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# 22

## 1 The figure shows a hydraulic pump. R

Which comparison is true?

A The force F is the same as the weight of
B The force F is greater than the weight of
C The pressure on piston P is the same as
the pressure on piston Q
D The pressure on piston P is smaller than
the pressure on piston Q

2 A force of 20N is applied to the input piston in a
hydraulic jack. If the input piston area and output
piston area are 0.02 m
2
and 0.1 m
2

respectively, what is the output force?

A 20 N B
50 N
C 100 N D 200 N
E 400 N

3 The figure shows a hydraulic system.

If the area of input piston and output piston are
0.03 m
2
and 0.90 m
2
respectively, what is the
mass of object P.

A 3.2 x 10
2
kg B 2.4x 10
2
kg
C 2.0 x 10
2
kg D 1.8x 10
2
kg
E 1.2x 10
2
kg

4 A hydraulic press has an input cylinder 8 cm in
diameter and output cylinder 24 cm in
diameter. If the input piston is moved through 10
cm , how far is the output piston moved?

A 0.11 cm B 0.30 cm
C 10.0 cm D 30.0 cm
E 90.0 cm

5 The figure shows a brake system of a car.

Which principle is used in this system?

A Pascals principle
B Bernoullis principle
C Archimedes principle
D Principle of conservation of momentum

6 Which of the application is an application of
Pascals principle?

A Lift pump
B Filter pump
C Hydraulic pump

7 The figure shows a basic hydraulic system has a
small and large pistons with cross sectional-
areas 0.0005 m
2
and 0.0015 m
2
respectively.
When a force of 20 N is appilied to the small
piston,it pushes down by 0.6 m.
TUTORIAL C3
23

Determine
(a) the pressure is applied on the small piston

(b) the pressure is transmitted to the large
piston

(c) the magnitude of the force ,F.

(d) the volume of oil tramitted .

(e) the distance moved by the large piston.

8 The figure shows the arrangement of the
hydraulic brake system of a car.The cross-
sectional area of the the main brake
cylinder, the front brake cylinder and the
rear brake cylinder are 5 x 10
- 4
m
2
, 6.0 x
10
- 4
m
2
and 5.5 x 10
- 4
m
2
repectively.

(a) The brake pedal is pressed with a constant
force 15N.
(i) On the figure above indicate the
direction of motions of the front
brake cylinder and the rear brake
cylinder.
(ii) State the relationship between the
liquid pressure in the front brake
cylinder and the rear brake cylinder.

.
(iii) Calculate the pressure is exerted on
each rear brake system.

(b) Explain why the front brake piston is applied a
larger force than the rear brake piston.

(c) Why is the brake system in the car is less
effective air bubbles are present in the brake

(d) Why is the cross-sectional area of the rear
brake cylinder of the right wheel is the same as
the cross-sectional area of the rear brake
cylinder of the left wheel?

24
18 Figure (a) shows a wooden block with load, fully
immersed in water. When the load is
removed, the wooden block floats as shown in
Figure (b).

Figure (c) shows a submarine, immersed in
water with the ballast tanks filled with water.
When the ballast tanks are emptied, the
submarine floats as shown in Figure (4).

(a) (i) Based on Figure (a), Figure (b),
Figure
and Figure (d), state one observation
common to both the wooden block and
the submarine.

..

..

..

(ii) List the forces which act on the
wooden block and the submarine in
Figure (b) and Figure (d).

...

(iii) State the relationship between the forces
listed in (a)(ii).

.

..

(b) Name the principle involved in the observations
in Figure(a), Figure (b), Figure (c) and Figure(d).

.....
(c) (i) What happens to the block in Figure (b)
when a salt solution is added to the water?

.

.

..

19 A wooden block has a volume 2 x 10
-3
m
3
and a
density of 900 kgm
- 3
. Determine
(a) The mass of the wooden block

(b) The weight of the wooden block

25

The wooden block is immersed partially as
shown in Figure (a) and it floats in a stationary
position.

Figure(a)

What is

(c) The buoyant force of the block ?

(d) The volume of the water displaced by the
block.
[ Density of water = 1000 kg m
-3
]

The wooden block is later pushed by a force
until the upper surface of the wooden level is
same as the water surface level as shown in
Figure(b) .

What is
(e) The volume of the water displaced by the
block at the new position?

(f) The new buoyant force of the block ?

(g) The acceleration of the wooden block if the
force is removed?

20 A large balloon is made by nylon bag is filled
with 8 m
3
helium gas.

(a) If the density of helium gas is 0.18 kg m
-3
,
determine
(i) the mass of the helium gas in the
balloon.

(ii) the weight of the helium gas in
the balloon.

(b) The figure shows the ballon later is tied by
a nylon string and a load of mass 3.65 kg
hung at the other end of the string.The
balloon floats in a fix height.
[ The density of air =1.25 kg m
-3
]

(i) What is he resultant force acting on
the balloon?

26

(ii) Calculate the buoyant force acting
on the balloon.

(ii) Determine the mass of the nylon
bag.

(c) When the string attached to the load
snaps,
(i) What is the acceleration of the
balloon.

(ii) What will happen to the motion of
balloon when the height of the
balloon increases?

.

..

..

21 (a) A fisherman finds that his boat is at
different levels in the sea and in the river,
although the boat carries the same load.
The density of sea water 1 025 kg m
-3
and
of river water is 1 000 kg m
-3
.
Figure(a) and Figure(b) illustrate the
situation of the boat in the sea and in the
river

(i) What is meant by density?
(ii) Using Figure(a) and Figure(b) ,
compare the levels of the boat and
the volumes of water displaced by the
boat.
Relating the mass of the boat with its
load, the volume of water displaced
and the density of the water , deduce
a relevant physics concept.
(iii) Name the physics principle that
explains the above situations.
(b) A submarine can sail on the sea surface
and under the sea.
Explain how a submarine on the surface
submerges.
(c) Figure(c) and Figure (d) illustrate the
working principle of a hydrometer. The
depth to which the test tube sinks depends
on its surrounding liquid.

Figure(c)
Figure(d)

Explain how you would design a
hydrometer that can determine a wide
range of densities of liquid, using the idea
of thhe working principle of a hydrometer
shown above.
Draw a diagram that shows the design of