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WIRELESS

COMMUNICATION
STANDARD
AT THE END OF THIS TOPIC STUDENT SHOULD BE
ABLE TO:
2.1 Define the various types of wireless
communication standard:

a. Global System for Mobile Telecommunication
(GSM)
b. Wide-Band Code Division Multiple Access
(WCDMA)
c. IMT- 2000
d. General Packets Radio Services (GPRS)
e. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution(EDGE)
f. IS-95 and code Division Multiple Access (CDMA
2000)


GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE
TELECOMMUNICATION (GSM)
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications,
originally Groupe Spcial Mobile), is a standard set
developed by the European Telecommunications
Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe protocols for
second generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by
mobile phones.

The GSM standard was developed as a
replacement for first generation (1G) analog
cellular networks, and originally described a
digital, circuit switched network optimized for
full duplex voice telephony.
This was expanded over time to include data
communications, first by circuit switched
transport, then packet data transport via GPRS
(General Packet Radio Services) and EDGE
(Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution or
EGPRS).



ARCHITECTURE DIAGRAM OF GSM NETWORK.


The added components of the GSM architecture
include the functions of the databases and messaging
systems:
Home Location Register (HLR)
Visitor Location Register (VLR)
Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
Authentication Center (AuC)
SMS Serving Center (SMS SC)
Gateway MSC (GMSC)
Chargeback Center (CBC)
Transcoder and Adaptation Unit (TRAU)

FOLLOWING IS THE DIAGRAM OF GSM NETWORK
ALONG WITH ADDED ELEMENTS.

The MS and the BSS communicate across the Um interface, also known as
the air interface or radio link. The BSS communicates with the Network
Service Switching center across the A interface.
GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
In GSM system the mobile handset is called
Mobile Station (MS).
A cell is formed by the coverage area of a Base
Transceiver Station (BTS) which serves the
MS in its coverage area.
Several BTS together are controlled by one Base
Station Controller (BSC).
The BTS and BSC together form Base Station
Subsystem (BSS).
The combined traffic of the mobile stations in
their respective cells is routed through a switch
called Mobile Switching Center (MSC).
In a GSM network, the following areas are defined:
. Cell: Cell is the basic service area: one BTS
covers one cell. Each cell is given a Cell Global
Identity (CGI), a number that uniquely identifies
the cell.
. Location Area: A group of cells form a Location
Area. This is the area that is paged when a
subscriber gets an incoming call. Each Location Area
is assigned a Location Area Identity (LAI). Each
Location Area is served by one or more BSCs.
. MSC/VLR Service Area: The area covered by
one MSC is called the MSC/VLR service area.
. PLMN: The area covered by one network
operator is called PLMN. A PLMN can contain one or
more MSCs.

In addition to the above entities several databases are used
for the purpose of call control and network management.
These databases are Home Location Register (HLR), Visitor
Location Register (VLR), the Authentication Center (AUC),
and Equipment Identity Register (EIR).
Home Location Register (HLR) stores the permanent (such
as user profile) as well as temporary (such as current
location) information about all the users registered with the
network.
A VLR stores the data about the users who are being
serviced currently. It includes the data stored in HLR for
faster access as well as the temporary data like location of
the user.
The AUC stores the authentication information of the user
such as the keys for encryption. The EIR stores stores data
about the equipments and can be used to prevent calls from
a stolen equipments.

All the mobile equipments in GSM system are
assigned unique id called IMSI (International Mobile
Equipment Identity) and is allocated by equipment
manufacturer and registered by the service provider.
This number is stored in the EIR.
The users are identified by the IMSI (International
Module Subscriber Identity) which is stored in the
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) of the user. A mobile
station can be used only if a valid SIM is inserted into
an equipment with valid IMSI. The ``real'' telephone
number is different from the above ids and is stored in
SIM.


WCDMA- WIDE CODE DIVISION
MULTIPLE ACCESS

W-CDMA the radio technology of UMTS - is a
part of the ITU IMT-2000 family of 3G
Standards.
Both Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and
Time Division Duplex (TDD) variants are
supported.


W-CDMA is a spread-spectrum modulation
technique; one which uses channels whose
bandwidth is much greater than that of the data
to be transferred. Instead of each connection being
granted a dedicated frequency band just wide
enough to accommodate its envisaged maximum
data rate, W-CDMA channels share a much
larger band.

The modulation technique encodes each channel in such
a way that a decoder, knowing the code, can pick out the
wanted signal from other signals using the same band,
which simply appear as so much noise.
UMTS uses a core network derived from that of GSM,
ensuring backward compatibility of services and
allowing seamless handover between GSM access
technology and W CDMA.
W-CDMA specifications originate from the 3GPP
Radio Access Network (RAN) group of 3GPP and
were frozen in Release 99;
Nearly 200 specifications and reports reside
mainly in the 25 series of 3GPP specifications.

WCDMA ARCHITECTURE
WCDMA RADIO ACCESS NETWORK
WCDMA network is deployed in UMTS
A User Equipment (UE) or terminal communicates with several
NodeB.
NodeB is a base station responsible for physical layer processing
such as error correcting coding, modulation, spreading, conversion
from baseband to RF signal transmitted from antenna. A NodeB
can
handle transmission/reception from one to several cells.
One Radio Network Controller (RNC) controls Multiple (up to
hundreds) NodeB. RNC in charge of call setup, QoS ( Quality of
service) handling,radio resource management in cells. The ARQ
protocol and most of the intelligence in radio access network
resides in RNC.
RNC is connected to the internet and PSTN through the core
network
IMT- 2000

The key features and objectives of the IMT-2000
initiative have been the result of studies based on
current market demands and considerations. Those
include service, radio access, spectrum, and network
aspects

A wide range of services is to be supported, based on
those of the fixed telecommunications network, and
those specific to mobile users. These services will be
available in a wide range of environments - office,
urban, suburban, and remote areas

The available services range from basic paging
and voice telephony, to audio-visual
communications. A single personal terminal will
provide global access to at least a minimum of
services. For example, high transmission data
services will be mostly available in high-density
areas such as business districts.




IMT - 2000
UMTS
(WCDM
A)
Cdma200
0
EDGE
CDMA technique
Usual mode: FDD
Europe 3GPP
(South Korea, Japan,
USA)
CDMA technique
USA, South Korea
3GPP2
TDMA
technique
2.5G
enhancement
Europe/USA
IMT- 2000 ARCHITECTURE
GENERAL PACKETS RADIO SERVICES (GPRS)

The GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
standard is an evolution of the GSM standard,
and for that reason is sometimes called GSM++
(or GMS 2+). As it is a second-generation
telephony standard that allows a transition to
third generation (3G), the GPRS standard is
generally classified as 2.5G.
GPRS extends the architecture of the GSM
standard to allow packet data transfers with
theoretical data rates on the order of 171.2 Kbit/s
(up to 114 Kbit/s, in practice). Thanks to its
packet transfer mode, data transmissions only
use the network when necessary. The GPRS
standard therefore allows the user to be billed by
volume of data rather than by the duration of the
connection, which means, in particular, that the
user can remain connected at no extra cost.
For voice transport, the GPRS standard uses the
GSM network architecture, and offers access to
data networks (in particular the Internet) using
the IP protocol or the X.25 protocol.
GPRS supports new features not available with
the GSM standard, which can be generally
categorised into the following service classes:
a. Point to point services (PTP): the ability to
connect in client-server mode to a machine on an
IP network,
b. Point to multipoint services (PTMP): the ability
to send a packet to a group of recipients
(Multicast).
c. Short message services (SMS),

ARCHITECTURE OF THE GPRS
NETWORK

ARCHITECTURE OF THE GPRS
NETWORK
ARCHITECTURE OF THE GPRS
NETWORK
Integration of GPRS into a GSM architecture
requires the addition of new network nodes called
GSN (GPRS support nodes) located on a
backbone network:
a. the SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) router
manages the addresses of the terminals in the
cell and provides the packet transfer interface
with the GGSN gateway.
b. the GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node)
gateway interfaces with other data networks (the
Internet). In particular, the GGSN is responsible
for providing an IP address to the mobile
terminals throughout the duration of their
connection.

QUALITY OF SERVICE
GPRS integrates the concept of Quality of Service
(written QoS), in other words, the ability to adapt the
service to the needs of an application. The service
quality criteria are the following:
a. priority reliability.
b. GPRS defines 3 reliability classes
c. delay
d. throughput
The GPRS standard defines 4 encoding schemes,
called CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS-4. Each scheme
defines the level of protection of the packets against
interference so as to be able to degrade the signal
according to the distance of the mobile terminals from
the base stations. The higher the protection, the lower
the throughput:

Encoding
scheme
Throughput
Normal
(signalling)
CS-1 9.05 Kbit/s Normal
(signalling)
CS-2 13.4 Kbit/s Slightly lower
CS-3 15.6 Kbit/s Reduced
CS-4 21.4 Kbit/s No error
correction
ENHANCED DATA RATES FOR GSM
EVOLUTION(EDGE)
is a digital mobile phone technology that allows
improved data transmission rates as a backward-
compatible extension of GSM. EDGE is considered a
pre-3G radio technology and is part
EDGE is standardized also by 3GPP as part of the
GSM family
EDGE delivers higher bit-rates per radio channel,
resulting in a threefold increase in capacity and
performance compared with an ordinary GSM/GPRS
connection.
EDGE can be used for any packet switched
application, such as an Internet connection
TECHNOLOGY
EDGE/EGPRS is implemented as a bolt-on enhancement
for 2.5G GSM/GPRS networks, making it easier for existing
GSM carriers to upgrade to it.
EDGE is a superset to GPRS and can function on any
network with GPRS deployed on it, provided the carrier
implements the necessary upgrade.
EDGE requires no hardware or software changes to be
made in GSM core networks.
EDGE-compatible transceiver units must be installed and
the base station subsystem needs to be upgraded to support
EDGE.
If the operator already has this in place, which is often the
case today, the network can be upgraded to EDGE by
activating an optional software feature. Today EDGE is
supported by all major chip vendors for both GSM and
WCDMA/HSPA.
The increase in data speeds to 384Kbps placed EDGE
as an early pre-taste of 3G, although it was labeled
2.75G by industry watchers.
Ongoing standards work in 3GPP has delivered
EDGE Evolution, which is designed to complement
high-speed packet access (HSPA) coverage.
EDGE Evolution has:
a. Improved spectral efficiency with reduced
latencies down to 100ms
b. Increased throughput speeds to 1.3Mbps in the
downlink and 653Kbps in the uplink
c. GPRS (Release 97) and EDGE (Release 98) are
largely specified in the GSM EDGE Radio Access
Network (GERAN)group of 3GPP;

EDGE ARCHITECTURE
SGSN

The SGSN or Serving GPRS Support Node element of
the GPRS network provides a number of takes
focussed on the IP elements of the overall system. It
provides a variety of services to the mobiles:
Packet routing and transfer
Mobility management
Authentication
Attach/detach
Logical link management
Charging data
There is a location register within the SGSN and this
stores location information (e.g., current cell, current
VLR). It also stores the user profiles (e.g., IMSI,
packet addresses used) for all the GPRS users
registered with the particular SGSN.
GGSN
The GGSN, Gateway GPRS Support Node is one of
the most important entities within the GSM EDGE
network architecture.
The GGSN organises the inter-working between the
GPRS / EDGE network and external packet switched
networks to which the mobiles may be connected.
These may include both Internet and X.25 networks.
The GGSN can be considered to be a combination of a
gateway, router and firewall as it hides the internal
network to the outside. In operation, when the GGSN
receives data addressed to a specific user, it checks if
the user is active, then forwarding the data. In the
opposite direction, packet data from the mobile is
routed to the right destination network by the GGSN.

PCU
The PCU or Packet Control Unit is a hardware
router that is added to the BSC. It differentiates
data destined for the standard GSM network
(circuit switched data) and data destined for the
EDGE network (Packet Switched Data). The
PCU itself may be a separate physical entity, or
more often these days it is incorporated into the
base station controller, BSC, thereby saving
additional hardware costs.
IS-95
The brand name for IS-95 is cdmaOne
IS-95 is also known as TIA-EIA-95.
It is a 2G mobile telecommunications standard
that uses CDMA, a multiple access scheme for
digital radio, to send voice, data and signaling
data (such as a dialed telephone number)
between mobile telephones and cell sites.
data (such as a dialed telephone number) between
mobile telephones and cell sites.
CDMA or "code division multiple access" is a digital
radio system that transmits streams of bits (PN codes).
CDMA permits several radios to share the same
frequencies. Unlike TDMA "time division multiple
access", a competing system used in 2G GSM, all
radios can be active all the time, because network
capacity does not directly limit the number of active
radios.
Since larger numbers of phones can be served by
smaller numbers of cell-sites, CDMA-based standards
have a significant economic advantage over TDMA-
based standards, or the oldest cellular standards that
used frequency-division multiplexing.

CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA
2000)
The CDMA2000 3G wireless system is based on the
code-division multiple access (CDMA) system. The
CDMA2000 system delivers high-bandwidth data and
voice services to users of mobile equipment. Figure 1
shows the infrastructure of a CDMA2000 wireless
network. Altera

devices can be used in each of the


nodes shown in Figure 1.

CDMA2000 WIRELESS NETWORK
INFRASTRUCTURE









cdma2000 infrastructure nodes:
BTS: base transceiver station
BSC: basestation controller
MSC: mobile switching center
PDSN: packet data serving node
HA: home agent
IWF: interworking function

CDMA2000 WIRELESS NETWORK
ARCHITECCTURE
ARCHITECTURE
The cdma2000 network comprises three major parts:
the core network (CN), the radio access
network (RAN) and the mobile station (MS). The core
network is further decomposed in two
parts, one interfacing to external networks such as
the Public Switched Telephone Network
(PSTN) and the other interfacing to the Internet
Protocol Network, or Internet.
The mobile station terminates the radio path on the
user side of the network and enables subscribers to
access network services over the Um interface.
The mobile station without UIM is commonly called
ME.


Mobile Station
MT2 refers to a phone and TE2 to an external device such as
laptop computer. for Voice application, MT2 is sufficient and TE2
is unnecessary.

Radio Access Network
RAN provides radio bearers between the core network and the
mobile station for the transport of user data and non-access
stream signaling, thus enabling mobile stations to access the
service offered by the PSTN and Internet. The main RAN
function includes
establishment, maintenance, and termination of radio channels;
radio resource management; and mobility management. The RAN
consists of the base station (BS) and packet control function
(PCF). The base station is further decomposed in one control and
one or multiple radio-terminating equipment portions named base
station controller (BSC) and base transceiver station (BTS),
respectively.

Core Network
The entities that belong to the core network are
the MSC, home location register (HLR),visitor
location register (VLR), authentication center
(AC), message center (MC), and short message
entity (SME).