,
Master Conjurer, FrescoBot, Weyesr1, ZNott, Kkj11210, Jonathansuh, Barnacle157, Citation bot 1, Pokeywiz, I dream of horses, HRoest-
Bot, A8UDI, Weylinp, Yunshui, Renepick, Reaper Eternal, ArticCynda, Suusion of Yellow, SnoFox, Sideways713, DARTH SIDIOUS
2, EmausBot, Clark42, Solarra, P. S. F. Freitas, Hasty001, StanQuayle, Anororn, The Nut, Samjoopin, A930913, Aeonx, Cf. Hay, Staszek
Lem, W163, GeorgeBarnick, Stefan Milosevski, Putdust, Jsoon eu, DASHBotAV, 28bot, ClueBot NG, Mechanical digger, GlobalEdge
12.14. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 111
2010, Stahla92, Widr, HMSSolent, Northamerica1000, AvocatoBot, Zvezda1111, Winston Chuen-Shih Yang, Tutelary, Rbhagat0, APer-
son, Indinkgo, Lugia2453, Dave Braunschweig, DBhavsar709, Epicgenius, Red-eyed demon, Rickh1219rh, PenlroINFS315, Hawkins88,
No3mann, Dingdong44, Abhijith anil, B Rowanz, Haosjaboeces, Akin DSA, MattQuarneri, Mehnames and Anonymous: 671
Transmission Control Protocol Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_Control_Protocol?oldid=629459474 Contributors:
WojPob, Brion VIBBER, Zundark, The Anome, Alex, Andre Engels, Aldie, Fubar Obfusco, Jtk, Mjb, B4hand, PeterB, Edward, Michael
Hardy, Nixdorf, Kku, Meekohi, Karada, Dori, Pde, Mac, William M. Connolley, Ojs, BAxelrod, Harvester, Eirik (usurped), Samuel,
Nikola Smolenski, Idcmp, Hashar, Timwi, Dcoetzee, Sepper, Andrewman327, Wkcheang, Jnc, Gamera2, Shizhao, Betterworld, Raul654,
Rogper, Robbot, Chealer, Fredrik, Tomchiukc, RedWolf, Nurg, PedroPVZ, PxT, Jondel, Bkell, Lupo, Dina, Giftlite, Graeme Bartlett, Sim,
Kim Bruning, Inter, Wolfkeeper, Fleminra, Frencheigh, Saaga, Mboverload, Nayuki, Jaan513, Jackol, SWAdair, Jsavage, Kasperl, Fishal,
Haggis, Mendel, LiDaobing, Beland, Dnas, Cheshire, Mozzerati, Biot, Daniel Staal, SamSim, Jewbacca, Thorwald, RevRagnarok, Scrool,
N328KF, Imroy, Pmadrid, JTN, Pak21, Hydrox, Qutezuce, Wrp103, Smyth, Bender235, Dewet, ZeroOne, Goplat, Plugwash, Glenn
Willen, Evice, Syp, CanisRufus, Purplefeltangel, Kwamikagami, Spearhead, Sietse Snel, RoyBoy, Spoon!, GalaxiaGuy, John Vandenberg,
Arnhemcr, Foobaz, Makomk, SpeedyGonsales, Toh, Nk, Mhandley, Ryan Stone, Wrs1864, Helix84, MtB, Krellis, Klhuillier, Zachlip-
ton, Guy Harris, DariuszT, Nealcardwell, Yamla, SHIMONSHA, Lightdarkness, Fawcett5, Snowolf, Markrod, Vedantm, Velella, Rick
Sidwell, Mark Bergsma, Cburnett, Suruena, Evil Monkey, Egg, Sleigh, Boscobiscotti, Kinema, Kenyon, Tariqabjotu, GilHamilton, Lime,
Gmaxwell, Boothy443, Woohookitty, Beccus, StradivariusTV, Bkkbrad, Alexescalona, Palica, Pfalstad, Graham87, Bilbo1507, Rjwilmsi,
Plainsong, CraSH, Ryk, Fredrikh, Brighterorange, Fred Bradstadt, FlaBot, Jowagner, Shultzc, Ysangkok, Otets, Pg8p, Intgr, Fresheneesz,
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nelius, Yyy, Shaddack, Rsrikanth05, Wimt, NawlinWiki, Zwobot, Maerk, Phandel, DeadEyeArrow, Fabiob, Harput, Bstrand, J. Nguyen,
Arthur Rubin, Jogers, JoanneB, Elfalem, Fsiler, Garion96, GrinBot, TuukkaH, Kf4bdy, Marty Pauley, Luk, Amalthea, Erik Sandberg,
SmackBot, PaulWay, Ymiaji, DaveSymonds, The Monster, StephenHemminger, Doc Strange, Canthusus, Timotheus Canens, Agi896,
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sleep, clown will eat me, Neo139, OrphanBot, JonHarder, Logicwax, Zvar, Addshore, Ortzinator, Dharmabum420, NeilGoneWiki, Duck-
bill, Alca Isilon, Martijn Hoekstra, Mini-Geek, DylanW, Jwh, Acdx, A5b, Daniel.Cardenas, LeoNomis, T, DKEdwards, Masterpjz9,
Qwerty0, Via strass, SashatoBot, Miss Sa, Trou, Breno, A-moll9, Bezenek, Prasannaxd, Stonesand, Jec, Tasc, Peytons, Aarktica, Matta-
bat, Jgrahn, Prunk, MTSbot, Kvng, Akill, Pegasus1138, Bill Malloy, Alexh19740110, Phuyal, Svinodh, MrBoo, Cheburashka, Unixguy,
CmdrObot, Imcdnzl, Agent Koopa, Nviladkar, Mr Echo, Splint9, Lark ascending, Pgr94, MeekMark, Equendil, Phatom87, Revolus,
Sbnoble, UncleBubba, Gogo Dodo, Tawkerbot4, Quibik, JCO312, Asenine, Christopher P, CobbSalad, Omicronpersei8, M.S.K., Hilger-
denaar, Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Kubanczyk, El pak, Oldiowl, Marek69, TangentCube, Uruiamme, LachlanA, I already forgot, AntiVandalBot,
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Harryzilber, MER-C, Okiefromokla (old), Leolaursen, PhilKnight, Enjoi4586, CrizCraig, Ideoplex, Magioladitis, Fisherisland14, VoABot
II, TheVoid, Kevinmon, Bubba hotep, PureRumble, Papadopa, Kgeischmann, WLU, I-baLL, Gwern, HiB2Bornot2B, Blacksqr, Perfgeek,
MartinBot, Poeloq, Rettetast, Jonathan Hall, FDD, Leyo, Lilac Soul, Gthm159, Mange01, Blendmaster, Jesant13, Jayden54, AntiSpamBot,
Squidish, Kraftlos, Bigdumbdinosaur, Juliancolton, Cometstyles, Manlyjacques, OsirisV, Wlgrin, Inwind, Izno, Ale2006, Tjhiker, Lights,
Maksym.Yehorov, VolkovBot, Scorpiondiain, Umar420e, MenasimBot, Loor39, Lunadesign, Philip Trueman, JuneGloom07, TXiKiBoT,
ALexL33, Sh manu, Drake Redcrest, Gwinnadain, Rodowen, Cbrettin, Vinu Padmanabhan, Oxfordwang, Anna Lincoln, David.bar, Zioun-
clesi, Katimawan2005, Neshom, Nave.notnilc, Enviroboy, Michael Frind, Jehorn, Jxw13, Kbrose, Nubiatech, Nestea Zen, ToePeu.bot,
PanagosTheOther, Brech, Smsarmad, TediousFellow, Danielgrad, Flyer22, Cjdaniel, Oxymoron83, Jjinno, Rdone, Alt-sysrq, Ngrieth,
OKBot, Aprice457, StaticGull, WikiLaurent, Savagejumpin, Sasha Callahan, Explicit, Youpilot, ClueBot, The Thing That Should Not
Be, Mild Bill Hiccup, DnetSvg, Blanchardb, Lucasbfr2, Alexbot, Jusdafax, Ciprian Dorin Craciun, PixelBot, Dregin1, Technobadger,
Pluknet, Kumarat9pm, Charles.partellow, Nedim.sh, Frederico1234, The-tenth-zdog, Cincaipatrin, Akshaymathur156, Johnuniq, Ordoon,
DumZiBoT, Darkicebot, Astronomerren, Nneuman, BodhisattvaBot, WikHead, StubbyT, Alexius08, TravisAF, Dsimic, Oxyacanthous,
Maimai009, Addbot, Mortense, Ghettoblaster, Jgeer, Psyced, Mootros, Anichandran.mca, Scientus, CanadianLinuxUser, Leszek Jaczuk,
Graham.Fountain, MrOllie, Glane23, Torla42, Loukris, 5 albert square, IOLJe, AgadaUrbanit, Numbo3-bot, Tide rolls, Arsenal9boi,
Avono, Teles, Jarble, Quantumobserver, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Kartano, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, AnotherNitPicker, SwisterTwister,
Eric-Wester, Centrew, AnomieBOT, Jim1138, IRP, Piano non troppo, Shadowjain, Materialscientist, Ursushoribilis, Citation bot, Mithras-
Priest, Mbruck, DirlBot, Nifky?, LilHelpa, Xqbot, Sergiodc, TechBot, Prashant.khodade, RodrigoCruzatti, RibotBOT, ,
Shadowjams, Gmaran23, FrescoBot, Lokacit443, BenzolBot, Kwiki, Citation bot 1, Awy997, AstaBOTh15, 10metreh, Hamtechperson,
Encognito, RedBot, MastiBot, PBSurf, HarrisonLi, Fraxtil, Banej, Mohitjoshi999, Cwats124, Lam Kin Keung, Longuniongirl, Rtclaw-
son, Vrenator, PS3ninja, MoreNet, Danielbarnabas, Some Wiki Editor, Ashwinsbhat, Jfmantis, RjwilmsiBot, Xaphnir, Scil100, WildBot,
EmausBot, Zeroboo, Ouimetch, John of Reading, Acather96, Velowiki, GoingBatty, RA0808, Urmajest, Smappy, Tommy2010, Wikipelli,
Ahson7, Ru.in.au, Kirelagin, Ancientphoenixians, Access Denied, DrHannibal216, Henriktudborg, Ocaasi, Thine Antique Pen, Nateshwar
kamlesh, L Kensington, Putdust, Ego White Tray, Cpaasch, MacStep, ClueBot NG, Nimiew, Jack Greenmaven, Satellizer, GarryAnderson,
Karthick.s5, FGont, Ltsampros2, JeClarkis, Clark-gr, Helpful Pixie Bot, HMSSolent, Silverwindx, Calabe1992, Mtsz, Arnavchaudhary,
Iitywybmad, Northamerica1000, Mrzehak, Prakash mit, Compfreak7, Altar, Fcp999, Jcarlos-causa, A1vast, Nikhil raskar, Maclion, Talel
Atias, BattyBot, C10191, Padmini Gaur, Ych06391, Vshebordaev, Codename Lisa, Hainesr2000, Lone boatman, Sethwm, Frosty, Kapil-
sharma15, Sfgiants1995, Wywin, Dave Braunschweig, DBhavsar709, Camyoung54, Koszik, Srigaurav1986, Soham, Scornay, Moris560,
AlexanderRedd, St170e, Kieranmcgr, Valeritn, WaterSnail, Jterminator and Anonymous: 888
Mobile operating system Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_operating_system?oldid=628298410 Contributors: Zundark, The
Anome, Edward, Egil, Ijon, Jni, Andries, Ukexpat, Cab88, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, Bender235, Darkguy, Cenora, The Red-
Burn, Diego Moya, Wtmitchell, Rothgar, VoluntarySlave, Taylortbb, Woohookitty, Mindmatrix, Koavf, SMC, Drench, Mancini, Skier-
page, Zayani, Bgwhite, Burnte, Eraserhead1, Fram, Rwwww, Mardus, SmackBot, McGeddon, UrbanTerrorist, Gilliam, Chris the speller,
Thumperward, Mdwh, Colonies Chris, Frap, Mikeormike, Ne0Freedom, Derek R Bullamore, Zsvedic, Lester, Akriesch, DKqwerty, N2e,
Cydebot, Danorton, Kozuch, Redsparta, Dawnseeker2000, Lfstevens, Barek, MER-C, Magioladitis, Bongwarrior, Ferritecore, Yorxs, Chris
Ssk, DominiqueHazaelMassieux, A tumiwa, Kiore, Anaxial, Jack007, R'n'B, CommonsDelinker, Mike Restivo, Nono64, AgarwalSumeet,
Fatka, Altes, Acalamari, AntiSpamBot, Bonadea, Ammon86, Joeinwap, Hammersoft, Taylortheturtle, TXiKiBoT, Red Act, Netemcee,
Anna Lincoln, PieterDeBruijn, Caulde, Jerryobject, Chmyr, Flyer22, Lightmouse, Illegal Operation, Ossguy, MenoBot, Wysprgr2005,
Frmorrison, Iuhkjhk87y678, Keith139, Niceguyedc, Alunphillips, Sonixrulerz, Aravindan Shanmugasundaram, KuboF, SF007, Eried, In-
ternetMeme, XLinkBot, Useerup, Rreagan007, Adileader, MystBot, Gabriel2008, Addbot, Ghettoblaster, Milominderbinder2, Melab-1,
CalumCook234, Download, C933103, Fiftyquid, DaveChild, Oscaroe, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Themfromspace, Ptbotgourou, Oicur0t, Ffooxx
2006, Paraplegicemu, AnomieBOT, Efa, Lun Esex, Materialscientist, Aleph Innity, LilHelpa, Xqbot, Lprd2007, Viking90, Melmann,
Solphusion, Rogernightman, A Quest For Knowledge, Over shown badn, Wamp wamp, Richard BB, FrescoBot, Erimaxbau, Cdw1952,
Bgkwtnyqhzor, Stichbury, Enterprise12, Jonesey95, Spidermario, Xcvista, RedBot, Tahir mq, Ocexyz, Rzsor, Xxcom9a, 9point6, Neko-
112 CHAPTER 12. BLACKBERRY 10
han, Nemesis of Reason, Aoidh, David Hedlund, Reaper Eternal, Franek C, Jaz246, Shankarnikhil88, RjwilmsiBot, Bounce1337, Nerdy-
ScienceDude, Binoyjsdk, LifeH2O, EmausBot, John of Reading, Interframe, WikitanvirBot, Mjdtjm, GoingBatty, Megarhythm, Werieth,
IBoy2G, Ham1000, ZroBot, John Cline, Allforrous, Hopbit, Sbliman, Immunmotbluescreen, Onyxqk, Wikitrke, Bernhardegen, Even-
GreenerFish, Bomazi, Samjack91, Evan-Amos, Quake44, FeatherPluma, 28bot, Stekse, ClueBot NG, Sam4others, Wave4, Hempanicker,
MA LpezMolina, This lousy T-shirt, Kotiyanimr, YuMaNuMa, Macungie, Jad73994, Aurora317, Solanki.3108, PXUmais, Zarinfam,
TheWikiAuthor, Novusuna, Mc nacho, Hypon888, BG19bot, Virtualerian, Wasbeer, M0rphzone, Ipal64, Mr left, True Tech Talk Time,
ItsMeOrYou, MusikAnimal, Braccol, Elucches, WinampLlama, Mark Arsten, Stephans88, Virtualmichael, Compfreak7, Gnaphosa, Ald-
waik, 0v192, RP.CS11, Thewikimonkey, NotWith, Morning Sunshine, Frederik Blem Vigold, BattyBot, XtremeFanatic, OliverHector,
Manuel.nas, ChrisGualtieri, Khazar2, Smartmo, 12Danny123, Nozomimous, Lumialover, 12Daanny123, Lugia2453, Eprillios, Rajraowiki,
Davidalexmartin, Thiru56668, Doenertir, Nyssen, TheSanderGamer, Davidkmartin, Lemnaminor, Xgiel, Jamesmcmahon0, Melonkelon,
Avianoutremont, Jjcsc300, Krokakis, Blythwood, Isabelgrobler, Comp.arch, Outtheremen, Kohelet, Podiaebba, Semsi Paco Virchow, Jian-
hui67, Aswinantony, Mypramod, Mandarlive100, Lovejeetsing, Odika chinedu, AmericanDadKing33, Klloydh, Arthurhkt7, Cabral88,
Nelsonkam, GeorginaMat and Anonymous: 547
Android (operating system) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_(operating_system)?oldid=629510886 Contributors: Zun-
dark, The Anome, Alex, Ed Poor, XJaM, Graft, Nyco, Frecklefoot, Edward, Bdesham, Nealmcb, Patrick, Voidvector, Taras, KAMiKA-
ZOW, Haakon, Mac, Docu, Plop, Ijon, Julesd, Ciphergoth, Stefan, Scott, Jordi Burguet Castell, Cherkash, Conti, Feedmecereal, Royce,
Geary, Greenrd, Traal, Espertus, Furrykef, Bevo, Quoth, AnonMoos, Secretlondon, Jeq, Icestryke, Dale Arnett, PBS, ZimZalaBim,
Naddy, Pjedicke, DHN, Sunray, David Edgar, Superm401, Tobias Bergemann, David Gerard, Ancheta Wis, Graeme Bartlett, Harp, var
Arnfjr Bjarmason, Lethe, Wwoods, Jonabbey, Fleminra, Joconnor, Varlaam, RScheiber, Sukael, Joe Sewell, Jorge Stol, Robbrown,
Proslaes, Rchandra, AlistairMcMillan, Khalid hassani, ElfMage, Alvestrand, Matt Darby, Unknownwarrior33, Vadmium, Jamougha,
SoWhy, Pgan002, SarekOfVulcan, Gdm, Sreyan, Beland, PhosphoricX, IGEL, ShakataGaNai, CaribDigita, OwenBlacker, Paulscrawl,
Elektron, Pomegranate, Gscshoyru, Nerd65536, TonyW, Martin.komunide.com, Klemen Kocjancic, Sasank, DmitryKo, BenjaminFer-
rari, Thorwald, Mike Rosoft, Imroy, Erc, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, Hydrox, Pmsyyz, TrbleClef, Smyth, Shevett, Jamadagni,
D-Notice, Dbachmann, Gronky, Joepearson, Bender235, ESkog, PutzfetzenORG, Syp, Kwamikagami, Mr. Strong Bad, RoyBoy, Ca-
cophony, AladdinSE, Causa sui, Nigelj, Dcxf, JeR, Richi, Hoss789, Giraedata, Sriram sh, Jinmyo, Goa103, Steveklein, James Foster,
Teeks99, Alansohn, Gary, Thringer, Walter Grlitz, Conan, Diego Moya, Barte, Jtalledo, Yamla, Axl, Sligocki, Eno, Denniss, Milton-
howe, Wtmitchell, Wintermute115, SidP, Richard Taytor, Cburnett, Ush, Vcelloho, Runtime, Tony Sidaway, VoluntarySlave, Tomlzz1,
Henry W. Schmitt, Drbreznjev, Ringbang, Dismas, Oleg Alexandrov, Mahanga, Jtfcobra, Daranz, DarTar, Joriki, Richard Arthur Nor-
ton (1958- ), Woohookitty, Xsspider, Mindmatrix, Pinball22, RzR, Lenar, Pol098, Desbest, JeremyA, Ortcutt, Lucas.Yamanishi, Ljfe-
liu, Tabletop, Grika, Sygmoral, JRHorse, Torqueing, Male1979, CharlesC, Hughcharlesparker, CPES, Karam.Anthony.K, Graham87,
Yuriybrisk, BD2412, Mendaliv, Tbird20d, Jorunn, Rjwilmsi, Nightscream, Koavf, Syndicate, Chirags, Trlovejoy, MZMcBride, Essayemy-
oung4009, Haggisfarm, Gudeldar, Miserlou, Decode, Ghepeu, Yug, Fish and karate, Allen Moore, Alejo2083, FlaBot, Nogburt, Bri-
anreading, Gurch, Riki, Cbmaster, Skierpage, Tedder, Gareth E Kegg, Psantora, Samkass, CJLL Wright, Daev, Moocha, Benlisquare,
DVdm, Bgwhite, Antnee, Dadu, Pinecar, Klingoncowboy4, Xcrivener, RussBot, Amckern, Gregconquest, Bhny, Rapomon, Hydrargyrum,
Stephenb, Manop, David Woodward, Gaius Cornelius, Ksyrie, Rsrikanth05, Pseudomonas, Bovineone, SamJohnston, Tavilis, Pelago, UCae-
tano, PriceChild, Grafen, Arichnad, Exien, ZacBowling, MrGALL, Jurisnipper, Mkouklis, Lfcohen, Irishguy, Ragesoss, Johantheghost,
Jerey Sharkey, Blindwaves, Corevette, ScottyWZ, Eugrus, Matthew0028, Moe Epsilon, Mirko Raner, Voidxor, Marc44, Jalabi99, SixSix,
Tony1, EEMIV, Craigbrass, Procedure, Rwalker, TastyCakes, Blowdart, Bbaumer, Werdna, Hugo 87, Wknight94, Ms2ger, Mugunth
Kumar, Sandstein, Johndburger, Ninly, Icydesign, GraemeL, Plankhead, Speculatrix, Astonmartini, Back ache, Ash Crow, Kaicarver,
Vahid83, Smurfy, Eaefremov, ViperSnake151, NeilN, Leuk he, Mardus, Seanjacksontc, Hominid, Attilios, Frankie, A bit iy, Smack-
Bot, Arc Orion, MattieTK, LarsPensjo, Brian Patrie, Wlindley, Benjaminb, Kentyman, Reedy, Bearda, InverseHypercube, JoshDuMan,
Marc Lacoste, Henriok, McGeddon, CastAStone, Vald, Nikhilj1, Fsamuels, KVDP, Thunder Wolf, Timeshifter, Jpvinall, Thornstrom,
Andrewkantor, Subbu, Tim@, Elronxenu, Mcld, Brianski, Ohnoitsjamie, Dingar, NickGarvey, Amatulic, Paxfeline, Chris the speller,
Stevenwagner, DStoykov, Thumperward, Oli Filth, Htchien, Jeysaba, King Arthur6687, MalafayaBot, Hacheema, SvGeloven, Timneu22,
Mdwh, The359, SephirothXIIIX, Jerome Charles Potts, Ej159, Kungming2, Baronnet, Colonies Chris, Jdthood, Invenio, Zouzzou, Map-
pum, Emurphy42, Fjmustak, Audriusa, NYKevin, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Frap, Quartermaster, Jacob Poon, Chainz, RedHillian,
UU, Stevenmitchell, Abrahami, Theanphibian, Cybercobra, CCalo, Coolbho3000, Ne0Freedom, Wordy McWordWord, Salamurai, A5b,
Marcus Brute, Daniel.Cardenas, Sayden, Rodeosmurf, Sleepy Sentry, Ohconfucius, Dmit, Digana, N Vale, Swatjester, Lester, Guyjohn-
ston, Rigelt, Mugsywwiii, Roguegeek, Vincenzo.romano, Briantist, Wislam, JoseREMY, Robferrer, Williameis, Raburton, Spiel, Sach-
inchavan.in, Slasher-fun, JHunterJ, Slakr, Hvn0413, Mr Stephen, UKER, DarrenW, Dpupkov, AxG, Larrymcp, , Fangfufu, Ice-
Hunter, Ric, Swampyank, Flohack, AdjustablePliers, Hu12, Norm mit, PaulGS, Levineps, Iridescent, Newone, Zero sharp, Jfayel, Sin2x,
Adambiswanger1, WakiMiko, Sfm 7, I5bala, The Letter J, Eagle-slayor, Nagytam, RaviC, Jontintinjordan, Cornlad, FatalError, Venona,
Paulmlieberman, Pkkasu, CRGreathouse, Raysonho, Pmyteh, Van helsing, Hucz, Redekopmark, Edward Vielmetti, Nczempin, Kushal
one, Dgw, Rockysmile11, Oldmokmok, N2e, Randomname, Lesmin, Wikigod, Gegorg, Echeese, Solomon Douglas, Bungalowbill, Ravens-
fan5252, AndrewDelong, Ironmagma, Phatom87, AndrewHowse, Cydebot, Danrok, Marqueed, P.Shack, Steel, Urashimataro, Gogo Dodo,
Pascal.Honore, Anthonyhcole, Bahua, Ivant, Myscrnnm, AlexMS, Dancter, Clovis Sangrail, Christian75, DumbBOT, Ameliorate!, Alaibot,
Kozuch, Bayonetblaha, Uzimaster, Digilee, RotaryAce, Free French, PizzaMan, Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Cherie327, Qwyrxian, Jopo, KimD-
abelsteinPetersen, Hervegirod, A.sutton, Shachar, N5iln, Andyjsmith, Marek69, Csrempert, Electron9, Legnaw, Second Quantization,
Davidhorman, Afriza, Hcobb, Alphius, Binarybits, Dawnseeker2000, Phy1729, Icep, Mentisto, Dstruct2k, AbstractClass, Obiwankenobi,
MetaManFromTomorrow, Prolog, GeeBarny, Robzz, Nuclearmoose, Maximus06, Danger, Aspensti, Gh5046, Yellowdesk, Kevthegreat55,
Lanilsson, Dark-Fire, Eapache, Dreaded Walrus, Res2216restar, JAnDbot, Xhienne, Leuko, Barek, MER-C, Nthep, Kforeman1, Ar-
canis, Enigmaticland, Charles.h.white@gmail.com, Freddicus, Gourinath, Windofkeltia, John Ericson, TheEditrix2, Y2kcrazyjoker4,
GoldKanga, Magioladitis, Mauripop, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, FredTubale, Aradius, JamesBWatson, Old Number7, BucsWeb, Lan-
Jack, Tedickey, CTF83!, NetHunter, Steven Walling, BotheredByBees, Rugops, Aoeuser, Ali'i, Pokstad, Aquarat, LookingGlass, All-
starecho, LorenzoB, Cpl Syx, Roberth Edberg, Xavierorr, C.Logan, Douglaswth, Vujke, Indianstar, JasonS2101, Katoh, Nodekeeper,
AlexKucherenko, Tracer9999, Khr0n0s, Aliendude5300, Andreas Bischo, Conquerist, HotXRock, FlieGerFaUstMe262, Dennisthe2,
SeyedKevin, Kontar, The Ubik, Kiore, Gautamkishore, Nikpapag, Jack007, CommonsDelinker, EdBever, Tgeairn, RockMFR, J.delanoy,
Trusilver, Svetovid, Richiekim, ChrisfromHouston, KenSharp, Maurice Carbonaro, Jesant13, Headinthedoor, Jreferee, Mike.lifeguard,
Acalamari, SharkD, Andareed, Dispenser, Zipcodeman, Jimv1983, Mikael Hggstrm, Skier Dude, Kiddington, RenniePet, Grshiplett,
Diego.viola, MatthewBurton, Kraftlos, Flatterworld, Mufka, Smitty, Dhaluza, Juliancolton, S2333, Octavabasso, Tweisbach, Hcaander-
sen, Donmike10, Bonadea, JavierMC, Dvyjones, Idioma-bot, Funandtrvl, Resplendent, Chillpenguin, Joeinwap, Jmcdon10, Fattmann,
Malik Shabazz, Hammersoft, VolkovBot, Thomas.W, Archangelsk, RingtailedFox, Betmenko, Je G., Spiked105, DGMDGM, Mar-
cuslim, Asymmetric, Epson291, Sierra1bravo, Philip Trueman, Fran Rogers, TXiKiBoT, Karthickmad, Filmore, Technopat, Fxhomie,
12.14. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 113
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madhowie, Pdfpdf, OsamaK, Yngvarr, SieBot, Coee, Unamed102, Mobilepush, Dusti, Adm.Wiggin, LarsHolmberg, Dontmitchell,
VVVBot, Gerakibot, Caltas, Thunderbird8, Darrenm540, Yintan, I, Podius, T-Rex84, Thealexweb, Daabomb, GlassCobra, Jerryobject,
Bpave777, Xrobau, Happysailor, Rajeshsweb, Jimthing, Mimihitam, Berelv, Rborghese, Rmanke, Omshivaprakash, Lightmouse, Sjl0523,
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114 CHAPTER 12. BLACKBERRY 10
tian, Hateman20, TarzanJr, ArjunTemurnikano, Shaswat Narendra, Maxdeutc, JohnnotJon, Jadden14, Michaelplourde66, Jonathon-
Simister, Strz4life, Aftershave, Rajanbalana, Jboyens, BattyBot, Blogfactor, SCrid2000, Justincheng12345-bot, Kepwick, Dra.vladvamp,
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ElectronicKing888, KDDLB, Johnverghese, Outofmario, Ajayy99 and Anonymous: 2070
IOS Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IOS?oldid=629481072 Contributors: Dreamyshade, Brion VIBBER, The Anome, Bdesham,
Mahjongg, Pnm, Gojomo, Julesd, BOARshevik, Cherkash, Quoth, Jfruh, Nurg, Auric, Mushroom, HaeB, Alan Liefting, Smjg, Smi-
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12.14. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 115
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Anonymous: 1091
Windows Phone Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Phone?oldid=628929569 Contributors: Edward, Pnm, KAMiKAZOW,
Glenn, Cherkash, Rl, Bevo, Alan Liefting, Andries, Pinnecco, Utcursch, J, Icairns, Histrion, Moxfyre, DmitryKo, Mernen, Hydrox, Pmsyyz,
WGFinley, WikiPediaAid, Bender235, TerraFrost, Trevj, Rodwac, Gary, Anthony Appleyard, Guy Harris, Yamamoto114, Fourthords,
Woohookitty, Pol098, WadeSimMiser, PeterJohnson, Fleetham, Xizer, Qwertyus, Plau, Ryan Norton, Crazynas, LjL, Brianreading, Czar,
Sceptre, Cyberherbalist, Kasajian, Crumb, Futurix, RayMetz100, Xpclient, Gregzeng, JLaTondre, ViperSnake151, Markbenecke, TL-
Suda, Cumbiagermen, Attilios, SmackBot, Elonka, Ma8thew, Dminott, Shamalyguy, Elk Salmon, Portillo, Ohnoitsjamie, Mdwh, Seip,
Racklever, Madman2001, Cybercobra, EVula, Colinwheeler, DMacks, Ohconfucius, Lester, Soumyasch, Stevennic, Minna Sora no Shita,
Stefan2, RomanySaad, PRRfan, Dr.K., Scottxbenson, Hu12, Norm mit, S-Ranger, JDubman, 1mac4u, Pi, RaviC, FleetCommand, Sahrin,
JamesNK, AndrewHowse, Cydebot, Mblumber, L daruwala, Gogo Dodo, Myscrnnm, UberMan5000, DumbBOT, ErrantX, Hervegirod,
Second Quantization, Hcobb, EdJohnston, Nick Number, Eb.eric, JRRobinson, Damaster98, Uturnaroun, Pro crast in a tor, Superzohar,
JAnDbot, NapoliRoma, Barek, MER-C, Fetchcomms, Vinokirk, Magioladitis, Solidsnake1211, Appliance matt, DjiXas, Lachliggity, Chris
Ssk, Philg88, Rhoadrunner, Haleme, Paracel63, Jim.henderson, CommonsDelinker, ASDFGH, Tgeairn, Pharaoh of the Wizards, Trusilver,
.:Alex:., Coolaaron88, Brianhama, Acalamari, It Is Me Here, Frostedglcok, Shagna, Tragic romance, Hcaandersen, PeSHIr, VolkovBot,
Maghnus, Ai4ijoel, Philip Trueman, TXiKiBoT, Computergeek1507, Curb Safe Charmer, Caygill, Rps5, Entegy, Typ932, Finnrind, Coil-
gunman222, Pradeepviswav, Jerryobject, Abhishikt, Flyer22, Manway, Diego Grez, Mr White, Silvergoat, Gav235, Illegal Operation,
ImageRemovalBot, MenoBot, Martarius, Sfan00 IMG, Aquegg, Fadesga, Plastikspork, EoGuy, Wysprgr2005, SuperHamster, Boing! said
Zebedee, Iuhkjhk87y678, Pointillist, Ktr101, Excirial, TMV943, John Nevard, Computerwizkid, C628, InternetMeme, XLinkBot, Pri-
vateboz, TaalVerbeteraar, Venkatarangan, Galzigler, AbelNightroad26, Airplaneman, Antonyh3, Addbot, Mortense, Some jerk on the
Internet, Chambo622, Surfo, Darwin-rover, Btx40, Leszek Jaczuk, PPCInformer, Looie496, Download, Golf1052, Doniago, Seefrank,
Dayewalker, Technologov, Okungnyo, Luckas-bot, BaldPark, Yobot, Fraggle81, Max, KamikazeBot, Ffooxx 2006, Bryan.burgers, 4th-
otaku, Koman90, AnomieBOT, Andrewrp, Jim1138, Davidpar, Jbreckenridge, Lkt1126, Wreiad, GB fan, ArthurBot, Cameron Scott,
Ziggy3055, Xqbot, Lprd2007, Intelati, Meewam, 1wolfblake, Franz710, James2894, LordArtemis, User931, CaptainStack, Mark Schier-
becker, SassoBot, House, Ccontinisio, A Quest For Knowledge, BenBen1234, Manuelt15, Basileias, Jamiebijania, Kmiki87, A.amitkumar,
FrescoBot, Lonaowna, D'ohBot, Hay264, Newbie82, Kwiki, Ahmer Jamil Khan, Dogcatrabbit, Aaaaplay, HRoestBot, Enterprise12,
Modamoda, Sebculture, Skyerise, Hoo man, RedBot, Tahir mq, Taz789, SLBoy.Ivo, Pcuser42, Banej, December21st2012Freak, En-
emenemu, SENS11, Eskimo.the, Josephers, Slavon37, Rixs, Dinamik-bot, Linkerro, TheWeirdMouse, TheTechFan, Uszoninyc, The
Perfection, Jaz246, Canuckian89, Diannaa, Fabsss, Chronulator, Casey boy, Iceman247, Tbhotch, RobertMfromLI, Hfrmobile, KoziK,
Mean as custard, Hoseabrown, Yehiahassan, RjwilmsiBot, MJF2000, Electricjolt, Sergius-eu, EmausBot, Nezdek, Interframe, Wikitan-
virBot, JCRules, AQFK, Nuujinn, France64160, Dewritech, Mrmarchi, G&CP, Pipodj, Artifact2008, , ZirconiumTwice,
Tenomk, TuHan-Bot, Wikipelli, Jrkart99, Robert Varga, Shearonink, Kkm010, 15turnsm, Monzoone, John Cline, Jason24589, Push-
pinder86, Usman956732, Alpha Quadrant, Dainapeter, H3llBot, Lesser hoo hoo, Onyxqk, Tolly4bolly, VividNinjaScar, Kellyselden,
Tomy9510, NonStick, CalumCookable, EndlessCoee54, Gsarwa, Kenny goo, Jhripley, Huandy618, AgentTheGreat, ChuispastonBot,
Sirall, Rogerwt123, Salilshukla, Dorsal Axe, Arghya139, Coriolus, INTPnerd, JohnJamesWIlson, Nick lovel04, Heimis90, Quilnux, Kypr8,
ClueBot NG, Ghodannywahyudi99, , Adityahbk, ZigZagZoug, Bardicunderlord, Jolio81, Kethn, Mushroom9, MelbourneStar, Mbd-
Seattle, Pak1standby, Wikiwriter, Millermk, Sadams90, WPSamson, Sainath468, Wwmarket, Loppyloplop7, Moritz37, Cyborg4, Luca
Ghio, Widr, Nickbedford, ToolSidOF3, Pyasin16, NoKiweatL2, Helpful Pixie Bot, Mayhaymate, Wpguru, Shangho, Zquinn3, Lower-
116 CHAPTER 12. BLACKBERRY 10
case sigmabot, BG19bot, Islam almasri, Greendude33, Chriscatto, N4931, ChromeFirst, Softdevusa, True Tech Talk Time, Dr. Nishant
Singh, AvocatoBot, Bazingamast007, Radear2, Rhodri22, Compfreak7, NotTarts, Turdburglar15, Bnkumar.k, Dipankan001, Arunvinud,
Ianteraf, VirusKA, Khanayub1986, Sibtain85, SonnaGab, Gwickwire, Adrianzrul, Glacialfox, IJerkNerd, HereticKiller6, Flagpolewiki,
Godseditor, Markmassad, Finncamper, RichardMills65, I says, Ytic nam, Abledsoe78, Myphonefactor, ChrisGualtieri, Penguinguy95,
YFdyh-bot, Khazar2, KumardipSarkar, Ekren, AK456, Iczelion0, Jprasadh, Stantan, Smartmo, Emmetmclaughlin, Codename Lisa, Mo-
gism, Vookid, 12Danny123, Makecat-bot, Nozomimous, Sri555666, WinEuro, 12Daanny123, Sarbagyastha, UNOwenNYC, Touranush-
ertz, Gautamh, Sriharsh1234, KiwiBird97, Rajraowiki, Algedrez609, Kdskamal, Winphone8, Stanleyyork11, CrustyZuniga, Michipedian,
Josh blumberg, Tentinator, Jowiso, PaulRhimes, DavidLeighEllis, Comp.arch, Jvangeel, Ginsuloft, Planetguy2345, Quenhitran, MatosKap,
Deblake5, Cowpig33, Bhelekazi, Monkbot, Patricia3543, Gamer9832, Horizon286, Coeedrinker115, Heycameron, UltraGold, Mano-
jbandari143, Akki.sakpal, Mon.mukherjee, PremiumBananas, Wanscr, Girish9537 and Anonymous: 673
Firefox OS Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firefox_OS?oldid=629538777 Contributors: AnonMoos, Mdmcginn, Bnn, Khalid has-
sani, MRSC, FT2, Vsmith, Kocio, Ynhockey, Velella, Gijs Kruitbosch, Mindmatrix, LoopZilla, Waldir, David Levy, Donpdonp, Koavf,
Emarsee, SlimXero, Skierpage, Parerga, Srleer, King of Hearts, Dadu, I need a name, Stephenb, Dsmouse, Rwalker, Tom Morris, Mcld,
Jerome Charles Potts, Frap, Ne0Freedom, Derek R Bullamore, TenPoundHammer, Darktemplar, Hvn0413, Skalman, RaviC, Freaky Dug,
Steel, Jack Phoenix, K7.india, Davidhorman, Guy Macon, Derzsi Elekes Andor, LeedsKing, Cyclonius, Otterfan, Laurusnobilis, Ppapadeas,
FireyFly, Bdcomp, 05, Hello71, Jruderman, Justen, Raage, Shaded0, Melizg, SF007, XLinkBot, Galzigler, MystBot, Mortense,
Mootros, Sergei, Favonian, Jasper Deng, C933103, Jarble, Luckas-bot, Yobot, AnomieBOT, Rubinbot, Gtz, Edrandall, Citation bot, Uni-
wersalista, Thomei08, Practiseo, W Nowicki, Eezip, Karthikmns, Biker Biker, HRoestBot, RedBot, Jesus Presley, Dinamik-bot, Fayedi-
zard, David Hedlund, Auscompgeek, Lopifalko, EmausBot, Tuankiet65, G&CP, Entalpia2, ZroBot, RGS, Tar-Mairon, , Fsantos222,
Wingman4l7, Donner60, ClueBot NG, Fluttershy, GioGziro95, Rezabot, Widr, Zackaback, Helpful Pixie Bot, Mayhaymate, Kcchouette,
BG19bot, McZusatz, Compfreak7, Tetrakos, Enervation, Mdy66, Jonny2BeGood, Y.anvesh, Tomz0rs, LibreLearner, Bakkedal, Cyberbot
II, Alfasst, 7Keypad, YFdyh-bot, Boogie314, Kelvinsong, OsmanRF34, Rezonansowy, Codename Lisa, Mogism, Nkougioulis, Nozomi-
mous, Lugia2453, RyanTimbers, Rajraowiki, Horrabin10, Anasastu, Pmeetonline, Jamesmcmahon0, Hugocabono, Farhann215, Prashere,
Inventor7777, Captain Conundrum, Fsandlinux, , Falconet8, Comp.arch, Artistoex, AmitWikiCool, Alisdairv, Rodrigo Padula, Sub-
hankar De, Balajisource, Joancdocyogen, ScotXW, Carbonoatom, Ethically Yours, Msisakib, Arthurhkt7, Usmansajjad0000, Nelsonkam,
Hashken and Anonymous: 107
Tizen Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tizen?oldid=629469316 Contributors: Nealmcb, Nixdorf, Dhart, KAMiKAZOW, Anders
Feder, Jordi Burguet Castell, Disdero, David Edgar, Lysy, Uzume, Smyth, Jantangring, Giraedata, Cncxbox, Patsw, Guy Harris,
Diego Moya, LinkTiger, Benuski, BD2412, Rjwilmsi, Msridhar, Jstaniek, Dyrnych, Skierpage, Flapjackboy, Bhny, Hydrargyrum, Com-
plainer, LuisVilla, Cronium, Mcld, Gilliam, Mdwh, Jdthood, Derek R Bullamore, Gobonobo, Mgiganteus1, Camilo Sanchez, Hvn0413,
Tmcw, Courcelles, RaviC, FleetCommand, Cydebot, Mblumber, Mydoghasworms, JustAGal, Hcobb, Michaelwood, Widefox, Deective,
Marko75, Falcor84, BeadleB, Acalamari, Squids and Chips, Sroc, Hameryko, Aednichols, PuercoPop, MenoBot, WurmWoode, Frmor-
rison, Shababvnb, Alexbot, XLinkBot, MystBot, Addbot, Mabdul, Scientus, Guydrawers, R3ap3R, Jarble, Legobot, Luckas-bot, Yobot,
Bryan.burgers, AnomieBOT, OnnoS, Cameron Scott, Cpartiot, Xqbot, Gamebouille, Mu Mind, I dream of horses, LittleWink, Jonesey95,
Zedoul, Tahir mq, Ocexyz, Crusoe8181, Jikybebna, Orenburg1, Trappist the monk, Lotje, Morhelluin, David Hedlund, MoreNet, KoziK,
EmausBot, WikitanvirBot, Mjdtjm, Dewritech, G&CP, Kirik-ch, Sam Tomato, Alfredo ougaowen, ZroBot, Nobelium, Kevjonesin, Rostz,
Gsarwa, ChuispastonBot, Xyzzyavatar, Dwinterwerp, ClueBot NG, Serge Papkov, Strcat, NeviRom, Mayhaymate, Malyacko, BG19bot,
Amk236236, Kilio, Roneythomas6, Compfreak7, Izmailov, Applelinux, Thesunnyag, Qetuth, BattyBot, Justincheng12345-bot, Malaga-
joe, RichardMills65, Merlinux, Jskang, Alfasst, KumardipSarkar, EagerToddler39, Inside loop, Codename Lisa, Buhman, Nozomimous,
Lumialover, SFK2, Angstygangsta, Jhaxelxy75, Mok0626, Smthai, Daniel Juyung Seo, Nyssen, Devashish90, Briandwarner, Jungil.han,
Fsandlinux, Goioep7, Comp.arch, Theappalachia, Herisson26, Sarr X, Ginsuloft, Semsi Paco Virchow, Amarantine84, ScotXW, WhiteArk,
Brad Dyer, $umeet $harma, Jordnedo, Samiip, HenryWortel, Nelsonkam and Anonymous: 115
Ubuntu Touch Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubuntu_Touch?oldid=626985773 Contributors: KAMiKAZOW, Hydrox, Ben-
der235, Giraedata, Walter Grlitz, Koavf, Ahunt, RussBot, Rwalker, Hydrology, Frap, UKER, Dl2000, Cydebot, Magioladitis,
Xb2u7Zjzc32, JamesBWatson, Federoy, Wrev, Vikrant42, Yintan, MenoBot, Fortyseventeen, Danialbehzadi, Elizium23, XLinkBot, Ad-
dbot, Mortense, Jcgrob, Yobot, AnomieBOT, Agujero Negro, Ace111, Rectec794613, LittleWink, Jonesey95, Skyerise, Fulopattila122,
Ale And Quail, David Hedlund, Fitoschido, EmausBot, Andzlatin, Exadeci, Alluk., ClueBot NG, Baldy Bill, Rhain1999, Attori90,
BG19bot, McZusatz, Compfreak7, KitchiRUs, Bmacc430, Zubozrout, Alfasst, ChrisGualtieri, Aaronmhamilton, Tow, Webclient101,
Makecat-bot, Nozomimous, AdnaneBelmadiaf, Fsf02, WikiU2013, Aleenik, Kap 7, Waywyrd, Alelipad, George Boone, Cartmanland,
Comp.arch, Blogonmusic, Gipsy mickey, Chandlerbailey0, Ssquirrel17, WhiteArk, Orangeknows and Anonymous: 48
BlackBerry 10 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BlackBerry_10?oldid=629168018 Contributors: Edward, KAMiKAZOW, Dale Ar-
nett, Owain, RedWolf, Ich, CaribDigita, Jareha, Mike Rosoft, Bender235, RoyBoy, Ali Isingor, BD2412, David Levy, RAMChYLD, Dav-
emck, Rwalker, ViperSnake151, Tom Morris, Kozen, McGeddon, Unforgettableid, Gilliam, Mazurd, Claidheamhmor, Judgesurreal777,
Danrok, Ethansmith, Smgunasekara, Widefox, Adjwilley, MB1972, Albany NY, OhanaUnited, Swikid, Jargon777, Acalamari, Davehong,
DoorsAjar, Billinghurst, Hibuddy.sourabh, Wraithful, Frmorrison, Spetnik, Jorge.casar, SchreiberBike, XLinkBot, DracIsBack, Addbot,
Mortense, Awatral, Yobot, Guy1890, AnomieBOT, Rubinbot, JackieBot, Cameron Scott, Xqbot, Vivaelcelta, Brout8, IL CREATORE,
Mark Schierbecker, Uniwersalista, Neo 21670, FrescoBot, Adnan.jsr, NuclearWizard, Biker Biker, LittleWink, Tbhotch, RjwilmsiBot,
Fedginator, Fitoschido, Dewritech, GoingBatty, RA0808, Cobbie98, QuiggityBiggity, ZroBot, Sbliman, Tolly4bolly, Gsarwa, Feath-
erPluma, ClueBot NG, Platinum Lucario, Hakimio, BG19bot, True Tech Talk Time, Neji56565onyoutube, Cyprianio, Hannes1983,
Meatsgains, Fylbecatulous, BattyBot, Pai Walisongo, Someswara, To4evr, ChrisGualtieri, Sayom, , KumardipSarkar, EuroCarGT,
R01184CK, Mikeatroundhere, Heredia21, Cwobeel, MorrowindsEve, Lugia2453, M.K.Dan, Wywin, PlanetFlav, Armivan, Sbutt19,
Vanamonde93, Coolguyicecrea, Melonkelon, FunnyPika, Edric Chandra, YJ33Zy1337, R0v3rt3n, CarveEdgeonHook, WTangoFoxtrot,
Rumik999, ProCanadian, Captain Conundrum, MichaelTTO, Mthinkcpp, Kingcm4, Comp.arch, Abibunda, AliIsingor, Blurred203, Uriel-
9816, Tc.guho, MatosKap, Themadguykye, Filedelinkerbot, Johnmcgough, Madjul, Svltr and Anonymous: 156
12.14.2 Images
File:3GPP_Long_Term_Evolution_Country_Map.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9b/3GPP_Long_
Term_Evolution_Country_Map.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 Contributors:
Data: LTE World Map and LTE Evolution Report, p.30-32. (registration required) Original artist: Frank Bennett / Orionist
12.14. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 117
File:A_Press_Conference_for_the_Launch_of_Nexus_7_on_September_27,_2012_in_Seoul_from_acrofan_3.JPG Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/A_Press_Conference_for_the_Launch_of_Nexus_7_on_September_27%2C_
2012_in_Seoul_from_acrofan_3.JPG License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: http://www.acrofan.com/ko-kr/consumer/content/?mode=
view&cate=0003&wd=20120927&ucode=0200030001&page=7&keyfield=&keyword= Original artist: acrofan.com
File:Ambox_content.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f4/Ambox_content.png License: ? Contributors:
Derived from Image:Information icon.svg Original artist:
El T (original icon); David Levy (modied design); Penubag (modied color)
File:Ambox_current_red.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Ambox_current_red.svg License: ? Con-
tributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Android-System-Architecture.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/Android-System-Architecture.
svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Anatomy Physiology of an Android Original artist: Smieh
File:Android_4.4.2.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c7/Android_4.4.2.png License: ? Contributors:
Galaxy S3 running Android 4.4.2 (OmniROM, AOSP-based) Original artist: Screenshot Zhaofeng Li
Logos and operating system Google Inc.
File:Android_App_Permissions.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a5/Android_App_Permissions.png
License: ? Contributors: Own work Original artist: Screenshot
File:Android_Logo_(2014).svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Android_Logo_%282014%29.svg Li-
cense: Public domain Contributors: android.com Original artist: Android (Google, Inc.)
File:Android_green_figure,_next_to_its_original_packaging.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/
Android_green_figure%2C_next_to_its_original_packaging.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Took a picture Original artist:
Dsimic
File:Android_notification_area.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/Android_notification_area.png Li-
cense: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Zhaofeng Li
File:Android_robot.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Android_robot.svg License: CC-BY-3.0 Con-
tributors: Android Goodies (GIF and PS les): Original artist: Google Inc.
File:Android_x86_on_EeePC_701_4G.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Android_x86_on_EeePC_
701_4G.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Nzeemin
File:Apple_iOS_new.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Apple_iOS_new.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Apple Inc. iOS page Original artist: Apple Inc.
File:Apple_logo_black.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Apple_logo_black.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Transferred from fr.wikipedia; transferred to Commons by User:Kyro using CommonsHelper. Original artist: Image SVG
cr par Utilisateur:Quark67 avec Inkscape l'aide de la police de caractre Helvetica fournie avec Mac OS X. (Original uploader was
Quark67 at fr.wikipedia)
File:BlackBerry_Z10.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c2/BlackBerry_Z10.jpg License: CC-BY-2.0 Con-
tributors: Flickr: BlackBerry Z10 Original artist: Enrique Dans
File:Blackberry_Hub.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/81/Blackberry_Hub.png License: Fair use Contributors:
Screenshot on my own phone.
Original artist:
Cobbie98
File:Blackberry_Logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Blackberry_Logo.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: http://us.blackberry.com/ Original artist: Research In Motion
File:Blackberry_Q10_home_screen.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Blackberry_Q10_home_
screen.jpg License: CC-BY-2.0 Contributors: Flickr: Blackberry Q10 Original artist: Krlis Dambrns
File:Bus_icon.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ca/Bus_icon.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ?
Original artist: ?
File:Circle_frame.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Circle_frame.svg License: Public domain Contrib-
utors: Own work Original artist: PleaseStand
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:Computer-aj_aj_ashton_01.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Computer-aj_aj_ashton_01.svg
License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Cortana_WP8.1.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/8f/Cortana_WP8.1.png License:
Fair use Contributors: Microsoft ((http://blogs.windows.com/windows_phone/b/windowsphone/archive/2014/04/02/
cortana-yes-and-many-many-other-great-features-coming-in-windows-phone-8-1.aspx)) Original artist: Microsoft Corporation
File:Edit-clear.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f2/Edit-clear.svg License: ? Contributors: The Tango! Desktop
Project. Original artist:
The people from the Tango! project. And according to the meta-data in the le, specically: Andreas Nilsson, and Jakub Steiner (although
minimally).
File:Firefox_OS_1.5_home_screen.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/b7/Firefox_OS_1.5_home_screen.png Li-
cense: Fair use Contributors: Firefox OS 1.5 simulator Original artist: Mozilla Foundation
File:Firefox_OS_Architecture_diagram.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b8/Firefox_OS_
Architecture_diagram.png License: CC-BY-SA-2.5 Contributors: mdn.mozillademos.org or Architecture Original artist: Mozilla:
Firefox OS architecture by Mozilla Contributors is licensed under CC-BY-SA 2.5.
118 CHAPTER 12. BLACKBERRY 10
File:Firefox_OS_Vertical_SVG_Logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Firefox_OS_Vertical_SVG_
Logo.svg License: ? Contributors: http://www.mozilla.org/en-US/styleguide/identity/firefoxos/branding/ Original artist: Sean Martell for
Mozilla
File:Flag_of_Australia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/b9/Flag_of_Australia.svg License: ? Contributors: ?
Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Canada.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/cf/Flag_of_Canada.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Origi-
nal artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Germany.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/ba/Flag_of_Germany.svg License: ? Contributors: ?
Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Japan.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Russia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f3/Flag_of_Russia.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:Flag_of_South_Korea.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/Flag_of_South_Korea.svg License: Pub-
lic domain Contributors: Ordinance Act of the Lawconcerning the National Flag of the Republic of Korea, Construction and color guidelines
(Russian/English) This site is not exist now.(2012.06.05) Original artist: Various
File:Flag_of_Sweden.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4c/Flag_of_Sweden.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Origi-
nal artist: ?
File:Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Flag_of_the_Philippines.svg License:
Public domain Contributors: The design was taken from [1] and the colors were also taken from a Government website Original artist:
User:Achim1999
File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg Li-
cense: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a4/Flag_of_the_United_States.svg License: ?
Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg License: ? Con-
tributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Free_Software_Portal_Logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/31/Free_and_open-source_
software_logo_%282009%29.svg License: Public domain Contributors:
FOSS Logo.svg Original artist: FOSS Logo.svg: ViperSnake151
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12.14. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 119
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Photo of product as supplied by WiMAX Network Operator
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Anonymous
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jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Prolineserver (<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:
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utors: ? Original artist: ?
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120 CHAPTER 12. BLACKBERRY 10
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Numrique des Territoires
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