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L.K. Thomas, SPE, B.J. Todd, C.E. Evans, and R.G. Pierson, SPE, Phillips Petroleum Co.

Summary

This paper presents the calculation of near-wellbore skin and

non-Darcy flow coefficient for horizontal wells based on whether

the well is drilled in an underbalanced or overbalanced condition,

whether the well is completed openhole, with a slotted liner, or

cased, and on the number of shots per foot and phasing for cased

wells. The inclusion of mechanical skin and the non-Darcy flow

coefficient in previously published horizontal well equations is

presented and a comparison between these equations is given. In

addition, both analytical and numerical solutions for horizontal

wells with skin and non-Darcy flow are presented for comparison.

Introduction

Since the start of this decade, there has been a large increase in the

number of horizontal wells drilled worldwide. In the United States

and Canada alone more than 10,000 horizontal wells have been

drilled since 1990.

1

Advantages of horizontal wells over vertical

wells for specific reservoirs include increased productivity, im-

proved sweep efficiency, reduced coning of water and gas, and

increased drainage areas.

2

This latter advantage is of particular

importance in fractured reservoirs such as the Austin chalk, where

horizontal wells are drilled perpendicular to the predominate frac-

ture trend.

As a result of the success of improved and accelerated recovery

with horizontal wells, there is a continual effort in the industry

today to minimize the cost of drilling and completing horizontal

wells. Drilling technology has steadily advanced in terms of geo-

steering to the point where most objectives can be met.

3

For long

wells in which steering may be a problem, opposing dual laterals

are being used.

1

Stacked laterals are being used in formations with

extremely low vertical permeability between major pay zones.

Coiled tubing is routinely being used to drill multilaterals from

existing wells in mature reservoirs.

Considerable effort is currently being expended to lower the cost

of horizontal wells by developing technology and methods to

minimize near-wellbore damage during drilling and completion

operations. This is extremely important because of the increased

difficulties in the cleanup of openhole horizontal wells with or

without prepacked screens and the increased expense of stimulating

cased hole wells. Both overbalanced and underbalanced drilling

and completion techniques are being used, and improved results are

being reported in both areas.

4-6

During the past decade, several analytical solutions have been

developed for predicting the pressure and rate performance of

horizontal wells. Both transient and pseudosteady-state solutions

have been presented, and well test procedures for determining

reservoir properties, anisotropy, and near wellbore skin have been

described.

7-22

Some authors have developed solutions assuming the

horizontal well is analogous to a vertical well with a vertical

fracture, whereas other authors have developed solutions from first

principles for a well drilled in the horizontal direction. All of these

solutions have assumed that skin is known or can be measured from

well test data.

This paper presents the calculation of near-wellbore skin and

non-Darcy flow coefficient for horizontal wells based on assumed

values of near-wellbore damage depending on howwells are drilled

and completed. In particular, the effects of drilling overbalanced vs.

underbalanced and completing openhole with or without a slotted

liner or cased hole on near-wellbore skin are discussed. The

inclusion of mechanical skin and the non-Darcy flow coefficient in

previously published horizontal well equations is presented and a

comparison of these equations is given. Both analytical and nu-

merical solutions for horizontal wells with skin and non-Darcy flow

are presented for comparison. Special attention is required for field

simulations to assure accurate solutions.

Near-Wellbore Effects in Horizontal Wells

Wellbore skin results from a zone of reduced permeability near the

wellbore caused by drilling and completion fluid invasion. Tradi-

tional formulations of wellbore skin assume radial flow into a vertical

wellbore, and must be transformed to apply to horizontal wells.

In this development, horizontal well equations are based on the

reservoir geometry shown in Fig. 1. The horizontal wellbore is

oriented with the x axis, and is of length L. Formation permeability

is described by the permeability components k

x

, k

y

, and k

z

. The

average permeability, k, is taken to be the geometric mean of the

two permeability components that are perpendicular to the direction

of the well.

Mechanical Skin Factor. Laminar skin for a horizontal well can

be expressed as the sum of perforation geometry skin, the skin

caused by the damaged zone, and skin caused by the crushed zone

surrounding the perforations.

23, 24

s s

p

s

d

s

dp

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1)

Equivalent skin caused by partial penetration, location within the

drainage volume, and deviation from the horizontal plane are all

included in the semianalytical solution.

Perforation geometry skin is usually small. Values for this skin

have been tabulated as a function of perforation frequency, diam-

eter, length, and phase angle.

25

Skin resulting from drilling mud invasion, Fig. 2, can be calcu-

lated as a function of the radius and permeability of the damaged

zone.

26

s

d

k

k

d

1.0

ln

r

d

r

w

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2)

Permeability of the damaged zone may be as small as 10% of the

reservoir permeability when drilling substantially over pressured

and may extend as much as 2 or 3 ft into the formation.

23

Skin for the crushed and compacted zone is calculated from the

following equation.

s

dp

L

L

p

n

p

ln

r

dp

r

p

k

k

dp

k

k

d

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (3)

The compacted zone around each perforation in a well consolidated

formation has a thickness of about 0.5 in.

27, 28

The permeability of

this zone varies from 10 to 25% of the permeability in the radial

damaged zone surrounding the well. Use of a dirty perforating fluid

can reduce this factor even further.

Non-Darcy Flow. Non-Darcy pressure losses occur primarily in

the region near the wellbore where fluid velocities are high. The

non-Darcy flow coefficient for a horizontal well is composed of

three components accounting for flow through the compacted zone,

damaged zone, and near-well reservoir rock.

24

D 2.2210

15

kL

g

dp

n

p

2

L

p

2

1

r

p

1

r

dp

d

L

2

1

r

w

1

r

d

L

2

1

r

d

1

r

e

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (4)

Copyright 1998 Society of Petroleum Engineers

This paper (SPE 51396) was revised for publication from paper SPE 36753, first

presented at the 1996 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,

Colorado, 69 October. Original manuscript received for review 24 October 1996.

Revised manuscript received 23 October 1997. Paper peer approved 7 July 1998.

392 SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, October 1998

The turbulence factor, , is calculated as a function of permeability

with the equation developed by Firoozabadi and Katz,

29

2.610

10

/k

1.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (5)

For multiphase flow, D is calculated for each phase as a function

of k

r

k with the corresponding phase effective permeability in

Eq. 5.

Example Skin Calculations

The effects of various drilling and completion parameters on

near-wellbore skin and non-Darcy flow coefficient in a horizontal

well are illustrated next. In each example, the wellbore radius, r

w

,

is assumed to be 0.25 ft. The damaged zone permeability for wells

drilled in an overbalanced condition is assumed to be 10% of the

permeability perpendicular to the well, and the crushed zone

permeability for perforated wells is assumed to be 10% of the

damaged zone permeability.

Overbalanced Drilling. Near-wellbore skin for a horizontal well

completed openhole or with a slotted liner is a function of the radius

of the damaged zone and the reduced permeability in this region.

Fig. 3 shows skin vs. damaged zone thickness, which is defined as

the difference between the damaged zone radius, r

d

, and wellbore

radius, r

w

. Note that positive skin values as high as 15 to 25 can be

expected even for openhole completions when overbalanced drill-

ing results in a damaged zone permeability equal to 10% of the

formation permeability. Extreme overbalanced drilling can result in

even larger positive skin values.

For a cased hole completion, the thickness of the damaged zone,

the perforation crushed zone permeability, and perforation length

are the primary parameters that effect near-wellbore skin. Figs. 4

through 6 present values of skin vs. effective perforation length

with the number of shots per foot (SPF) as a parameter for damaged

zone thicknesses of 6, 12, and 18 in., respectively. These results

illustrate the high skins that can be expected when perforation

length is less than or equal to the damaged zone thickness. Con-

versely, note the marked drop in calculated skin values in Figs. 4

and 5 when perforation length is extended beyond the damage zone

thickness of 6 and 12 in., respectively.

Underbalanced Drilling. Mechanical skin for a horizontal well

drilled underbalanced and completed openhole or with a slotted

liner should be near zero. Flow through a slotted liner will add a

small positive skin.

30

Fig. 1Geometry of horizontal well examples.

Fig. 2Perforation geometry.

Fig. 3Openhole completion, skin vs. r

d

r

w

.

Fig. 4Overbalancedskin vs. L

p

, r

d

r

w

6.

393 SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, October 1998

For a cased hole well drilled and completed at underbalanced

conditions, skin will primarily be a function of perforation length

and the SPF. Fig. 7 presents skin calculations for this case as a

function of perforated length and SPF. Note that positive skins as

high as 25 can result when short perforation lengths (6 in.) and one

SPF are used.

Inclusion of Mechanical Skin in Horizontal Well

Models

The equations for skin and non-Darcy flow coefficient developed

in the previous section of this paper are general and apply to the well

length, L, where near-wellbore effects occur. Implementation of

these terms into different wellbore models results in different

multiplying factors on the skin and non-Darcy flow terms depend-

ing upon how a particular well model was derived. This approach

is different from the treatment for vertical wells

24

in which the

effect of partial penetration on near-wellbore skin is included within

the s and D terms.

Mutalik-Godbole-Joshi Horizontal Well Equation. Mutalik et

al.

9

and Joshi

18

presented the following equation for pseudosteady-

state flow from a horizontal well.

q

2khP

Blnr

e

/r

w

0.738 s

f

s

CA,h

c

. . . . . . . . . . . . (6)

This equation was developed from the solution for a fully pene-

trating infinite conductivity vertical fracture. Consequently, the

permeability in the numerator is the horizontal permeability, [i.e.,

(k

x

k

y

)

1/ 2

]. We want to add a simple mechanical skin term and a

non-Darcy flow term to the denominator of this equation to model

near-wellbore damage and turbulent flow effects. The equation for

pressure drop caused by laminar mechanical skin can be written

as

31

P

s

qB

2kL

s, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (7)

where L the length of the completed interval and s the

mechanical skin. This equation may be modified to include the

rate-dependent component of skin by adding the non-Darcy flow

component Dq:

P

s

qB

2kL

s Dq. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (8)

Rearranging Eq. 6 in terms of pressure drop and expressing the

permeability in terms of the x and y components gives

P

no skin

qBlnr

e

/r

w

0.738 s

f

s

CA,h

c

2k

x

k

y

h

. . . . . . (9)

Adding the pressure drops in Eqs. 8 and 9 to get the total pressure

drop gives

P

total

qBlnr

e

/r

w

0.738 s

f

s

CA,h

c

2k

x

k

y

h

qB

2kL

s Dq. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (10)

Because the permeability in the skin multiplier is the perme-

ability in the direction perpendicular to the well, the term (k

y

k

z

)

1/ 2

Fig. 5Overbalancedskin vs. L

p

, r

d

r

w

12.

Fig. 6Overbalancedskin vs. L

p

, r

d

r

w

18.

Fig. 7Underbalancedskin vs. L

p

, r

d

r

w

0.

394 SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, October 1998

can be substituted for k. Rearranging and factoring like terms gives

P

total

qB

2

lnr

e

/r

w

0.738 s

f

s

CA,h

c

2k

x

k

y

h

1

k

y

k

z

L

s Dq

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (11)

Multiplying the skin term by (hk

x

1/ 2

)/(hk

x

1/ 2

) and factoring out the

permeability terms yields

P

total

qB

2k

x

k

y

h

ln

r

e

r

w

0.738 s

f

s

CA,h

c

k

x

h

k

z

L

s Dq

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (12)

Rearranging Eq. 12 then gives

q

2k

x

k

y

hP

Blnr

e

/r

w

0.738 s

f

s

CA,h

c k

x

h/ k

z

Ls Dq

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (13)

Babu-Odeh Horizontal Well Equation. Following a similar anal-

ysis, a laminar/turbulent skin term may be added to the Babu and

Odeh

10, 13

horizontal well equation, which was developed by turn-

ing the classical vertical well solution on its side and accounting for

the resulting geometry. Babu and Odeh present the following

equation for horizontal well productivity.

q

2x

e

k

y

k

z

P

Bln A

1

/r

w

lnC

H

0.75 s

R

. . . . . . . . . . . . (14)

Expressed in terms of pressure drop, the equation becomes

P

no skin

qBln A

1

/r

w

lnC

H

0.75 s

R

2x

e

k

y

k

z

. . . . . . (15)

Adding the pressure drops from Eqs. 8 and 15 gives

P

total

qBln A

1

/r

w

lnC

H

0.75 s

R

2x

e

k

y

k

z

qB

2kL

s Dq. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (16)

Combining like terms and rearranging gives

P

total

qB

2

ln A

1

/r

w

lnC

H

0.75 s

R

x

e

k

y

k

z

1

kL

s Dq

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (17)

Because the permeability in the skin multiplier is the perm in the

direction perpendicular to the well, the term (k

y

k

z

)

1/ 2

can be

substituted for k. This gives the expression

P

total

qB

2k

y

k

z

ln A

1

/r

w

lnC

H

0.75 s

R

x

e

1

L

s Dq

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (18)

Multiplying the skin term by x

e

/x

e

and rearranging gives

P

total

qB

2k

y

k

z

x

e

ln

A

1

r

w

lnC

H

0.75 s

R

x

e

L

s Dq

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (19)

Rearranging Eq. 19 gives

q

2x

e

k

y

k

z

P

Bln A

1

/r

w

lnC

H

0.75 s

R

x

e

/Ls Dq

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (20)

Note that the skin term multiplier in Eq. 20 is x

e

/L, which goes

to 1.0 for a well that fully penetrates the reservoir in the x

dimension. This makes the skin multiplier analogous to a partial

penetration skin. However, the skin multiplier in Eq. 13 (Ref. 9) is

(k

x

1/ 2

h)/(k

z

1/ 2

L), which is usually less than 1.0 for practical appli-

cations. The difference in the terms results because the Babu-Odeh

equation is essentially a radial flow equation turned on its side,

whereas the Mutalik equation is analogous to an infinite conduc-

tivity vertical fracture equation.

Economides-Brand-Frick Horizontal Well Equation. Econo-

mides et al.

20

developed their solution for flow into a horizontal

well by using a semianalytical method. An instantaneous point

source analytical solution is integrated numerically in time and

space to give constant flux solutions for a horizontal well located

anywhere in the drainage volume of a uniformly heterogeneous

reservoir with permeability anisotropy k

x

, k

y

, and k

z

in the x, y, and

z directions. These solutions are then used to numerically calculate

constant pressure solutions. Their solution for flow rate as a

function of dimensionless pressure, p

d

, is general and can be used

for both early time transient and pseudosteady-state calculations.

q

k2x

e

p p

wf

877.22Bp

d

x

e

/Ls Dq

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (21)

At pseudosteady-state, p

d

can be calculated from a horizontal

shape factor, C

h

, and a vertical skin effect, s

x

after Kuchuk,

15, 21

p

D

x

e

C

h

4h

x

e

2L

s

x

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (22)

and s

x

ln

h

2r

w

h

6L

s

e

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (23)

The term, s

e

, accounts for eccentricity in the vertical direction,

s

e

h

L

2z

w

h

1

2

2z

w

h

2

1

2

ln

sin

z

w

h

. . . . . . . . . . (24)

Transformations introduced by Besson

14

are applied to space

dimensions in the previous equations to account for anisotropy.

Values of C

h

vs. x

e

/y

e

and L/x

e

for common configurations are

given in the appendix of Ref. 20.

Comparison of Horizontal Well Models

A comparison of the three horizontal well models presented here

was made for a 2,000-ft-long horizontal well located in the center

of a 4,000 4,000 50-ft drainage volume (Fig. 1). The skin for

the well was assumed to be a constant value equal to 50. The ratio

of vertical to horizontal permeability was equal to 0.1, and k

x

was

assumed to be equal to k

y

. Table 1 gives other data for this example.

Fig. 8 presents the production forecasts for each model assuming

an initial oil rate of 2,500 STB/D and a minimum bottomhole

pressure of 1,800 psig. Results from a fine grid model are also

included for comparison. The productivity indices for well com-

pletion cells in the fine grid model were calculated from the

following equation for well block radius, r

0

, by Peaceman.

32

J

o

2kh

B

o

o

lnr

0

/r

w

s Dq

, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (25)

where

r

0

0.28k

z

/k

y

1/ 2

y

2

k

y

/k

z

1/ 2

z

2

1/ 2

k

z

/k

y

1/4

k

y

/k

z

1/4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . (26)

395 SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, October 1998

Essentially identical results were obtained between each of the

analytical models and the fine grid model.

Production Forecasting

Aseries of oil and gas production forecasts were made by using fine

grid simulation to show the effect of near-wellbore damage and

mechanical skin on production rate vs. time. SPF were varied while

holding perforation length and damaged zone thickness constant at

12 in. Tables 1, 2, and 3 present data for these runs.

Oil Forecasts. Fig. 9 presents results for oil production forecasts

assuming 1, 2, and 4 SPF, as well as those for a horizontal and

vertical well drilled and completed underbalanced and openhole,

s 0. A constant oil rate of 2,500 STB/D is maintained for the

openhole horizontal well for 1.75 years compared to progressively

smaller times for 4 and 2 SPF whereas the case with 1 SPF is

initially on decline and has a rate less than the openhole vertical

well.

Two additional oil cases were run to illustrate the effect of partial

cleanup or completion along the well. The first run was made

assuming 50% completion with alternating 200-ft sections com-

pleted along the wellbore with zero skin. The second run assumed

that only 20% of the well was effectively completed at the heel of

the well. Results for these two runs are compared with the openhole

horizontal well run in Fig. 10. Little difference is observed between

the 50% and totally completed well. The case with the 20%

completion, however, goes on decline much earlier, as expected,

and has a production profile similar to the damaged well described

previously with 2 SPF.

Gas Forecasts. Fig. 11 presents gas production forecasts. Here,

the constant rate period for the zero skin or openhole completion

case is approximately three times as long as that for the cased hole

well with 4 SPF. Skin and non-Darcy flowcoefficient for the 4-SPF

case were 36 and 0.00041, respectively. The rate dependent skin,

Dq

g

, during the constant rate period is equal to 8, which gives

an apparent skin of 44. The initial apparent skin for the 2-SPF

case was 92.

TABLE 1OIL PRODUCTION FORECAST EXAMPLE

Reservoir pressure, psia 8,000

Bubble point, psia 1,786

Bottomhole pressure, psia 1,815

Permeability, md 10

k

r

/k

h

0.1

Irreducible water saturation 0.2

Formation height, ft 50

Drainage dimensions, X

e

, Y

e

, ft 4000

Well length, ft 2000

Oil formation volume factor at p

b

1.290

Oil viscosity at p

b

0.631

Slope of 1/B

o

above p

b

0.0000092

Slope of

o

above p

b

0.0000559

Formation compressibility 0.0000035

Water compressibility 0.0000035

Fig. 8Companson of fine grid and single cell simulations.

TABLE 2GAS PRODUCTION FORECAST EXAMPLE

Reservoir pressure, psia 8,000

Bottomhole pressure, psia 1,115

Permeability, md 1

k

r

/k

h

0.1

Irreducible water saturation 0.2

Formation height, ft 50

Drainage dimensions, X

e

, Y

e

, ft 4,000

Well length, ft 2,000

g

0.635

Formation compressibility 0.0000030

Water compressibility 0.0000035

Reservoir temperature, F 245

TABLE 3PRODUCTION FORECAST EXAMPLES

Shots per

Foot Skin

Non-Darcy Flow Coefficient

Oil (STB/D) Gas (Mcf/D)

1 113 0.000709 0.00620

2 61 0.000179 0.00157

4 36 0.000047 0.00041

Fig. 9Oil forecast example.

396 SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, October 1998

The 2-SPF case with near-wellbore damage gives a production

profile essentially the same as a fully penetrating vertical well with

zero skin, whereas the 1-SPF case has an initial rate approximately

half that of the vertical well.

Multifrac Forecast. An extended reach, multifrac horizontal oil

well case was run to illustrate expected results from this type of

stimulation and to provide a comparison with an equivalent length

horizontal well with either a zero skin or a skin equal to 50. Here,

a 5,000-ft-long well in the center of a 10,000 5,000 50-ft

drainage volume was used. Initial flow rate was set equal to 3,500

STB/D. All other data are the same as presented in Table 1.

Hydraulic fractures were located at 200-ft intervals along the

well. Each hydraulic fracture was assumed to penetrate the total

formation pay and have a total length of 100-ft symmetrically

located around the well.

Fig. 12 shows the results for these three runs. The constant rate

period for the multifrac case is approximately 3.7 years compared

to 3.5 years for the horizontal well with zero skin. The horizontal

well with a skin of 50, however, goes on decline in less than one

year of production and produces considerably less oil during the

first 5 years of production compared with the other two runs.

Discussion

Both semianalytical material balance forecasts and fine grid sim-

ulation runs were presented in this paper to illustrate inflow

performance for horizontal wells. Semianalytical forecasts are

useful in making initial screening calculations. Reservoir simula-

tion is used for final design calculations and for more complex

reservoir and multiphase flow (coning) problems.

All of the fine grid simulation runs presented in this paper were

run both with and without pressure drops calculated in the hori-

zontal section of the well. No noticeable difference was observed

in these results as is the case for many horizontal well forecasts.

33

The effect of wellbore pressure drop is important, however, in

certain cases such as water/oil and gas/oil coning cases where the

drawdown into the well is an important variable in determining

water or gas breakthrough and rate vs. time.

34

The non-Darcy flow coefficient, D, is a function of reciprocal

well length. So, different values of D should be used when running

a semianalytical model such as Babu-Odeh than when running a

reservoir simulation model. For example, if a 2,000-ft-long hori-

zontal well is divided into ten 200-ft-long sections for reservoir

simulation, then the D value for each grid block used in simulation

should be 10 times larger than the value used in the semianalytical

model.

Conclusions

This paper presents equations to calculate near-wellbore skin and

non-Darcy flow coefficients for horizontal wells completed open-

hole, with a slotted liner or cased. The inclusion of mechanical skin

and non-Darcy flow in previously published analytical solutions is

given, and a comparison of results between these analytical models

and reservoir simulation models is presented.

1. Ideally, the skin for an openhole well drilled and completed in

an underbalanced condition is near zero. Skins for an openhole well

drilled in an overbalanced condition can be as high as 15 to 25 when

the damaged zone permeability is 10% of the formation perme-

ability.

2. For a cased hole completion, skin and the non-Darcy flow

coefficient can be substantially higher than values for an openhole

completion because of converging flow through the perforations

and the lower permeability in the crushed zone surrounding the

perforations.

3. Mechanical and rate dependent skin can be substantially

reduced by perforating past the damage zone in a cased well.

4. The difference in productivity of a 50% completed horizontal

well uniformly distributed in alternating sections along the well and

a totally completed well is small.

Fig. 10Partial completion oil forecast example.

Fig. 11Gas forecast example.

Fig. 12Extended reach multifrac oil forecast.

397 SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, October 1998

5. The non-Darcy flow coefficient, D, is a function of reciprocal

well length. This should be kept in mind when applying well test

data in fine grid simulations and semianalytical material balance

calculations.

Nomenclature

A

1

horizontal well drainage area in the Babu-Odeh

model

B formation volume factor, RB/STB

C

h

horizontal shape factor in the Economides model

C

H

horizontal shape factor in the Babu-Odeh model

c horizontal shape factor in the Mutalik model

D non-Darcy flow coefficient, D/Mcf

h reservoir thickness, ft

k absolute permeability, md

L well length, ft

L

p

effective perforation length (see Fig. 2)

n number of shots

p pressure, psia

p average pressure, psia

q

o

oil production rate, STB/D

r radius, ft

r

e

effective drainage radius, ft

s skin

s

f

skin factor of a fully penetrating, infinite conductiv-

ity vertical fracture in the Mutalik model

s

CA,h

shape factor skin in the Mutalik model

s

e

termto account for vertical eccentricity in the Econo-

mides model

s

R

partial penetration skin in the Babu-Odeh model

s

x

vertical skin effect in the Economides model

x

e

extent of drainage area in x-direction, ft

y

e

extent of drainage area in y-direction, ft

z

w

distance of well from middle of reservoir, ft

turbulence factor, 1/ft

gravity (air 1)

viscosity, cp

Subscripts

D dimensionless

d damaged zone

dp compacted zone

e external

g gas

o oil

p perforation

r relative

s skin

w wellbore

x x direction

y y direction

z z direction

Acknowledgments

We thank Phillips Petroleum Co. for permission to publish this

paper.

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SI Metric Conversion Factors

ft 3.048* E01 m

ft

2

9.290 304* E02 m

2

in. 2.54* E00 cm

psi 6.894 757 E00 kPa

*Conversion factors are exact.

SPEREE

L. Kent Thomas is Manager of Engineering Sciences in the

Research and Services Div. of Phillips Petroleum Co. in Bartles-

ville, Oklahoma. He holds a BS degree fromthe U. of Oklahoma

and MS and PhD degrees from the U. of Michigan, all in chem-

ical engineering. He served as Program Chairman for the 1997

SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation and is currently a mem-

ber of the 1999 Program Committee. He was the recipient of

the 1993 Reservoir Engineering Award and has served as a

Distinguished Lecturer. Thomas was elected an SPE Distin-

guishedMember in 1995. Burt J. Toddis asenior research analyst

in the Research and Sciences Div. of Phillips Petroleum Co. He

holds BS and MS degrees in petroleum engineering from Mon-

tana Tech, and a PhD in chemical and petroleum engineering

from the U. of Kansas. His areas of expertise include numerical

modeling of enhanced oil recovery and well stimulation oper-

ations. Clayton E. Evans is a principal reservoir engineer in the

Research and Sciences Div. of Phillips Petroleum Co., where he

has developed and applied petroleum engineering software

since 1979. He holds aBS degree in physics fromthe U. of Rhode

Island, an MS degree in physics from the U. of Missouri, and an

MS degree in petroleum engineering from the U. of Tulsa. Ray

G. Pierson is a senior research computing specialist in the

Research and Services Div. of Phillips Petroleum Co. He holds a

BS degree in mathematics fromSouthwestern Oklahoma State U.

399 SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, October 1998