Q1. “Today managers need to perform various functions”: Elaborate the statement.

Managers create and maintain an internal environment, commonly called the organization, so that others can work efficiently in it. A manager’s job consists of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the resources of the organization. These resources include people, jobs or positions, technology, facilities and equipment, materials and supplies, information, and money. Managers work in a dynamic environment and must anticipate and adapt to challenges. The manager looks after more than one function. Therefore, managerial practices used successfully in big firms cannot be blindly used in small-scale units. Basic managerial functions in large and small business are the same. But the manner in which these functions should be carried out can be different. Managing starts with planning. A manager with a definite and well defined plan has more chances of success than another who tries to start an enterprise without planning. According to Killen” planning is the process of deciding in advance what is to be done‚who is to do it‚how it is to be done and when it is to be done’’. Planning involves thinking and decision and is, therefore, called a logical process. Planning is a continuous process as changes in plans have to be made from time to time to take care of changing environment. Many a times, a vague approach is adapted to planning in a small firm. There is a false impression that small firms are uncomplicated and do not require planning. The small-scale manager does not want to engage his employees in the planning process due to the desire to keep the secrets with him. Personal accountability for results, lack of expert staff and not having planning skills are other major obstacles to planning in small firms. The owner or manager of a small enterprise is too involved in day-today operation to try planning before commencing actual operation. But they need pre-planning most because small firms have limited resources to conquer their upcoming problem and cannot afford to finance losses that can take place while adjusting to unanticipated happenings/changes. A manager needs an enterprise which can achieve the business objectives. During the function of organizing he leads human resources to successful completion of the project, arranging the functions and activities into different levels in the organization structure, thus facilitating the assignments of personnel according to their capabilities, skills and motivation. According to Peter F. Drucker the process of organizing consists of three steps - activities analysis, decisions analysis and relation analysis. (i). Activities Analysis: It consists of the following: a) Determining the main functions for achieving the objectives of the firm. b) Various sub-functions in each major function.

c) Amount of work in each major function and its sub-function. d) The position required to perform the activities. (ii) Decisions Analysis: It consists of the following: a) Choosing the basis of departmentalization so that functions could be grouped into specialized units. Generally, functional departmentation is appropriate for small-scale units. Customers, Products and territories are other important base of departmentalization. b) Choosing the type of organization structure so that departments are incorporated into a formal structure.

(iii) Relations Analysis: The authority, responsibility and accountability of every position and its relationship with other positions are clearly defined. Various positions are manned with persons having the necessary education, training, experience and other qualifications. To obtain best possible benefit from each employee it is necessary to delegate functions as far-down in the organization as possible. Owners of small firms are often reluctant to delegating authority to their employees even though they expect them to do all functions allocated to them that require authority. For effective completion of tasks, it is necessary that responsibility accompanies the necessary authority. DIRECTING In directing a manager has to supervise, guide, lead and motivate people so that they can achieve set targets of performance. In the process of directing his subordinates, a manager ensures that the employees fulfill their tasks according to the set plans. Directing is the executive function of management because it is concerned with the execution of plan and policies. Directing commences organized action and sets the whole organizational machinery into action. It is, therefore, the life giving function of an organization. This is the area where the mastery of the art and science of management is put to test. A manager’s leadership style determines the work atmosphere and culture of the organization. Above all, he must motivate employees by setting a good example, setting practical targets of performance and providing satisfactory monetary and non- monetary benefits. In directing a manager has to perform the following tasks: (a) Issuing orders and instructions (b) Supervising workers (c) Motivating i.e. inspiring to work efficiently for set objectives (d) Communicating with employees regarding plans and their implementation. (e) Leadership or influencing the actions or employees

CONTROLLING Controlling is the process of ensuring that the organization is moving in the desired direction and that progress is being made to wards the achievement of goals. The answer to a profitable organization is the skill of the owner or manager to control operations. He has to establish standards of performance, procedures, goals and budgets. With these guides, he supervises job progress, workers performance and the financial condition of the business. The controlling function of the owner manager includes: Setting of standards: - Control presumes the existence of standards against which actual results are to be evaluated. Standards can not control on their own but they are the targets against which actual performance can be measured. Therefore they should be set clearly and accurately. They should be precise, adequate, and feasible. Measurement of actual performance: - The actual performance is measured and evaluated in comparison with the set standards. Preferably measurement should be such that variation may be identified in advance of occurrence and prevented by suitable action. Where work involved is of quantitative nature measurement of performance is not difficult. But when the work is not quantifiable measurement becomes difficult. Periodical reports test checks and audits are helpful in precise measurement of performance. Analysis of variances: - Comparison of actual performance with standards will reveal variation. Variations are analyzed to identify their cause and their impact on the organization. Corrective action can be possible only where the causes of the problem spots have been identified. Clarification may be called for sudden variation. Taking corrective action: - Control means action on the basis of measurement and evaluation of results. Wherever possible self- determining device should be used for bringing back actual results in line with the standards. Standards should be revised wherever necessary. Other steps to prevent deviations can be re-organization, improvements in staffing and directions etc. The real meaning of control lies in the commencement and follow-up of remedial action. At this stages control unites with planning. TIME MANAGEMENT In managing an enterprise time is of essence especially for a small scale manager who has to perform the dual role of a manager as well as of a manager in his business. The manager can bring substantial changes in his firm’s performance by managing time more efficiently. Management of time involves the following steps.

(i) Time Analysis: First of all a systematic study is made to find out the proportion of total time spent by the manager and his workers on different activities. (ii) Finding Critical Activities: Critical or vital activities should receive greater time. Activities taking more than the justified time need to be identified. Irrelevant or time wasting activities should be eliminated. (iii) Time Allocation: A time schedule should be prepared. Proper time should be allocated to each activity. The tasks one wants to do but for which he does not have time should be noted. (iv) Stick to Time Schedule: The most difficult step in time management is to complete each activity within the schedule time period. For this purpose, it is necessary to delegate task to subordinates, to organize every workday and to continuously evaluate the time management system Essentially, management implies distinct processes of Planning, Organizing, Directing, and Controlling resources both human and material, to achieve an identified objective. Q.2 “Skills are the tool for performance”-Explain various management skills. Management in all business and human organization activity is simply the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Basic Skills of management The main functions of the management are: planning, organizing, controlling, leading. Planning: specifying goals to be achieved and preparing how to meet them analyzing current situation, gathering and analyzing information. Organizing: devising and allocating roles for respective position within the manager’s scope of work obtaining and allocating resources delegation assigning duties and responsibility to subordinates for results defining the roles and authority of personnel. Leading: Motivating people to high performance, directing and communicating with people assisting and inspire then toward achieving team and organizational goals Controlling: Set and monitor performance the standard of progress toward goals indentifying performance problems by comparing data against standards control tools such as scheduling, charting techniques, standard

operating procedures (SOP), budgeting, disciplinary actions etc. then besides those functions are important there have three management skills are important also which are technical, human, and conceptual skills. Technical skills: Ability to understand and use the techniques, knowledge and tools to equipment of a specific discipline or department. Human skills: Interpersonal enable a manager to work effectively through people. Conceptual skills: important for top-level managers who must develop long range plans for future gave a direction to managers to determine the organization as unified whole and understand each part of the overall organization interacts with other department or parts. Q.3 What is negotiation? Explain the process of negotiation. Negotiation is a dialogue intended to resolve disputes, to produce an agreement upon courses of action, to bargain for individual or collective advantage, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is the primary method of alternative dispute resolution. Negotiation occurs in business, non-profit organizations, government branches, legal proceedings, among nations and in personal situations such as marriage, divorce, parenting, and everyday life. The study of the subject is called negotiation theory. Professional negotiators are often specialized, such as union negotiators, leverage buyout negotiators, peace negotiators, hostage negotiators, or may work under other titles, such as diplomats, legislators or brokers. Negotiation typically manifests itself with a trained negotiator acting on behalf of a particular organization or position. It can be compared to mediation where a disinterested third party listens to each sides' arguments and attempts to help craft an agreement between the parties. It is also related to arbitration which, as with a legal proceeding, both sides make an argument as to the merits of their "case" and then the arbitrator decides the outcome for both parties. There are many different ways to segment negotiation to gain a greater understanding of the essential parts. One view of negotiation involves three basic elements: process, behavior and substance. The process refers to how the parties negotiate: the context of the negotiations, the parties to the negotiations, the tactics used by the parties, and the sequence and stages in which all of these play out. Behavior refers to the relationships among these parties, the communication between them and the styles they adopt. The substance refers to what the parties negotiate over: the agenda, the issues (positions and - more helpfully - interests), the options, and the agreement(s)

reached at the end. Another view of negotiation comprises 4 elements: strategy, process and tools, and tactics. Strategy comprises the top level goals - typically including relationship and the final outcome. Processes and tools include the steps that will be followed and the roles taken in both preparing for and negotiating with the other parties. Tactics include more detailed statements and actions and responses to others' statements and actions. Some add to this persuasion and influence, asserting that these have become integral to modern day negotiation success, and so should not be omitted. Skilled negotiators may use a variety of tactics ranging from negotiation hypnosis, to a straight forward presentation of demands or setting of preconditions to more deceptive approaches such as cherry picking. Intimidation and salami tactics may also play a part in swaying the outcome of negotiations. Another negotiation tactic is bad guy/good guy. Bad guy/good guy tactic is when one negotiator acts as a bad guy by using anger and threats. The other negotiator acts as a good guy by being considerate and understanding. The good guy blames the bad guy for all the difficulties while trying to get concessions and agreement from the opponent. This is a unique combination framework that puts together the best of many other approaches to negotiation. It is particularly suited to more complex, higher-value and slower negotiations. Prepare: Know what you want. Understand them. Open: Put your case. Hear theirs. Argue: Support your case. Expose theirs. Explore: Seek understanding and possibility. Signal: Indicate your readiness to work together. Package: Assemble potential trades. Close: Reach final agreement. Sustain: Make sure what is agreed happens. There are deliberately a larger number of stages in this process as it is designed to break down important activities during negotiation, particularly towards the end. It is an easy trap to try to jump to the end with a solution that is inadequate and unacceptable. Note also that in practice, you may find variations on these, for example there may be loops back to previous stages, stages overlapping, stages running parallel and even out of order. The bottom line is to use what works. This process is intended to help you negotiate, but do not use it blindly. It is not magic and is not a substitute for

thinking. If something does not seem to be working, try to figure out why and either fix the problem or try something else. Although there are commonalities across negotiations, each one is different and the greatest skill is to be able to read the situation in the moment and adapt as appropriate.

Q.4 Explain Classical Conditioning Theory? Classical conditioning is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov. The typical procedure for inducing classical conditioning involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. The neutral stimulus could be any event that does not result in an overt behavioral response from the organism under investigation. Pavlov referred to this as a conditioned stimulus (CS). Conversely, presentation of the significant stimulus necessarily evokes an innate, often reflexive, response. Pavlov called these the unconditioned stimulus (US) and unconditioned response (UR), respectively. If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired, eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to the CS. Pavlov called this the conditioned response (CR). Popular forms of classical conditioning that are used to study neural structures and functions that underlie learning and memory include fear conditioning, eyeblink conditioning, and the foot contraction conditioning of Hermissenda crassicornis. Types Forward conditioning Diagram representing forward conditioning…

Diagram representing forward conditioning. The time interval increases from left to right. During forward conditioning the onset of the CS precedes the onset of the US. Two common forms of forward

conditioning are delay and trace conditioning. Delay Conditioning In delay conditioning the CS is presented and is overlapped by the presentation of the US Trace conditioning During trace conditioning the CS and US do not overlap. Instead, the CS is presented, a period of time is allowed to elapse during which no stimuli are presented, and then the US is presented. The stimulus free period is called the trace interval. It may also be called the "conditioning interval" Simultaneous conditioning During simultaneous conditioning, the CS and US are presented and terminate at the same time. Backward conditioning Backward conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus immediately follows an unconditioned stimulus. Unlike traditional conditioning models, in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response tends to be inhibitory. This is because the conditioned stimulus serves as a signal that the unconditioned stimulus has ended, rather than a reliable method of predicting the future occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus. The onset of the US precedes the onset of the CS. Rather than being a reliable predictor of an impending US (such as in Forward Conditioning), the CS actually serves as a signal that the US has ended. As a result, the CR is said to be inhibitory. Temporal conditioning The US is presented at regularly timed intervals, and CR acquisition is dependent upon correct timing of the interval between US presentations. The background, or context, can serve as the CS in this example. Unpaired conditioning The CS and US are not presented together. Usually they are presented as independent trials that are separated by a variable, or pseudo-random, interval. This procedure is used to study non-associative behavioral responses, such as sensitization. CS-alone extinction Main article: Extinction (psychology) The CS is presented in the absence of the US. This procedure is usually done after the CR has been acquired through Forward conditioning training. Eventually, the CR frequency is reduced to pre-training levels.

Q.5 How is culture and society responsible to built value system? A value system is a set of consistent ethic values (more specifically the personal and cultural values) and measures used for the purpose of ethical or ideological integrity. A well defined value system is a moral code. The

values identify those objects, conditions or characteristics that members of the society consider important; that is, valuable. One or more people can hold a value system. Likewise, a value system can apply to either one person or many. Groups, societies, or cultures have values that are largely shared by their members. The values identify those objects, conditions or characteristics that members of the society consider important; that is, valuable. A personal value system is held by and applied to one individual only. A communal or cultural value system is held by and applied to a community/group/society. Some communal value systems are reflected in the form of legal codes or law. The values of a society can often be identified by noting which people receive honor or respect. Values are related to the norms of a culture, but they are more general and abstract than norms. Norms are rules for behavior in specific situations, while values identify what should be judged as good or evil. Flying the national flag on a holiday is a norm, but it reflects the value of patriotism. Wearing dark clothing and appearing solemn are normative behaviors at a funeral. They reflect the values of respect and support of friends and family. Different cultures reflect different values. "Over the last three decades, traditional-age college students have shown an increased interest in personal well-being and a decreased interest in the welfare of others. Values seemed to have changed, affecting the beliefs, and attitudes of college students. Members take part in a culture even if each member's personal values do not entirely agree with some of the normative values sanctioned in the culture. This reflects an individual's ability to synthesize and extract aspects valuable to them from the multiple subcultures they belong to. If a group member expresses a value that is in serious conflict with the group's norms, the group's authority may carry out various ways of encouraging conformity or stigmatizing the non-conforming behavior of its members. For example, imprisonment can result from conflict with social norms that have been established as law. Q.6 Write short notes on o Locus of control o Machiavellianism Locus of Control: It is a term in psychology which refers to a person's belief about what causes the good or bad results in his or her life, either in general or in a specific area such as health or academics. Locus of control refers to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them. Individuals with a high internal locus of control believe that events result primarily from their own behavior and actions. Those with a high external locus of control believe that powerful others, fate, or chance primarily determine events. Those with a high internal locus of control have better control of their behavior, tend to exhibit more political behaviors, and

are more likely to attempt to influence other people than those with a high external locus of control; they are more likely to assume that their efforts will be successful. They are more active in seeking information and knowledge concerning their situation. One's "locus" (Latin for "place" or "location") can either be internal (meaning the person believes that they control their life) or external (meaning they believe that their environment, some higher power, or other people control their decisions and their life). Machiavellianism: Machiavellianism has tremendous influence on modern business communities, especially in the U.S.A. and European countries. Businessmen today, it is said, prefer to follow the directions of pragmatism and expediency rather than the dictates of individual conscience. In principles and practices, Indian management by and large follows the Western line. Therefore, the question arises whether Machiavellian influences are perceptibly high on Indian managers. This question is more relevant in the light of a few surveys conducted on the ethical attitudes of Indian managers. These identified a clear contrast between their expressed behavior and wanted attitudes. The present study on the attitudes of managers from the major cities of India concludes that Niccolo Machiavelli inspires and influences Indian managers, but has not become the final determinant in their decision-making. Machiavellianism is also a term that some social and personality psychologists use to describe a person's tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain. Machiavellianism is one of the three personality traits referred to as the dark triad, along with narcissism and psychopathy. Some psychologists consider Machiavellianism to be essentially a subclinical form of psychopathy.

Set-2 Q.1 “Halo effect and selective perception are the shortcuts in judging others” Explain. The halo effect refers to a cognitive bias whereby the perception of a particular trait is influenced by the perception of the former traits in a sequence of interpretations. Edward L. Thorndike was the first to support the halo effect with empirical research. In a psychology study published in 1920, Thorndike asked commanding officers to rate their soldiers; Thorndike found high cross-correlation between all positive and all negative traits. People seem not to think of other individuals in mixed terms; instead we seem to see each person as roughly good or roughly bad across all categories of measurement. A study by Solomon Asch suggests that attractiveness is a central trait, so we presume all the other traits of an attractive person are just as attractive and sought after. The halo effect is involved in Harold Kelley's implicit personality theory, where the first traits we recognize in other people influence our interpretation and perception of later ones because of our expectations. Attractive people are often judged as having a more desirable personality and more skills than someone of average appearance. Thus, we see that celebrities are used to endorse products that they have no actual expertise in evaluating, and with which they may not even have any prior affiliation. The term is commonly used in human resources recruitment. It refers to the risk of an interviewer noticing a positive trait in an interviewee and as a result, paying less attention to their negative traits (or vice versa). The halo effect has to do with judging or evaluating a person, place, or event by a single trait or experience. This overall impression can be good or bad but will prejudice our further involvement with the stimulus. Each of us can remember making a snap judgment about someone based on a first impression. Often we try to perceive further interaction with the individual based on this first impression, regardless of whether it was positive or negative. If this impression is incorrect, it often takes considerable pressure to concede this fact and break the halo effect. Examples are plentiful in business. A plush office convinces us someone is an important person in the organization and must be taken seriously. A sloppily typed letter by our new secretary proves to us the individual is going to be an unsatisfactory employee. The halo effect often shows up most conspicuously on performance appraisals where our overall good or bad opinion of the workers interferes with our ability to evaluate weaknesses or strengths accurately on individual job functions. Selective Perception: Selective perception may refer to any number of cognitive biases in psychology related to the way expectations affect perception. For instance, several studies have shown that students who were told they were consuming alcoholic beverages (which in fact were nonalcoholic) perceived themselves as being "drunk", exhibited fewer

physiological symptoms of social stress, and drove a simulated car similarly to other subjects who had actually consumed alcohol. The result is somewhat similar to the placebo effect. In one classic study on this subject related to the hostile media effect (which is itself an excellent example of selective perception), viewers watched a filmstrip of a particularly violent PrincetonDartmouth American football game. Princeton viewers reported seeing nearly twice as many rule infractions committed by the Dartmouth team than did Dartmouth viewers. One Dartmouth alumnus did not see any infractions committed by the Dartmouth side and erroneously assumed he had been sent only part of the film, sending word requesting the rest. Selective perception is also an issue for advertisers, as consumers may engage with some ads and not others based on their pre-existing beliefs about the brand. Seymour Smith, a prominent advertising researcher, found evidence for selective perception in advertising research in the early 1960s, and he defined it to be “a procedure by which people let in, or screen out, advertising material they have an opportunity to see or hear. They do so because of their attitudes, beliefs, usage preferences and habits, conditioning, etc.” People who like, buy, or are considering buying a brand are more likely to notice advertising than are those who are neutral toward the brand. This fact has repercussions within the field of advertising research because any post-advertising analysis that examines the differences in attitudes or buying behavior among those aware versus those unaware of advertising is flawed unless pre-existing differences are controlled for. Advertising research methods that utilize a longitudinal design are arguably better equipped to control for selective perception. Selective perception is the personal filtering of what we see and hear so as to suit our own needs. Much of this process is psychological and often unconscious. Have you ever been accused of only hearing what you want to hear? In fact, that is quite true. We simply are bombarded with too much stimuli every day to pay equal attention to everything so we pick and choose according to our own needs. For instance Selective Perception in Public Assessment of the Press and the Presidential Scandal Job the press Tot Republic Independe Democra has done al % ans % nts % ts %% covering allegations Excellent/Good Only fair/Poor Don't 46 51 3 61 35 4 46 52 2 35 61 4

Know/Refused Total 100 100 100 100 Question: How good a job are news organizations doing at reporting about the allegations against? President Clinton . . . an excellent job, a good job, only a fair job or a poor job? Source: "Popular Policies and Unpopular Press Lift Clinton Ratings," Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, News Release dated 2/6/98, p. 4.

Q.2 Explain “Emotional Intelligence”. Emotional Intelligence (EI) describes the ability, capacity, skill or, in the case of the trait EI model, a self-perceived ability, to identify, assesses, and manage the emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups. Different models have been proposed for the definition of EI and disagreement exists as to how the term should be used. Despite these disagreements, which are often highly technical, the ability EI and trait EI models (but not the mixed models) enjoy support in the literature and have successful applications in different domains. Substantial disagreement exists regarding the definition of EI, with respect to both terminology and operationalizations. There has been much confusion regarding the exact meaning of this construct. The definitions are so varied, and the field is growing so rapidly, that researchers are constantly amending even their own definitions of the construct. At the present time, there are three main models of EI: Ability EI models Mixed models of EI Trait EI model The ability-based model Salovey and Mayer's conception of EI strives to define EI within the confines of the standard criteria for a new intelligence. Following their continuing research, their initial definition of EI was revised to: "The ability to perceive emotion, integrate emotion to facilitate thought, understand emotions and to regulate emotions to promote personal growth." The ability based model views emotions as useful sources of information that help one to make sense of and navigate the social environment. The model proposes that individuals vary in their ability to process information of an emotional nature and in their ability to relate emotional processing to a wider cognition. This ability is seen to manifest itself in certain adaptive behaviors. The model proposes that EI includes 4 types of abilities: Perceiving emotions — the ability to detect and decipher emotions in faces, pictures, voices, and cultural artifacts- including the ability to identify one’s own emotions. Perceiving emotions represents a basic aspect of emotional intelligence, as it makes all other processing of emotional information possible. Using emotions — the ability to harness emotions to facilitate various cognitive activities, such as thinking and problem solving. The emotionally intelligent person can capitalize fully upon his or her changing moods in order to best fit the task at hand. Understanding emotions — the ability to comprehend emotion language and to appreciate complicated relationships among emotions. For example, understanding emotions encompasses the ability to be sensitive to slight variations between emotions, and the ability to recognize and describe how emotions evolve over time. Managing emotions — the ability to regulate emotions in both ourselves and in others. Therefore, the emotionally intelligent person can harness emotions, even negative ones, and manage them to achieve intended goals.

The ability-based model has been criticized in the research for lacking face and predictive validity in the workplace. EI is too broadly defined and the definitions are unstable One of the arguments against the theoretical soundness of the concept suggests that the constant changing and broadening of its definition- which has come to encompass many unrelated elements — had rendered it an unintelligible concept. Arguing that EI is an invalid concept, Locke (2005) asked: "What is the common or integrating element in a concept that includes: introspection about emotions, Emotional expression, non-verbal communication with others, empathy, self-regulation, planning, creative thinking and the direction of attention?" He answered by saying: "There is none." Commenting on the multiple factors that have been included in the definition, Locke asked rhetorically: "What does EI not include?" Other critics mention that without some stabilization of the concepts and the measurement instruments, meta-analyses are difficult to implement, and the theory coherence is likely to be adversely impacted by this instability. EI cannot be recognized as a form of intelligence Goleman's early work has been criticized for assuming from the beginning that EI is a type of intelligence. Eysenck (2000) writes that Goleman's description of EI contains assumptions about intelligence in general, and that it even runs contrary to what researchers have come to expect when studying types of intelligence: "Goleman exemplifies more clearly than most the fundamental absurdity of the tendency to class almost any type of behavior as ’intelligence’... If these five 'abilities' define 'emotional intelligence', we would expect some evidence that they are highly correlated; Goleman admits that they might be quite uncorrelated, and in any case if we cannot measure them, how do we know they are related? So the whole theory is built on quicksand: there is no sound scientific basis". Similarly, Locke (2005) claims that the concept of EI is in itself a misinterpretation of the intelligence construct, and he offers an alternative interpretation: it is not another form or type of intelligence, but intelligence— the ability to grasp abstractions--applied to a particular life domain: emotions. He suggests the concept should be re-labeled and referred to as a skill. The essence of this criticism is that scientific inquiry depends on valid and consistent construct utilization, and that in advance of the introduction of the term EI, psychologists had established theoretical distinctions between factors such as abilities and achievements, skills and habits, attitudes and values, and personality traits and emotional states. The term EI is viewed by some as having merged and conflated accepted concepts and definitions. EI has no substantial predictive value Landy (2005) has claimed that the few incremental validity studies conducted on EI have demonstrated that it adds little or nothing to the explanation or prediction of some common outcomes (most notably

academic and work success). Landy proposes that the reason some studies have found a small increase in predictive validity is in fact a methodological fallacy — incomplete consideration of alternative explanations: "EI is compared and contrasted with a measure of abstract intelligence but not with a personality measure, or with a personality measure but not with a measure of academic intelligence." Landy (2005) In accordance with this suggestion, other researchers have raised concerns about the extent to which self-report EI measures correlate with established personality dimensions. Generally, self-report EI measures and personality measures have been said to converge because they both purport to measure traits, and because they are both measured in the self-report form. Specifically, there appear to be two dimensions of the Big Five that stand out as most related to self-report EI – neuroticism and extraversion. In particular, neuroticism has been said to relate to negative emotionality and anxiety. Intuitively, individuals scoring high on neuroticism are likely to score low on self-report EI measures. The interpretations of the correlations between EI questionnaires and personality have been varied, with the trait EI view that re-interprets EI as a collection of personality traits being prominent in the scientific literature.

Q.3 “A group formation passes through various stages”: Explain the various stages of group formation. The formation of some groups can be represented as a spiral; other groups form with sudden movements forward and then have periods with no change. Whatever variant of formation each group exhibits, they suggest that all groups pass through six sequential stages of development. These stages may be longer or shorter for each group, or for individual members of the group, but all groups will need to experience them. They are forming, storming, norming, performing, mourning and retiring. The terms are pretty self explanatory. When a group is forming, participants can feel anxious not knowing how the group will work or what exactly will be required of them. Storming, as the word suggests, is when things may get stormy. Conflict can emerge, individual differences are expressed and the leader's role may be challenged. The value and the feasibility of the task may also be challenged. After the storm comes the calm of norming, where the group starts to function harmoniously and where participants co-operate and mutual support develops. This enables the performing stage to occur where the work really takes off and the group accepts a structure and method for achieving the common task. When the group retires or adjourns, much learning happens through informal chat and feedback about the group performance. Tuckman and Jenson recognize that when groups dismantle themselves and the loose ends are all tied up, participants often go through a stage of mourning or grieving.

This model is useful to know, so that when your group appears to be going nowhere or perhaps members are arguing so much that no work can be started, you understand that this is normal! Most groups go through these phases. Understanding this pattern empowers you to work towards moving the group onto the next phase Activity for individual reflection or as a group discussion following any group activity. May be used following W1 DGB (Developing Effective Group Behavior Exercise) Think of a group that you have recently been involved with. Considering each stage of its development, can you recall any evidence of these stages? A Forming · What was the task? · Did you all share the same expectations of the task? · Did you all have the same attitude to working in a group? · Did you feel any anxiety at the outset of the activity? B Storming · Was there any conflict in the group? · Did you all agree on the means of carrying out the task? · Did you have a leader and was his/her authority challenged? · Did any group members withdraw from the group? C Norming · Did you move on to agree methods of working? · Did you have a common goal? · Did you cooperate with each other? · Did you work out how to proceed at all? (If not, you were probably still storming.) D Performing · Did everyone take on a functional role to achieve the task? · Did you work constructively and efficiently? · Did the group's activity focus on fulfilling the task? · Did you experience a sense of achievement? E Retiring/Adjourning · Did you stop abruptly and all go your separate ways or did you finish the task and then go off together and socialize? · Did you talk about the group and your experience of it? · What sort of issues did you discuss or think about after the group activity? · Was it more or less acceptable to give and receive feedback in a relaxed atmosphere when adjourning? F Mourning/Grieving · Have you experienced the mourning stage following the completion of a show or project? · Have you ever felt empty or sad when a group activity has finished · Why might some people feel the mourning stage more acutely than others?

· How do you deal with your own feelings after the project or show? Q.4 “Power is the ability to make things happen in the way an individual wants, either by self or by the subordinates. The essence of power is to control over the behavior of others”: Explain what are the various bases of Power? Power is the ability to make things happen in the way an individual wants, either by self or by the subordinates. The essence of power is control over the behavior of others. Managers derive power from both organizational and individual sources. These sources are called position power and personal power, respectively. Personal power resides in the individual and is independent of that individual's position. Three bases of personal power are: 1. Expertise, 2. Rational persuasion, 3. Reference. Expert power is the ability to control another person's behavior by virtue of possessing knowledge, experience, or judgment that the other person lacks, but needs. A subordinate obeys a supervisor possessing expert power because the boss ordinarily knows more about what is to be done or how it is to be done than does the subordinate. Expert power is relative, not absolute. However the table may turn in case the subordinate has superior knowledge or skills than his/ her boss. In this age of technology driven environments, the second proposition holds true in many occasions where the boss is dependent heavily on the juniors for technologically oriented support. Rational persuasion is the ability to control another's behavior, since, through the individual's efforts; the person accepts the desirability of an offered goal and a viable way of achieving it. Rational persuasion involves both explaining the desirability of expected outcomes and showing how specific actions will achieve these outcomes. Referent power is the ability to control another's behavior because the person wants to identify with the power source. In this case, a subordinate obeys the boss because he or she wants to behave, perceive, or believe as the boss does. This obedience may occur, for example, because the subordinate likes the boss personally and therefore tries to do things the way the boss wants them done. In a sense, the subordinate attempts to avoid doing anything that would interfere with the pleasing boss-subordinate relationship. Followership is not based on what the subordinate will get for specific actions or specific levels of performance, but on what the individual represents-a path toward lucrative future prospects. Charismatic Power is an extension of referent power stemming from an individual's personality and interpersonal style. Others follow because they can articulate attractive visions, take personal risks, demonstrate follower sensitivity, etc. Q.5 Explain “Organizational Development” process

Organization development (OD) is a planned, top-down, organization-wide effort to increase the organization's effectiveness and health. OD is achieved through interventions in the organization's "processes," using behavioral science knowledge. According to Warren Bennis, OD is a complex strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values, and structure of organizations so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets, and challenges. OD is not "anything done to better an organization"; it is a particular kind of change process designed to bring about a particular kind of end result. OD involves organizational reflection, system improvement, planning, and self-analysis. The term "Organization Development" is often used interchangeably with Organizational effectiveness, especially when used as the name of a department or a part of the Human Resources function within an organization. Organization Development is a growing field that is responsive to many new approaches including Positive Adult Development. At the core of OD is the concept of organization, defined as two or more people working together toward one or more shared goal(s). Development in this context is the notion that an organization may become more effective over time at achieving its goals. OD is a long range effort to improve organization's problem solving and renewal processes, particularly through more effective and collaborative management of organizational culture, often with the assistance of a change agent or catalyst and the use of the theory and technology of applied behavioral science. Organization development is a "contractual relationship between a change agent and a sponsoring organization entered into for the purpose of using applied behavioral science in a systems context to improve organizational performance and the capacity of the organization to improve itself".[citation needed] Organizational development is an ongoing, systematic process to implement effective change in an organization. Organizational development is known as both a field of applied behavioral science focused on understanding and managing organizational change and as a field of scientific study and inquiry. It is interdisciplinary in nature and draws on sociology, psychology, and theories of motivation, learning, and personality. Q6 .Write short note on “Stress Management” Stress management is the amelioration of stress, especially chronic stress. Transactional model Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman suggested in 1984 that stress can be thought of as resulting from an “imbalance between demands and resources” or as occurring when “pressure exceeds one's perceived ability to cope”. Stress management was developed and premised on the idea that stress is not a direct response to a stressor but rather one's resources and ability to cope mediate the stress response and are amenable

to change, thus allowing stress to be controllable. In order to develop an effective stress management program it is first necessary to identify the factors that are central to a person controlling his/her stress, and to identify the intervention methods which effectively target these factors. Lazarus and Folkman's interpretation of stress focuses on the transaction between people and their external environment (known as the Transactional Model). The model conceptualizes stress as a result of how a stressor is appraised and how a person appraises his/her resources to cope with the stressor. The model breaks the stressor-stress link by proposing that if stressors are perceived as positive or challenging rather than a threat, and if the stressed person is confident that he/she possesses adequate rather than deficient coping strategies, stress may not necessarily follow the presence of a potential stressor. The model proposes that stress can be reduced by helping stressed people change their perceptions of stressors, providing them with strategies to help them cope and improving their confidence in their ability to do so. Health realization/innate health model The health realization/innate health model of stress is also founded on the idea that stress does not necessarily follow the presence of a potential stressor. Instead of focusing on the individual's appraisal of so-called stressors in relation to his or her own coping skills (as the transactional model does), the health realization model focuses on the nature of thought, stating that it is ultimately a person's thought processes that determine the response to potentially stressful external circumstances. In this model, stress results from appraising oneself and one's circumstances through a mental filter of insecurity and negativity, whereas a feeling of well-being results from approaching the world with a "quiet mind," "inner wisdom," and "common sense". This model proposes that helping stressed individuals understand the nature of thought--especially providing them with the ability to recognize when they are in the grip of insecure thinking, disengage from it, and access natural positive feelings--will reduce their stress. Techniques of stress management There are several ways of coping with stress. Some techniques of time management may help a person to control stress. In the face of high demands, effective stress management involves learning to set limits and to say "No" to some demands that others make. The following techniques have been recently dubbed “Destressitizers” by The Journal of the Canadian Medical Association. A destressitizer is any process by which an individual can relieve stress. Techniques of stress management will vary according to the theoretical paradigm adhered to, but may include some of the following: • • • Autogenic training Cognitive therapy Conflict resolution

• Exercise • Getting a hobby • Meditation • Deep breathing • Nootropics • Relaxation techniques • Artistic Expression • Fractional relaxation • Progressive relaxation • Spas • Stress balls • Natural medicine • Clinically validated alternative treatments • Time management • Listening to certain types of relaxing music, particularly: • New Age music • Classical music • Psychedelic music Measuring stress Levels of stress can be measured. One way is through the use of the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale to rate stressful life events. Changes in blood pressure and galvanic skin response can also be measured to test stress levels, and changes in stress levels. A digital thermometer can be used to evaluate changes in skin temperature, which can indicate activation of the fight or flight response drawing blood away from the extremities. Stress management has physiological and immune benefit effects. [9] Effectiveness of stress management Positive outcomes are observed using a combination of interventions: • treatment of anger or hostility, • autogenic training • talking therapy (around relationship or existential issues) • biofeedback • cognitive therapy for anxiety or clinical depression

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