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First Steps in CLIL Secondary Education

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Section 1: What? Why? How?
1. Definition
What is CLIL? We could start by explaining what the letters CLIL stand for:
C = Content and
L = Language
I = Integrated
L = Learning.
But this in itself does not tell us very much, and it doesnt answer the question. We could say
that CLIL is the teaching and learning of a non-linguistic subject through a second language.
But this is a simplistic explanation and is slightly misleading: all subjects rely on language and
are therefore linguistic. Integration of language and content is a feature of all school
teaching. Perhaps a couple of examples would clarify this: Teaching Physics to Spanish
students in English is an example of CLIL. Teaching Music to German students in French is an
example of CLIL. And we could turn to a recognized authority, David Marsh, for a definition:
'CLIL refers to situations where subjects, or parts of subjects, are taught through a foreign
language with dual-focused aims, namely the learning of content, and the simultaneous
learning of a foreign language'.
So now we have a more concrete idea of what CLIL consists of. Next we turn to the question:
why CLIL?
2. Rationale
After centuries of education without CLIL, why is CLIL now suddenly considered to be so
important? We might answer this question by saying that in fact CLIL has been around in one
form or another for centuries (for example Latin was used as a lingua franca of international
scholarship until as late as the 17th century). In more recent times (since the second half of
the 18th century) international schools have provided fee-paying students with one form of
bilingual education or another. We can say that now state education systems aim to provide
students with the same opportunities, through CLIL.
What are the specific benefits of CLIL for students? CLIL is felt to offer students a range of
educational and personal benefits:
1. Increasing motivation as language is used to fulfil real purposes. Rather than focus on
language itself, students focus on another subject through English this is a far more
natural way to learn a second language.
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2. Introducing learners to the wider cultural context. It makes sense for students to use
their English language skills to communicate with L2 English speakers from other
countries using English.
3. Developing a positive can do' attitude towards learning languages. CLIL helps build
confidence in language learners. By not focusing directly on language, students are
surprised at how much they can understand because of contextual and situational
clues.
4. Preparing students for further studies and work. CLIL offers students a realistic
preparation for a wide range of professions in which English is routinely used.
So there are a number of convincing arguments for CLIL. Finally we consider the question:
how do we set up and teach CLIL programmes?
3. Implementation issues
Teachers training to give CLIL programmes have asked the following questions about
implementation:
a) Are CLIL programmes common in other countries, and do all countries adopt a similar
approach to implementation?
b) Does the CLIL subject teacher have to teach language? What happens when this teacher
encounters a language problem that s/he cant explain?
c) What is the balance of the teaching focus between content and language?
d) What kind of support does a CLIL teacher need?
e) What strategies can the CLIL teacher use to help students understand the subject in L2?
f) Is a successful CLIL programme mainly a question of the teacher having a good level of
English?
g) Is it right or wrong to occasionally explain things in L1?
h) What about the English language teacher? Will his/her role change in the English language
lessons?
i) What is assessed? Language use? Understanding of content? Both?
Two documents that provide a comprehensive range of practical tips for teaching CLIL, and
thus supplies some of the answers to the above questions, are:
Document n 1
Document n 2
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1.- Will CLIL replace other methods of language and content teaching?
2.- Do teachers have to have certain personality features in order to be involved with CLIL?
Other answers are provided in the task section - see below.

Section 2: Models for CLIL - general issues

The strong interest in CLIL in recent times has given rise to various models aiming to identify
the parameters of good practice in CLIL education. We will briefly look at two of these
further information on both of them is also given.
1. The 4 Cs model
According to Do Coyle, an effective CLIL lesson or teaching unit combines elements of:
Content: Progression in knowledge, skills and understanding related to specific elements
of a defined curriculum.
Communication: Using language to learn whilst learning to use language.
Cognition: Developing thinking skills which link concept formation (abstract and
concrete), understanding and language.
Culture: Exposure to alternative perspectives and shared understandings, which deepen
awareness of otherness and self.
2. The SIOP Model
The acronym SIOP stands for Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol it is primarily a very
thorough set of indicators for evaluating teacher observation. However these indicators are
backed up with a firm underlying theoretical base and a wealth of practical classroom
examples, and consequently the Protocol has come to be used as a model.
1. Preparation Planning material taking into account dual teaching objectives.
2. Building Background - linking new input to previous learning.
3. Comprehensible Input modifying and reworking input to facilitate comprehension.
4. Strategies supporting comprehension through different scaffolding strategies.
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5. Interaction providing opportunities for shared and constructed learning through student
involvement and participation.

6. Practice/Application relating learning experiences to the real world and developing
students thinking skills.
7. Lesson Delivery Engaging students interest through effective use of classroom
management strategies in order to fulfill planned lesson objectives.
8. Review / Assessment - ensuring understanding and retention of lesson contents through a
range of review and assessment tools.
A fuller explanation of the model, as well as suggestions for accompanying classroom activities,
can be found at: http://www.misd.net/bilingual/ELL.pdf
These are perhaps the two best known models. However, as with most educational initiatives,
there is no single, prescribed way to teach CLIL. Even when models are formally adopted by an
institution, region or even an entire country, it is generally with a reasonable amount of
adaptation. And in the case of CLIL it could not be otherwise CLIL programmes are
implemented in schools with student numbers ranging from 40 to 2000, in tiny villages in the
mountains and urban areas of major cities, in countries as far apart geographically and
culturally as Finland and Mauritius. So flexibility is both desirable and necessary!
In the end, schools that decide to run CLIL programme have to design and implement a model
that works for their own specific linguistic, social and cultural context. As it helps to work from
some kind of blueprint, the next section contains a proposed model with the most essential
elements of CLIL. It is an adapted version of the SIOP model (shortened and simplified) and
can be adapted further to take into account the particular characteristics of different learning
environments.
Section 3: Strategies for CLIL

In the example of a CLIL Music lesson we saw the use of a frame. A frame is a tool that can be
very useful in CLIL: its a way of highlighting the key language and key content that occurs in a
topic or a text. It does this in an integrated way: students need to understand the language in
order to express the key content ideas, but understanding only the language of the frame will
not help them if they have not grasped the content ideas. Frames also help to focus teaching
for teachers as well as focus learning for students. The act of writing a well-constructed frame
forces us to summarize the key ideas of the lesson or part of the lesson.
First look at the three examples of frames below and notice the different possibilities in terms
of their design. What differences in design do you see?
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Musical Instruments




The
trumpet
violin
xylophone
clarinet
French horn
oboe
bass drum
double bass



is a

stringed

brass

woodwind

percussion



instrument

Climates


A

An
Tropical
equatorial
oceanic
continental
Mediterranean
polar


climate is generally

hot

cold

warm

cool



and
rainy
stormy
foggy
dry
snowy
humid


Invertebrates


A

An
octopus
spider
butterfly
centipede
snail

is a mollusc
and

is an
arthropod and
an insect
an
arachnid
a myriapod
a
cephalopod
a


because

it
has

it
is
many legs
a body moving on
one foot
eight legs
tentacles on its head
six legs
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gastropod

Frames
a emphasise how one basic language structure can generate a number of different
sentences.
b can have a basic two sets of variable (Musical Instruments), or more
(Climates andInvertebrates). The more there are, the more complicated the task.
c can contain sentence beginnings with only one possible ending (Musical
Instrumentsand Invertebrates) or several different possibilities (Climates).
d contain little or no repetition.
Clearly frames have a highly flexible format and can be adapted to suit whatever content and
language we want our students to work on.

Section 4. Pre-teaching key vocabulary

In this section we look at a number of different activities for pre-teaching vocabulary.
Examples from different subjects will be given, but all of the activities can be adapted to suit
different subjects and different levels.
a Walk and Match
The teacher hands out cards, half with words and half with definitions to whole class. The
students have to stand up, mingle and find their partner, matching all the words with the
correct definitions.
b Walk and Swap
Again students each have a card. It shows a word and its definition. Students have to stand up
and mingle, saying their definitions to each other and trying to guess the words. They can also
add more information to the definition to help their partner. If a student doesnt know the
word, the other one teaches it to him/her. When both students in the pair know the new
words, they swap cards and go off and find new partners. This process is repeated 5 or 6
times. Teacher checks and monitors.
Variation: to revise the vocabulary at a later date, students can do the activity without the
definition provided on the card they have to think of one themselves.

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c Teaching Vocabulary by Elimination
The teacher writes all the new vocabulary on the board.
For example: orchestra, composer, baroque, classical, modern, melody, harmony, polyphony,
counterpoint, vocal, secular, sacred
S/he then gives a definition for one of the words, without saying the word itself. When
students understand which word it is, they shout it out and the teacher underlines it.
d Teaching Vocabulary by Classification
The teacher gives the students a word jumble e.g:
rib, heart, vein, lungs, femur, liver, artery, capillary, spine, colon, hip bone. The students have
to work together to classify the words into three categories: bones, vital organs and blood
vessels.
Variation 1: the activity can be made easier by giving the students the words partially
classified, e.g.
Bones Vital Organs Blood Vessels

______ lungs _______

ribs _______ _______

______ _______ veins

______ _______

Variation 2: the activity can be made more difficult by giving the students only the words, no
categories. They have to decide as a group, or pair, what the categories are, and classify
accordingly
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Section 5. Useful Websites for Secondary
Teaching
The list of websites below provides a useful resource for CLIL teachers looking for material for
their subjects. There is a wide range of different types of information. Some of the sites are
designed with the CLIL teacher in mind, others have material that has been designed by and
for British and American teachers. Some provide opportunities for networking, some are
commercial, others are free.
Any subject

http://www.isabelperez.com: A very comprehensive collection of CLIL articles, books and
websites
http://www.elgweb.net: English Language Garden. A wide range of really good sites here.
http://www.worldofteaching.com: World of Teaching.
http://elt.oup.com/teachersclub: Oxford Teacher's Club.
http://www.howstuffworks.com http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/0/: BBC Schools.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize
http://www.onestopenglish.com: One Stop English.
http://www.euroclic.net: Euroclic.
http://www.factworld.info: Factworld.
http://www.teachersnetwork.org
http://www.armoredpenguin.com: Armored Penguin.
http://www.enchantedlearning.com: Enchanted Learning.
http://www.abcteach.com
http://webquest.org: WebQuest Homepage.

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Art
www.impressionism.org: Impresionism.
www.poster-und-kunstdrucke.de: Posters, en aleman.
Business Studies
http://www.businessweek.com: Bloomer Bussines Week.
http://www.bbc.com/capital: BBC Capital.
Design and Technology
http://www.design-technology.org: Design Technology Department.
Geography
http://www.discovery.com: Discovery.
http://education.nationalgeographic.com: National Geographic Teachers Homepage.
History
http://www.historyworld.net: History World.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures: BBC Historic Figures.
http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk: School History.
Mathematics
http://www.heymath.com: Hey Math!
http://www.mathgoodies.com: Math Goodies.
http://www.cut-the-knot.com: Interactive Mathematics.
http://www.allmath.com: All Math.
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http://www.mathworld.wolfram.com: Wolfram MathWorld.
Music
http://www.dariamusic.com: Dara Music.
http://www.musiclearningcommunity.com: Music Learning Community.
http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/educators.aspx: ArtSedge Educators.
http://www.musictechteacher.com: Music Tech Teacher.
Physical Education and Sports Science
http://www.netfit.co.uk: NetFitness
Sciences
http://www.planet-science.com: Planet Science.

http://whyfiles.org: The Why Files.
http://www.scienceacross.org: Science Across the World.
http://ww.schoolscience.co.uk: School Science.
Mainly Primary
The following websites are more for primary teaching, but some of the material is relevant to
1 and 2 of ESO:
www.primaryresources.co.uk: Very useful site with free worksheets and powerpoints for all
subjects
http://www.scholastic.co.uk/magazines/worksheets: Excellent, free materials.
www.bbc.co.uk/schools : Excellent, free downloadable materials for all ages and subjects.
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips :animated cartoons for Science.
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/barnabybear: for 5-7 year olds
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www.enchantedlearning.com: free cross-curricular resources to download and maps Group
Section 6. Communicative activities

In the general sense, the term communicative activity or communicative task refers to any
activity in the classroom that involves the communication of information between students in
order to fulfil the objective of the activity. Thus an activity in which students read a text and
then individually answer questions on it is not a communicative activity, whereas an activity in
which pairs of students read two different parts of a text and then share the information about
both parts with each other is a communicative activity. The underlying principle is that
activities that involve real communication and negotiation of meaning enhance learning.
A typical example of communicative activities is the information gap. In its narrow
definition information gap usually refers to pair work activities using two different worksheets,
in which students complete the missing information by asking and answering questions. But in
its wider definition, it means literally "a gap in information" among any number of people, in
any grouping. Various types of information gap can be identified:
1) Information gap between two students
This is used in pair work activities. Here students read a text that has missing information in it
different information is missing for students A and students B. Students prepare questions
to find out the missing information and then As work with Bs to fill in the gaps.
Example from Physics:
Student A
1) Read the text about Light. What kind of information is missing?
2) Work with your partner / group and write questions about the missing information.
Example: 1) What is visible light a form of?
3) Work with a partner from group B, asking and answering questions
4) When you finish, check your texts to see if they are the same.
Light
Visible light is a form of ____?____ that we can detect with our eyes. Objects that produce
their own visible light are called luminous sources for example the Sun, televisions, glow-
worms.
Other objects are illuminated by this light and reflect it into ___ ?____ for example the page
of a book, most objects in this room, the Moon.
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Light is a wave motion, rather like the water waves that you can see on a small lake. The light
that we can see has a wavelength of only ___ ?___ of a millimetre.
Light travels at a very high speed - about a million times faster than the speed of sound. Light
takes only___ ?___ minutes to travel from the Sun a fast car would take about 150 years.
The speed of light in air is 300 million metres per second.
Student B
1) Read the text about Light. What kind of information is missing?
2) Work with your partner / group and write questions about the missing information.
Example: 1) What is visible light a form of?
3) Work with someone from group A, asking and answering questions
4) When you finish, check your texts to see if they are the same.
Light
Visible light is a form of energy that we can detect with our eyes. Objects that produce their
own visible light are called ___?___ for example the Sun, televisions, glow-worms.
Other objects are illuminated by this light and reflect it into our eyes for example the page of
a book, most objects in this room, the Moon.
Light is a ___?___ motion, rather like the water waves that you can see on a small lake. The
light that we can see has a wavelength of only 1/2000 of a millimetre.
Light travels at a very high speed - about a million times faster than the ___?___ . Light takes
only 8 minutes to travel from the Sun a fast car would take about 150 years. The speed of
light in air is _____?_____ .
2) Information gap between two or more groups.
The teacher divides the class into two or more groups and gives different information to each
group. This also known as a jigsaw activity as it involves putting together different pieces of
information in order to create a full picture. Below is an example of one possible procedure:
The teacher has prepared a text divided into four segments. Students form four groups. Each
group reads a different segment of the full text. Students discuss their segments and underline
key points or take notes. This task is done in 4 different places in the classroom
simultaneously. Next, students form new groups of 4, one from each of the former groups. In
their new group, students report on their segment of the text so that in the end everyone has
the information from the whole text.
3) Information gap between one student (or the teacher) and all the other students.
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This is when only one person has some information, and others have question him/her to
obtain the information.
Example: quiz activities such as 20 Questions, or Animal, Vegetable, Mineral.
4) Information gap among all students.
Here, each student has different information, and information is exchanged among the whole
class.
Example:
The teacher cuts up a text in which there is a clear sequence of steps - e.g. life cycle of a living
creature or steps in the digestive system (Biology), or steps in preparation and execution of a
laboratory experiment (Chemistry). Each student receives one sentence. As a group they have
to walk around, talk to the others and put themselves in the right order.
Variation: same activity, but with two different texts. In this version students have to use two
different skills distinguishing between content of two different texts and putting texts into
correct sequence.
Summary
One of the main purposes of verbal communication is to fill an information gap to find out
information that you do not have and to give information that others want to get from you. By
using information gap activities effectively in the CLIL classroom, the learning process is more
meaningful, more motivating and closer to natural communication.
Section 7. Classroom Language

Look at these examples of classroom language that are used for specific parts or aspects of the
lesson.
Starting the lesson
Good morning everybody, how are you?
Is anyone absent today?
Getting everyones attention
Be quiet now everybody.
OK everybody settle down.
Reviewing information and previous knowledge
Who can tell me where we got to last class?
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Does anyone know anything about?
Setting up an activity
Work in pairs/in groups of three/in small groups please.
I want you to try and answer the questions in pairs.
Giving out / taking in photocopies / books etc..
Take one and pass them on
David, can you collect everyones homework please?
Checking understanding
Is that clear?
OK so far?
Encouraging and praising students
Well done thats brilliant!
Not quite try again
Managing students behaviour
Stop messing around, David and Pedro.
Could you stop fiddling with your biro please Beln?
Setting homework
Make sure you do all the questions.
You have to do this for Monday morning.
Ending the lesson
Put away all your things.
Leave the classroom tidy before you go.
Section 8. Assessment
Assessment is a vital part of the learning process: it shows students how well they have done
so far and what they need to do for the next stage of their learning. We should see teaching
and assessment as one continuous cycle.
The following are some of the reasons why we assess students:
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To monitor and aid students progress. Teachers need to be constantly aware of what
students know and how to help them on the basis of assessment outcomes you can help
individual students.
To provide students with evidence of progress and enhance motivation. Assessment results
give tangible evidence of progress and let students know that they are achieving their goals, or
not. This aids motivation, particularly when results are positive.
To monitor your performance and plan future work. With information from assessment, you
can evaluate how effective you and your methodology have been and modify aspects of your
teaching accordingly.
To provide information for parents, colleagues and school authorities. Assessment can help
build up a profile of students progress which will be useful to all interested parties.
Practical points for the administration of tests
Some small modifications to the ways tests or exams are managed can significantly improve
student performance:
Students can be allowed more time than usual
Problems understanding the test can be clarified in L1
Instructions can be read out, and explained if necessary
Students can be allowed to use dictionaries during the test
Assessment Criteria
In CLIL the key points concerning assessment may be summarized as follows:
1. Congruence
Teachers should aim at congruence in the learning / teaching / assessing process; assessment
tools should reflect the way students learn in the class as well as evaluating their skills and
knowledge. There should not be a significant difference between how we teach and how we
assess. If, for example, the teachers CLIL programme places great importance on speaking,
this should also be reflected in assessment.
2. Communicative Effectiveness
The most important language criterion is communicative effectiveness.
Especially in the early stages of a CLIL programme, students should not be penalized for
language mistakes that do not affect understanding of the message. Assessment should be
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primarily focused on understanding of content. In terms of language, the most important
criterion is the students ability to express him/herself using the resources available.
3. Recognition vs. Production
Bearing in mind the need to ensure that problems of language comprehension do not interfere
with students ability to demonstrate content knowledge and skills, it may be best to orient
assessment tasks more towards recognition than production, especially in the early stages of
the CLIL programme.
Example of an assessment task
Look at the Geography assessment task below. It allows students to show their knowledge of
content without encountering excessive language problems. How does it do this?
Formation of an oxbow lake

1) Look carefully at the photo above. Draw arrows to label the following:
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- S-shaped meander
- meander neck
- inside bend of a meander
- outside bend of a meander
- place where erosion might be occurring
- place where deposition might be occurring.
2) Look at the diagrams and the writing below. They explain how an oxbow lake is formed, but
they are mixed up. Decide which piece of writing goes with which diagram. Cut out the
diagrams and the writing. Paste them in the correct order, in your notebooks.





The water flows round the meander.

Over time, deposits of mud and earth
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Erosion occurs on the outside bend
and deposition occurs on the inside
bend.
build up by the backwater. The
backwater is eventually cut off, leaving
a kidney-shaped oxbow lake behind.
The water breaks across the neck of
the meander. For a short time, water
flows round the backwater and across
the neck of the meander.
The water is flowing the fastest on the
outside bend. Over time, the meander
becomes an S shape. A thin strip of
land called a neck is created at the
beginning and the end of the meander.

3) On the diagrams, label the following features:
Oxbow lake
Backwater
Neck of a meander
4) What do you think will happen to the oxbow lake as time passes?
Write one sentence:
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
Comments on the task
The task allows students to show their knowledge of content without encountering excessive
language problems in a variety of ways:
Images clearly illustrate the material of the task.
There is a high element of recognition built into the task two labelling the picture activities
and one matching text with diagrams activity.
There is very little production involved in the task students only have to write one short, easy
sentence (something like: I think the oxbow lake will become dry, or I think the oxbow lake
will fill with sediment.).



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Section 9. A CLIL models. A practical details
1. Planning
Identify clear content & language objectives
The content objectives are of primary importance; by language objectives we mean
comprehension of the language needed for delivering the planned content. Often this will
involve identifying key vocabulary arising in the content.
Plan strategies for dealing with language problems
If the CLIL programme involves working in conjunction with a language teacher, this issue is an
important element in the coordination between subject and language teachers. These teachers
work together to design activities addressing specific language areas. If practicable, some
language problems are dealt with separately during language classes.
Plan activities & materials that guide & support students learning.
Activities and materials must fulfil the purpose of facilitating language comprehension as well
as guiding, clarifying and reinforcing content objectives.
2. Comprehensible Input
Link new learning to previous knowledge
Teachers draw out students previous knowledge about the topic being dealt with. This
approach acts as an effective lead-in to the topic and builds a bridge between familiar
knowledge and new knowledge.
Adapt texts to students language level
Where necessary, material is modified to suit students level. For example texts found on the
Internet can be simplified by cutting and pasting and then simplifying difficult sections. Visuals
and diagrams are added to facilitate comprehension. Or the material is made more accessible
via a task that focuses on comprehension of key points only. CLIL teachers try to avoid working
with material that is both linguistically and cognitively challenging this overloads the
students.
Pre-teach key vocabulary
Teachers identify the key vocabulary that students need to know and design activities to make
this vocabulary memorable see section XXXX for resources.
Use lots of visual support
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Teachers find or create images that provide visual cues to meaning. Powerpoints (see section
XXX for useful resources), video clips, flashcards and drawn images are a regular part of a CLIL
teachers repertoire.
Use prediction activities
Asking questions that require students to predict or hypothesize about the topic they are going
to work on serves two important purposes: it generates interest and curiosity in the topic and
it acts as a lead-in to the topic.
Use frames to guide input & focus on key vocabulary & key content
Frames are tables that students use to create sentences from a range of choices. They allow
students to produce language at a level normally higher than their normal level, and they focus
their attention on key points of the lesson, both in language and content. See section XXXX for
more on this.
3. Communication and Interaction
Engage students in dialogue through question and answer
CLIL teachers avoid a lecture style of teaching many students are unable to follow a
continuous stream of information that is not broken up into smaller units. CLIL teachers find
ways to involve students actively in the learning process through a constructivist approach:
question and answer dialogue, problem-solving, communicative activities, cooperative
learning activities, task-based learning, pair work and group work.
Vary student groupings: plenary, large/small groups, pairs, individual
Varying the grouping of the class at regular intervals changes the type of interaction and
provides variety and stimulus in the learning process. On the other hand a static seating and
grouping arrangement that never varies fosters stagnation, lack of interest and low
expectations.
Set up communicative tasks in which students exchange key content
A key aspect of CLIL: students participate more actively in the learning process in activities
that require them to interact (normally via speaking) in order to complete the information they
have. Useful activities and resources in section XXXX
Give students a balance of skills work: speaking, listening, writing & reading
A balance of skills work maximizes the learning channels available to students and provides
variety and a change of focus.
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4. Skills
Ensure students are able to demonstrate skills/knowledge in new contexts
Are students learning information merely in order to reproduce it in an exam? Or are they
learning knowledge-based skills that will equip them to perform effectively in a wide range of
situations professional, academic and social? In CLIL, subject knowledge, language
improvement and development of key competences all work together in an effective
combination.
Draw on students higher order as well as lower order thinking skills
Learning involves not just understanding, remembering and applying, but also analysing,
evaluating and creating. Teachers in all CLIL subjects need to ensure a balanced coverage of
the full range of thinking skills in their teaching.
5. Assessment
Congruence: assess students according to what and how they have learnt
There should not be a significant difference between how we teach and how we assess. If, for
example, the teachers CLIL programme places great importance on speaking, this should also
be reflected in assessment.
The most important language criterion is communicative effectiveness
Especially in the early stages of a CLIL programme, students should not be penalized for
language mistakes that do not affect understanding of the message. Assessment is primarily
focused on understanding of content. In terms of language, the most important criterion is
the students ability to express him/herself using the resources available.
6. CLIL model - Summary

Planning
Identify clear content & language objectives
Plan strategies for dealing with language problems
Create worksheets that guide, support & stimulate students learning
Comprehensible Input
Link new learning to previous knowledge
Adapt texts to students language level
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Pre-teach key vocabulary
Use lots of visual support
Use prediction activities
Use frames to guide input & focus on key vocabulary & key content
Communication and Interaction
Question & answer, not lecturing
Vary student groupings: plenary, large/small groups, pairs, individual
Set up communicative tasks in which students exchange key content
Give students a balance of skills work: speaking, listening, writing & reading
Skills
Ensure students are able to demonstrate skills/knowledge in new contexts
Draw on students higher order as well as lower order thinking skills
Assessment
Congruence: assess students according to what and how they have learnt
The most important language criterion is communicative effectiveness
Adapted from the SIOP model, by Short, Echevarria and Voigt
7. Example of the model in a sample lesson

In the following section we look at how
the model works in practice, taking a
music lesson as an example. First the
lesson itself is described step by step,
(together with the relevant materials)
and these are matched to the relevant
elements of the model. Next we look at
alternative activities for two key
elements of the
model: Comprehensible
Input and Communication and
Interaction. Finally there is a task: to
create a lesson of your own using the
same planning tool.
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7.1. Steps of the lesson in chronological sequence
NB: T = Teacher Sts = Students
Steps Description Model Element

1 T announces objectives of the lesson:
Content: to learn about musical styles in three eras of
classical music; to learn to distinguish between 3 styles
according to given criteria
Language: to learn vocabulary linked to the topic and to
read and talk about characteristics of different eras.


Planning
(evidence of)
2 T introduces the idea of identifying characteristics. T plays a
short excerpt of a song that all students know (e.g. Help by
the Beatles?), and asks them to say what features it has.

Comprehensible
Input
3 Sts listen and then discuss in pairs before feedback (possible
answers: a strong beat, verse and chorus structure,
prominent electric guitar, part singing by all 4 musicians).
Comprehensible
Input
Communication
and Interaction
4 T tells sts they are going to read about 3 different eras and
then hear an example of music from that era. But first they
will learn some of the vocabulary in the texts.
Comprehensible
Input


5 T hands out cards with words and definitions to whole class.
Sts have to stand up, mingle and find their partner, matching
all the words with the correct definitions. Words: orchestra,
composer, vocal, sacred, secular, melody, harmony,
counterpoint, polyphony, Baroque, Classical, Modern. Sts do
the activity, T monitors and checks at the end.

Comprehensible
Input
6 T tells sts to read Text 1 The Baroque Era (see below). Comprehensible
Input
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7 Correct the teacher activity. Sts turn over their papers and T
reads out text making deliberate mistakes. Whenever they
hear a mistake sts must call out right answer.

Comprehensible
Input
8 T now plays an excerpt from a piece of Baroque music and
sts have to raise their hands and identify characteristics they
hear with what they have read.
Comprehensible
Input / Skills
Communication
and Interaction

9 T tells sts to read text 2 The Classical Era (see below) and to
be ready to answer questions on it.



10 T divides sts into teams. T asks sts verbal questions on the
text team gets a point for each right answer. Example
questions: Name 2 famous composers from this era / What
2 ideas were important in this era balance and .?
Comprehensible
Input
Communication
and Interaction
11 T asks sts what balance means. T draws or shows a pic of
an old-fashioned scales and elicit the idea that
balance can be opposites compensating for each other.
T asks how this might work in music students discuss.
T writes following words on board sts have to supply the
opposites:
high -
loud -
fast -
happy -
lots of instruments playing
smooth -
Comprehensible
Input / Skills
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12 T now plays an excerpt from a Classical era piece of music
and sts have to identify which three pairs of balance words
they can hear in the music (e.g. in Beethovens Rasumowsky
string quartet no.3, opening of the 1
st
movement, the balance
pairs are: low high, loud soft, smooth abrupt).
Comprehensible
Input / Skills
13 T tells sts that for the 3
rd
text they are going to do it the
other way round. Sts will listen to the excerpt first and then
try to say what the text is about before reading it.
Skills
14 T plays excerpt from Stravinskys The Rite of Spring. T elicits
descriptions of the music (doesnt sound like normal music,
isnt harmonious or melodious in the same way as the other
music theyve heard).
Skills
15 T tells sts to read Text 3 The Modern Era (see below). T
again checks comprehension, this time with verbal True or
False statements (can also be a teams activity).
Comprehensible
Input
16 Making questions activity for general revision of all 3 texts. T
divides sts into groups of 6. In each group there are 3 pairs.
Each pair works on one text, preparing 2 questions on the
text to ask the others in the group. When questions are
ready, each pair in each group of 6 asks their questions, until
all questions in all groups have been asked and answered.
Comprehensible
Input

Communication
and Interaction
17 T explains that sts are now going to hear 6 short excerpts of
music from each of the 3 eras. They must listen for a few
seconds and then decide which era it is, and why they think
so. They do this in pairs.


Skills

Communication
and Interaction
18 T plays the excerpts, about 45 seconds to 1 minute each. Sts
listen and complete the table showing which era they think it
is.
Skills

Communication
and Interaction
19 Feedback. Sts use the table to say which excerpts are from
which eras. Sts can ask to hear an excerpt again if they are
not sure. T gives answers at end of the activity.
Skills
20 At a later date students listen to more excerpts from the 3
different eras, and have to identify them in writing, forming
sentences similar to those in the table but without being able
Assessment
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to see it.


7.2. Text 1: The Baroque Era
The idea of melody is beginning, but it is not yet very important. Polyphony is an important
characteristic of this era the music contains many voices (this means both instrumental and
vocal). The polyphonic interaction of different voices with each other (called counterpoint) is a
very important part of Baroque music. There is a lot of vocal music in this era (especially for
use in church).
Famous composers: Bach, Handel, Vivaldi, Albinoni, Pachelbel.
7.3. Text 2: The Classical Era
Melody is now an important part of music, and many good melodies of this era are well known
(e.g. Mozarts A Little Night Music). Harmony has become more complex, and Classical music
begins to explore feelings and emotions more deeply. Less music is written for the church;
secular music (non-church music) becomes much more important in this era. The idea of
balance and proportion is very important interesting melodies and harmonies are still less
important than the ideal of perfect form.
Famous composers: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert
7.4. Text 3: The Modern Era
At the beginning of the 20
th
century the music of the last century seems too emotional, too
complex. New, different ideas are needed, and three important composers take music in
three very different directions: Stravinsky, Debussy and Schoenberg. They break all the rules
of music and create exciting new musical languages. Many 20
th
century composers look for
new musical influences in jazz and folk music. Some of their music has a strong nationalist
sound to it.
Famous composers: Stravinsky, Debussy, Schoenberg, Bartok, Berg
7.5. Task: Listen to the musical excerpts & decide which era they come from

Excerpt Era Reason Excerpt Era Reason
1 4
2 5
3 6
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7.6. Language Frame: Use this frame to say which excerpts match which eras




We think

1
2
3
4
5
6



is


baroque
classical
modern



because

there is
there isnt
there are
there arent
it has
you can hear
it is

music for the church
counterpoint
polyphonic
a clear melody
a jazz influence
a folk influence
many voices