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You are on page 1of 37

u

?

Outline

1. Single sphere: Stokes and

turbulent drag

2. Many spheres: Stokes flow

3. Many spheres: intermediate Re

4. Many spheres: terminal velocity

1. Single sphere: Stokes and turbulent drag

u

1. Single sphere: Stokes and turbulent drag

Stokes drag (Re 0):

Turbulent drag (Re > 10

3

):

General form of drag relation for a single sphere:

with drag coefficient

Re 0

Re > 10

3

1. Single sphere: drag coefficient

1. Single sphere: drag coefficient

Re < 10

-1

:

Re > 10

3

:

General Re:

Most simple expression

Dallavalle (1948)

Turton &

Levenspiel

(1986)

1. Single sphere: drag coefficient

1. Single sphere: terminal velocity

First application: terminal velocity v of a sphere

Note: with

For which v do the forces

exactly balance?

Solve: for Re

1. Single sphere: terminal velocity

Solve:

1. Re < 10

-1

:

2. Re > 10

3

:

3. General Re:

Solve numerically

1. Single sphere: Galileo experiment

Second application:

Galileo Galilei, dropping a large and small iron ball from the tower of Pisa.

Common conception:

Balls hit the ground at the same time

(= true without air effect)

Actual observation of Galileo:

when the larger has reached the

ground, the other is short of it by two

fingerbreadths

1. Single sphere: Galileo experiment

Equation of motion for the sphere:

Solving the differential equation for d = 0.22 m and d = 0.05 m gives that

when the larger has reached the ground, the other is short of it by 96 cm!

2. Many spheres: Stokes flow

u

Dimensioneless drag force

2. Many spheres: Stokes flow

What is known from theory?

Accurate up to = 0.1

Kim & Russel, 1985:

Brinkman, 1947:

Diverges for = 0.667

2. Many spheres: Stokes flow

2. Many spheres: Stokes flow

Pragmatic approach: make link with pipe flow

Laminair flow through circular pipe, with pressure gradient

L

(exact result)

R

P

1

P

2

wet surface

volume of fluid

Laminair flow through

arbitrary shape pipe

L

P

1

R

P

2

Can be well described by

the above expression

2. Many spheres: Stokes flow

Flow through a network of pipes:

u

X

k: kozeny constant

Experiments for the pressure drop over a wide range of porous media

shows that k = 5, independent of the type of medium:

Darcys law:

2. Many spheres: Stokes flow

Flow through an array of spheres:

u

Carman-Kozeny equation

Relation to F ?

wet surface

volume of fluid

2. Many spheres: Stokes flow

Relation pressure drop to drag force F

d

that fluid exerts on a particle

Total force that fluid exerts

on a particle:

u

L

S

P

2 P

1

Force that each particle

exerts on the fluid:

Steady fluid flow: total

force on fluid is zero

2. Many spheres: Stokes flow

Carman-Kozeny:

2. Many spheres: Stokes flow

Accurate up to = 0.1

Kim & Russel, 1985:

Brinkman, 1947:

Diverges for = 0.667

Carman-Kozeny, 1937:

Does not approach 1 for

Van der Hoef, Beetstra & Kuipers, 2005:

2. Many spheres: Stokes flow

3. Many spheres: intermediate Re

Dimensioneless drag force

u

3. Many spheres: intermediate Re

What is known from theory?

Kaneda, 1986:

Accurate for Re < < 0.01

Pragmatic approach: connection with pipe flow

Pressure drop for turbulent flow through circular pipe

For bed of spheres:

Burke-

Plummer eq.

3. Many spheres: intermediate Re

Limit of low Re: Carman-Kozeny

Re > 4000: Burke-Plummer:

For general Re: try equation of the form

Fit to 640 experimental data points: A = 150, B = 1.75 Ergun equation

3. Many spheres: intermediate Re

3. Many spheres: intermediate Re

3. Many spheres: overview

Expressions for the dimensionless drag force

Stokes flow

in the limit

Drag for single particle at finite Re

given by , and

Drag for low Re flow through dense

random arrays Carman

Ergun equation from

pressure drop data

General form of Ergun

type equations

General form of Wen & Yu

type equations

4. Many spheres: terminal velocity

Richardson-Zaki

exponent

Experimentally

Steady state: force balance for one particle:

(mass displaced suspension)

(mass particle)

4. Many spheres: terminal velocity

Note that the terminal velocity is a function of

4. Many spheres: terminal velocity

Assuming a dimensioneless drag force of the form

gives:

Terminal velocity experiments are fitted to the form:

Hence the exponents are related as:

3. Many spheres: terminal velocity

Experimental results for the exponent n :

Wen & Yu (1966): over entire Re range

Di Felice (1994):

4. Many spheres: overview

Expressions for the dimensionless drag force

Stokes flow

in the limit

Drag for single particle at finite Re

given by , and

Drag for low Re flow through dense

random arrays Carman

Ergun equation from

pressure drop data

Wen & Yu equation from

terminal velocity data

3. Many spheres: overview

Expressions for the dimensionless drag force

Stokes flow

in the limit

Drag for single particle at finite Re

given by , and

Drag for low Re flow through dense

random arrays Carman

Ergun equation from

pressure drop data

General form of Ergun

type equations

General form of Wen & Yu

type equations

4. Many spheres: terminal velocity

Richardson-Zaki

exponent

Experimentally

Steady state: force balance for one particle:

(mass displaced suspension)

(mass particle)

4. Many spheres: terminal velocity

Note that the terminal velocity is a function of

4. Many spheres: terminal velocity

Assuming a dimensioneless drag force of the form

gives:

Terminal velocity experiments are fitted to the form:

Hence the exponents are related as:

3. Many spheres: terminal velocity

Experimental results for the exponent n :

Wen & Yu (1966): over entire Re range

Di Felice (1994):

4. Many spheres: overview

Expressions for the dimensionless drag force

Stokes flow

in the limit

Drag for single particle at finite Re

given by , and

Drag for low Re flow through dense

random arrays Carman

Ergun equation from

pressure drop data

Wen & Yu equation from

terminal velocity data

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