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The Application of Photodynamic by LED-Magnetic

for Photoactivation of Photosynthetic Bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides


Suryani Dyah Astuti
1
, Qisti Wulandari
1
, Nike Dwi GD
1
, Agus Supriyanto
2
, Kuwat Triyana
3

1
Departent o! "hysi#s, $a#ulty o! S#ien#e and Te#hnology, %ni&ersity o! Airlangga
2
Departent o! 'iology, $a#ulty o! S#ien#e and Te#hnology, %ni&ersity o! Airlangga
3
Departent o! "hysi#s $()"A Gad*ah (ada %ni&ersity
+,ail- suryanidyah.gail/#o
ABSTRAT
All photosyntheti# 0a#teria ha&e a*or 0a#terio#hlorophyll pigent and a##essory pigent 1i/e/
#arotenoid2, whi#h 0oth o! the ha&e iportant role in photosyntheti# pro#ess/ This study was an
e3periental la0oratorial resear#h, whi#h was aied to test the potensial o! 4+D illuination
1with wa&elength at 567 n "urple, 536 n 'lue, 829 n Green and :27 n red2 and the
optii;ation o! optiu intensity and tie duration o! 4+D,agneti# e3posure !or
photoa#ti&ation o! Rhodobacter sphaeroides growth/ This resear#h used a !ully randoi;ed
!a#torial design with intensity !a#tor and tie e3posure !a#tor/ "araeter easured was nu0er
o! 0a#terial #olonies whi#h grew 0y using Total Plate Count 1T"<2 ethod/ The results o! Ano&a
tests showed that these had in!luen#e !ro 4+D illuination in the growth o! Rhodobacter
sphaeroides #olonies with the ost o! potensial at wa&elength 536 n 'lue 4+D that in#reased
#olonies o! 2:= and adding 1,9 T agneti# !ield e3posure o! 75=/ The result o! optii;ed
'lue 4+D illuination and 1,9 T agneti# !ield e3posure showed that in#reased presentation
o! 0a#terial #olonies 111= at an intensity o! :9 W>#
2
and 86 inutes tie duration e3posure
1energy dose o! 265 ?>#
2
2/
Keynotes- photosynthesis, optial energy doses, 536 n 'lue 4+D, Rhodobacter sphaeroides
!"TR#D$T!#"
The appli#ations o! using photosyntheti# 0a#teria ha&e interested !or se&eral resear#hes/
"hotosyntheti# 0a#teria are used !or edi#al !ro produ#ts o! their 0iosynthesis/ +&ery
organiss has tetrapyrrole 0iosyntheis !or produ#ing energy eta0olis in their 0ody
1'lankeship et al, 26652/ The 8,aminolevulinic acid 18,A4A2 is !irst pre#ursor o! 0iosyntheti#
pathway/ +3tra#t A4A in 0iosynthesis produ#e se&eral produ#t tetrapyrrole su#h as hee and
0a#terio#hlorophyll in order to #arry o3ygen, to trans!er ele#tron and to har&est light energy
1@appa et al, 26162/ )nstead its produ#ts, 0iosyntheti# also produ#e #o0alain 1&itain '122,
#oen;ye Q16, tANA and &arious porphyrin/ They are now #oer#ially used as edi#al
aterial like photosensiti;er and !ood suppleents 1Sasaki et al, 26682/ (any resear#hes gi&e
attention !or it, 0ut produ#tion o! A4A is &ery di!!i#ult 0e#ause it depends on se&eral paraeters
#onsidered, su#h as pB, #ar0on and nitrogen sour#e, pre#ursor #on#entrates, light intensity,
aeration and other !a#tors 1Tangprasittipap and "rasertsan, 26622/
"rodu#tion o! A4A #an 0e stiulated 0y &arious ethods/ 4ee Dae,Bee had resear#h
e!!e#t #ulture ethods !or produ#tion A4A with &arious pB and adding <>N ratio #on#entrates
14ee et al, 26652/ She a#hie&ed that A4A in#reased in high pB 1pB 92 and adding high <>N ratio
#aused de#reased A4A #on#entrates/ The instead this ethods, %tsuiya had in&estigated a0out
in#reasing A4A !or produ#tion o! porphyrin using agneti# !ield 1%tsonoiya et al, 26622/ Be
had a#hie&ed that using high agneti# !ield produ#ed high porphyrin !oration/ The other
ethods is using illuination/ 4ike plant or algae, 0a#teria also use light energy !or
photosynthesis, so they are #alled photosyntheti# 0a#teria/ Soe produ#ts o! photosynthesis are
used !or eta0olis 10iosyhthesis2 pro#ess/
Cne o! photosyntheti# 0a#teria is Rhodobacter sphaeroides/ All photosyntheti# 0a#teria
ha&e ain pigents whi#h are 0a#terio#hlorophyll and a##essory pigent 1#arotenoid2, 0oth
ha&e iportant role on photosyntheti# pro#ess/ +a#h pigents has parti#ular a0sor0an#e
spe#tru/ <arotenoid is highly e!!i#ient to a0sor0 light at 0lue and green wa&elength 1586,886
n2, 0ut has a3iu Soret a0sor0an#e a0out 566n region 1(a#pherson et al, 26612/
)n photosyntheti# pro#ess, light energy will 0e a0sor0ed 0y pigent ole#ules, so
ole#ules that e3perien#e e3#itation to highly energy le&els/ $urtherore, energy e3#itation it
will 0e trans!erred and #on&erted to energy potensial ele#tro#heistry as #harge,separation trans
e0ranes and adenosine triphosphate 1AT"2 syntheti#s 1Gust et al, 17792 !or photosyntheti#
0a#terial a#ti&ation/
This study was aied to deterine energy dose !ro illuination and adding agneti#
!ield/ +a#h pigents has parti#ular wa&elength to 0e a#ti&ated the, illuination was used 4+D
with &arious wa&elengths/ Adding agneti# !ield used !or adding energy !or photosynthesis/
E%PER!ME"TALS
Sample Research
Saple resear#h was Rhodobacter sphaeroides 0a#teria isolated !ro water o! (as ri&er
Sura0aya and grown on photosyntheti# edia 1"(S2/
!ll&mination e'&ipment
The illuination eDuipent was a##ording to a sour#e o! 4+D, i#ro#ontroller 1type AEA
98332, ser&o otors 1(er#k "arala3 <ontinous2, teperature sensors1type 4( 382, 4<D display
and tier/ The sour#e o! 4+D set with &arious wa&elengths 1e/g/ 567 n "urple, 536 n 'lue,
829 n Green and :27 n Aed2 was used !or 0a#terial illuination in &itro/ (i#ro#ontroller was
used as setting !or tie,length and intensity e3posure/ Ser&o otor was used to rotate holder in
whi#h 0a#terial petri dish pla#ed and used !or uni!or illuination/ Teperature sensor was used
to dete#t and #ontrol teperature roo in order to #onstant teperature/ 4<D display used to
show "ulse with (odulation 1"W(2 when gi&en illuination/ Tier was set to run a##ording to
tie length input/ 'e!ore all eDuipent used, it was needed to #ali0rate teperature and tie
length irradiation/
Research Methods
This study was arranged to use !ully randoi;e design !a#torial syste whi#h had 2
!a#tors, A !a#tor 1intensity irradiation2 with !our degree 1e/g/ 1F W>#
2
, 29 W>#
2
, 35
W>#
2
, and 5: W>#
2
2 and ' !a#tor 1tie duration e3posure2 with 5 degree 1e/g/ 26 inutes,
36 inutes, 56 inutes and 86 inutes2/ +a#h o! treatent was !ollowed 0y #ontrol groups with
third ties !reDuen#y/
Bacterial (ro)th
'a#teria were grown on steril "(S edia 1photosyntheti# ediu2 !or 59 hours in the
shaker in#u0ator and in 3F
o
< teperature until result 6,18 opti#al density 1CD2 at :66n
wa&elength/ +a#h 2 l o! 0a#terial saple was put on petri dishs whi#h had 3/8 # diaeters and
it was ready to treatent/
LED ill&mination Bacteria
The petri dishes ha&ing 0a#terial su0tan#es were pla#ed on holder where pla#ed on ser&o
otor plat!or/ )n order to a&oid other light, sour#e o! 4+D illuination was pla#ed in dark
a#ryli# #u0e/ The distan#e 0etween 4+D and petri was ade 2 # peranently/ The treatents
were #arried out two step- !irst step it was to deterine wa&elenght and adding agneti# !ield
whi#h resulted highest per#entage o! the nu0er o! #olony and se#ond step it was to deterine
energy doses whi#h resulted highest per#entage o! the nu0er o! #olony / A!ter treatent, all
0a#terial su0tan#es were grown in "(S edia and #al#ulated nu0er o! 0a#teria #olony/
Analytic "&mber of Bacteria olony
The saple was taken out !ro in#u0ator and #al#ulated nu0er o! 0a#terial #olony
grown with Total Plate count ethod using Quebec Colony Counter / $urtherore, the result
would 0e #al#ulated nu0er o! per#entage o! in#reased #olony grown at ea#h treatent using an
eDuation-
= in#reased #olony G |1 treatent #olony , #ontrol #olony2> #ontrol #olony | 3 166=
Statistic Analytics
The result o! analyli#s would 0e #al#ulated statisti#ally using Statistical Package For
Social Science 1 S"SS 13/6 !or window2 with signi!i#ant G6/68/ The results o! !irst step would
0e #al#ulated using Independent Sample T-test !or deterining wa&elength and adding agneti#
!ield whi#h resulted highest nu0er o! #olony/ The results o! se#ond step would 0e #al#ulated
using Ano&a !a#torial tests !or deterining in!luen#e and intera#tion !ro ea#h !a#tors/ To show
treatent groups whi#h ha&e di!!eren#e, the result would 0e #al#ulated 0y Post Hock ultiple
Comparison /
RES$LTS
(easureent o! teperature sensors using digital teroeter #ali0rator 1!tech Thermo
49FAD2 resulted A
2
G 6/7778 and duration tie e3posure using #ali0rator 1Digital Stopwat#h
+nko Sport Tier2 resulted A
2
G1/ $ro these results, all eDuipent had pre#isely easureent
with #ali0rators/
The result o! !irst step showed that had in!luen#e !ro ea#h treatent at at 567 n "urple,
536 n 'lue, 829 n Green and :27 n Aed 4+D in Rhodobacter sphaeroides growth #olonies/
The result o! analyti#s was showed in Ta0le 1/
Ta0le 1/ The result o! Independent Sample T-test !or deterining optiu wa&elength and
adding agneti# !ield/
'a#terial isolates Groups N
The in#reasing o!
growth #olonies 1=2
T,test
(ean SD Signi!i#an#e <on#lusion
Rhodobacter
sphaeroides with
4+D illuination
567 n "urple 8 26,9 5,6
pG6,666
Bad
signi!i#antly
di!!eren#e
829 n Green 8 13,9 2,3
*+, nm Bl&e - .-/0 3,:
:27 n Aed 8 16,: 1,8
2
6 1F,F :,:
Rhodobacter
sphaeroides with
4+D and1,9 T
agneti# e3posure
567 n "urple 8 :1,: :,9
pG6,666
Bad
signi!i#antly
di!!eren#e
829 n Green 8 81,5 8,6
*+, nm Bl&e - 1*/. 11,F
:27 n Aed 8 25,6 2,6
Total
2
6
8F,9 2:,F
"i#ture 1 and 2 showed that per#entage o! potensially in#reased Rhodobacter sphaeroides
#olonies at 4+D illuination in 567 n "urple, 536 n 'lue, 829 n Green and :27 n red
regions with or without adding 19 T agneti# !ield/ $ro the results, These were showed that
536 n 4+D illuination potentially in#reased growth #olonies o! 2:= and a!ter indu#ted with
1,9 T agneti# !ield, the nu0er o! in#reased #olonies o! 75=/ These #ould 0e #on#luded that
wa&elength in 0lue region had sensiti&e a0sor0an#e to 0a#terial photoa#ti&ation/
"i#ture 1/ The graph o! per#entage o! in#reased Rhodobacter sphaeroides #olonies at "urple,
Green, 'lue and Aed regions/
"i#ture 2/ The graph o! per#entage o! in#reased Rhodobacter sphaeroides #olonies at "urple,
Green, 'lue and Aed regions and adding 1,9 agneti# !ield/
The results o! optii;ed energy doses o! 536 n 'lue 4+D and 1,9 T agneti# !ield
were showed that signi!i#ant data with 1p2G6,862 H 16,682/ This eant that per#entage o!
in#reased #olonies had norally distri0utions/ A result o! hoogeneity tests showed 1p2G6,:35 H
16,682 that these were hoogen/ A result o! Ano&a !a#torial tests showed that signi!i#ant le&el
1p2G6/666 I 16,682 ha&ing eaning that intensity !a#tors, tie durations !a#tors and 0oth o!
the had signi!i#antly di!!eren#e in growth #olonies/ A suary o! result o! statisti# tests was
showed in Ta0le 2/
Ta0le 2/ The result o! Statisti# tests !ro optii;ed energy doses o! 'lue 4+D illuination and
adding 1,9 T agneti# !ield in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 0a#teria/
$a#tors Groups N
The )n#reased
growth o!
#olonies 1=2
Ano&a
(ean SD signi!i#ant <on#lusion
)ntensity
28 W>#
2

1a2
3 85,6 12,8
pG6,666
Bad
signi!i#antly
di!!eren#es
5: W>#
2

102
3 F:,2 26,1
:9 W>#
2 1#2
3 78,3 1:,F
73 W>#
2

102
3 73,3 16,:
Total 12 F7,7 22,5
Tie
26 inutes
1a2
3 :2,7 8,5
pG6,666
Bad
signi!i#antly
di!!eren#es
36 inutes
102
3 F9,3 7,F
56 inutes
1#2
3 99,1 8,9
86 inutes
1#2
3 97,5 8,5
Total 12 F7,F 7,:
)ntera#ts
28 W>#
2
26 inutes
1a2
3 52,F 7,3
pG6,666
Bad
signi!i#antly
di!!erren#es
28 W>#
2
36 inutes
1a2
3 5:,3 F,8
5: W>#
2
26 inutes
1a2
3 57,6 8,6
28 W>#
2
56 inutes
1a02
3 8:,F 1,9
5: W>#
2
36 inutes
10#2
3 :7,6 8,:
28 W>#
2
86 inutes
10#2
3 F6,3 2,6
:9 W>#
2
26 inutes
10#2
3 F6,F 5,6
73 W>#
2
86 inutes
1#d2
3 96,6 3,:
73 W>#
2
26 inutes
1de2
3 97,3 8,8
5: W>#
2
56 inutes
1de!2
3 76,3 :,6
:9 W>#
2
36 inutes
1de!2
3 73,3 5,8
5: W>#
2
86 inutes
1!gh2
3 7:,3 :,F
73 W>#
2
56 inutes
1!gh2
3 77,3 5,1
73 W>#
2
36 inutes
1!gh2
3 165,F 5,8
:9 W>#
2
56 inutes
1gh2
3 16:,6 3,:
:9 W>#
2
86 inutes
1h2
3 111,6 8,:
Total 59 F7,F 22,5
A "i#ture 3 showed that the graph o! per#entage o! 0a#terial #olony growth at &arious o!
intensity and tie duration in 4+D,agneti# e3posure/ )n lowly energy doses showed that
in#reasing in per#entage o! 0a#terial #olony growths, 0ut a0o&e energy doses o! 265 ?>#
2
showed that de#reasing in per#entage o! 0a#terial #olony growths/ The 536 'lue 4+D and 1,9 T
agneti# e3posure had optiu per#entage o! 0a#terial #olony growth o! 111= in intensity o! :9
W and 86 inutes tie duration 1energy dose o! 265 ?>#
2
2/
"i#ture 3/ The Graph o! per#entage o! 0a#terial in#reased #olony at &arious energy doses 536
'lue 4+D and 1,9 T agneti# !ield e3posure
D!S$SS!#"
Rhodobacter sphaeroides 1Rba sphaeroides2 0a#teria is one o! photosyntheti# 0a#teria
whi#h ena0le to per!or #on&erted energy !or their growth and de&elopent 1Eeregilio and
?oliot, 17772/ These 0a#teria ha&ing e0ran syste due to in&igilate #ytoplas e0ranes,
#an 0e li&ed in aero0 or anaero0 and #an do photosyntheti# or !erentations/ They are also #an do
nitrogen and #ar0ohydrates !i3ations and tetrapyrrole, #hlorophylls, hee and '12 &itain
syntheti#s 1(a#ken;ie, 17772/
A light sour#e using in this study was 4ight +itting Diode 14+D2/ 4+D is a
sei#ondu#tor de&i#e whi#h e!!e#ti&ely #on&ert ele#tri#al energy to light with spe#tral width o!
16 n and #an 0e odulated at high speed 1Aoss, 17F72/ 4+D produ#es light with &arious #olors/
4ight spe#tru eitted 0y 4+D depends on #oposition and Duality o! sei#ondu#tors, su#h as
in!rared, &isi0le light and ultra&iolet 1S#hu0ert, 266:2/ 4+D has 0ene!its to produ#e less heat so it
#annot #ause daage on deris layers 1Karu, 26632/
The photosyntheti# apparatus ha&e iportant three transe0ran protein #ople3es-
antena or light har&esting #ople3es, rea#tion #enter and #yto#hroe 1Eeregilio and ?oliot,
17772/ The light,har&esting #ople3es 0ind #arotenoid and 0a#terio#hlorophyll !or light #apturer/
$ro result to "i#ture 1, pigents in A0a Sphaeroides ha&e potentially a0sor0 in 0lue wa&elength
regions/ This is supported with <arotenoid is highly e!!i#ient to a0sor0 light at 0lue and green
wa&elength 1586,886 n2, 0ut has a3iu Soret a0sor0an#e a0out 566n region 1(a#pherson
et al, 26612/ 'ut other wa&elength #an 0e a0sor0 0y pigents whi#h are 0a#terio#hlorophylls/
The 0a#terio#horopylls ha&e Soret,0and in :66,766 n 1"apagiannakis 126622 and Tsukatani et al
1261222/
The Stru#ture o! pigent,produ#ing purple 0a#teria #onsists o! rea#tion #enter, light
har&esting, #yto#hroe '<1 and Adenosin triphosphates #ople3s 1AT"ase2/ The ain pigent
o! Rhodobacter sphaeroides 0a#teria are 0a#teri#hlorophyll 1'<hl2 and #arotenoid, 0oth ha&e
iportant role in photosyntheti# pro#ess/ The '<hl is related to proteins to !or ole#ular
#ople3s a0out 86,366 ole#ules/ '<hl is #losely agnesiu porphyrins ha&ing ore saturated
tetrapyrrole rings/ This porphyrin #auses '<hl to a0sor0 in near in!rared wa&elength regions,
with a0sor0an#e spe#tra #hara#teristi;ed 0y #on*ugated ele#tron syste o! a#ro#y#le 1?ones,
26122/
'<hl has priary role as light har&estings tered on two !ors, e/g/ !irst light har&esting
14B12 and se#ond light har&esting 14B22 and as #harge separation tered on rea#tion #enter
1A<2 1"apagiannakis et al, 26622/ Aea#tion #enter is #oprised 0y three polypeptide su0units
4,( and B !or 0inding rea#tion #enter #ople3/ Aea#tion #enter #ople3 #onsist o! !our
0a#terio#hlorophylls, 0a#teriopheophytin, se&eral Duinons and #arotenoid/ AT" syntheti# is
o##urred due to ha&e proton oti&e !or#e as ele#tron !low and AT"ase a#ti&ity/ This ele#tron !low
has #ir#ular !or, so #alled phosphorylation #yli#es 1Sturgis and Niederan, 26692/
"hotosynthesis is 0egun with light a0sorption 0y pigents/ (ain pigents are #arotenoid
and 0a#terio#hloropyll, #orresponden#e with wa&elength a0sorption/ When #arotenoid a0sor0s
light 1photons2, #arotenoid in ground singlet states, will 0e e3perien#e to e3#ited singlet states/
(ole#ules in e3#ited state tend to 0a#k in ground state with trans!er energy 1ele#trons donor,
a##eptor2 #arotenoid trans!er energy soon to 0a#terio#hlorophyll !or photosynthesis &ia singlet-
singlet energy trans"er 1(a#pherson et al, 26612/ When 0a#terio#hlorophyll a0sor0s photon, like
#arotenoid, #an e3perien#e to e3#ited singlet state/ )! 0a#terio#hlorophyll a0sor0s ore photons,
#an e3perien#e to triplet states &ia intersyste #rossing 1)S<2/ "ro0a0ilities o! )S< #an in#rease i!
there are o&erlapping 0etween e3#ited singlet and triplet states 1Borie et al/, 26662/
'a#terio#hlorophyll in triplet state #an trans!er energy to #arotenoid &ia triplet-triplet energy
trans"er/ <arotenoid in triplet states will release this energy to en&ironent as heat, so #arotenoid
that ha&e !un#tions as photoprote#tions, singlet o3ygen s#a&enging, e3#ess energy dissipations
and stru#ture sta0ili;ation and asse0ly 1$rank et al, 177F2/ As the result, alternati&e light,
har&esting pigents is &ia #arotenoid 0e#ause trans!er energy are done &ia singlet,singlet trans!er
energy 1"apagiannakis et al, 26622/
4ight #an also a#ti&e en;yes !or hydrogen eta0olis/ These en;yes are nitrogenase,
hydrogenase on e0ran and a solu0le hydrogenase/ These en;yes #ataly;e hydrogen whi#h is
used !or redu#tants to photosynthesis and respiratory ele#tron #hain and suita0le ele#tron donor,
a##eptor 1Sasikala et al, 17762/ This pro#ess also depends on wa&elength to a#ti&e the 1Nogi et
al, 17952/ As a result, #olony growth in#rease in 536 n or 0lue region, whi#h are this region #an
a#ti&e these en;yes/ 'asak and Das ha&e ade a #lassi!i#ation !or hydrogen produ#tion, that
nitrogenase en;ye in Rba sphaeroides has ore roles than hydrogenase 1'asak and Das, 266:2/
When #ataly;ed 0y nitrogenase o##urs redu#ing power and AT"/ 'oth redu#ing power and AT"
are generated on #y#li# photophosphorylation with light as a priary sour#e o! energy and
su0strates as sour#es ele#tron 1Nogi et al, 17952/
This study also used agneti# !ield e3posure/ (agneti# !ield will #ause energy
distri0ution &ia @eean e!!e#t or hyper!ine #oupling/ This pro#ess will gi&e in#reasing o!
pro0a0ilities !or ele#tron donor,a##eptor in photosynthesis/ As a result, gi&en 1,9 T agneti#
!ield #an in#rease #olony growth o! 75= in 0lue region/ (agneti# !ield ha&e pro0a0ilities to
#ause daage 1stress #ell2 0ut also a#ti&e A4A dehydratase 1A4AD2 genes/ A4AD is key en;ye
!or porphyrin 0ioshythesis 1Sasaki et al, 26622/
$or deterining a3iu eta0olis as growth stiulator, this study used energy
doses/ )ntensity light has ain in!luen#e !ro eta0olis or 0iosynthesis pro#ess/ As a result,
A0a sphaeroides #olony growth in#rease 111= in a3iu energy dose o! 266 ?>#
2
/ C&er
energy dose o! 266 ?>#
2
e3perien#e to de#rease 0e#ause ore energy will ha&e pro0a0ilities to
#ause daages/
#"L$S!#"S
As 0rie!ly des#ri0ed in this arti#le, the resear#h results indi#ate that in 536 n 0lue 4+D
illuination has potentially in#rease the nu0er o! Rhodobacter sphaeroides growth #olonies at
2:= and in#rease to 75= 0y the addition o! 1/9 T agneti# !ield e3posure/ Aesults o! e3posure
optii;ation in 536 n 0lue 4+D and 1/9 T agneti# !ield shows the per#entage o!
Rhodococcus growth 0y 111= in the intensity o! :9 W>#
2
and 86 inutes duration tie
e3posure 1energy dose 265 ?>#
2
2/
A2"#3LED(ME"T
The authors grate!ully a#knowledge the grant resear#h !ron and #ontri0utions o! the students,
#olleagues and #olla0orators who helped #arry out this resear#h and who are listed as authors o!
the #ited re!eren#es/ This work was supported 0y grants !ro the General o! )ndonesia Bigher
+du#ation
B!L!#(RAP45
J1K 'lankenship Ao0ert +/, (adigan (i#hael T/ and 'auer <arl +/ 126652/ Ano3ygeni#
"hotosyntheti# 'a#teria Eolue 2 Ad&an#e in "hotosyntheti#/ Kluwer A#adei#
"u0lishers
J2K Sasaki Ken, Watana0e (asanori, Suda Loshito, )shi;uka Akihiro, and Noparatnaraporn
Napa&arn 126682/ Appli#ations o! "hotosyntheti# 'a#teria !or (edi#al $ields/ ?C%ANA4
C$ ')CS<)+N<+ AND ')C+NG)N++A)NG Eol/166, No/8, 591,599
J3K Tangprasittipap Aornrat and "rasertsan "oonsuk 126622/ 8,ainole&ulini# a#id !ro
photosyntheti# 0a#teria and its appli#ations/ Songklaakarin ?/ S#i/ Te#hnol/, 25152- F1F,
F28
J5K @appa Se0astien, 4i Keran and 'auer <arl + 126162/The Tetrapyrrole 'iosyntheti# "athway
and its Aegulation in Ahodo0a#ter #apsulatus/ Springer
J8K (a#pherson, Alisdair/ N, Arellano ?uan ', $raser Niall ?/ <ogdell Ai#hard ?, Gill0ro Toas/
126612/ +!!i#ient +nergy Trans!er !ro the <aretonoid S2 State in a "hotosyntheti# 4ight,
Bar&esting <ople3/ 'iophysi#al ?ournal, , 96- 723,736
JFK Gust D/, (oore T/A/, (oor A/4/, (ii#king 0akteri !otosynthesis, Pure # !plication
Chemistry, 1779, F61112-2197,2266
J9K Sasaki k/, Watana0e (/, Tanaka T/, 2662/ 'iosynthesis, 0iote#hnologi#al, produ#tion and
appli#ation o! 8,aminolevulinic acid, !ppl$ icrobiology %iotechnology, , 89-23,27
J7K(a#ken;ie, </, (ultiple <hroosoe in 'a#teria- The Lin and Lang o! trp Gene 4o#ali;ation
in Ahodo0a#ter sphaeroides/ &eneticsM 1777, 183122- 828,839
J16K ?ones (/, %akteri Photosynthesis, departent o! 'io#heistry S#hool o! (edi#al S#ien#es
%ni&ersity o! 'ristol %nited Kingdo, 2612,
J11K"apagiannakis, +/, NAn Alternati&e <arotenoid to 'a#terio#hlorophyll +nergy Trans!er
"athway in "hotosyntheti# 4ight Bar&esting,O "NAS, 2662, 77172-:61F,:622
J12K Sturgis, ?/N/ and Niederan, A/A/, Atoi# !or#e i#ros#opy re&eals ultiple patterns o!
antenna organi;ation in purple 0a#teria- ipli#ations !or energy transdu#tion e#haniss
and e0rane odeling/ Photosynth$ Res$ 2669, 78, 2:7,2F9
J13K Aoss, D/A/, 'ptoelectronic (evices and 'ptical Imaging Techni)ues, The (a#illan "ress
4td, 17F7, pp/11,17
J15K S#hu0ert +/$/, *ight +mitting (iodes, 2
nd
ed/, <a0ridge %ni&ersity "ress, %SA, 266:,
J18K Karu, Tiina, *o, Po,er *aser Therapy <A< "ress 44<- New Lork, 2663,
J1:KBorie, K/, %shiki, B/, Winnik, $/(/, (ole#ular "ghotoni# $undaentals and "ra#ti#al
Aspe#ts, Wiley E<B, 2666
Sasaki Ken, Watana0e (asanori, Suda Loshito, )shi;uka Akihiro, and Noparatnaraporn
Napa&arn/ 2668/ Appli#ations o! "hotosyntheti# 'a#teria !or (edi#al $ields/ ?C%ANA4
C$ ')CS<)+N<+ AND ')C+NG)N++A)NG Eol/166, No/8, 591,599
Eereglio Andre and ?oliot "ierre 117772/ The photosyntheti# apparatus o! Ahodo0a#ter
sphaeroides/ Trens in (i#ro0iology &ol/F no/11 +lse&ier S#ien#e/
Tsukatani Lusuke, Laaoto Baruki, Barada ?iro, Lashitoi Tai#hi, Noata ?iro, Kosahara
(asahiro, (i;ogu#hi Tadashi, $u*ita Lui#hi and Taiaki Bitoshi 126122/ AN
une3pe#tedly 0ran#hed 0iosyntheti# pathway 0a#terio#hlorophyll 0 #apa0le o! a0sor0ing
near,in!rared light/ S<)+NT)$)< A+"CATS
$rank Barry A, <hynwat Eeerade*, Desaero Auel @ ', $arhoosh Aoya, +ri#kson ?oy and
'autista ?aes 1177F2/ Cn the photophysi#s and photo#hei#al properties o! #arotenoid
and their role as light,har&esting pigents in photosynthesis/ "ure P Appl/ <he/, Eol/
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Nogi Lui#hi, Aki0a Teruhiko, and Borikoshi Koki 117952/ Wa&elength Dependen#e o!
"hotoprodu#tion o! Bydrogen 0y Rhodopseudomonas rutile/ Agri#, 'iol, <he, 57112,
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Sasikala K, Aaana <B E and Aao " Aaghu&eer 117762/ "hotoprodu#tion o! Bydrogen 0y
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'asak Nitai and Das De0a0rata 1266:2/ The prospe#t o! purple non,sul!ur 1"NS2 photosyntheti#
0a#teria !or hydrogen produ#tion- the present state o! the art/ Springer S#ienseQ'usiness
(edia/