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Eng 100BC FA14

Quiz #3
Cause & Effect
Prewriting & Planning
Numbers, parallelism, misplaced & dangling
modifiers
SoSos
C&E Writing Cause & Effect
What is cause and effect?
Cause is the reason something happens
Effect is the result of an event (cause)
Can be either immediate or remote
Immediate causes and effects
Wet roads caused accident
Remote causes and effects
Insurance will rise because of accident
Primary or secondary in significance and
importance
Visibility caused accident more than speed
Injury more important than insurance rates
Causal chain
If You Give a Mouse a Cookie
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gyk55GYn
Gl0
C&E Writing Cause & Effect
How do you write a cause-and-effect-
analysis?
Purpose is to reveal reasons why something
happened or consequences of a particular
occurrence
Purpose is to persuade readers to do or
believe something
C&E Writing Cause & Effect
How do you choose a subject?
Remember limits of assignment
Larger the subject more difficult
Ensure that relationships between causes
and effects are genuine
Fact that a particular event preceded another
doesnt ensure a cause and effect
relationship
If a black cat crossed your path earlier in the
day, that cat isnt the cause of the accident
C&E Writing Cause & Effect
How do you isolate and evaluate causes &
effects?
Analyze and research thoroughly
Few things result from single cause; rarely
does a cause have a single effect
Create a list of causes and effects
Evaluate each item
Select those that seem most relevant or
convincing
Choose most immediate and primary
C&E Writing
How do you structure a cause & effect essay?
Analyzing causes
Identify the subject
Move to analyze its causes
Analyzing effects
Identify subject that produced the effects
Explain effects
Arrangement of multiple causes or effects
Chronological order (if sequence of events)
Spatial
Immediate to remote
Primary to secondary (importance)
C&E Revising
How do you revise a C&E essay?
Make sure its primarily explanatory and
informative
Avoid analysis that is subjective, biased,
contains unsubstantiated opinions
C&E Revising
How do you revise a C&E essay?
Retest subject
Were you able to adequately develop your
subject in the space that you had available, or
where you forced to skim the surface?
Were you objective and accurate in what you
identified as causes and effects
Is your analysis based on accurate
information?
C&E Revising
How do you revise a C&E essay?
Concentrate on the important
Cant find ALL the causes and ALL the effects
Identify only major causes OR effects
Number in order of significance or importance
C&E Revising
How do you revise a C&E essay?
Check for logical organization
Why did you order items in the order you
chose?
Is your essay balanced?
Develop each cause or effect in a separate
paragraph. Start each paragraph with an
explanatory statement of how this fits into
what has gone before.
C&E Revising
How do you revise a C&E essay?
Beginning and ending
Introduction
What value does this essay hold for readers?
How will you help readers understand this
relationship?
What will you help readers understand?
Conclusion
DONT simply summarize causes or effects
redundant!
DO stress the significance of your analysis
DO discuss how analysis helps readers
understand the subject.
C&E Prewriting
Choose one of the following questions. Which
do you know the most about?
1. What are the causes (or effects) of divorce?
2. What are the causes (or effects) of poverty in
the USA?
3. What are the causes (or effects) of increased
obesity in the USA?
4. What are the causes (or effects) of social
media?
5. What are the causes (or effects) of watered-
down curriculum at community colleges?
6. What are the causes (or effects) of illegal
immigration?
C&E Prewriting
Frewriting - Causes
List as many causes as you can in time given
Do not stop writing
Circle the most important causes on list
Frewriting - Effects
List as many effects as you can in time given
Do not stop writing
Circle the most important effects on list
Complete graphic organizers
Which graphic organizer looks the most
complete, is the most logical, has the most
factual evidence?
C&E Planning Cause or effect Option
I. Introduction
A. Attention grabber
1.
2.
B. Background information
1.
2.
C. Purpose & Thesis Statement
1.
2.
II. Body
A. Cause OR effect 1
1.
2.
B. Cause OR effect 2
1.
2.
*continue through all causes or
effects
?. Effect
1.
2.
III. Conclusion
A. link back to introduction
1.
2.
B. Reminder of thesis
1.
2.
C. Final statement, lasting
impression
1.
2.
C&E Planning - Options
Chain of Causes & Effects
I. Introduction
A. Attention grabber
1.
2.
B. Background information
1.
2.
C. Purpose & Thesis Statement
1.
2.
II. Body
A. Cause & Effect 1
1.
2.
B. Effect 1 becomes Cause 2 & Effect 2
1.
2.
C. Effect 2 becomes Cause 3 & Effect 3
1.
2.
*Continue until all of sequence exhausted
III. Conclusion
A. link back to
introduction
1.
2.
B. Reminder of thesis
1.
2.
C. Final statement,
lasting impression
1.
2.
Numbers
Numbers
Differ according to style guide
MLA use numerals for numbers above one
hundred (starting with 101)
MLA spell out numbers one hundred and
below
MLA spell out large round numbers
(fifteen million)
APA spell out numbers one through nine,
10 and above written numerically
Both when one number immediately
follows another, spell out one number and
use numerals for other (three 100-meter
events, 25 four-poster beds)
Numbers
use numerals according to convention
Dates July 4, 1776; 56 BC; AD 30
Addresses 77 Latches Lane, 519 West 42
nd
Street
Percentages 55 percent (or 55%)
Fractions, Decimals , 0.047
Scores 7 to 3, 21 18
Statistics average age 37, average weight 180
Surveys 4 out of 5
Exact amounts of money - $105. 37
Divisions of books volume 3, Chapter 4, page
189
Divisions of plays act 3, scene 3 (or act III,
scene iii)
Numbers (cont.)
use numerals according to convention
Identification numbers serial number
10988675
Time of Day 4:00 p.m., 1:30 a.m.
When not using a.m. or p.m., write out the
time in words (two oclock in the
afternoon, twelve noon, seven in the
morning)
Exercise 22.1
1. John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George
Harrison, and Ringo Starr were 4 young
men from Liverpool, England, who
formed what would become the most
popular rock band of all time.
4 = four
2. On January twenty-five, 1964, the
Beatles first hit entered the U.S. charts.
Twenty-five = 25
3. The song I Want to Hold Your Hand
spent seven weeks at number one and 14
weeks in the top 40.
14 = fourteen
Exercise 22.1
4. Almost immediately, the Beatles began
to attract 1000s of screaming fans
everywhere they went.
1000s = thousands
5. Throughout the nineteen-sixties, the
Beatles were the worlds most popular
group.
Nineteen-sixties = 1960s
6. During the eight years of the Beatles
reign on the charts, they had more than
forty three-minute pop hits.
Three-minute = 3-minute
Exercise 22.1
7. By the 2
nd
half of the decade, he Beatles had
stopped touring.
2
nd
= second
8. They performed live together for the last
time on the roof of Three Savile Row, the
headquarters of their doomed record
company, Apple.
Three = 3
9. 150 employees worked for Apple, which
eventually went bankrupt.
150 = One hundred fifty
10. By no means did each Beatle earn twenty-
five percent of the groups profits, for
Lennon and McCartney wrote more than
ninety percent of the songs.
Ninety = 90
Parallelism
Balance Parallel Ideas
Balance parallel ideas in a series
Children who study music also learn
confidence, discipline, and they are creative.
Children who study music also learn
confidence, discipline, and creativity.
Impressionist painters believed in focusing
on ordinary subjects, capturing the effects
of light on those subjects, and to use short
brushstrokes.
Impressionist painters believed in focusing
on ordinary subjects, capturing the effects
of light on those subjects, and using short
brushstrokes.
Balance Parallel Ideas
Balance parallel ideas presented as pairs
Parallel ideas linked with coordinating
conjunctions
Many states are reducing property
taxes for home owners and extend
financial aid in the form of tax
credits to renters.
Many states are reducing property
taxes for home owners and extending
financial aid in the form of tax
credits to renters.
Balance Parallel Ideas
Balance parallel ideas presented as pairs
Parallel ideas linked with correlative
conjunctions
Eitheror, neithernor, not onlybut also,
bothand, whetheror
The clerk told me either to change my flight or
take the train.
The clerk told me either to change my flight
or to take the train.
Thomas Edison was not only a prolific
inventor but also was a successful
entrepreneur.
Omit was
Balance Parallel Ideas
Repeat function words to clarify parallels
By, to, that, because
Our study revealed that left-handed students
were more likely to have trouble with
classroom desks and rearranging desks for
exam periods was useful.
Our study revealed that left-handed students
were more likely to have trouble with
classroom desks and that rearranging desks
for exam periods was useful.
Ex. E.4 Parallelism
1. The United States uses large amounts of
energy, is depending heavily on oil, and
imports much of that oil.
energy, depends heavily
2. Burning oil for energy pollutes the air,
destroys an irreplaceable commodity, and
is wasting resources.
and wastes resources.
Ex. E.4 Parallelism
3. During the 1970s, an embargo made oil
expensive and it was not easy to get.
expensive and difficult to get.
4. The oil crisis led to a wider interest in
alternative energy sources that would be
renewable, environmentally sound, and
would cost less than oil.
sound, and less expensive than
Ex. E.4 Parallelism
5. Some new homes used solar heating,
although it was expensive to install and
despite its being still relatively untested.
Omit despite its being
6. Many Americans expected electric cars to
be perfected and that they would be widely
available by the end of the twentieth
century.
Omit that they would be
Ex. E.4 Parallelism
7. Instead, the embargo ended, the cost of
oil dropped, and there were declining
gasoline prices.
and gasoline prices declined.
8. At the same time, money to invent
alternative energy technologies, to
develop new products, and for marketing
the products dried up.
and to market the products
Ex. E.4 Parallelism
9. Scientists and those who study the
environment hope that there will be
plentiful renewable energy sources
someday.
Scientists and environmentalists who study
10. It would be better to have alternative
energy possibilities soon than waiting for
the worlds oil reserves to run dry.
soon than to wait for the worlds
Misplaced & Dangling Modifiers
Misplaced & Dangling Modifiers
Modifiers should point clearly to the
words they modify
As a rule, related words should be kept
together!
Put limiting modifiers in front of the
words they modify
Limiting modifiers = only, even, almost, nearly,
just
These should appear in front of a verb only if
they modify the verb
At first, I couldnt even touch my toes, much less
grasp them.
If they limit the meaning of some other word in
the sentence, they should be placed in front of
that word.
The cathedral almost took six centuries to
complete.
The cathedral took almost six centuries to
complete.
Put limiting modifiers in front of the
words they modify
If you just interview chemistry majors, your
picture of the student bodys response to the
new grading policies will be incomplete.
If you interview just chemistry majors, your
picture of the student bodys response to the
new grading policies will be incomplete.
If you interview just chemistry majors, your
picture of the student bodys response to the
new grading policies will be incomplete.
Put limiting modifiers in front of the
words they modify
In the United States in 1860, not all black
southerners were slaves.
In the United States in 1860, all black
southerners were not slaves.
In the United States in 1860, not all black
southerners were slaves.
Place phrases and clauses so that readers can
see at a glance what they modify
The soccer player returned to the clinic
where he had undergone emergency
surgery in 2004 in a limousine sent by
Adidas.
He had surgery in a limousine???
Traveling in a limousine sent by Adidas, the
soccer player returned to the clinic where he
had undergone emergency surgery in 2004.
Place phrases and clauses so that readers can
see at a glance what they modify
There are many pictures of comedians who
have performed at Gavins on the walls.
The comedians are performing on the walls?
On the walls are many pictures of
comedians who have performed at Gavins.
The robber was described as a six-foot-tall
man with a heavy mustache weighing 170
pounds.
Thats a heavy mustache!!!
The robber was described as a 170-pound,
six-foot-tall man with a heavy mustache.
Place phrases and clauses so that readers can
see at a glance what they modify
A squinting modifier leads to ambiguity
The exchange students we met for coffee
occasionally questioned us about our latest
slang.
Did they meet occasionally? Or did the
questioning happen occasionally?
The exchange students we occasionally met
for coffee questioned us about our latest
slang.
The exchange students we met for coffee
questioned us occasionally about our latest
slang.
Move awkwardly placed modifiers
A sentence should flow from subject to verb
to object without lengthy detours along with
way
Hong Kong, after more than 150 years of
British rule, was transferred back to
Chinese control in 1997.
After more than 150 years of British rule,
Hong Kong was transferred back to Chinese
control in 1997.
After more than 150 years of British rule,
Hong Kong was transferred back to Chinese
control in 1997.
Avoid awkward split infinitives
Infinitive = to plus base form of a verb (to think)
Split infinitive = modifier between to and verb
(to carefully balance, to completely understand)
When a long word or phrase appears between
parts of the infinitive, result is usually awkward
If possible, the patient should try to avoid going
up and down stairs.
The patient should try to if possible avoid going
up and down stairs.
If possible, the patient should try to avoid going
up and down stairs.
Dangling Modifiers
Modifier fails to refer logically to any word in
the sentence
Opening the window to let out a huge
bumblebee, the car swerved into an
oncoming truck.
The document understood the need for
checks and balances?
Opening the window to let out a huge
bumblebee, Sally lost control and the car
swerved into an oncoming truck.
Exercise 10.1
1. Recently, several sports have gained
popularity that no one had heard of thirty
years ago.
Recently, several sports that no one had heard
of thirty years ago have gained popularity.
2. With a name that suggests their dangerous
allure, members of Generation X are
attracted to these athletic events.
With a name that suggests their dangerous
allure, extreme sports are attracting
members of Generation X.
Exercise 10.1
3. These Generation X games often involve
going to inaccessible places, which include
snowboarding and sky-surfing.
These Generation X games, which include
snowboarding and sky-surfing, often involve
going to inaccessible places.
4. Snow activities are especially popular that
can be done on remote mountain-tops.
Snow activities that can be done on remote
mountain-tops are especially popular.
Exercise 10.1
5. Some of these sports have become so widely
accepted that participants can now compete in the
Olympics, such as freestyle skiing and
snowboarding.
Some of these sports, such as freestyle skiing and
snowboarding, have become so widely accepted that
participants can now compete in the Olympics.
6. Gasping at the antics of snowboarders, mountain
bikers, and other athletes, these daredevils prove
that the sports world really has changed.
Gasping at the antics of snowboarders, mountain
bikers, and other athletes, fans can see that the
sports world really has changed.
Exercise 10.1
7. Only these in-your-face athletes are a small
part of what is interesting about the changes
taking place in sports today.
These in-your-face athletes are only a small
part of what is interesting about the changes
taking place in sports today.
8. Occasionally, even fans of extreme sports know
that the quest for adventure leads people into
dangerous situations.
Even fans of extreme sports know that the quest
for adventure occasionally leads people into
dangerous situations.
Exercise 10.1
9. Environmentalists also point out unfortunately
that in some remote wilderness areas, extreme
sports are taking their toll on nature.
Environmentalists also point out that in some
remote wilderness areas, extreme sports are
unfortunately taking their toll on nature.
10. Probably, whether people love them or hate
them, extreme sports will continue to inspire
extreme reactions.
Whether people love them or hate them, extreme
sports will probably continue to inspire extreme
reactions.
For next Tuesday...
Read chapter on process writing
Read quotation marks in glossary
Read (in 11
th
edition) pgs 516 - 522