The Northern California Junior State of America
Fall State 2009 Beyond the Horizon: Assessing American Influence
Saturday, November 21, 2009
Registration Opening Session California Ballroom Keynote Address: Richard Hoffman California Ballroom Lunch Block 1 Salon 3 9:00-10:25 10:30-11:00
1:30-2:30 Thought talk: Should politicians follow the will of their constituents, or should they follow their own beliefs with the implication that the constituents elected them for their beliefs? Salon 4 Resolved: that the federal government replace the public school system with a purely charter school-driven educational system Salon 5 Resolved: that excessive litigation is destroying the American legal system. Salon 6 Resolved: issues of national security should take precedence over civil liberties. Salon 7 Resolved: that caps ought to be instituted on corporate pay Seattle/Portland Political Fair Newport Beach Workshop: How to Moderate Sierra Workshop: Debate 101 Santa Barbara Teacher/Advisor Meeting Salon D Unaffiliated delegates Mandatory Meeting Block 2 Salon 3 Salon 4 2:40-3:40 Thought Talk: Has Chinese foreign influence surpassed American influence? Resolved: that sex offender database laws be reformed to allow lesser offenders to be removed after a designated period of time Salon 5 Resolved: That America no longer operate its foreign policy under the presumption of American exceptionalism Salon 6 Historical Resolved: that Capitalism is superior to Communism A debate between Nikita Khrushchev and Richard Nixon Salon 7 Thought Talk: Does class divide us more than ethnicity? Seattle/Portland Political Fair Newport Beach Resolved: that American companies be forced to keep their overseas operations in compliance with American laws and regulations Sierra Special Activity: Skype Video Conference: Joe Ligotti Boston Ponderosa Introduction to the year’s Activism project concerning human trafficking Block 3 Salon 3 Salon 4 Salon 5 Salon 6 3:50-4:50 Resolved: that the U.S. should cut its defense spending by 50%, lowering spending to the level of the European Union. Thought Talk: To what extent should religion influence US domestic policy? Resolved: that genetically modified food should be regulated like prescription drugs. Senate Hearing, Resolved: that future dances at JSA conventions be abolished
Seattle/Portland Political Fair Newport Beach Resolved: that federal and state governments subsidize the creation of reliable widespread public transportation infrastructure Santa Barbara Resolved: that the U.S. should not spend money on Space Exploration in an economic crisis. Ponderosa Activism Documentary and Discussion: Child Slavery with Rageh Omaar Keynote Address: Debra Bowen California Ballroom Dinner Regional/Chapter Caucus/Key & Luggage Distribution Chapters will not receive keys until they have submitted a completed 2009-2010 tax form. GCR Salon 3 GGR Salon 6 EBR Salon 4 CVT Salon 7 Night Activities Salon 6 Seattle Santa Barbara Ponderosa Suite 1445 Curfew 5:00-5:50
5:50-7:30 7:35- 8:30
9:30-12:00 Dance Game Room Movie Impromptu Speech Contest Teacher-Advisor Reception
Sunday, November 22, 2009
Luggage Storage Salon D CIA Breakfast Salon C Block 4 Salon 3 Salon 4 Salon 5 Salon 6 Newport Beach Portland Santa Barbara Seattle 8:30-9:30 8:30-9:30
9:40-10:40 Assembly Resolved: That human cloning be legalized. Resolved: that presidential campaigns have a private spending cap. Resolved: that the University of California Board rejects proposals to increase university fees. Resolved: International treaties ratified and signed by the United States should take precedence over the Constitution. Resolved: that economic equality is more important than economic freedom Resolved: that the U.S. takes action to stop the enlargement of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch Activism Debate: Resolved, that the definition of “trafficking” include all forms of recruitment and transportation for prostitution, regardless of consent, 10:50-11:50 Resolved: that the United States expand offshore oil drilling Resolved: that the United States actively work towards the creation of an independent Palestinian stat e Resolved: that the United States implement a military draft. Resolved: that the U.S. government provide universal health care to its citizen Resolved: that the United States should normalize relations with Cuba. Resolved: that hate crime legislation be considered unconstitutional Thought Talk: What is the best form of Democracy: Parliamentary, bicameral, or direct? Activism Thought Talk: Does the U.S. have the right to make symbolic laws?
Block 5 Salon 3 Salon 4 Salon 5 Salon 6 Newport Beach Portland Santa Barbara Seattle
Lunch Block 6 Salon 3 Salon 4 Salon 5 Salon 6
1:10-2:10 Crisis Scenario Teacher/Advisor Debate: Resolved: That California Repeal Proposition 13 Resolved: that public schools distribute and educate students on the use of contraceptives Historical: Resolved: that the Civil War was a case of Northern aggression A debate between Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis Newport Beach Resolved: that the United States should submit its jurisdiction to the International Criminal Court. Portland Thought Talk: Should students' rights be limited in public school in the U.S? Santa Barbara Resolved: that the United States should have a purely defensive military. Seattle Activism: “How to Become a Modern Day Abolitionist” Informational Session Closing Session 2:15-2:45
The Northern California Junior State of America
Fall State 2009 Beyond the Horizon: Assessing American Influence Full Agenda
Saturday, November 21, 2009 9:00-10:25 Registration
Chapter Presidents and Teacher Advisors should go to the registration table to check in. Teacher Advisors will receive information packets and nametags for their chapters. Please put on nametags and wear them above the waist at all times. Luggage Storage: All luggage should be taken to Salon D to be stored under the first letter of your school’s name. The luggage rooms will be locked until 8:15 pm, so keep everything you will need with you until then.
10:30-11:00 Opening Session
California Ballroom Jessica Du, Governor Welcome to Northern California’s 2009 Fall State Convention, “Beyond the Horizon: Assessing American Influence. Prepare to embark on a fun-filled weekend of thought-provoking debates, entertaining thought talks, and other fabulous activities.
11:00-11:45 Keynote Speaker: Richard Hoffman
Richard Hoffman holds a bachelor’s degree in National Security Affairs from the U.S. Military Academy, and master’s degrees in history and political science from Stanford University. While at Stanford, he served as a graduate teaching assistant and assisted in the preparation of Force and Statecraft: Diplomatic Problems of Our Time by Gordon A. Craig and Alexander L. George. Before joining the Center for Civilian-Military Relations in 1996, Rich served for more than 24 years in the U.S. Army. The Center for Civil-Military Relations is an outreach component of the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, and provides Defense Security Cooperation education programs throughout the globe. His last assignments include duty as Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations of the Sixth U.S. Army, responsible for oversight of Army Reserve Component Readiness and Military Support to Civil
Authorities in the twelve western United States. Also as a strategic plans officer in the U.S. Mission to NATO from 1989 to 1993, where he led the Office of the Secretary of Defense's effort in the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty negotiations, and the development of policy and strategy for NATO's peacekeeping capabilities. During his military career, Rich served in numerous command and staff positions with armored units in both the U.S. and Germany. As a Naval Postgraduate School Senior Lecturer, he also teaches graduate courses in civil-military relations, policy and strategy development, military history, and joint and combined operations in the NPS Department of National Security Affairs. He also oversees the development and coordination of the Center's global education programs in Civil-Military Relations; Policy and Strategy development in a Democracy; Combating Terrorism; and Stability and Reconstruction Operations.
Time to take a break and get something to eat! Mingle with your fellow convention-goers while you’re standing in line at one of the nearby food locations. Check your map, located at the back of this booklet, for ideas. Make sure to come back on time for the second block – you don’t want to miss anything exciting!
1:30-2:30 Block 1
Thought talk: Should politicians follow the will of their constituents, or should they follow their own beliefs with the implication that the constituents elected them for their beliefs? Moderator: Shruti Kannan, Northgate
Political philosophers remain consistently divided over the issue of the role of the political representative. Many believe that because the people elect their congressmen, representatives must follow the will of their constituents. However, many criticize this type of elected official for responding to the polls in order to get reelected. On the other hand, many believe that because the people elect their congressmen, the people have therefore endorsed their representatives’ platform, allowing elected officials to do what they believe is right, regardless of whether their constituents agree. However, many criticize this type of congressmen for disregarding the will of the voters. Which school of philosophy should congressmen follow?
Resolved, that the federal government replace the public school system with a purely charter school-driven educational system. Pro: Alexandra Ramirez, University Preparatory Con: Camila McHugh, Castilleja Moderator: George Lu, Crystal Springs Uplands
American public schools used to be among the best in the world. Now, the U.S. school system doesn’t rank in the top 15 internationally. Many blame this on a lack of overall funding, while others point out that Washington DC schools spend the most per student of anywhere in the country yet have the lowest funding. Many argue that private schools and charter schools have had much greater success, and that because they use newer teaching techniques and promote strenuous academics, they provide a better learning environment. But others argue that diverting funds from the public school system to pay for vouchers would take money away from those who wouldn’t be accepted into private school, and that by placing people in
schools based on their ability, a bad classroom environment is created. Should the United States switch to a charter and private school system, or should public schools remain the focus of education in America.
Resolved, that excessive litigation is destroying the American legal system. Pro: Brhan Ahmed, Central High Con: Michael Endick, Northgate Moderator: Clare Ines, Mercy
Recently, the number of lawsuits filed in America has increased exorbitantly, raising America's civil court system costs to $246 billion per year. Proponents of tort reform believe that excess lawsuits regarding product liability cost us even more, because they raise the price of goods and services and discourage the development of new products. This excessive litigation hurts America's ability to compete with foreign nations in a global economy. Advocates for the current American tort system argue that these costs ar3e exaggerated and that America's tort system also provides social benefits that opponents often ignore, as companies must be punished for producing dangerous products. Does America's civil court system need to be drastically reformed?
Resolved, issues of national security should take precedence over civil liberties. Pro: Daniel Ewert, Bishop O’ Dowd Con: Vance Phan, Silver Creek Moderator: Kapil Kolhatkar, Harker
In a time of uncertainty, pragmatism must be balanced with idealism. As legislation such as the Patriot Act begins to encroach on civil liberties, citizens have begun to grow wary of government security measures. Pragmatists support these and other national security measures. They argue that in times of great distress, swift and severe action needs to be taken, and that history has vindicated such actions. They cite Lincoln’s suspension of habeas corpus or American espionage efforts during the cold war. Idealists are resolute in their conviction that civil liberties are ultimate and inalienable. These visionaries refer to the slippery slope, a fear that these measures can snowball and threaten the very essence of American democracy. Should the United States government prioritize national security or civil liberties?
Resolved, that caps ought to be instituted on corporate pay. Pro: Malena Magallanez, Mercy Con: Jamie Silva, Patrick Henry Moderator: Jacob Smith, Irvington
Recently, Congress has stated that any corporate executive whose company accepts government bailout money should have his or her corporate compensation capped at a level that is no higher than that of the President's. Proponents of corporate pay caps argue that such caps would reverse the current quarter-byquarter mentality and halt the pursuit of narrow self-interest. Opponents of compensation limits argue that they will dissuade top management from working for companies in financial turmoil, and that limiting potential incomes of employees goes against traditional American values. They also argue that curtailing executives' income will harm expensive restaurants, stores and services that cater to the wealthy, and that the caps will therefore harm the economy. Are caps on corporate pay necessary to prevent wealthy
Americans' greed, or would income limits potentially hurt the economy or infringe on the rights of Americans to earn high salaries?
Head on over to the political fair where numerous political and activist organizations are waiting to talk to you! Organizations such as the Republican Assembly, the Libertarian Party, and the World Federalist Organization will be in attendance. Browse the tables, talk to their representatives, and see what interests you. If you enjoy political diversity and political action this is definitely an event for you!
Workshop: Debate 101 Led by: Adam Berman, Director of Debate Workshop: How to Moderate Led by: Mallory Craig-Kairm, Debate Coordinator Teacher Advisor Meeting Carter McCoy, Program Director Jessica Du, Governor Unaffiliated Delegates Mandatory Meeting
2:40-3:40 Block 2
Thought Talk: Has Chinese foreign influence surpassed American influence? Moderator: Jacob Angel, San Mateo
China's GDP has grown from $1.1 trillion in 1999 to about $7 trillion in 2008. China’s foreign expenditures have also increased exorbitantly, with many international investments in numerous 3rd world nations in Africa and Asia, as well as an enormous investment in the American overall debt. On the other hand, America’s increasing debt and economic decline has forced American companies to withdraw numerous foreign investments. And while American military might is felt to a much stronger degree overseas than China’s, foreign insurgents now feel more comfortable going up against the United States in countries such as Afghanistan and Iraq. Has China taken over as the most internationally influential country?
Resolved: that the California Legislature reform sex offender laws to allow lesser offenders to be removed from the database after a designated period of time. Pro: Christopher Eckardt, Harker Con: Emily Lovell, Alameda Moderator: Elizabeth Hall, Central
Under California Penal Code 314.1, convicted sex offenders including: rapists and other serious offenders, those who are convicted of statutory rape (consensual sex between a person over age 18 and a minor),
solicitation of a prostitute, and public exposure (which can include streaking) must register on the California Sex Offenders Database. California code also requires juvenile offenders to register, which means that a teenager's indiscretion could follow him or her for life. However, to reform these laws could lead to a slippery slope in relaxing protection against sex offenders. In addition, many argue that though the crimes seem minor, they are still sex crimes, and that it therefore makes sense that the perpetrators end up on the sex offender database. Are these laws unfairly targeting lesser offenders, or are they necessary to protect society?
Resolved: that America no longer operate its foreign policy under the presumption of American Exceptionalism. Pro: Malena Savell, Sierra Con: Sarah Siskind, Piedmont Moderator: Aaron Alokozai, Castro Valley
American Exceptionalism is the belief that America is unique because it was founded upon the ideals of liberty, equality, and democracy, and that this offers it a special place among nations. In terms of foreign policy, American Exceptionalism caused the U.S. to use its super power status to influence the growth of freedom and democracy in other countries. Critics complain that there is a dark side to this policy, as Americans use force to impose democracy on nations that do not want it. Does the idea of America as the shining city on the hill resonate with the rest of the world, or does American belief in the superiority of its ideals hurt America's foreign policy?
Resolved: that Capitalism is superior to Communism
A debate between Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev.
Pro: Wolfgang Alders, Bishop O’ Dowd Con: Tara Drezer, Pacific Collegiate Moderator: Julie Sanchez, Montgomery
The year is 1959, and tensions between the United States and the USSR are mounting. Both sides have nuclear weapons pointed at each other, waiting for the other to flinch. However, the more fundamental issue is not military might, but rather the strength of their respective political and economic systems. At the 1959 World Fair in Moscow, Vice President Richard Nixon and Premier Nikita Khrushchev are set to engage in the Kitchen Debates, a famous series of exchanges between the two about whether Communism or Capitalism is better. Nixon will boast about the technological and luxurious advances that Capitalism has provided, including home appliances and widely available cars. Khrushchev will argue that the USSR cares less about the luxury items, and that its military advances and the more socially evolved political and economic system allows for far greater equality, make the Socialist Republic superior. Who will reign supreme, Nixon or Khrushchev?
Thought Talk: Does class divide us more than ethnicity? Moderator: Stephanie Ribet, College Prep
In the United States, the richest 1% of people control over 40% of the wealth. The average salary, including bonuses and stock options, of a CEO in America is about $12 million per year, while the average beginningentry employee of an American company earns about $24,000 per year. The differences between the rich and the poor have never been greater in the United States. Additionally, despite the election of the first
African-American president in American history, racial boundaries continue to divide society. Reports of racial profiling by police officers and racially induced hate crimes in schools continue to bring racial divides to the forefront of the media. Have we reached the point where economic status divides the population of the United States more than ethnicity?
Political Fair Resolved: that American companies operating overseas should be bound by American laws and regulations. Pro: Elijah Probst, School Of the Arts Con: Mallory Craig-Karim, Acalanes Moderator: Amita Guha, Mission San Jose
Seattle/Portland Newport Beach
If the U.S. regulates its companies off of American soil, some argue we will simply have fewer competitive American companies. But those regulations, others contend, are what make companies distinctly American; proponents of the resolution argue that allowing companies to ignore our regulations abroad would devalue what it means to be an American company. The name ought to represent a higher standard of working conditions and business practice. If we are to enforce our regulations abroad, our image will improve, but it is possible that the productivity of our companies will be hampered. Is it worth the sacrifice?
Special Activity: Skype Video Conference with Joe Ligotti
Joe Ligotti, aka “The Guy From Boston”, is a large, outspoken conservative who resides in Boston. Joe became somewhat famous on YouTube through his over-the-top political rants. He has made videos on a wide variety of topics, from immigration, to corruption in the US Congress, to global warming. His success on the web has helped to propel him to multiple appearances on Fox News, and helped him to land a job as a local radio talk show host in Boston, and his radio shows are broadcasted around the world via the internet. Joe continues to post new rants on to YouTube, and to his own website (www.theguyfromboston.net). Joe Ligotti is opinionated on nearly every topic, and looks forward to speaking with JSA delegates and answering any questions you may have for him.
Activism: Introduction to the year’s project concerning human trafficking Led by Ava Ghezelayagh, Activism Director
This year, our state Activism Department has decided to focus on raising awareness about human trafficking, the modern-day slave trade. Today, trafficking enslaves approximately 27 million people around the world (at least half of which are children), and at least 100,000 people in the U.S. are slaves. Come to this informational block to learn more about human trafficking as it exists internationally, nationally, and locally.
3:50-4:50 Block 3
Resolved: that the U.S. should cut its defense spending by 50%, lowering spending to the level of the European Union. Salon 3
Pro: Jasper Werby, Berkeley Con: Wonchan Yi, Patrick Henry Moderator: Kevin Koh, Northgate
In 2008, the United States spent over $600 billion, 56% of Congress’s discretionary budget, on the Department of Defense and the global war on terror, not including the wars in Afghanistan or Iraq. In comparison, the estimated total defense spending of European Union nations for 2009 was a little over $300 billion, less than half of America’s spending. Some argue that the U.S. currently spends an unreasonable proportion of its budget on defense spending and that lowering the defense budget would encourage more efficient use of government resources, including fewer unnecessary pork-barrel defense contracts. However, others maintain that in order to effectively protect America from hostile nations and terrorist groups, the Defense Department and other recipients of military funding require today's levels of the federal spending; also, because the United States is the single greatest force in the global war on terror, it requires significantly more spending than other nations do. Should defense spending be cut by 50% to avoid excessive spending or would such drastic cuts cripple the United States military?
Thought Talk: To what extent should religion influence U.S domestic policy? Moderator: Simone Bradley, Berkeley
Some argue that religion provides moral limitations when it comes to the actions of our government. Religion, if exercised with some limitations allows for the U.S. federal government to have a moral code when dealing with domestic affairs. On the other hand, many are against religious influence in politics; they point to the first amendment's provision that no law should be passed "respecting a religion." To what extent should religion influence U.S. domestic policy?
Resolved: that the United States test and regulate the production and sale of genetically modified foods Pro: Alex Bonser, Colfax Con: Tyler Koteskey, Harker Moderator: David Mather, Alternative Family Education
Since the 1990s, genetically modified foods have been a staple in the American food market. Recently, GM food has become a highly controversial issue due to recent studies suggesting that GM foods could be damaging to one's health. Supporters of GM food argue that due to its prevalence in the market, a decrease in the sale of GMOs could cause widespread famine or harm companies that produce or sell GM foods. Also, genetic modifying of foods can help make crops more resistant to pests, bacteria, and harsh weather. On the other hand, the effects of GM foods on humans are unknown, and many fear that the introduction of foreign genes into food plants could have an unexpected negative impact on the health of humans. Should the government step in to assure that genetically modified foods have no negative effects on humans, or should genetically modified foods be treated the same as natural, unmodified foods?
Senate Hearing, Resolved: that future dances at JSA conventions be abolished Led by: Marissa Ramirez Zweiger, Lieutenant Governor
It has come to the attention of the Senate that many people are uncomfortable with the presence of the dances at JSA conventions. Schools have complained that their delegates are behaving inappropriately, and
are threatening to prohibit them from attending conventions. The Senate will be taking this opportunity to discuss the merits of the JSA dance, and whether or not it should continue to take place. After the Senators on each side have given their speeches, the floor will be open to subsequent speeches from the public. After the public hearing, the Senators will continue to deliberate privately, and will ultimately vote on the resolution.
Political Fair Resolved: that federal and state governments subsidize the creation of reliable, widespread public transportation infrastructure Pro: Melissa Fedornak, Benicia Con: George Lu, Crystal Springs Uplands Moderator: Grant Rowley, Benicia
Seattle/Portland Newport Beach
Compared to other first world nations, Americans drive much more often and much greater distances. This addiction to driving has drawn the concern of many environmental and political groups who believe that the solution to this problem lies in the creation of more effective public transportation. Those in favor this resolution believe that a large-scale government-sponsored public transportation system would reduce emissions and reduce dependency on foreign oil while creating thousands of jobs and bringing the benefits of affordable travel to millions of Americans. Those against this resolution doubt the effectiveness of such a project and worry about the fiscal burden that it would cause. In this time of record deficits on both the federal and state level, critics believe that the American government is in no position to spend billions of dollars on an unproven public transportation system. Is government-sponsored mass transit worth the cost?
Resolved: that the United States should not spend money on Space Exploration in an economic crisis Pro: Konstantine Piterman, Oakland Tech Con: Zack Dackavich, Sierra Moderator: Su-Yee Lee, Northgate
In late May 2009, it was announced that NASA’s budget for the 2010 fiscal year will be $18.69 billion dollars, up $2 billion from 2009 despite the United States’ current economic crisis. With this increase in funding, NASA plans to advance its research in many key areas, including global climate change, and to put more satellites into space. Many who favor this increase in spending state that by doing more research, more jobs will be created, ultimately helping the American people. Others argue that in our current economic state, federal money should be spent in more necessary areas, like our nation’s defense, health care, and education. Should the United States spend money exploring and researching the final frontier, or should our money stay here on Earth?
Activism Documentary and Discussion: Child Slavery with Rageh Omaar
It is estimated that over a million children around the world are enslaved each year, ending up as domestic servants, menial laborers and, most horrifically of all, as child prostitutes for the sex industry. In this documentary, Rageh Omaar travels to Cambodia, Ethiopia, India and Peru to share the stories of five child slaves and to expose how children, once separated from their parents, become vulnerable to modern day slavery.
5:00-5:50 Keynote Speaker: Debra Bowen
Secretary Debra Bowen was born in Rockford, Illinois, and graduated from Michigan State University in 1976. After earning her law degree at the University of Virginia, she practiced corporate, tax and ERISA law at Winston & Strawn in Chicago and in Washington, D.C.. Eventually her practice grew to include environmental and land use cases, as well as tax and business matters. First elected in 1992 to represent the 53rd Assembly District in west Los Angeles County, Secretary Bowen served three terms before being elected to represent the 28th Senate District in 1998. She then served two terms in the Senate until she was elected Secretary of State in 2006. As Secretary of State, Ms. Bowen has made bold strides and become a national leader in the movement to restore integrity to our election systems. In 2008, she was recognized for this leadership with the John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award, the nation's most prestigious honor for elected public servants who choose principles over partisanship. During her 14 years in the California Legislature, Debra Bowen was a pioneer in government reform, consumer protection and privacy rights, environmental conservation, equality for women, open government, and election integrity.
It’s time to relax and chow down. Enjoy your meals, and try to eat with some new friends. Please be back in time for Chapter Caucus to ensure a quick transition into key and luggage distribution.
7:35-8:15 Chapter Caucus
All delegates must meet with their Teacher Advisors in their assigned room to receive their room keys. Then, delegates should proceed to gather their luggage and take it to their rooms. Check the last page to find out what region your school is in. Greater California Region Golden Gate Region East Bay Region Central Valley Territory Salon 3 Salon 6 Salon 4 Salon 7
8:15-8:30 Key and Luggage Distribution
Greater California Region Golden Gate Region East Bay Region Central Valley Territory Salon 3 Salon 6 Salon 4 Salon 7
9:00- 10:00 Teacher/Advisor Reception
Teacher/Advisor Reception Suite 1445 All teachers and advisors are invited to a reception just for you! This is a chance to get to know some other teachers and relax before the dance! Let us pamper you with refreshments and appreciation.
9:30-12:00 Nighttime Activities
Dance Grand Ballroom
After a full day of hardcore debating, it's time to get your groove on! Join your fellow delegates for the dance you've been waiting all day for and dance ‘til midnight! All delegates must wear their nametag in order to be admitted. Game Room Movie Improptu Speech Contest Seattle Santa Barbara Ponderosa
12:15 AM Curfew
All Delegates must be in their assigned room by 12:15 for Teacher Advisor room checks. On no exception may any delegate leave their room for any reason.
Sunday, November 22, 2009
8:30-9:30 Luggage Storage
All luggage must be stored in Salon D under the first letter of your school’s name and keys returned to your Teacher Advisor by 9:00 a.m.
8:30-9:30 CIA Breakfast
Come have breakfast with your new friends in a fun setting. Hosted by the Chapter Internal Affairs department. Then get ready for your final few blocks.
9:40-10:40 Block 4
Assembly Led by: Erica Woolsey, Speaker of the Assembly Mandatory for all Chapter presidents in order to express their concerns with the state Salon 3
Resolved: That human cloning be legalized Pro: Connor Reed, Alameda Con: Benjamin Goode, Alameda Moderator: Sam Townsend, Pacific Collegiate
Human cloning has been divided into two categories: therapeutic and reproductive. An active area of research in some countries but illegal in the US, therapeutic cloning involves cloning specific types of cells for medical use and research. Reproductive cloning, which is the creation of a completely genetically identical human being, is illegal in many countries including the United States and has not yet been successfully performed. Proponents of human cloning argue that reproductive cloning could benefit infertile couples, and that therapeutic cloning could save thousands of lives through organ transplants. Opponents maintain that any kind of human cloning is unethical because it cheapens life and is vulnerable to abuse. Other critics argue that human cloning could lead to eugenics, the unethical science of creating perfect humans. Will the benefits of allowing human cloning outweigh the ethical implications and risks?
Resolved: That the Federal Election Commission institute private spending caps for Presidential campaigns. Pro: Simone Bradley, Berkeley Con: Marie Rice, Bishop O’ Dowd Moderator: Zach Dackavich, Sierra
The Federal Election Commission limits the amount of money that can be contributed by individuals directly to an election campaign. There are ways around these limits, however, including donations to Political Action Committees or to the candidate's political party, which can run advertising in support of the candidate. After the primaries, a Presidential candidate can opt to use public financing for his or her campaign. By agreeing to participate in public financing, however, the candidate cannot accept additional private contributions. This creates a circumstance where a candidate who finances his or her Presidential campaign privately may have access to far greater funds, and where significant amounts may be contributed by special interest groups. However, many argue that money equals speech, as money can buy advertisements, and that curtailing private spending encroaches on free speech. Would instituting a private spending cap help to level the playing field among the candidates, so elections are more likely to be won on issues alone?
Resolved: that the University of California Board reject proposals to increase university fees. Pro: Heraa Hasnat, Mercy Con: James Kelly, Alameda Moderator: Stephanie Ribet, College Prep
California's current economic crisis has impacted all areas of its budget, including higher education. As a result, there have been drastic fee hikes for students enrolled in the University of California system. Proponents of this resolution argue that it's unfair for U.C. students to face significant and often unexpected tuition increases in addition to fewer class options and decreased teaching quality as a result of budget cuts. Opponents of this resolution argue that the cuts to the U.C. system are necessary and that tuition increases would only be temporary and would allow U.C. schools to stay competitive with California private
universities. Should the U.C. campuses raise their fees in accordance with California's budget proposal, or should they reject the proposals for the sake of the students?
Resolved: that international treaties ratified and signed by the United States take priority over the Constitution. Pro: Julie Sanchez, Montgomery Con: Gavin Landgraf, Patrick Henry Moderator: Stephanie Chan, Northgate
Currently, the Constitution is considered the supreme law of the land in the U.S.; international treaties, while still important, take second priority in policymaking. Some argue that the U.S. should sign international treaties with intent of following their provisions in every situation, and that if America signs a treaty, it should amend the Constitution so that the two do not conflict. Proponents of the current system argue that the Constitution should remain the supreme law of the land due to its full integration and success in policymaking. Would the U.S. benefit from following the standards set forth by the international treaties it signs, or should the Constitution remain its first priority?
Resolved: that economic equality is more important than economic freedom Pro: Kevin Spevak, Berkeley Con: Tyler Kotesky, Harker Moderator: Simone Backer, Crystal Springs Uplands
In 2008, 13.2% of people living in the United States met the government definition for poverty, but compared to the efforts of other developed nations, the United States did little to provide for the poor while the richest Americans enjoyed exceptional wealth. Historically, the United States has focused upon the idea of the “work ethic,” which maintains that hard work is rewarded with economic success but also implies that poverty is the result of laziness. However, some state that the American Dream is no longer a possibility for some people, and that the government must do more to aid children and other dependents living in poverty. Others hold that by making social equality more important than economic freedom, the government will hamper economic growth and violate the founding principles of the United States. Should the government focus upon economic equality rather than maximizing economic freedom?
Resolved: that the U.S. take action to stop the enlargement of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Pro: Charlene Liang, Armijo Con: Kapil Kolhatkar, Harker Moderator: Angela Dai, San Mateo
Formed gradually by the accumulation of marine debris, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is a collection of small pieces of plastic and other garbage floating in the ocean. It has an area roughly twice the size of Texas and possibly weighs more than 100 million tons. Carried by the currents to an area between Southeast Asia and the West Coast of North America, the trash in the Garbage Patch primarily comes from land-based sources. Many have pressured the US government to start cleaning up the mass on the grounds that it harms marine wildlife and poses such an enormous problem that it must be addressed. However, skeptics explain that cleaning up such a large mass is impossible, that the expenses would outweigh the benefits, and resources would be better spent by preventing it from growing rather than cleaning it up. Should the United
States try to clean up the Great Pacific Garbage Patch?
Activism Debate: Resolved, that the definition of “trafficking in persons” include all forms of recruitment and transportation for prostitution, regardless of consent. Pro: Michelle Bolanos, Richmond Con: Sasha Read, College Prep Moderator: Mallory Craig-Karim
Because the present day practice of trafficking in persons takes on different forms, fulfills different purposes, and includes men, women, and children, the definitions, interpretations, and public understanding of this complicated issue have diversified. Negotiations leading up to the United Nations 2000 Protocol on Trafficking revealed the differences between two distinct viewpoints as the definition of “trafficking in persons” was debated. While some argued that “trafficking” should include all forms of recruitment and transportation for prostitution, regardless of consent, others supported the view that prostitution is work and that force was the important factor in defining trafficking. The pro-prostitution defends the right to selfdetermination, right to work, and the right to self expression while the anti-prostitution viewpoint questions the wider socio-economic and cultural context within which such “choices” are being made.
9:30-10:30 Block 5
Resolved: that the United States expand offshore oil drilling. Pro: Krista Guardino, Patrick Henry Con: Grant Rowley, Benicia Moderator: Jamie Silva, Patrick Henry
The Minerals Management Service estimates that the Outer Continental Shelf contains over eighty billion barrels of oil and over 400 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. The integration of these vast stores would both reduce our dependency on foreign oil and aid the economy of the host state. However, in addition to the possible harm to tourism industries, many environmental organizations predict grave consequences from the exploitation of these untapped reserves. Also, expanding offshore drilling would do nothing to combat our addiction to fossil fuels; critics assert that this alone discourages a widening of the program, while proponents insist that our addiction will continue in either case and that we may as well use all available resources. Whichever route is taken, the ramifications will be noticeable.
Resolved: that the United States actively work towards the creation of an Independent Palestinian state. Pro: Syed Rahim, Oak Grove Con: Kate Griesemer, Davis Moderator: Sarah Sachs, College Prep
Ninety-six countries currently recognize the State of Palestine, and many other nations grant Palestine diplomatic status. However, the United States does not recognize Palestine as a sovereign nation. Proponents of recognizing an official Palestinian state believe that forming a state with clear boundaries and sovereignty will ease disputes between Palestine and Israel, and that the United States could benefit from supporting a
potentially strong ally in the Middle East. Opponents of the resolution argue that America is not neutral and therefore cannot effectively mediate a solution; many contend that a better solution would be to incorporate Palestine into Israel, granting Palestinians full Israeli citizenship. Should the United States work to create an independent Palestine, or explore other options with regards to its Middle Eastern policy?
Resolved: that the United States implement a military draft. Pro: Nicole Pilar, Ursuline Con: Liam Burke, Tamalpais Moderator: Nick Wallace, Alternative Family Education
Currently, the U.S. has a combined reserve and active military personnel of almost 3,000,000 volunteers. Some argue that a military draft would push Americans who deem themselves superior to serving their country into patriotic service and create a unified war effort if the U.S. were to engage in war in the near future. Others argue that a draft is unnecessary due to the currently high numbers of volunteers involved in the military and that Americans have the right to decide whether or not to join the military. Should the U.S. implement a military draft to unify its citizens behind a common, patriotic force, or use its current force of 3 million volunteering Americans in future war efforts?
Resolved: that the United States government provide universal healthcare to its citizens. Pro: Michael Wu, San Mateo Con: Jilian Plank, Central Moderator: Ian Lofgren, Petaluma
The current debate over health insurance reform in America is one of the most contentious hot-button issues discussed today. Proponents of a public option argue that the successes of other nations’ government-run health care systems and the ineffectiveness of private health insurance companies in America call for an affordable public health care option. Opponents of the public option argue that everyone in the U.S. should not be burdened with the tax expenses of others’ health care, and that Americans would have fewer options for doctors if there were a public option. Does the federal government have the responsibility to offer health care to all its citizens, or should health insurance remain mostly privately run?
Resolved: that the United States should normalize relations with Cuba. Pro: Camilo Vilaseca, Berkeley Con: Jacob Angel, San Mateo Moderator: William Johnston, Northgate
Cuba, a communist nation, has been at odds with the United States since Fidel Castro first assumed power in 1959. For years, the U.S. unsuccessfully tried economic sanctions and other measures to weaken Castro's rule; but in February 2008, Fidel formally resigned from office, sixteen months after transferring power to his brother Raul. Some U.S. constituencies would like to proactively attempt to resume normal relations with Cuba; U.S. agricultural groups already trade with Cuba, and other economic sectors would benefit from access to the Cuban market. However, opponents argue that due to human rights violations perpetrated by the Cuban government, it would send the wrong message to the international community if we normalized relations. In addition, the American and Cuban militaries are still at odds over Guantanamo Bay, and normalizing relations might force a change in American Guantanamo Bay policy. Should the United Sates lift restrictions on economic and political interactions with Cuba?
Resolved: that the United States Supreme Court rule hate crime legislation unconstitutional. Pro: James Kelly, Alameda Con: Jeremy Venook, San Mateo Moderator: Xeno Fish, College Prep
Hate crime legislation in the U.S. illuminates questions about the contrasting roles of freedom and justice in modern society. Proponents of making hate crime legislation unconstitutional argue that sentencing people differently based on racial, sexual, or physical differences are violations of the equal protection clause of the Constitution. They also argue that the best way to promote equality is universalizing punishments for crimes, and that hate crime legislation abridges free speech. On the other hand, opponents of this resolution point out that crimes motivated by differences in race or sexual orientation are often more vicious or rooted with more evil motives than normal crimes; therefore, hate crimes require more stringent punishment. Critics argue that hate crime legislation is a necessary instrument to protect minorities and can be used as a stepping stone for them to gain equal rights in society. Is hate crime legislation a necessary deterrent, or does it encroach upon American ideals?
Thought Talk: What is the best form of democracy: parliamentary, bicameral, or direct? Moderator: Paige Massey, Quincy
Democracy comes in all shapes and sizes, and different countries have implemented different types of democratic systems with varying degrees of success. In many European nations, the people elect a parliament, and the most popular party in parliament gets to appoint a Prime Minister. In the United States, the people elect representatives to serve in two separate houses (a bicameral legislature), and the citizens directly elect the president. In a number of states in the U.S., people vote on individual measures and resolutions (a direct democracy). Which system represents the will of the people best, and which system is the most effective form of government?
Activism Thought Talk: Does the U.S. have the right to make symbolic laws? Moderator: Christopher Eckardt, Harker
By enacting the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, U.S. policymakers acknowledged trafficking in persons as criminal behavior, punishable under federal law. But this law, like many others, also performs symbolic functions as identified in criminal justice literature. It reassures the law abiding, threatens the lawbreaker, communicates a moral message, provides a model for the states, and educates about a problem. Should Congress be making such symbolic laws? Does it even have the right to do so?
Time to take a break and get something to eat! Mingle with your fellow convention-goers while you’re standing in line at one of the nearby food locations. Check your map, located at the back of this booklet, for ideas. Make sure to come back on time for the second block – you don’t want to miss anything exciting!
10:40-11:40 Block 6
Crisis Scenario Led by: Kapil Kolhatkar Salon 3
Come join us in a crisis scenario to delve deeper into political issues! Crisis scenarios are innovative and interesting ways to discuss your political views and act out a hypothetical situation. In a crisis scenario, the group is presented with a question or scenario. The group is then given possible solutions or actions to take to resolve the problem. Acting as government leaders, watch as the situation unfolds and different outcomes result based upon your decisions. A crisis scenario is an innovative and interactive way to get involved in JSA, learn more about politics, and discover what could result if you were making the government’s decisions.
Teacher Advisor Debate: Resolved: That California repeal Proposition 13
Proposition 13, officially titled the "People's Initiative to Limit Property Taxation," was a ballot initiative to amend the constitution of the state of California. The initiative was enacted by the voters of California on June 6, 1978. Proposition 13 is embodied in Article 13A of the California Constitution. The most significant portion of the act is the first paragraph, which capped real estate taxes. Section 1. (a) The maximum amount of any on real property shall not exceed one percent of the full cash value of such property. The one percent tax to be collected by the counties and apportioned according to law to the districts within the counties. Proponents of the proposition say it forces government to evaluate their budgets more carefully to prevent overspending and wasting of valuable funds, while opponents say the proposition calls for unequal property taxes in many cities, while it also provides less funding for local public services such as police, fire, and schools.
Resolved: that public schools provide supplies of contraceptives for distribution. Pro: Erica Lantzch, Castilleja Con: Robert Rose, Patrick Henry Moderator: Jake Houser, Pacific Collegiate
The United States has the one of the highest pregnancy rates for teenagers in the developed world. Under the Bush Administration, federal funding for sex education was only provided for schools whose programs taught that abstinence is the only acceptable form of contraception. Because abstinence was the only form of sex education in many schools, the teen pregnancy rates rose 3 percent in 2006 (the first increase since 1991). Supporters of contraceptive education argue that providing a more thorough form of sexual education would cause pregnancy rates to drop again. They also contend that students would benefit from education about sexually transmitted diseases. Supporters of abstinence-only education argue that teenagers should not have sex before marriage, and that if students were to have access to knowledge about safe sex and use of contraceptives it would encourage them to engage in premarital sex. In addition, many argue that teenagers should learn about sex from their parents, and that school is an inappropriate place to learn about sex. Should contraceptive education be taught in schools, or should it be left out of the classroom?
Historical: Resolved: that the Civil War was a case of Northern aggression A debate between Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis Pro: Nicholas Maurer, Rio Vista Con: Alex Deich, Pacific Collegiate
Moderator: Daniel Radding, Alameda
The Civil War began in 1861 when hostilities erupted between the southern and northern states over the issue of slavery. Supporters of Jefferson Davis and the Confederacy argue that the American president Abraham Lincoln tried to withdraw a right that the southern states were allowed to have, thus provoking the war. Supporters of Lincoln and the North argue that slavery was morally wrong and that it was important for slavery to be illegal throughout the U.S.; also, the South was the first to use military action, at Fort Sumter in 1861. Was the North too aggressive in its attempts to outlaw slavery in the South, or did the southern states cede too hastily and act too aggressively towards the Union?
Resolved: that the United States join the International Criminal Court Pro: William Johnston, Northgate Con: Frances Guo, Lynbrook Moderator: Shiloh Albrecht, Sonora
The International Criminal Court was established July 1st, 2002 in order to try individuals convicted of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes of aggression. Those in favor of the court contend that it provides an effective framework to try world leaders guilty of these crimes that would not receive the full measure of justice in their home countries. Opponents of the resolution argue that the court infringes upon national sovereignty and would not be able to effectively extradite the criminals it would try. Should the United States allow the International Criminal Court to extradite Americans?
Thought Talk: Should students' rights be limited in public school in the U.S? Moderator: Laura Zamora, American
In many schools, students who wear obscene clothing and gang affiliated colors are forced to change their dress. Proponents of student rights limitations argue that schools need to be able to provide a safe and effective learning environment - many schools have seen a drastic drop in violence since allowing teachers to search student property. Those who defend student rights advocate that students have the same rights as any other citizen, and that just like the president cannot have his property searched without probable cause, a student should not be searched without cause either. Where should the line between student rights and a school’s obligation to provide a safe learning environment be drawn?
Resolved: that the United States change its conflict engagement doctrine in order to create a purely defensive military. Pro: Brhan Ahmed, Center Con: Alyssa Gutnik, Central Moderator: Chris Katrak, Northgate
The U.S. has the largest military budget in the world and has, especially since World War II, utilized a relatively aggressive military strategy. Proponents of the current military strategy argue that offensive conflict engagements yield positive results for Americans despite the expenditures. However, some believe that a purely defensive military would beneficially cut down costs and result in better foreign relations. Should the U.S. military continue to assertively involve itself in other countries, or should its troops withdraw and focus solely on homeland
“How to Become a Modern-Day Abolitionist” Informational Session Led by Ava Ghezelayagah, Activism Director
Many people are under the impression that there is little they can do to help end human trafficking, but they are greatly mistaken. As students, you hold the power to raise awareness, to become conscious consumers, and to urge your representatives to make ending trafficking a priority in Washington. In the block, Activism Director Ava Ghezelayagh, will go through the many ways you can utilize the powers you have as free individuals to fight modern-day slavery
2:15-2:45 Closing Session
It has been an amazing weekend full of debates and great times. Get ready to hear how the debates went and who will win a best speaker award. Make sure to say goodbye to your new friends, and we hope you had an awesome time!
JSA Activism: Human Trafficking
WHAT IS HUMAN TRAFFICKING? “Human trafficking” refers to the recruitment and transportation of people for the purposes of slavery, forced labor (including debt labor), prostitution, and domestic servitude. To put it simply, it is the modern-day slave trade. It occurs when someone is tricked, kidnapped, or coerced, and then taken into slavery. Today, trafficking enslaves approximately 27 million people around the world (at least half of which are children) and generates $30 billion annually. The average cost of a slave today is around $90. Because they are so cheap, slaves today are not considered major investments as they were in the past, making them disposable inputs in the economic process. If slaves get sick or injured, outlive their usefulness, or become troublesome to the slaveholder, they are dumped or killed. While the majority of the world’s slaves are in South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal), it is estimated that at least 100,000 slaves lie in the United States, with the Bay Area acting as a particular hotspot for trafficking. HOW YOU CAN HELP While it may seem like there is not much that you can do to help end human trafficking, as students you hold the power to raise awareness, to become conscious consumers, and to urge your representatives to make ending trafficking a priority in Washington. Please see our “25 Ways to Make A Difference” flyer for ideas. Also at each convention, the Activism Department will begin collecting clothes, shoes, and hygiene kits for victims of trafficking in the U.S. who are hoping to rebuild their lives. We encourage you to begin a chapter-wide or school-wide drive in order to collect these items. For the hygiene kits, you may package the items in large zip lock bags (with one of each product in each bag), or you can simply donate the items as is. We will be collecting:
If you ever need help organizing an event, or getting your chapter involved, please do not hesitate to contact the Activism Director, Ava Ghezelayagh, at (831) 227-1082, or at email@example.com.
1. T-Shirts/ Sweatshirts/ Sweatpants 2. Flip flops or slipper socks 3. Deodorant 4. Wash cloths
5. Toothbrush & toothpaste 6. Lotion 7. Nail Files 8. Q-tips
9. Shampoo & Conditioner (fullsize) 10. Chap stick 11. Tampons 12. Razors
JSA has the answer…
BECOME AN AGENT TODAY!
The Chapter Intelligence Agency (CIA) and REC (Regional Expansion Committee), NorCal JSA’s most important departments, are looking for staff. CIA and REC agents call chapters once a week and provide them with information, check up on how their chapter is doing, and troubleshoot problems— they provide the link between the chapter and state levels of JSA as chapters’ key resources. Dependable agents are essential for Northern California JSA to run smoothly and be the BEST JSA State!
If you are interested in getting involved, contact CIA Director Julia Pascoe (Julia.firstname.lastname@example.org) and/or REC Director/ LTG Marissa Ramirez-Zweiger (email@example.com)
NO PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE REQUIRED!
Winter Congress 2010
Submit a Bill!
Have you ever wished that you could decide what was debated at a JSA convention? Well, now you can! Write you own legislation for Winter Congress. All bills need two co-sponsors and should be submitted to firstname.lastname@example.org by January 1st, 2010. Sample bills will be sent to Chapter Presidents and are available online. When submitting your bill, please state which committee it falls under.
Commerce Labor and Employment Armed Services Agriculture Arts, Entertainment, and Internet Media Criminal Justice Revenue and Taxation Homeland security Education
Energy and Natural Resources Judicial Policy and planning Appropriations and budget management Civil rights Health and human services Foreign relations Miscellaneous Environment protection
If you are attending Winter Congress, please sign up at debateware.jsa.com to choose committees you would like to be placed on. You may only be placed on one committee for each block. We will try our best to put you in the committees you request, but there are no guarantees. When we have all the bills we will post them on debateware as well so you can sign up to argue against a bill.
WINTER CONGRESS 2010 CABINET APPLICATION
GET MORE INVOLVED IN JSA NOW!
Winter Congress is approaching! If you're interested in helping plan this convention, please look over the positions available. To apply, please answer the questions at the bottom of the page. Applications may be turned in at the Registration Desk or by email to email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org. All applications must be turned in by December 4th. Convention Coordinator - Oversees all aspects of the convention. Must help to make sure everyone meets their deadlines, will help in getting the agenda printed, making hotel arrangements, and ensuring chapter registration. Must be able to troubleshoot when problems arise. This person should be able to attend meetings in San Mateo and be committed to working throughout the week. Bill Coordinator - Receives all bills to be debated and will collect, screen, and organize the bills into a legislative index to the convention. This person will also be responsible for the quality of the bills at Winter State. At the convention, this person will be in charge of tracking the progress of the bills. This person must attend a Winter Congress meeting in San Mateo and must have available time to edit bills. Must be organized and experienced Assistant Bill Coordinator - Works closely with the Bill Coordinator to fulfill the functions of that position. This person works with the Bill Coordinator before and during the convention. Committee Coordinator - Organizes the Winter Congress delegation into Senators and Representatives into committees. This person will work closely with the Bill Coordinator to assign appropriate bills and sponsors to each committee. This person also needs to work with committee chairs and vice chairs. Logistics Director - Organizes the logistics at the convention and ensures that all activities run smoothly. Must be responsible for communication among the committees, the Bill Coordinator, and the Committee Coordinator. Committee Chair- You will be in charge of managing debates in committees and communicating effectively with the Bill Coordinator, Lieutenant Governor, and Speaker. This job will include a mandatory training session prior to the convention, but all other duties will occur during Winter Congress. In order to apply, applicants must provide us with their name, School, grade, Contact information, and experience in JSA. They must also answer the following questions. 1. What are your top 2 choices? 2. Have you ever been to Winter Congress before? 3. What are 2 changes you think would benefit Winter Congress? 4. What qualities do you believe you would bring to your desired position?
Please feel free to contact either Speaker Erica Woolsey (email@example.com) or Lt. Governor Marissa Ramirez-Zweiger (firstname.lastname@example.org). We look forward to working with you!
Save the Date – Upcoming JSA Events
Upcoming NorCal Conventions:
Winter Congress: February 6th-7th, Sacramento Spring State: April 23rd-25th, Santa Clara
Georgetown: June 20th-July 11th; July 18th-August 8th Princeton: July 11th – August 1st Stanford: June 27th-July 18th Beijing Diplomat Program: July 1st-25th
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NAME OF THE MOTION TO USE Rise to a point of order
PURPOSE OF MOTION To correct an error in parliamentary procedure To make a personal request during the proceedings To ask a question about the proceedings To dismiss the meeting To pause the meeting for a specified length of time To take any action contrary to the established rules To take action contrary to the pre-set time limits To stop debating the resolution (or amendment) and go to the closing speeches To modify or change the resolution To introduce business or present a resolution
MAY MOTION BE RAISED IF A SPEAKER IS RECOGNIZED?
DOES MOTION NEED A SECOND?
IS MOTION DEBATABLE?
VOTE NEEDED TO PASS THE MOTION
Decision of moderator
Rise to a point of personal privilege Rise to a point of parliamentary inquiry To adjourn
Decision of moderator Decision of moderator Majority
No No Only the length of time
To recess or caucus To suspend the rules To extend the speaker's time To call the previous question on resolution (or amendment)
No Only the length of time
Main motion or resolution