Nitsche

fridrix nicSe

1844 - 1900 fridrix nicSe germaneli filosofosi, daibada 1844 wlis 15 oqtombers lucenis axlos, sofel riukenSi. 24 wlis asakSi gaxda bazelis universitetis klasikuri fi­ lologiis profesori. Ffridrix nicSe gardaicvala 1900 wels. nicSes filosofia yvela Rirebulebis gadafasebis cdaa. azrovnebis es koncefcia gamoxatavs ara mxolod
avtoris Sesaxeb

meamboxe moazrovnis suliskveTebas, aramed afuZnebs Semecnebis garkveul wess, rac gulisxmobs, rom SeuZlebelia bolomde gaiazro ama Tu im kulturuli fenomenis namdvili sazrisi, Tu ar moxda misi Rirebulebis gadafaseba da safuZv­ lebTan misvla. Aam azriT nicSes filosofia aris genealogia. genealogiis pirveli proeqtia misi wigni _ `tragediis dabadeba musikis sulidan~. masSi aSkarad Cans Sopenhaueris gavlena da eZRvneba rihard vagners. evropuli civilizaciis xasiaTi racionalizmma gansazRvra.A nicSe kiTxulobs, xom ar iyo racionalizmis safuZveli SiSi da sakuTari Tavis motyuebis cda. xom ar daaviwya racionalizmma evropas, romlisTvisac sokrate­platonis filosofia mxolod dekadenss warmoadgenda, WeSmariti safuZveli _ berZnuli kultura. berZnul kulturasTan miaxloeba racionalizmisa da moralizmis poziciidan SeuZlebelia, radgan mas sxva safuZveli aqvs _ SemoqmedebiTi suli. NnicSesTvis sainteresoa, rogor aris SesaZlebeli Semoqmedeba da, Sesabamisad, berZnuli kulturis warmoSoba. nicSes azriT, rogorc sicocxles gansazRvravs sapirispiro sqesTa erToba, ise Semoqmedebas gansazRvravs ori dapirispirebu­ li sawyisis arseboba. erTi mxriv, es aris dionisuri sawyisi _ erToba adamiansa da bunebas Soris _ ganusazRvrel ZalTa kavSiri, romlis gamoxatulebad SeiZleba CavTvaloT Troba da romelic warmoSobs musikis araplastikur xelovnebas; meore mxriv, es aris apolonuri sawyisi _ adamianis warmosaxvis unari, misi zmaneba, romelic ganusazRvrelobas gardaqmnis mravalferovan saxeebad da, Sesabamisad, warmoSobs saxviT xelovnebas. berZeni ar iyo gulubryvilo bavSvi, igi acnobierebda adamianuri yofis amaoebas. dionisuri sawyisi swored SiSze dafuZnebuli adreuli berZnuli cnobierebaa, apolonuri sawyisi ki aris Se­ moqmedebiTi Zala, romelic adamianuri yofis simZimes mSvenierebis samyarod gardaqmnis.

190

WeSmaritebisa da sicruis Sesaxeb moralis gareSe azriT

nicSesTvis umaRles Rirebulebas warmoadgens sicocxle, misi Zala. umaR­ les Zalauflebas flobs Semoqmedi, radgan igi ki ar Trgunavs an amarcxebs, aramed gardaqmnis sicoxles. sxvaa Teoretikosi, moralisti _ igi sicocxles aufasurebs. Sesabamisad, iudaistur­qristianuli kultura dekadensis kul­ turas warmoadgens. fridrix nicSes erT­erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani koncefcia RmerTis sikvdi­ lis konstataciaSi mdgomareobs. Ees aris imis gacnobiereba, rom qristianulma Rirebulebebma dakarga Tavisi mniSvneloba. miuxedavad imisa, rom Rirebule­ bebis srulfasovani gacnobiereba mxolod maTi dakargvis Semdeg aris SesaZle­ beli, aucilebelia ara ukan dabruneba, aramed axali Rirebulebebis Seqmna.A ada­ mianma unda daZlios sakuTari Tavi. XX saukunis udidesi germaneli filosofosi, martin haidegeri ambobs, rom nicSe ukanaskneli germaneli filosofosia, romelic RmerTs eZebda. fridrix nicSes filosofiam udidesi gavlena iqonia zogadad XX saukunis azrovnebaze. Mman safuZveli Cauyara iseT mniSvnelovanF filosofiur mimdin­ areobebs, rogorebicaa sicocxlis filosofia, egzistencializmi, fenomeno­ logia da sxv. Ffridrix nicSes yvelaze mniSvnelovani nawarmoebebia: `tragediis dabadeba musikis sulidan~ (1872 weli), `adamianuri, erTob adamianuri~ (1878 weli), `ase ityoda zaratustra~ (1883 weli), `sikeTisa da borotebis miRma~ (1886 weli), `moralis genealogiisaTvis~ (1887 weli) da sxv.

*

*

*

avtoris Sesaxeb

191

WeSmaritebisa da sicruis Sesaxeb moralis gareSe azriT
Tavi pirveli

sadRac, uTvalav mzis sistemaTa mocimcimed gadmoRvrili kosmosis erT Soreul kuTxeSi, iyo da ara iyo ra, iyo erTi varskvlavi, romelzec gonierma cxovelebma Semec­ neba gamoigones. es iyo `samyaros istoriis~ yvelaze ampartavani da sicruiT savse wuTi, romelic mxolod erT wuTad darCa. bunebam oriodejer Tu moaswro amosunTqva, sanam varskvlavi gaSeSdeboda da gonierma cxovelebmac suli dalies. _ vinmes aseTi igavi rom SeeTxza, bolomde mainc ver SeZlebda imis asaxvas, rogor sabralod, bundovnad da zedapirulad, rogor uazrod da arafriT gamorCeulad gamoiyureba bunebis fargleb­ Si adamianis inteleqti; saukuneebma Caiara mis gareSe da Tuki erTic vnaxoT da igi arse­ bobas Sewyvets, amiT araferi daSavdeba; ramdenadac nebismieri saxis inteleqtisaTvis ar arsebobs iseTi misia, romelic mas adamianTa yofa­cxovrebisagan ganasxvavebda. is sworedac rom adamianuria da mxolod misi mflobeli da Semqmneli epyroba mas iseTi paTetikurobiT, TiTqos samyaros RerZi masSi brunavdes. koRosTan saubari rom SegveZ­ los, maSin imasac gavigonebdiT, rom haerSi isic aseTive paTosiT dacuravs da samyaros mfrinav centrs SeigrZnobs. araferia bunebaSi imaze ubadruki da umniSvnelo, rac Sem­ ecnebis am Zalis mciredi sulis SeberviTac ki ase buStiviT ar ibereba; da rogorc yo­ vel kurtnis muSas surs hyavdes sakuTari Tayvanismcemeli, aseve unda Tavad yvelaze amay adamians – filosofoss, rom samyaros Tvali yoveli mxridan teleskopiviT misi qmedebisa da azrovnebisaken iyos mimarTuli. ucnauri isaa, rom es swored inteleqtis meSveobiTaa SesaZlebeli, im intleqtisa, romelic mxolod damxmare saSualebad aqvT micemuli uubedures, udelikatures, warma­ val arsebebs, raTa isini erTi wuTiT mainc SeaCeros yofierebaSi, saidanac maT amgvari danamatis gareSe, lesingis vaJiviT1 swafad gaqcevis yovelgvari safuZveli eqnebodaT. qedmaRloba, romelic Semecnebasa da SegrZnebas ukavSirdeba, damabrmavebeli burusi­ viT afenia adamianis Tvalebsa da receptorebs, amitomac cdeba yofierebis SefasebaSi, roca SemecnebiT Tavad yvelaze metad saamur faseulobas sakuTar TavSi moicavs. misi ZiriTadi zemoqmedeba Secdenaa2, Tumca calkeuli qmedebebic imave xasiaTisaa.

192

WeSmaritebisa da sicruis Sesaxeb moralis gareSe azriT

inteleqti, rogorc individis SenarCunebis saSualeba, Tavis ZiriTad unarebs TvalTmaqcobaSi asaxavs. es swored is saSualebaa, romlis meSveobiTac ufro susti, naklebad gamZle individebi, Tavs inarCuneben, rodesac ufro ZlierebTan arsebobisaT­ vis brZolis unars arian moklebulni an am brZolas mtacebeli cxovelis siSlegiT ver warmarTaven, ramdenadac adamianSi TvalTmaqcobis unari mwvervals aRwevs: esaa Tavg­ zis abneva, maamebloba, sicrue, SecdomaSi Seyvana, zurgs ukan laparaki, reprezentulo­ ba, nasesxeb brwyinvalebaSi cxovreba, SeniRbuloba, Sefaruloba, msaxioboba _ rogorc sxvebis, aseve sakuTari Tavis winaSe, mokled, amaoebis alis irgvliv gauTavebeli wriali imdenadaa wesad da kanonad qceuli, rom TiTqmis gaugebaric kia, rogor iyo SesaZlebe­ li adaminebs Soris gaCeniliyo gulwrfeli da wminda swrafva WeSmaritebisadmi. maT im­ denad Rrmad aqvT Setopili iluziebsa da zmanebebSi, rom maTi Tvali mxolod nivTebis zedapirze borZikobs da `formebs~ xedavs; maTi SegrZneba WeSmaritebisaken ki ar miiwevs, aramed gaxalisebiTa da nivTebis zedapirze erTgvari TiTebis faTuriT kmayofildeba. amisaTvis, mTeli cxovrebis manZilze, adamiani RamRamobiT sakuTar Tavs sizmrebiT ityuebs ise, rom mis moralur grZnobas amis Tavidan acileba arasdros ucdia, maSin, rodesac iseT adamianebsac uarsebiaT, romlebsac TavianTi Zlieri nebiT xvrinva aulag­ mavT. ra icis adamianma sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb?! xelewifeboda ki mas, erTaderTxel mainc ganaTebul kolbaSi moTavsebiT sakuTari Tavis srulyofili aRqma? xom ar umalavs mas buneba yvelaze mTavars TviT misi sxeulis Sesaxeb, raTa daxveuli nawlavebis, sisxlis nakadebis swrafi dinebisa Tu daxlarTuli nervuli qsovilisgan moSorebuli, amay da oinbazur cnobierebaSi Seityuos da gamoamwyvdios?! bunebam moisrola gasaRebi da vai im bediswerasatanil cnobismoyvares, visac cnobierebis saknis bzaridan gamoWvretis unari aqvs da SeiZleba axla ki xvdebodes, rom adamianisTvis Tavisi umecrebis gamo sul erTia da arafers ambobs daundoblebze, xarbebze, gaumaZRrebze, mkvlelebze, amave dros ki Tavis zmanebebSi vefxvzea amxedrebuli. aseT konstelaciaSi sad jandabidan unda modiodes WeSmaritebisaken swrafva?! rogorc ki individs sxva individebTan mimarTebaSi sakuTari Tavis SenarCunebis sur­ vili uCndeba, saganTa bunebriv wesrigSi, igi inteleqts, rogorc wesi, mxolod TvalT­ macqobisTvis iyenebs: vinaidan adamians, erTdroulad, gasaWirisa da mowyenilobis ga­ moc, sazogadoebrivad da jogurad arseboba surs, mas samSvidobo SeTanxmeba esaWiroeba, romlis Tanaxmadac hgonia, rom amiT sul cota, yvelaze sastiki _ bellum omnium contra
omnes3 _ misi samyarodan gamqraliyos. magram am samSvidobo SeTanxmebas Tan mohyveba is­

eTi ram, rac WeSmaritebisaken swrafvis mosapoveblad gadadgmul pirvel nabijs waagavs. axla dafiqsirdeba kerZod is, rasac dReidan “WeSmariteba” unda ewodos. es ki imas niS­ navs, rom nivTebs Tanabrad misadagebul da xelmisawvdom gansazRvrebebs gamougoneben da enis kanonmdeblobac WeSmaritebis pirvel kanons gamoscems: aqve pirvelad Cndeba

193

fridrix nicSe
WeSmaritebisa da sicruis pirveli kontrasti: matyuara misadagebul gansazRvrebebsa da sityvebs iyenebs, raTa aranamdvili namdvilad gaasaRos; magaliTad, is acxadebs, rom mdidaria, maSin, rodesac misi mdgomareobis swori gansazRvreba `Raribi~ ufro iqne­ boda. saxelebis TviTneburi gadanacvlebiT an gaukuRmarTebiT igi borotad iyenebs myar konvenciebs. Tuki igi amas angarebiT an sxvaTa sazianod akeTebs, maSin sazogadoeba aRar daujerebs da gariyavs. AamasTanave adamianebi ara imdenad motyuebas gaurbian, ram­ denadac motyuebis Sedegad dazaralebas. am safexurze maT ara TviT Secdena sZulT, aramed Secdenis garkveul saxeobaTa avi, mtruli Sedegebi. aseTive SezRuduli azriT nebavs adamians mxolod da mxolod WeSmariteba; igi WeSmaritebis mxolod sasiamovno, cxovrebisaTvis sasargeblo Sedegebs eswrafvis; wminda, arasaxeiro Semecnebis mimarT igi gulgrilia, xolo iseT WeSmaritebas, romelic saziano da damangrevelic SeiZleba iyos, emtereba kidevac. garda amisa, ras warmoadgens enis konvenciebi? arian ki isini Semecnebisa da WeSmaritebis sazrisis nayofi, romlebic gansazRvrebebsa da sagnebs See­ satyvisebian? aris ki ena realobis adekvaturi gamoxatuleba? mxolod gulmaviwyobis madliT SeuZlia adamians imis akviateba, TiTqos igi am xaris­ xis WeSmaritebas flobdes. Tu is WeSmaritebis tavtologiuri formiT anu carieli mas­ riT ar kmayofildeba, maSin iluziebis safasurad WeSmaritebaTa SeZena mouwevs. ra aris sityva? aRgznebuli nervebis anarekli bgerebSi. nervuli aRgznebis Cvens gareT myof mizezTan dakavSireba ki ukve aris safuZvlis kanonis mcdari da aramarTebuli gamoy­ enebis Sedegi. Tuki davuSvebT, rom enis dasabamSi mxolod WeSmariteba iyo gansazRvre­ baTa damajereblobis aTvlis wertili, rogorRa SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom `qva magaria~, TiTqos `magari~ CvenTvis kidev sxvagvarad iyos cnobili da ara mxolod Cveni subi­ eqturi aRgznebiT. Cven vyofT nivTebs sqesis mixedviT: xes mamrobiT sqess vaniWebT, mcenares mdedrobiTs4, ­ raoden TviTneburia aseTi gadabralebebi! ramdenad davSor­ diT damajereblobis kanons. Cven vlaparakobT gvelze, misi gansazRvreba ki sxva arafe­ ria, garda imisa, rom igi iklakneba, rac aseve matlsac miesadageba. raoden TviTneburia aseTi SezRudvebi, raoden calmxrivad xdeba nivTis calkeuli Tvisebebis amorCeva. sxva­ dasxva enis erTmaneTTan SepirispirebiT Cans, rom sityvebs araferi ara aqvTs saerTo arc WeSmaritebasTan da arc adekvatur SesatyvisobasTan. `TavisTavadi nivTi~5 (esec usargeblo WeSmaritebis nimuSad gamodgeboda) sruliad gaugebari da arafrad Rire­ bulia enis SemoqmedisaTvis, romelic mxolod adamianebTan nivTebis urTierTkavSirs aRniSnavs da maT gamosaxatavad sakmaod gabedul metaforebs iSveliebs. Tavdapirve­ lad nervuli aRgzneba gardaiqmneba xatad, _ esaa pirveli metafora! Semdeg xati gada­ formdeba bgeraSi, rac meore metaforaa! da yovel jerze saxezea sferoebis sruli aR­ reva, erTis naxevridan meoreze, sruliad axalze gadaxtoma. SeiZleba iseTi adamianis warmodgena, romelic sruliad yrua da xmisa da musikis SegrZneba arasdros ganucdia:

194

WeSmaritebisa da sicruis Sesaxeb moralis gareSe azriT

rogorc qviSaSi qladnis xmovani figurebi6, ise icqireba igi gancvifrebuli da JReris mizezs simebis daWimulobaSi xedavs da darwmunebiT SeuZlia imis mtkiceba, rom zustad icis, ras uwodeben adamianebi xmovanebas, _ swored aseTia yoveli CvenTaganis damokide­ buleba enis mimarT. Cvenc ase gvgonia, rom nivTebis azrze varT, rodesac xeebze, fereb­ ze, Tovlsa da yvavilebze vsaubrobT da sinamdvileSi ki mxolod nivTebis metaforebi gvaqvs, romlebic maT Tavdapirvel arss aranairad ar Seesatyviseba. ra principiTac xma qviSis figuris formas iRebs, aseve TavisTavadi nivTis romeliRac gamoucnobi X _ jer nervul aRgznebad, Semdeg xatebad, bolos ki bgerad warmoisaxeba. ase rom, enis warmo­ Soba aranairad logikurad ar mimdinareobs da mTeli is masala, roelzedac da romli­ Tac mogvianebiT WeSmaritebis maZiebeli adamiani, mecnieri Tu filosofosi muSaobs da aSenebs, Rrublebidan Tu ara, yovel SemTxvevaSi nivTebis arsidanac ar momdinareobs. gansakuTrebiT imaze davfiqrdeT, rogor xdeba cnebebis Sedgena. yoveli sityva imis meSveobiT gadaiqceva cnebad, rom igi Seesabameba ara rogorc mxolod da mxolod gaindividualurebul gancdas, romelsac gaCenas umadlis da gasaxsenebladac un­ da ixmarebodes, aramed imiT, rom igi erTdroulad uTvalav, metnaklebad msgavs, anu, mkacrad rom vTqvad, arasdros igiveobriv, amdenad araidentur SemTxvevebs unda Seesabamos. yoveli cneba warmoiqmneba araigiveobrivis gaigivebiT. iseTive ueW­ velobiT, rogoriTac erTi foToli zustad iseTive araa, rogorc sxva, aseve aris foTlis cneba Sedgenili nebismier individualur mravalferovnebaze uaris TqmiTa da gansxvavebulobaTa daviwyebiT da axla ukve iseT warmodgenas aRviZebs, TiTqos bunebaSi garda foTlebisa, kidev foTlis pirveladi nimuSi arsebuliyos, romlis mixedviTac yvela foToli moiqsova, moixaza, Semoifargla, gaferadda, daixva, moixata, oRond daudevari xelebiT, ise, rom arcerTi egzemplari pirveladi nimuSis swori da sandod zusti anarekli ar gamosuliyo. Cven adamians vuwodebT `patiosans~ da vsvamT kiTxvas: ratom moiqca dRes patiosnad? Cveni pasuxia: Tavisi patiosnebidan gamomdinare. patiosneba _ es isev imas niSnavs, rom foToli aris foTlebis mizezi. Cven xom araferi viciT im arsobrivi xarisxis Sesaxeb, romelsac `patiosneba~ daerqmeoda, magram, sa­ magierod, uamravi gaindividualurebuli da, amdenad, araigiveobrivi qmedebiT, rom­ lebsac Cven araigiveobaTa gamotovebiT vaigivebT da exla ki patiosan saqcielad vacxadebT, sabolood maTgan vayalibebT erTgvar qualitas occulta 7­s, romelsac saxelad `patiosneba~ hqvia. individualurisa da cxadis gamotoveba gvaZlevs cnebas, iseve, ro­ gorc formas. amis sawinaaRmdegod ki buneba arc formebs da arc cnebebs, maSasadame, arc saxeobebs ar icnobs, aramed mxolod CvenTvis miuwvdomel da ganusazRvrel X­s. is, rac individisa da saxeobis sapirispirod migvaCnia, aris anTropomorfuli da nivTebis arsidan ar gamomdinareobs, ramdenadac ar unda gviWirdes imis aRiareba, rom igi mas ar Seesatyviseba: es xom dogmaturi gancxadeba iqneboda da amdenad, iseve SeuZlebelia imis damtkiceba, rogorc misi sapirispiro mtkicebisa.

195

fridrix nicSe
maSasadame, ra aris WeSmariteba? metaforebis, metonimiebis, anTropomorfizmebis moZravi jari, mokled, adamianis relaciaTa Sejameba, romlis poeturad da ritoriku­ lad aRzeveba, proeqcia, mokazmva moxda da xalxis mier xangrZlivi xmarebis gamo Tavs mya­ rad, kanonikurad da savaldebulodac ki warmoaCens: WeSmariteba iluziebia, romelTa raobac, aris is, rom isini gacveTil da azrobivad uZlur metaforebad qceuli, anda monetebia, romlebzec gamosaxuleba waSlilia da axla ara monetad, aramed mxolod liTonad aRiqmeba. isev ar viciT, saidan Cndeba WeSmaritebisaken swrafva, ramdenadac aqamde mxolod im valdebulebaze vsaubrobdiT, romelsac sazogadoeba awesebs, raTa iarsebos. es niSnavs, rom mas namdvilad arsebobisaTvis gamoyenebiTi metaforebi esaWiroeba anu moralurad Tu CamovayalibebT _ valdebulebiT myari konvenciebis mixedviT cruoba, joguri principiT yvelasaTvis savaldebulo stilSi. adamiani, raRa Tqma unda, iviwyebs Tavis aseT mdgomareobas; amgvarad igi aracnobierad da mravalsaukunovani miCvevidan gamomdinare, ityueba da swored am aracnobierebisa da daviwyebis meSveobiT eufleba WeSmaritebis grZnoba. am grZnobis niadagze, is, rac sakuTar Tavs avaldebulebs, erT nivTs wiTlad, meorec civad, mesames ki munjad acxadebs, iRviZebs WeSmaritebaze da­ fuZnebuli moraluri foriaqi: matyuarasgan gansxvavebiT, visac aravin endoba da yve­ la zurgs aqcevs, adamiani axdens WeSmaritebis Rirseulobis, sandoobisa da sasargeb­ loobis demonstrirebas. is rogorc `gonieri~ arseba, Tavis qmedebebs abstraqciebs uqvemdebarebs; mas sulac aRar awuxebs uecari STabeWdilebebiTa Tu SexedulebebiT garToba, is Tavis am STabeWdilebebs mxolod uferul da civ cnebebad ganazogadebs, raTa maT sakuTari cxovrebisa da qmedebis lokomotivi miabas. yovelive is, rac adami­ ans cxovelisgan ganasxvavebs, damokidebulia im unarze, rom SexedulebiTi metaforebi sqemad gadaaqcios anu xatidan cneba miiRos. yovelgvari sqematurobis sferoSi iseTi ram aris SesaZlebeli, rasac SexedulebiTi pirveli STabeWdilebebis qveS moqceva aras­ dros ar surs: kastebisa da xarisxis mixedviT piramiduli wesrigis ageba, kanonebis, privilegiebis, daqvemdebarebulobis, sazRvrebis axali samyaros Seqmna, romelic Se­ xedulebiTi pirveli STabeWdilebebis samyaros upirispirdeba, rogorc ufro myari da sazogado, ufro nacnobi, adamianuri da, amdenad, maregulirebeli da ganmkargulebe­ li. Tuki yoveli Sexedulebis metafora individualuri da ubadloa da amitomac yvela­ nairi rubrikisagan gaqceva sCvevia, cnebebis didi mSenebloba romauli kolumbariumis8 myar Tanmimdevrulobas aCvenebs da iseTi mkacri da civi logikiT sunTqavs, rogoric maTematikisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. visac es civi amonasunTqi Seexeba, gauWirdeba imis dajereba, rom Tavad cnebac kamaTeliviT Zvlisganaa damzadebuli, rvawveroiania da misi gadagdebac SeiZleba, erTaderTi ki, rac metaforis naSTad rCeba, aris is, rom nervuli aRgznebis SemoqmedebiTi gardasaxva xatad, cnebis deda Tu ara, dedinacvali maincaa.

196

WeSmaritebisa da sicruis Sesaxeb moralis gareSe azriT

cnebebiT aseTi saxis koWis TamaSis farglebSi `WeSmariteba~ yoveli kamaTlis iseT gam­ oyenebas niSnavs, rogoradac igia gansazRvruli _ zusti gamoTvliT, swori rubrikebis SedgeniT ise, rom arasdros kasturobisa da klasobrivi rangebis Tanmimdevruloba ar dairRvas. rogorc romaelebi Tu etruskebi cas Zlieri maTmatikuri xazebiT aquc­ macebdnen da am masStabiT samlocvelos SemosazRvrul sivrceSi erT­erT RvTaebas aT­ avsebdnen, aseve yovel ers Tavs zemoT aqvs maTematikurad danawevrebuli cnebebis zeca da TiToeuli gaRmerTebuli cnebis mis sferoSi Zebna WeSmaritebis moTxovna hgonia. aq adamiani, rogorc uzomod genialuri mSenebeli, mxolod gaocebas Tu iwvevs, romelic moZrav safuZvelsa da mdinare wyalze usasrulod CaxlarTul cnebaTa taZris aRmarT­ vas axerxebs. Tumca aseT fundamentze dasayrdeni rom ipovos, es nageboba obobas qseli­ viT unda iyos _ erTdroulad nazi, raTa talRam Tan waiRos da Tanac iseTi Zlieri, rom qariSxalma ar gaglijos. SenebaSi genialurobis masStabebiT adamiani TviT futkarsac ki aRemateba: futkari aSenebs cvilisagan, romelsac igi bunebaSi moipovebs, adamiani ki _ cnebaTa bevrad ufro nazi masalisgan, romelic man Tavad unda daamzados. igi marT­ lac rom did gancvifrebas iwvevs, magram ara nivTebis wminda SemecnebisaTvis misi WeS­ maritebisken swrafvis gamo. Tuki vinme nivTs buCqSi malavs, mere ki iqve eZebs da Tanac poulobs, amgvari Zebna da povna arafriT gamorCeuli da gasaocari araa, magram swored ase xdeba gonebis wiaRSi `WeSmaritebis~ Zebnac da povnac. Tuki ZuTumwovari cxovelis gansazRvreba Semomaqvs, Semdeg aqlems rom vnaxav da ganmartebas viZlevi: SexedeT, ai, esaa ZuZumwovara cxoveli, amiT WeSmariteba ki gacxaddeba, magram misi mniSvneloba sak­ maod SezRudulia; amiT imis Tqma minda, rom igi isev da isev anTropomorfulia da, ada­ mianidan gamomdinare, ar Seicavs arc erT wertils, romelic `TavisTavad WeSmariti~, namdvili da sayovelTao iqneboda. mkvlevari, romelic aseT WeSmaritebebs ikvlevs, principSi adamianebSi mxolod samyaros metamorfozebs eZebs; mas samyaros, rogorc adamianismagvari nivTis gageba anaRvlebs da, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, asimilaciis grZnobis aRqmisaTvis ibrZvis. astrologis msgavsad, romelic varskvlavebs adamianebis samsax­ urSi ayenebs da maT bednierebasa da wuxilTan akavSirebs, mkvlevaric mTel samyaros adamianebze mibmulad ganixilavs, rogorc adamianis pirveli simReris usasrulod dawyvetil kvlavaJRerebas da adamianis pirvelxatis mravalwaxnagovan anarekls. misi Ziebis meTodia yvela nivTis sazomad adamianis miCneva, magram amasTanave, Secdomas uS­ vebs, rodesac darwmunebulia, rom igi uSualod nivTebs xedavs. amgvarad mas aviwydeba, rom originaluri Sexedulebrivi metaforebi mxolod metaforebia, mas ki isini Tavad nivTebi hgonia. mxolod primitiul metaforaTa samyaros daviwyebiT, mxolod adamianis fantaziis uZvelesi unaridan mduRare siTxed modinebul xatebaTa masis gamyareba­gaqvavebiT, mxo­ lod im uZleveli rwmeniT, rom es mze, es fanjara, es magida _ TavisTavadi WeSmarite­

197

fridrix nicSe
bebia, mokled, mxolod imiT, rom adamiani sakuTar Tavs rogorc subieqts, kerZod ki Semoqmed xelovan subieqts daiviwyebs, maSin SeZlebs mSvid, usafrTxo da Tanamim­ devrul cxovrebas; mas rom am rwmenis sapyrobiles kedlebidan erTi wamiT gadmoxedva mainc SeeZlos, maSinve dasruldeboda misi `TviTcnobiereba~. imisi aRiarebac ki did jafad uRirs, rom mweri an frinveli samyaros adamianisagan gansxvavebulad aRiqvams da kiTxvis dasma, samyaros romeli aRqmaa ufro swori, sruliad uazroa, ramdenadac aq swori aRqmis masStabiT anu ararsebuli sazomiT unda gagvezoma. saerTodac, swori aR­ qma, rasac subieqtSi obieqtis adekvaturi asaxva ewodeboda, winaaRmdegobebiT aRsavse sibriyved mimaCnia, radganac or iseT sruliad gansxvavebul sferos Soris, rogoricaa subieqti da obieqti, aranairi kauzaluroba, aranairi marTebuloba, aranairi gamoxat­ va ar arsebobs, bevri­bevri esTetikuri mimarTeba arsebobdes, vgulisxmob miniSnebad gadatanas, mimsgavsebul Targmnas sxva enaze, risTvisac yvela variantSi Tavisuflad Txzvis, gamomgoneblobiTi sferosa da Zalis saSualebaa saWiro. sityva `gamovlineba~ mraval cdunebas Seicavs, ris gamoc Sevecdebi mas Tavi avarido, ramdenadac aramarTe­ bulia, rom nivTebis arsi empiriul samyaroSi vlindebodes. mxatvari, romelsac xele­ bi ara aqvs da Tavisi warmosaxuli suraTis simReriT gadmocema surs, sferoTa aseTi gadanacvlebiT ufro metis Tqmas SeZlebda, vidre empiriuli samyaro nivTebis arss gvimxels. TviT nervuli aRgznebis gamomsaxvel suraTebTan mimarTeba TavisTavad ar aris aucileblobiT nakarnaxevi; maSin, rodesac igive suraTi, milionjeraa gamosaxuli da adamianTa mraval Taobebs memkvidreobiT aqvs gadacemuli, mTel kacobriobas yovel jerze erTi da imave sababiT evlineba, sabolood ki iseTi mniSvneloba eniWeba, TiTqos­ da erTaderTi da aucilebeli xateba yofiliyos da Tavdapirveli nervuli aRgznebis yoveli mimarTeba am gamoxatulebis mkacri kauzalurobiT nakarnaxevi iyos: rogorc sizmari, romelic yovelTvis meordeba da amis gamo realobad ganicdeba da fasdeba. mag­ ram metaforis gamyareba da qvad qceva aranairad araa Tavdebi am metaforis saWiroe­ bisa da uflebamosilebisaTvis. yovel adamians, vinc ase msjelobs, raRa Tqma unda, Rrma eWvi Sehparvia aseT ide­ alizmSi, ramdenjerac sruli sicxadiT darwmunebula bunebis kanonTa konsekventuro­ baSi, marad aqtualurobasa da SeucdomlobaSi. aqedan ki aseTi daskvna gamoitana: rac ufro miviwevT samyaros teleskopuri simaRleebisa da mikroskopuli siRrmeebisaken, vxedavT, rom aq yvelaferi sandod, usasrulod, kanonzomierad da unaklodaa agebuli; mecniereba am maRaroebs SeZlebs yovelTvis warmatebulad CauRrmavdes da yvelaferi, rasac ipovis, ara urTierTgamomricxavi, aramed erTmaneTTan Sexmatkbilebuli iqneba. ra mcired waagavs es fantaziis nayofs: es rom ase yofiliyo, maSin xom sadme moCvene­ biToba da ararealuroba unda gamoemJRavnebina. amis sawinaaRmdegod ki erTxelac unda iTqvas: TiToeul Cvengans sxvadasxvagvari SegrZnebis unari rom gvqonoda, maSin

198

WeSmaritebisa da sicruis Sesaxeb moralis gareSe azriT

Cvenc xan frinvelis, xan matlis, xan mcenarisnairi aRqma SegveZleboda an erTsa da imave gaRizianebas erT­erTi CvenTagani wiTlad dainaxavda, meore lurjad, mesame ki xmad aRiqvamda, aseT SemTxvevaSi ki aRaravin ilaparakebda bunebis aseT kanonzomierebaze, mas mxolod erTob subieqtur warmonaqmnad miiCnevdnen. maS raRaa CvenTvis bolos da bolos bunebis es kanoni? igi CvenTvis araa TavisTavadoba, mxolod misi qmedebebidanaa cnobili anu bunebis sxva kanonebTan misi urTierTmimarTebiT, romlebsac aseve mxolod urTierTmimarTebebad vicnobT. maSasadame, yvela es relacia erTmaneTs eyrdnoba da CvenTvis maTi arsi sul ufro da ufro gaugebari rCeba. mxolod is, rasac masSi vdebT, ­ dro, sivrce, anu sugcesiuri urTierTobebi da ricxvebia CvenTvis realurad cnobili. yovelive is ki, rac bunebis kanonebSi gvikvirs, rac Cvengan axsna­ganmartebas moiTxovs da idealizmisadmi Cveni daeWvebiT cduneba SeuZlia, mxolod da mxolod maTematikur simkacresa da droisa da sivrcis warmodgenis sandoobaSi aisaxeba. amas TviTon war­ movqmniT sakuTar TavSi da mere iseTive saWiroebiT gamogvaqvs gareT, rogorc oboba Tavis qsels abams. Tuki iZulebulni varT, rom yoveli nivTi aseTi formiT moviazroT, maSin gasakviri aRaraa, rom yovel nivTSi mxolod aseT formebs viazrebT, radganac isi­ ni valdebuli arian sakuTar TavSi ricxvebis kanoni asaxon. nivTebSi ki swored ricx­ vebia gasaocari. yoveli kanonzomiereba, romelic varskvlavTa moZraobasa Tu qimiur procesSi ase gvxiblavs, principSi im Tvisebebs emTxveva, romlebsac TviTonve vdebT nivTebSi, ise, rom amiTi Cvenive Tavi movxibloT. amas ki Sedegad yovelTvis is moaqvs, rom metaforaTa warmoqmna, romliTac CvenSi nebismieri SegrZneba iwyeba, sakuTar TavSi ukve yvela im formas moicavs, romelTa ganxorcielebac unda moxdes; mxolod am pirve­ ladi formebis zewoliT aixsneba is SesaZlebloba, rogor unda xerxdebodes Tavad metaforebidan cnebebis ageba. es ki, saxeldobr, metaforebSive mimdinare drois, sivr­ cisa da ricxvebis urTierTmimarTebaTa mibaZviT xdeba.

Tavi meore

rogorc ukve davinaxeT, Tavdapirvelad cnebaTa agebaze ena muSaobs, mogvianebiT ki _ mecniereba. rogorc futkari fiWas aSenebs da amavdroulad TafliT avsebs, ase Seuferxeblad muSaobs mecniereba cnebaTa uzarmazar kolumbariumze – msoflmxedv­ elobis am samarxze _ agebs sul ufro maRal sarTulebs, icavs, asufTavebs, aaxlebs Zvel saknebs da, upirveles yovlisa, mowadinebulia yvelaferi erT uSvelebel, yovlismom­ cvel saxelmZRvaneloSi moaTavsos da mere mTeli empiriuli samyaro, romelic mxolod anTropomorfulia, mas miusadagos. Tuki moRvawe adamiani sakuTar cxovrebas gonebasa

199

fridrix nicSe
da gonebis cnebebze abams, raTa wyalma ar waiRos da sakuTari Tavi ar dakargos, aseve mkvlevaric Tavis qoxs mecnierebis godolTan axlos aSenebs, raTa misi moSvelieba Se­ Zlos da TavSesafaric mis cixe­simagreSi ipovos. dacva ki namdvilad esaWiroeba iseTi Semzaravi Zalebisgan, romlebic gamudmebiT misken miiweven da mecnieruli WeSmaritebis sruliad Tavisebur `WeSmaritebebs~ sxvadasxvagvar abjars upirispireben. metaforebis Seqmnisaken mimarTuli yoveli swrafva, adamianis fundamenturi swraf­ vaa, romlis gamotoveba arc erTi wuTiT ar SeiZleba, radganac amiT Tavad adamiani ga­ mogvrCeboda, imis meSveobiT, rom misi gauCinarebuli warmonaqmnebis _ cnebebisagan, regularuli da uZravi samyaro misi sambrZaneblo gaxdeboda, sinamdvileSi sruliad mouTokavi da TiTqmis gauxednavia. igi Tavisi qmedebis axal sferosa da kalapots eZebs da mas miTossa da, sazogadod, xelovnebaSi poulobs. igi ganuwyvetliv urevs cnebebis rubrikebsa da adgils, imis meSveobiT, rom mas axali gadatanebi, metaforebi, metoni­ miebi Seaqvs; igi ganuwyvetliv imis survils amJRavnebs, rom fxizeli adamianis xelmi­ sawvdomi samyaro ise Wrelad da mouwesrigeblad, uSedegod da urTierTkavSiris gar­ eSed, mimzidvelad da mudam axleburad gamoisaxos, rogorc sizmris samyaroa. fxizeli adamiani Tavis mxriv imis meSveobiT ganicdis sakuTar sifxizles, rom mudam cnebebis gamogonebiTaa dakavebuli da Tuki am saqmianobas xelovneba daurRvevs, mas Tavi ukve sizmarSi hgonia. paskali marTebulad aRniSnavda, rom mudam erTsa da imave sizmars rom vxedavdeT, misiT iseTive dasaqmebuli viqnebodiT, rogorc im sagnebiT, romlebsac dRisiT vxedavT: `xelosans yovel Rame rom esizmrebodes, rom mTeli Tormeti saaTis ganmavlobaSi mefea, maSin, darwmunebuli var,~ – ambobs paskali, _ `rom igi iseTive bed­ nieri iqneboda, rogorc mefe, romelsac yovel Rame Tormeti saaTis ganmavlobaSi Tavi xelosnad esizmreba.~9 Zveli berZnebis msgavsad, miTosur zmanebaSi myofi xalxis fxi­ zeli dRe, Tavisi usasrulo saswaulmoqmedebiT anu rogorc mas miTosi esmis, sinamd­ vileSi mecnierulobiT gamofxizlebuli moazrovnis sizmars ufro waagavs, vidre mis cxads. Tuki yoveli xe erTxelac nimfasaviT dailaparakebs an xaris garegnobaSi SeniR­ bul RmerTs qalwulebis motaceba SeuZlia, etliT moseirne qalRmerT aTenas ki pisis­ trates TanxlebiT aTenis bazrebSi xedaven, _ aseTi ramis ki yvela patiosan aTenels sjeroda, _ maSin cxadSic yvelaferi isevea SesaZlebeli, rogorc sizmarSi da mTeli buneba adamianebis garTobaSia, TiTqosda igi RmerTebis maskaradi yofiliyos, romle­ bic mxolod oxunjoben da yvela sagans adamianebis Sesacdenad iyenebdnen. magram sakuTari Tavis motyuebinebisaken Tavad adamiania midrekili da aRtacebulia, rodesac rafsodi epikur zRaprebs ise uyveba, TiTqos WeSmariteba yofiliyos an msaxio­ bi mefes ufro mefurad ganasaxierebdes, vidre is sinamdvileSia. inteleqti, TvalTmaq­ cobis es ostati, Tavisi Cveulebisamebr imdenadaa monuri samsaxurisagan Tavisufali, ramdenadac SeuZlia uzianod Secdena da maSin zeimobs igi Tavis saturnaliebs. arasdro­

200

WeSmaritebisa da sicruis Sesaxeb moralis gareSe azriT

saa igi ufro met fufunebaSi, ufro mdidari, amayi, gamWriaxi da gambedavi: Semoqmedebi­ Ti kmayofilebiT afrqvevs igi metaforebs da Tavdayira ayenebs abstraqciis sazRvrebs ise, rom, magaliTad, dinebas gansazRvravs rogorc moZrav gzas, romelsac adamianebi iqiT mihyavs, saiTkenac TviTon midis. axla ki man msaxuris niSani moicila: Cveulebriv, gulCaTxrobili saqmianobiT mowadinebuli, raTa arsebobas mowyurebul sabralo indi­ vids gza da xelsawyoebi aCvenos da rogorc msaxuri Tavisi batonisaTvis datacebasa da nadavlze dageSili, amJamad Tavad iqca batonad da ufleba aqvs gaWirvebis gamometvele­ ba saxidan moiSoros. yvelafers, rasac is amJamad akeTebs, Tavis uwindel namoqmedarTan SedarebiT TvalTmaqcobis niSani adevs, iseve rogorc Tavad uwindeli gayalbebisas. igi adamianis cxovrebis kopirebas axdens, rac mas karg saqmed miaCnia da, rogorc Cans, ami­ Ti Tavadac kmayofilia. cnebaTa uSvelebeli kedeli da tixari, romelsac gaWirvebuli adamiani ebRauWeba da ase unda cxovrebas Tavi gaarTvas, gaTavisuflebuli inteleqti­ saTvis mxolod ConCxia da mxolod saTamaSo Tavisi fokusebisaTvis. da Tuki mas daang­ revs, mimofantavs, xelaxla aawyobs, mxolod ironiulad uucxoesebis dawyvilebiTa da uaxloesebis daSorebiT. amiT igi amtkicebs, rom araviTari gasaWirisagan Tavis daxsna ar esaWiroeba da igi ara cnebebiT, aramed intuiciiT xelmZRvanelobs. am intuiciebi­ dan arcerTi mudmivi gza ar midis moCvenebiTi sqemebisa da abstraqciebis qveynisaken: sityva maTTvis ar Seqmnila, adamiani munjddeba, rodesac igi maT xedavs, an laparakobs araerTi akrZaluli metaforiTa da cnebaTa abda­ubda xmarebiT, raTa cnebebis Zveli farglebis damsxvreviTa da abuCad agdebiT yovlisSemZle aqtualuri intuiciis STabeW­ dilebas SemoqmedebiTad Seesatyvisebodes. arsebobs iseTi epoqebi, romlebSic rogorc gonieri, aseve intuiciuri adamian­ ebi erTmaneTis gverdze dganan, pirvels intuiciis eSinia, meore ki abstraqcias das­ cinis; es ukanaskneli iseTive ugunuria, rogorc pirveli araSemoqmedebiTi. orives cxovrebaze mbrZanebloba surs: erTs _ TavdaWerilobis, siWkvianis, kanonzomierebis meSveobiT umTavresi saWiroebebis codnaSia darwmunebuli, meore ki, imis gamo, rom igi rogorc `metismetad moxaruli gmiri~ veranair saWiroebas ver xedavs da mxolod fiqciad da silamazed moCvenebuli cxovreba sinamdvile hgonia. magaliTad, rogorc, Zvel saberZneTSi, sadac intuiciuri adamiani Tavis iaraRs ufro Zlierad da warmate­ biT xmarobs, vidre misi konkurenti, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi SeuZlia kulturas iseTi saxe misces, sadac xelovneba cxovrebas ganagebs: aseTi cxovrebis yvelanair gamoxatulebas ki sxvadasxvagvari TvalTmaqcoba, gasaWiris uaryofa, metaforuli Wvretis brwyinva­ leba da saerTod, motyuebis arauSualoeba axlavs Tan. arc saxli, arc nabiji, arc sa­ moseli, arc Tixis kaTxa ar ityvis imas, rom isini saWiroebam gamoigona: yvelaferi ise Cans, TiTqos yovel maTganSi amaRlebuli bedniereba da olimpiuri uRrublo ca, amas­ Tanave, seriozulobasTan TamaSi isaxebodes. am dros ki adamiani, romelic cnebebiTa

201

fridrix nicSe
da abstraqciebiT xelmZRvanelobs da maTi meSveobiT ubedurebas Tavidan iridebs ise, rom sakuTar Tavs abstraqciebidan bedniereba ar aiZulos, maSin, rodesac tkivilebi­ sagan SesaZlo Tavisufvlebisaken miiswrafvis, am dros kulturis centrSi mdgomi in­ tuiciuri adamiani, ukeTurebisgan daucvelad usasrulod modinebul gansxivosnebas, lxenas, xsnas sakuTari intuiciis nayofad imkis. Tumca Tu itanjeba, misi tanjva ufro sastikia: diax, igi xSirad itanjeba, radganac gamocdilebidan verafers swavlobs da mudam imave ormoSi vardeba, sadac erTxel ukve Cavardnila. vaebaSi iseTive ugunuria, rogorc bednierebaSi, igi xmamaRla yviris da ver poulobs nugeSs. ramdenad sxvanairad dgas aseTsave ubedurebaSi stoikuri, gamocdilebiT Wkuanaswavli, cnebebiT sakuTari Tavis flobis unaris mqone adamianic! is, Tuki Cveulebisamebr mxolod gulwrfelobas, WeSmaritebas, simcdarisagan Tavisuflebasa da momxibvleli Tavdasxmebisagan TavSesa­ fars eZebs, axla ubedurebaSi Cavardnili TvalTmaqcobis iseTive Sedevrs abarebs, ro­ gorc sxva bednierebaSi; mas adamianurad metyveli da moZravi saxe ki ara aqvs, aramed TiTqos SeniRbulia gawonasworebulobiT, araTu ar yviris, aramed sakuTar xmasac ki ar icvlis: mis Tavze mTeli Rrubeli rom gadmoiRvaros, labadas wamoifarebs da neli nabijiT TavsxmaSi gzas gauyveba. fridrix nicSes winamdebare narkvevi Ueber Wahrheit und Lüge im aussermoralischen Sinne mis erT­erT umniSvnelovanes da saprogramo teqstad miiCneva. masSi gamoTqmul mosaz­ rebebs nicSe Tavisi Semoqmedebis gviandel periodSi (XIX saukunis 80­ian wlebSi) isev daubrunda, Tumca ki 1872 wels dawyebuli da erTi wlis Semdeg 1873 zafxulSi dasrule­ buli es teqsti Tavad avtors arasodes gamouqveynebia. iTargmna jorjo kolisa da maZi­ no montinaris redaqciiT gamosuli wignidan – Friedrich Nietzsche, Sämtliche Werke. Kritische
Studienausgabe, I tomi, gv. 875­890.

202

WeSmaritebisa da sicruis Sesaxeb moralis gareSe azriT

1.

igulisxmeba germanel mweral gothold efraim lesingis (1729­1781) axalSobili bavSvi, ro­ melic dabadebidan 24 saaTis Semdeg gardaicvala, ris Sesaxebac lesingi erT pirad werilSi werda, rom misma Svilma samyaroSi darCenis veranairi safuZveli ver naxa.

2.

germanuli sityva Täuschung ­i, romelic winamdebare teqstis erT­erTi uxSiresi terminTa­ gania, qarTulad „gacruebad`, „simulaciad~, „SecdomaSi Seyvanad~, „Secdenad~ SeiZleba iTargmnos. Cven am ukanasknelze SevCerdiT.

3. 4. 5. 6.

laT. „yvelas omi yvelas winaaRmdeg~ an „yvela erTmaneTis winaaRmdeg~ germanul enaSi „xe~_ der Baum, ­ mamr. sqesisaa, xolo „mcenare` – die Pflanze ki mdedrobiTis. DDing an sich _ „nivTi TavisTavad~, _ imanuel kantis filosofiis erT­erTi mTavari cneba. „qladnis xmovani figurebi`_ igulisxmeba fizikos ernst florens fridrix qladnis (Chlad-

ni) mier gamogonili figurebi, romlebic qviSamoyrili firfitis violinos xemTan xaxuniT
warmoiqmneba. qladnis mixedviT, amgvarad bgera grafikul saxes iZens. (mTargmnelis Se­ niSvna). 7. 8. 9. laT. „saidumlo Tviseba~. kolumbariumi _ nagebobebi Zvel romSi, sadac inaxeboda urnebi gardacvlilTa neStiT (ferfliT). blez paskali, azrebi (PPensées) VI, 386.

* * *

203

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful