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EXPERIMENT # 1

COMBUSTION ENTHALPIES BY BOMB CALORIMETRY


Rowin Christian B. Angkico, Hannah Selina P. Crespo,Allysa M. Fabian
Group 1 N01A
Mr. Francisco Franco
September 14, 2014, October 1, 2014

ABSTRACT
The experiment aimed to calculate the enthalpy of combustion of Naphthalene. The approximate value for the heat
capacity, C
v
, of the calorimeter was first calculated using Benzoic acid as the standard. This followed the
determination of the enthalpy of Naphthalene using the heat capacity value from the standard, the mass of the
Naphthalene pellet as well as the initial and final temperatures that were recorded by the high precision
thermometer. After all the calculations were made, the experimental value for the enthalpy of combustion of
Naphthalene was recorded to be -4,142.55 kJ/mol. Since a theoretical value exists for Naphthalene, which is -5,156
kJ/mol, the percent error was calculated and resulted to 19.65% deviation.


INTRODUCTION
When a substance undergoes combustion with oxygen,
the energy released is heat or heat of combustion.
Products such as CO
2
, N
2
, and H
2
O are formed when the
substance reacted with gaseous oxygen and releases
heat. This is illustrated by benzoic acid undergoing
exothermic reaction, as shown in the equation below.

C
6
H
5
COOH(s) +15/2O
2
(g)7CO
2
(g) +3H
2
O(l)

Calorimetry is the method used to measure energy
transfer due to heat evolution in a chemical reaction. In
this experiment, the heat of combustion is measured
with a bomb calorimeter.
Figure 2.1 The Bomb Calorimeter


The bomb calorimeter set up is shown in Figure 2.1. It
is a sealed container filled with water and pressurized
with oxygen. The sample pellet is placed inside the
bomb and in contact with the ignition wire. To ignite the
substance, an electric current will pass through the wire
and heat will evolve. This raises the temperature of the
water and calorimeter. The process inside the
calorimeter was made adiabatic by temperature
adjustments. Since the system is both adiabatic and has
a constant volume, the equations that follow would be
true.

(1) q = o

(2) w = pV = 0

Then, in accordance to the first law of thermodynamics:

(3) U
total
= q + w = 0

Since the setup in this experiment required the
combustion of two substances, iron and the sample, the
total change in internal energy would be as follows:

(4) U
cb,Fe
+ U
cb,Sample
+ U
cb,Calorimeter
= 0

Equation four takes into account the change in internal
energy due to an adiabatic combustion. This equation
should be combined with another equation to take into
account the cooling process. This equation is shown
below:

(5) U = -CvT

where Cv is the heat capacity of the calorimeter setup at
constant volume to be determined by the use of a
standard whose energies of combustion (H and U)
values are known.

Note that the cooling process is added to the equation to
obtain the change in internal energy under isothermal
conditions.

Because U is a state function, combining equations 4
and 5 would be possible and would lead to the following
equation:

(6) U
cb,Sample
= - U
cb,Fe
- CvT

This equation can be related with enthalpy, which is
actually the value of interest in this experiment, with the
following equation:

(7) H
cb, sample
= - U
cb,Fe
CvT + n
gas
RT
1


Note that only gaseous products are taken into account
since the (pV) value of solid and liquid substances are
negligible. In addition, it must be noted that the
previous equation is applicable assuming that the
gaseous products are ideal gases.


EXPERIMENTAL
Materials and Chemicals Used
The main equipment used in this experiment is the
calorimeter assembly. This is comprised of the pan
where the pellets were placed, the bomb where the fuse
wire is threaded and where adiabatic combustion took
place, an oxygen tank and a high precision thermometer.
0.2047g of Benzoic acid were used for the standard and
while 0.1376 g of Naphthalene were weighed for the
calculation of enthalpy of combustion.

Experimental Procedure
A. Preparation of the Samples and the Bomb
Calorimeter
0.2110 g of solid Benzoic acid and 0.2067 g of solid
Naphthalene were weighed onto a top-loading balance.
Both solids were formed into pellets and were re-
weighed. Benzoic acid in pellet form was reduced to
0.2047 g, while Naphthalene became 0.1376 g.
Moreover, about 10 cm of iron fuse wire was cut and it
weighed about 0.01378g.

The fuse wire was then threaded properly onto the bomb
through its holes as said in the set up. The first sample,
benzoic acid pellet, was placed on top of the pan, and
the ends of the fuse wire were dangled on top of it. The
bomb head was screwed on slowly. Afterwards, the
bomb was pressurized with oxygen and the calorimeter
was filled with about 600 mL of water.
The same procedure was done with the Naphthalene
pellet after the combustion of benzoic acid.

B. Operating the Bomb Calorimeter
The calorimeter was covered and the drive belt onto
both the motor and stirrer pulleys was attached. The
motor was started by setting *101 on the control panel
and pressing the ignition button for about 2 seconds.
The high precision thermometer recorded the
temperature of the sample, benzoic acid every 10
seconds for 4 minutes. After the temperature has
stabilized, the set up was turned off by setting *102 on
the control panel.

The same procedure was also done on the Naphthalene
pellet.

Note that the masses of the unreacted substances after
combustion were measured and taken into account in
the calculation of values.

Unreacted masses:
Benzoic acid = 0.0154 g
Naphthalene = 0.0318 g


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
After performing all the procedures, all data were
gathered, put into tables, and were then plotted. The
tables and graphs are shown below, along with the
corresponding calculations for unknown values.

a. Benzoic Acid
In the experiment, benzoic acid was used as a standard.
The combustion of the benzoic acid standard was
performed to be able to calculate for the heat capacity,
C
v
, to be used for the other sample.

The table shown below shows the data collected during
the bomb calorimetry process.

Time Temperature
0.0 68.0 20.5
69.0 279.0 20.6
280.0 282.0 20.7
283.0 284.0 20.8
285.0 286.0 20.9
287.0 288.0 21.0
289.0 21.1
290.0 291.0 21.2
292.0 293.0 21.3
294.0 295.0 21.4
296.0 21.5
297.0 298.0 21.6
299.0 300.0 21.7
301.0 303.0 21.8
304.0 305.0 21.9
306.0 309.0 22.0
310.0 312.0 22.1
313.0 317.0 22.2
318.0 324.0 22.3
325.0 331.0 22.4
332.0 342.0 22.5
343.0 358.0 22.6
359.0 411.0 22.7
412.0 600.0 22.8
Table 4.1 Calorimeter Data (Time and Temperature)

From the data shown, it is conclusive that the T
f
and T
i

values are as follows:

T
f
= 22.8 C
T
i
= 20.5 C

From these data, it is now possible to calculate the
approximate value of the heat capacity, C
v
, of the
calorimeter. Computations are shown below.

U
cb, Benzoic acid
= - U
cb,iron
- Cv T


Figure 4.1 Calorimeter Data Plot

Rearranging the equation would allow for the
computation of C
v
which is shown below:

C
v
= (- U
cb, Benzoic acid
- U
cb,iron
)/ T

This equation would now serve as the primary equation
for solving for the value of Cv. To be able to calculate
Cv, the values of the changes in internal energy of the
iron and benzoic acid standard must first be computed.

U
cb, Benzoic acid
= (-26.434 kJ/g)(0.2047g 0.0154g)
= -5.004 kJ

Note that 0.0154 g is the mass of the unreacted
substance in the combustion process.

U
cb,iron
= (-6.7 kJ/g)(0.01378g)
= -0.092326 kJ

T = (T
f
-T
i
) = (22.8 C - 20.5 C) = 2.3 C

Inputting these values would give the following:
C
v
= (5.004 kJ + 0.092326 kJ)/ 2.3 C
= 2.216 kJ/C

b. Naphthalene
Now that the value for C
v
has been computed, it is now
possible to calculate for the change in enthalpy during
the combustion of naphthalene.

For the calculations to be shown, it should be noted that
the amount of naphthalene combusted was 0.1376 g less
0.0318 g, which is the mass of the unreacted substance,
with the following conversion into moles:

(



The table shown below shows the data collected during
the bomb calorimetry process.

Time Temperature
0.0 248.0 23.1
249.0 251.0 23.2
252.0 253.0 23.3
254.0 255.0 23.4
256.0 257.0 23.5
258.0 23.6
20
20.5
21
21.5
22
22.5
23
0 200 400 600 800
T (C)
Time (s)
259.0 23.7
260.0 262.0 23.8
263.0 264.0 23.9
265.0 266.0 24.0
267.0 269.0 24.1
270.0 271.0 24.2
272.0 274.0 24.3
275.0 278.0 24.4
279.0 282.0 24.5
283.0 289.0 24.6
290.0 295.0 24.7
296.0 308.0 24.8
309.0 328.0 24.9
329.0 600.0 25.0
Table 4.2 Calorimeter Data (Time and Temperature)



Figure 4.2 Calorimeter Data Plot

From the data shown, it is conclusive that the T
f
and T
i

values are as follows:

T
f
= 25.0 C
T
i
= 23.1 C

To compute for the value of enthalpy change, the
following equation is needed.

H
cb, naphthalene
= - U
cb, Fe
- Cv T +n
gas
RT
1

For the given equation to be applied, the values for the
terms must be computed.

U
cb,iron
= (-6.7 kJ/g)(0.01378g)
= -0.092326 kJ

C
v
T = (2.216 kJ/C)(25.0 C - 23.1 C)
= 4.2104 kJ

To compute for n
gas
, the chemical equation for
naphthalene combustion must be applied.

C
10
H
8
(s) +12O
2
(g)10CO
2
(g) +4H
2
O(l)

The equation above implies that for every 1 mole of
naphthalene, along with 12 moles of oxygen gas, the
combustion process produces 10 moles of carbon
dioxide and 4 moles of water; however, when
computing for n
gas
RT
1
, which was initially (pV),
solid and liquid contributions are negligible. Therefore,
the only necessary data needed are the amounts of the
gases. The computations are shown below:

n(O
2
) =





= 0.009906 mol O
2


n(CO
2
)=





= 0.008255 mol CO
2


n
gas
= 0.008255 mol CO
2
- 0.009906 mol O
2
= - 0.001651 mol
n
gas
RT
1
= (


)
= -4.0665 x 10
-3
kJ

H
cb
= 0.092326 kJ - 4.2104 kJ - 4.0665 x 10
-3
kJ
= -4.1221 kJ

By dividing this value with the amount in moles of
naphthalene used, the molar enthalpy of combustion
will be obtained.

H
cb, naphthalene
=


= -4,993.51 kJ/mol

Now that the enthalpy of combustion is obtained, it
should then be compared to its theoretical value to get
the percent error.
H
cb,Theoretical
= -5,156 kJ/mol

Percent Error =


22.5
23
23.5
24
24.5
25
25.5
0 200 400 600 800
T (C)
Time (s)
= (



= 3.15%

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Based on the experimental data and the performed
calculations, the value obtained for the molar enthalpy
of combustion of naphthalene is significantly close to
the theoretical value. This is supported by the 3.15%
error, implying a very low level of deviation from the
theoretical value. Although minimal error was obtained,
this can further be improved in the future by more
careful and more precise weighing of samples, and
ensuring presence of sufficient oxygen for complete
combustion. On the other hand, the results obtained
seemed to be good results, therefore making the
experiment a success.

REFERENCES
1. Laboratory Manual


I hereby certify that I have given a substantial
contribution to this report and I did not copy and/or
quote from any resource material unless being cited as
reference. I am known that failure to accomplish the
second clause would be grounds for plagiarism and a
failing grade for my final laboratory report.


________________________
Rowin Christian B. Angkico


________________________
Hannah Selina P. Crespo


________________________
Allysa M. Fabian