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Defnition, need and importance of organizational behaviour Nature and
scope Frame work Organizational behaviour models.
ersonalit! t!pes Factors in"uencing personalit! #heories $earning
#!pes of learners #he learning process $earning theories Organizational
behaviour modifcation. %isbehaviour #!pes %anagement &ntervention.
'motions ( 'motional $abour 'motional &ntelligence #heories. )ttitudes
*haracteristics *omponents Formation %easurement( +alues. erceptions
&mportance Factors in"uencing perception &nterpersonal perception(
&mpression %anagement. %otivation importance #!pes ',ects on work
Organization structure Formation -roups in organizations &n"uence
-roup d!namics 'mergence of informal leaders and working norms -roup
decision making techni.ues #eam building ( &nterpersonal relations
*ommunication *ontrol.
%eaning &mportance $eadership st!les #heories $eaders +s %anagers
/ources of power ower centers ower and olitics.
Organizational culture and climate Factors a,ecting organizational climate
&mportance. 0ob satisfaction Determinants %easurements &n"uence on
behavior. Organizational change &mportance /tabilit! +s *hange roactive
+s 1eaction change the change process 1esistance to change %anaging
change. /tress 2ork /tressors revention and %anagement of stress
3alancing work and $ife. Organizational development *haracteristics
ob4ectives . Organizational e,ectiveness
5. /tephen . 1obins, Organizational 3ehavior, 6& $earning 7 earson
'ducation, 55
edition, 899:.
8. Fred $uthans, Organizational 3ehavior, %c-raw 6ill, 55
'dition, 8995.
5. /chermerhorn, 6unt and Osborn, Organizational behavior, 0ohn 2ile!, ;
'dition, 899:.
8. <dai areek, <nderstanding Organizational 3ehaviour, 8
'dition, O=ford
6igher 'ducation, 899>.
?. %c /hane @ +on -linov, Organizational 3ehaviour, >
'dition, #ata %c
-raw 6ill, 899A.
>. 6ellrigal, /locum and 2oodman, Organizational 3ehavior, *engage
$earning, 55
'dition 899A.
B. &vancevich, Conopaske @ %aheson, Organizational 3ehaviour @
%anagement, A
edition, #ata %c-raw 6ill, 899:.
1% D&'(& )*+,(-.,/-)(
) group of people working together to attain common goals.
2% !0,/ -1 MBO2
) program that encompasses specifc goals, participative set, far an
e=plicit time period, with feedback on goal program
% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 ,//*-75/-)( /0&)*42
/uggests that we attribute causes to behavior based on observations of
certain characteristics of that behavior. 'mplo!ees observe their own
behavior, determine whether it is a response to e=ternal or internal factors,
and shape their future motivated behavior accordingl!.
4% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 7&0,8-)*,9 ,::*),;02
)pproach to leadership that tries to identif! behaviors that di,erentiated
e,ective leaders from nonleaders. &t uses rules of thumb, sub optimizing,
and satisf!ing in making decisions.
5% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 ;9,11-;,9 )*+,(-.,/-)( /0&)*42
)n earl! approach to management that focused on how organizations can
be structured most e,ectivel! to meet their goals.
<% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 341=5(;/-)(,9 7&0,8-)*12
#hose that detract from organizational performance.
7% D&'(& &>/-(;/-)(
Decreases the fre.uenc! of behavior b! eliminating a reward or desirable
conse.uence that follows that behavior.
"% D&'(& &>/*,8&*1-)(
#he .ualit! of being comfortable with relationshipsD the opposite e=treme,
introversion, is characterized b! more social discomfort.
9% D&'(& +),9
) desirable ob4ective.
10% D&'(& +),9 ,;;&:/,(;&
#he e=tent to which a person accepts a goal as his or her own.
11% D&'(& +),9 ;)66-/6&(/
#he e=tent to which a person is personall! interested in reaching a goal.
12% D&'(& +),9 ;)6:,/-7-9-/4
#he e=tent to which the goals of more than one person or group can be
achieved at the same time.
1% D&'(& +),9 3-?;59/4
#he e=tent to which a goal is challenging and re.uires e,ort.
14% D&'(& +),9 1:&;-';-/4
#he clarit! and precision of a goal.
15% B*-&@4 /&99 ,7)5/ H,A/0)*(& 1/53-&1%
*onducted between 5;8A and 5;?8, these studies led to some of the frst
discoveries of the importance of human behavior in organizations.
1<% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 056,( *&9,/-)(1 ,::*),;02
/uggested that favorable emplo!ee attitudes result in motivation to work
17% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 -(/&*:&*1)(,9 *)9&12
#here are three important interpersonal rolesE the fgurehead, the leader,
and the liaison.
1"% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 -(/&*:&*1)(,9 1B-9912
<sed to communicate with, understand, and motivate individuals and
19% D&'(& ()*6
) standard against which the appropriateness of a behavior is 4udged.
20% D&'(& )*+,(-.,/-)( ;0,*/
) diagram showing all people, positions, reporting relationships, and lines
of formal communication in the organization.
21% D&'(& )*+,(-.,/-)( 1/*5;/5*&
#he s!stem of task, reporting, and authorit! relationships within which the
organization does its work.
22% D&'(& )*+,(-.,/-)(,9 7&0,8-)*
#he stud! of human behavior in organizational settings, the interface
between human behavior and the organization, and the organization itself.
2% D&'(& )*+,(-.,/-)(,9 ;)66-/6&(/
) personFs identifcation with and attachment to an organization.
24% D&'(& )*+,(-.,/-)(,9 &(8-*)(6&(/
'ver!thing outside an organization. &t includes all elements, people, other
organizations, economic factors, ob4ects, and events that lie outside the
boundaries of the organization.
25% D&'(& )*+,(-.,/-)(,9 +),91
Ob4ectives that management seeks to achieve in pursuing the frmFs
2<% D&'(& )*+,(-.-(+
#he process of designing 4obs, grouping 4obs into units, and establishing
patterns of authorit! between 4obs and units.
27% D&'(& 8-*/5,9 )*+,(-.,/-)(
) temporar! alliance between two or more organizations that band
together to undertake a specifc venture.
2"% D&'(& A)*B=)*;& 3-8&*1-/4
#he similarities and di,erences in such characteristics as age, gender,
ethnic heritage, ph!sical abilities and disabilities, race, and se=ual
orientation among the emplo!ees of organizations.
29% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 A)*BC9-=& *&9,/-)(10-:12
#he interrelationships between a personFs work life and personal life.
0% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 A)*B:9,;& 7&0,8-)*2
#he pattern of action b! the members of an organization that directl! or
indirectl! in"uences organizational e,ectiveness.
1D D&'(& ,//-/53&
)ttitude is a mental and neural state of readiness organized through
e=periences, e=isting a directive or d!namic in"uence upon the
individuals response to all ob4ects and situation with which it is related
)ll ort
2D D&'(& 8,95&
3asic convictions that a specifc mode of conduct or end(sate of e=istence
is personall! or socialit! preferable to an opposite or converse mode of
conduct or end(state of e=istence( 1okeach
D !0,/ -1 6)/-8,/-)(2
#he processes that account far an individualGs intensit!, direction and
persistence of e,ort toward attainting a goal
4D !0,/ -1 &E5-/4 /0&)*42
)n individual compare their 4ob inputs and out comes with those of others
and then respond to eliminate an! ine.uities
5D !0,/ -1 &>:&;/,(;4 /0&)*42
#he strength of a tendenc! to act in a certain wa! depends on the
strength of an e=pectation that the act will be followed b! a given out
comes and an the attractiveness of that out come to the individual
<D !0,/ -1 &6:9)4&& -(8)98&6&(/2
) participate process that uses the entire capacit! of emplo!ees and is
designed to encourage increased commitment to the organizationGs
7D !0,/ -1 :,*/-;-:,/-8& 6,(,+&6&(/2
#he participative management is a process in which subordinates share a
signifcant degree of decision( making power with their immediate
"D !0,/ -1 E5,9-/4 ;-*;9&2
) 2ork groups of emplo!ee who meet regularl! to discuss their .ualit!
problems, investigate causes, recommend solutions and take corrective
9D !0,/ -1 F)7 *)/,/-)(2
#he 4ob rotation means a periodic shifting of an emplo!ee from one task
to another.
10D !0,/ -1 F)7 &(9,*+&6&(/2
&ncreasing the number and variet! of tasks that an individual performs
results in 4obs with more diversit!
11D !0,/ -1 F)7 &(*-;06&(/2
0ob enrichment is the vertical e=pansion of 4obs, increasing the degree to
which the worker controls the planning, e=ecution, and evaluation of his
or her work.
12D !0,/ -1 ;59/5*& 10);B2
)n emplo!eeGs feeling of confusion, insecurit!, an=iet! caused in a
strange new work environment.
1D !0,/ -1 ;)+(-/-8& D-11)(,(;&2
#he an=iet! a person e=periences when two sets of knowledge a
perception are contradictor! or incongruent. &t also occurs when a person
behaves a responds in a wa! inconsistent with his as her attitude.
14D !0,/ -1 1/&*&)/4:-(+2
0udging someone on the basic of oneGs perception of the group to which
that person belongs.
15D !0,/ -1 :*)'9-(+2
) from of stereot!ping in which a group of individuals is singled out(
t!picall! on the basic of race or ethnicit!( far intensive in.uir! scrutinizing
a investigation.
1<D !0,/ -1 0,9) &G&;/2
#he halo e,ect refers to a cognitive bias whereb! the perception of a
particular trait is in"uenced b! the perception of the former traits in a
se.uence of interpretations.
17D !0,/ -1 D&9:0- /&;0(-E5&2
#he Delphi techni.ue is a method far obtaining forecasts from a panel of
independent e=perts over two or more rounds. Delphi method uses a
panel of carefull! selected e=perts who answer a series of .uestionnaires.
1"D D&'(& ,71&(/&&-16
Failure to show up for work.
19D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 H7-+ '8&H :&*1)(,9-/4 /*,-/12
) set of fundamental traits that is especiall! relevant to organizations.
20D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 ;9,11-;,9 ;)(3-/-)(-(+2
) simple form of learning that links a conditioned response with an
unconditioned stimulus.
21D D&'(& 35,9C1/*5;/5*& /0&)*4
&dentifes motivation factors, which a,ect satisfaction, and h!giene
factors, which a,ect dissatisfaction.
22D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 04+-&(& =,;/)*12
#hese factors are e=trinsic to the work itself. #he! include factors such as
pa! and 4ob securit!.
2D D&'(& -6:*&11-)( 6,(,+&6&(/
) direct and intentional e,ort b! someone to enhance his or her own
image in the e!es of others.
24D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 -(3-8-35,9 3-G&*&(;&12
ersonal attributes that var! from one person to another.
25D D&'(& -(3-8-35,9-16
#he e=tent to which people place primar! value on themselves.
2<D D&'(& F)7 ,(,941-1
#he process of s!stematicall! gathering information about specifc 4obs to
use in developing a performance measurement s!stem, to write 4ob or
position descriptions, and to develop e.uitable pa! s!stems.
27D D&'(& F)7 3&1-+(
6ow organizations defne and structure 4obs.
2"D D&'(& F)7 &(9,*+&6&(/
&nvolves giving workers more tasks to perform.
29D D&'(& F)7 &(*-;06&(/
'ntails giving workers more tasks to perform and more control over how
to perform them.
0D D&'(& F)7 0)::-(+
Occurs when an individual makes fewer ad4ustments within the
organization and moves to di,erent organizations to advance his or her
1D D&'(& F)7 *)/,/-)(
/!stematicall! moving workers from one 4ob to another in an attempt to
minimize monoton! and boredom.
2D D&'(& F)7 1,/-1=,;/-)(
#he e=tent to which a person is gratifed or fulflled b! his or her work.
D D&'(& F)7 10,*-(+
) situation in which two or more part(time emplo!ees share one full(time
4D D&'(& F)7 1:&;-,9-.,/-)(
)dvocated b! scientifc management. &t can help improve eHcienc!, but it
can also promote monoton! and boredom.
5D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 6)/-8,/-)( ,(3 :*)35;/-8-/42
#he stages of group development in which members cooperate, help each
other, and work toward accomplishing tasks.
<D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 6)/-8,/-)( =,;/)*12
#hese factors are intrinsic to the work itself. #he! include factors such as
achievement and recognition.
7D D&'(& 6)/-8&
) factor that determines a personFs choice of one course of behavior from
among several possibilities.
"D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 )*+,(-.,/-)(,9 7&0,8-)* 6)3-';,/-)(
IOB 6)3D2
#he application of reinforcement theor! to people in organizational
9D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 :,*/-;-:,/-)(2
#he process of giving emplo!ees a voice in making decisions about their
own work.
40D D&'(& :&*;&:/-)(
#he set of processes b! which an individual becomes aware of and
interprets information about the environment.
41D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 1&9&;/-8& :&*;&:/-)(2
#he process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with
or that contradicts our beliefs.
42D D&'(& 1&9=C&?;,;4
#he e=tent to which we believe we can accomplish our goals even if we
failed to do so in the past.
4D D&'(& 1/&*&)/4:-(+
#he process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single
44D D&'(& 1/*,/&+-; 8,95&1
#he basic beliefs about an organizationFs environment that shape its
45D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 <0C3&+*&& =&&37,;B2
erformance management s!stem in which people receive performance
feedback from those on all sides of them in the organizationE their boss,
their colleagues and peers, and their own subordinates.
4<D !0) ,*& ,99 ;,99&3 ,1 /4:& A 7&0,8-)* :&):9&2
eople, who are e=tremel! competitive, highl! committed to work, and
have a strong sense of time urgenc!.
47D !0) ,*& ,99 ;,99&3 ,1 /4:& B 7&0,8-)* :&):9&2
eople, who are less competitive, less committed to work, and have a
weaker sense of time urgenc!.
4"D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 T4:& Z '*62
#his t!pe of frm is committed to retaining emplo!eesD evaluates workersF
performance based on both .ualitative and .uantitative informationD
emphasizes broad career pathsD e=ercises control through informal,
implicit mechanismsD re.uires that decision making occur in groups and
be based on full information sharing and consensusD e=pects individuals
to take responsibilit! for decisionsD and emphasizes concern for people.
49D D&'(& 8,9&(;&
#he degree of attractiveness or unattractiveness a particular outcome has
for a person.
1D !0,/ -1 ;)+(-/-8& &8,95,/-)( /0&)*42
)llocating e=trinsic rewards for behavior that had been precious b!
intrinsicall! rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation
2D !0,/ -1 , +*)5:2
#wo or more individuals interacting and interdependent together have
come together to achieve particular ob4ective.
D !0,/ -1 , =)*6,9 +*)5:2
) formal group is which designated work group defned b! the
organizationGs structure.
4D !0,/ -1 ,( -(=)*6,9 +*)5:2
) group that is neither formall! structures non(organizationall!
determined, appears in response to the need for social contract.
5D !0,/ -1 , ;)66,(3 +*)5:2
) group composed of the individuals who report directl! to a given
<D !0,/ -1 /,1B +*)5:2
#he task group are those working together to complete a 4ob task.
7D !0,/ -1 ,( I(/&*&1/ +*)5:2
#he &nterest group those working together to attain a specifc ob4ective
with which each is concerned.
"D !0,/ -1 =*-&(310-: +*)5:2
#hose brought together because the! share one or more common
9D !0,/ -1 C)0&1-8&(&112
Degree to which group members are attracted to each others and are
motivated to sta! in the group.
10D !0,/ -1 +*)5:/0-(B2
henomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic
appraisal of alternative courses of action is known as groupthink.
11D !0,/ -1 +*)5: 10-=/2
) change in decision risk between the groupGs decision and the individual
decision the members within the group would make, can be either toward
conservation or greater risk.
12D !0,/ -1 ,( -(/&*,;/-(+ +*)5:2
#!pical groups, in which members interact with each other face to face.
1D !0,/ -1 7*,-( 1/)*6-(+2
)n idea( generation process that specifcall! encourages an! and all
alternatives, while withholding an! criticism of those alternatives.
14D !0,/ -1 ()6-(,9 +*)5: /&;0(-E5&2
) group decision( making method in which individual members meet face
to face to pool their 4udgments in a s!stematic but independent fashion.
15D !0,/ -1 ;)665(-;,/-)( :*);&112
#he communication process that steps between a source and a receiver
that result is the transference and understanding of meaning.
1<D D&'(& ;)665(-;,/-)(
*ommunication means transference of message or e=change of ideas,
facts, opinion or feeling b! two or more persons.
17D !0,/ -1 G*,:&8-(&2
#he organizationGs in"amed communication network is known as
1"D !0,/ -1 G*)5: D4(,6-;12
#he social process b! which people interact face to face in small group is
called group d!namic.
19D !0,/ -1 /&,6 A)*B2
) team is a small number of people with complementar! skills who are
committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for
which the! hold themselves mutuall! accountable.
20D D&'(& ;)(/*)99-(+
#he process of monitoring actual organizational activities so as to keep
them headed toward the set goal a correcting "ows a deviation, if an!.
21D D&'(& ,?(-/4 +*)5:
*ollections of emplo!ees from the same level in the organization who
meet on a regular basis to share information, capture emerging
opportunities, and solve problems.
22D D&'(& 9);51 )= ;)(/*)9
#he e=tent to which people believe their circumstances are a function of
their own actions versus e=ternal factors be!ond their control.
2D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 ()6-(,9 +*)5: /&;0(-E5&2
#echni.ue in which group members follow a generate(discussion(vote
c!cle until the! reach an appropriate decision.
24D D&'(& )*+,(-; 1/*5;/5*&
#his structure is set up like a network. 2ithin it, interactions and
communications are horizontal, knowledge resides wherever it is most
useful to the organization, and membership re.uires a commitment to the
organizationFs tasks.
25D D&'(& *&=*&&.-(+
#he process of making new behaviors relativel! permanent and resistant
to further change.
2<D D&'(& *&-(=)*;&6&(/
#he conse.uences of behavior.
27D D&'(& *&-(=)*;&6&(/ 3-1;*-6-(,/-)(
#he process of recognizing di,erences between behavior and
reinforcement in di,erent settings.
2"D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 *&-(=)*;&6&(/ +&(&*,9-.,/-)(2
#he process through which a person e=tends recognition of similar or
identical behavior(reinforcement relationships to di,erent settings.
29D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 *&-(=)*;&6&(/ /0&)*42
#his theor! is based on the idea that behavior is a function of its
0D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 /,1B 3&6,(312
/tressors associated with the specifc 4ob a person performs.
1D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 /,1B &(8-*)(6&(/2
#his environment includes specifc organizations, groups, and individuals
that in"uence the organization.
2D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 /,1B +*)5:2
) relativel! temporar!, formal group established to do a specifc task.
D D&'(& /&,6
) small number of people with complementar! skills who are committed
to a common purpose, common performance goals, and approach for
which the! hold themselves mutuall! accountable.
4D !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 /&;0(-;,9 I/,1BD 157141/&62
#he means b! which inputs are transformed into outputs.
1% !0,/ -1 A5/)()642
#he degree to which the 4ob provides substantial freedom and discretion
to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the
procedures to be used in carr!ing it out
2% !0,/ -1 O::)*/5(-/4 /) :&*=)*62
6igh levels of performance are partiall! a function of an absence of
obstacles that *O% train the emplo!ee
% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 ,;;&:/,(;& /0&)*4 )= ,5/0)*-/42
#he theor! that the managerFs authorit! depends on the subordinateFs
acceptance of the managerFs right to give directives and to e=pect
compliance with them.
4% D&'(& ,5/0)*-/,*-,(-16
#he belief that power and status di,erences are appropriate within
hierarchical social s!stems such as organizations.
5% D&'(& ,5/0)*-/4
ower that has been legitimized within a particular social conte=t.
<% D&'(& ;)&*;-8& :)A&*
#he e=tent to which a person has the abilit! to punish or ph!sicall! or
ps!chologicall! harm someone else.
7% D&'(& ;)+(-/-)(
#he knowledge a person presumes to have about something.
"% D&'(& ;)+(-/-8& 3-11)(,(;&
#he an=iet! a person e=periences when he or she simultaneousl!
possesses two sets of knowledge or perceptions that are contradictor! or
9% D&'(& &6:)A&*6&(/
#he process of enabling workers to set their own work goals, makes
decisions, and solves problems within their sphere of responsibilit! and
10% D&'(& &>:&*/ :)A&*
#he e=tent to which a person controls information that is valuable to
someone else.
11% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 9&,3&*C6&67&* &>;0,(+& ILM#D2
#his model of leadership stresses the fact that leaders develop uni.ue
working relationships with each of their subordinates.
12% D&'(& 9&,3&*10-:
3oth a process and a propert!. )s a process, leadership involves the use
of noncoercive in"uence. )s a propert!, leadership is the set of
characteristics attributed to someone who is perceived to use in"uence
1% D&'(& L&,3&*10-: G*-3
'valuates leadership behavior along two dimensions, concern for
production and concern for people, and suggests that e,ective leadership
st!les include high levels of both behaviors.
14% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 9&,3&*10-: 1571/-/5/&12
&ndividual, task, and organizational characteristics that tend to outweigh
the leaderFs abilit! to a,ect subordinatesF satisfaction and performance.
15% D&'(& 9&,3-(+
#he process of getting the organizationFs members to work together
toward the organizationFs goals.
1<% D&'(& 9&+-/-6,/& :)A&*
ower that is granted b! virtue of oneFs position in the organization.
17% D&'(& 9-,-1)(
)n individual who serves as a bridge between groups, t!ing groups
together and facilitating the communication "ow needed to integrate
group activities.
1"% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 LPC /0&)*4 )= 9&,3&*10-:2
/uggests that a leaderFs e,ectiveness depends on the situation
19% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 M-;0-+,( 9&,3&*10-: 1/53-&12
#hese studies defned 4ob(centered and emplo!ee(centered leadership as
opposite ends of a single leadership continuum.
20% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 O0-) S/,/& 9&,3&*10-: 1/53-&12
#hese studies defned leader consideration and initiating(structure
behaviors as independent dimensions of leadership.
21% D&'(& )*+,(-.,/-)(,9 :)9-/-;1
)ctivities carried out b! people to ac.uire, enhance, and use power and
other resources to obtain their desired outcomes.
22% D&'(& )*+,(-.,/-)(,9 1);-,9-.,/-)(
#he process through which emplo!ees learn about the frmFs culture and
pass their knowledge and understanding on to others.
2% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 :,/0C+),9 /0&)*4 )= 9&,3&*10-:2
/uggests that e,ective leaders clarif! the paths IbehaviorsJ that will lead
to desired rewards IgoalsJ.
24% D&'(& :)1-/-8& *&-(=)*;&6&(/
) reward or other desirable conse.uence that a person receives after
e=hibiting behavior.
25% D&'(& :)A&*
#he potential abilit! of a person or group to e=ercise control over another
person or group.
2<% D&'(& *,3-;,9 -(()8,/-)(
) ma4or breakthrough that changes or creates whole industries.
27% !0,/ 3) 4)5 6&,( 74 *,/-)(,9 3&;-1-)(C6,B-(+ ,::*),;02
) s!stematic, step(b!(step process for making decisions.
2"% D&'(& *&=&*&(/ :)A&*
'=ists when one person wants to be like or imitates someone else.
29% D&'(& *&A,*3 :)A&*
#he e=tent to which a person controls rewards that another person
0% D&'(& *&A,*3 141/&6
#he s!stem that consists of all organizational components, including
people, processes, rules and procedures, and decision(making activities,
involved in allocating compensation and benefts to emplo!ees in
e=change for their contributions to the organization.
1% !0,/ -1 A;/-)( R&1&,*;02
) change process based on s!stematic collection of data and then
selection of a change action based on what the anal!zed data indicate.
2% !0,/ -1 S&(1-/-8-/4 T*,-(-(+2
#raining groups that seek to change behaviour through unstructured
group interaction.
% !0,/ -1 I(/&*C+*)5: D&8&9):6&(/2
OD e,orts to change the attitudes, stereot!pes and perception that
groups have of each other.
4% !0,/ -1 A::*&;-,/-8& I(E5-*42
)ppreciative in.uir! seeks to identif! the uni.ue .ualities and special
strengths of an organization, which can then be built on to improve
5% !0,/ -1 I(()8,/-)(2
) new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process or service.
<% !0,/ -1 S/*&112
) d!namic condition in which an individual is confronted with an
opportunit!, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and
for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.
7% !0,/ -1 , !&99(&11 P*)+*,62
2ellness program organizationall! supported programs that focus on the
emplo!eeGs total ph!sical and mental condition.
"% !0,/ -1 O*+,(-.,/-)(,9 C-/-.&(10-: B&0,8-)5* IOCBD2
O*3 a discretionar! behaviour that is not part of an emplo!eeGs formal 4ob
re.uirements, but that nevertheless promotes the e,ective functioning of
the organization.
9% !0,/ -1 )*+,(-.,/-)(,9 ;)66-/6&(/2
Organizational commitment the degree to which an emplo!ee identifes
with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain
membership in the organization.
10% D&'(& 3-1/*&11
#he unpleasant stress that accompanies negative events.
11% D&'(& 659/-;59/5*,9 )*+,(-.,/-)(
#he multicultural organization has si= characteristicsE pluralism, full
structural integration, full integration of informal networks, an absence of
pre4udice and discrimination, e.ual identifcation among emplo!ees with
organizational goals for ma4orit! and minorit! groups, and low levels of
intergroup con"ict.
12% D&'(& )*+,(-.,/-)( ;9-6,/&
*urrent situations in an organization and the linkages among work
groups, emplo!ees, and work performance.
1% D&'(& )*+,(-.,/-)( ;59/5*&
#he set of values that helps the organizationFs emplo!ees understand
which actions are considered acceptable and which unacceptable.
14% D&'(& )*+,(-.,/-)( 3&8&9):6&(/
#he process of planned change and improvement of the organization
through application of knowledge of the behavioral sciences.
15% D&'(& )*+,(-.,/-)(,9 1/*&11)*1
Factors in the workplace that can cause stress.
1<% D&'(& *)9&
) set of e=pected behaviors associated with a particular position in a
group or organization.
17% D&'(& *)9& ,67-+5-/4
)rises when a role is unclear.
1"% D&'(& *)9& ;)(@-;/
Occurs when the messages and cues constituting a role are clear but
contradictor! or mutuall! e=clusive.
19% D&'(& *)9& 3&6,(31
/tressors associated with the role a person is e=pected to pla!.
20% D&'(& *)9& )8&*9),3
Occurs when e=pectations for the role e=ceed the individualFs capabilities.
21% D&'(& 1);-,9-.,/-)(
#he process through which individuals become social beings.