You are on page 1of 79

Pre-Week Quizzer in Political Law

(Doctinal Rulings, Requisites and Definitions
1 1
July, 2009
Prepared by
Professor of Law
Baguio City
(Political Law)
Baguio City Branch, UC, Baguio City
a!"oanga City
Baguio City, #antiago City, I$a"%la & 'i(olog City
'agu(an City
*h% %+a!in%% i$ (r%$u!%, to ha-% !a$t%r%, th% Con$titutional (ro-i$ion$.
PART I---Constittion o! Go"#$n%#nt
1. Define Political Law
It i$ that "ranch o/ (u"lic law which ,%al$ with th% organi0ation an,
o(%ration$ o/ th% go-%rn!%ntal organ$ o/ th% #tat% an, ,%/in%$ th%
r%lation$ o/ th% #tat% with th% inha"itant$ o/ it$ t%rritory. (PEOPLE VS&
PERFECTO' () P*i+& ,,-)
2. What are included in Political Law?
• Con$titutional Law1
• A,!ini$trati-% Law
• Law o/ Pu"lic O//ic%r$
• Law on Pu"lic Cor(oration
• El%ction Law
3. What is the doctrine of constitutional supremacy?
Un,%r th% ,octrin% o/ con$titutional $u(r%!acy, i/ a law or
contract -iolat%$ any nor! o/ th% con$titution that law or contract
wh%th%r (ro!ulgat%, "y th% l%gi$lati-% or "y th% %+%cuti-% "ranch
or %nt%r%, into "y (ri-at% (%r$on$ /or (ri-at% (ur(o$%$ i$ null an,
-oi, an, without any /orc% an, %//%ct. *hu$, $inc% th%
Con$titution i$ th% /un,a!%ntal, (ara!ount an, $u(r%!% law o/
th% nation, it i$ ,%%!%, writt%n in %-%ry $tatut% an, contract.
4. What are the requisites for the eercise of !people"s initiati#e$ to
amend the %onstitution?
It i$ (ro-i,%, un,%r #%ction 2, Art. 3VII o/ th% Con$titution which
(ro-i,%$ that 4A!%n,!%nt$ to thi$ Con$titution !ay li5%wi$% "% ,ir%ctly
(ro(o$%, "y th% (%o(l% through initiati-% u(on a (%tition o/ at l%a$t )26 o/ th%
total nu!"%r o/ r%gi$t%r%, -ot%r$, o/ which %-%ry l%gi$lati-% ,i$trict !u$t "%
r%(r%$%nt%, "y at l%a$t 76 o/ th% r%gi$t%r%, -ot%r th%r%in.8 *h% Congr%$$ $hall
(ro-i,% /or th% i!(l%!%ntation o/ th% %+%rci$% o/ thi$ right.
&. 's there a law which would pro#ide for the mechanism for the
people to propose amendments to the %onstitution by people"s initiati#e?
Whil% Congr%$$ ha, %nact%, RA 9:7; (ur(ort%,ly to (ro-i,% th%
!%chani$!$ /or th% (%o(l%<$ %+%rci$% th% (ow%r to a!%n, th% Con$titution "y
(%o(l%<$ initiati-%, th% #u(r%!% Court in =IRIA= 'EFE>#OR?#A>*IAGO,
%t al. V$. CO=ELEC, G.R. >o. )2:72;, =arch )@, )@@: & Aun% )B, )@@:, th%
#u(r%!% Court h%l, that RA .-)/ is in0o%1+#t#' in23#42t# o$ 52ntin6 in
#ss#nti2+ t#$%s 2n3 0on3itions inso!2$ 2s initi2ti"# on 2%#n3%#nts to t*#
Constittion is 0on0#$n#3& Its +20n2# on t*is s7st2nti"# %2tt#$ 2$# !2t2+
2n3 02nnot 7# 0$#3 78 9#%1o5#$in6: t*# COMELEC to 1$o%+62t# s0*
$+#s 2n3 $#6+2tions 2s %28 7# n#0#ss2$8 to 02$$8 t*# 1$1os#s o! t*is 20t&
In LAMBINO VS& COMELEC' *o5#"#$' t*# S1$#%# Co$t on
No"#%7#$ ;<' ;==.' in t*# Mint# R#so+tion o! t*# 1#tition#$>s Motion !o$
R#0onsi3#$2tion *#+3 t*2t RA No& .-)/ is 23#42t# 2n3 0o%1+#t# !o$ t*#
2 2
1$1os# o! 1$o1osin6 2%#n3%#nts to t*# Constittion t*$o6* 1#o1+#>s
initi2ti"# 78 2 "ot# o! <= %#%7#$s 2s 1#$ C#$ti!i02tion o! t*# En B2n0>s
C+#$? o! Co$t&
&(a. )ay the question !Do you appro#e the amendment of *rticles +'
and +'' of the 1,-. Philippine %onstitution chan/in/ the form of
/o#ernment from Presidential(0icameral to Parliamentary(1nicameral$ be
allowed to be submitted to the people for their ratification or re2ection as a
means of amendin/ the %onstitution by people"s initiati#e if the requisite
number of si/natories 3124 nationwide and at least 34 for e#ery le/islati#e
district5 are met?
>o /or two (2) r%a$on$.
). *h% $ai, 4(ro(o$al8 ,i, not in,icat% which (ro-i$ion$ o/ Articl%$ VI
an, VII ar% actually "%ing a!%n,%, which i$ a !u$t un,%r #%ction 2, Art. 3VII.
Oth%rwi$%, who $hall !a5% th% a!%n,!%nt$ i/ th% (%o(l% in a (l%"i$cit%
a((ro-% th% $a!%1
2. Changing th% /or! o/ go-%rn!%nt /ro! (r%$i,%ntial to (arlia!%ntary
i$ an act o/ REVI#I>G th% Con$titution which i$ not allow%, un,%r Art. 3VII,
#%ction 2. P%o(l%<$ initiati-% !ay only "% allow%, to (ro(o$% a!%n,!%nt$ to
th% Con$titution, not r%-i$ion.
6. What are the requisites before an amendment to the %onstitution by
!people"s initiati#e$ is sufficient in form and in substance?
In th% ca$% o/ RAUL L. LA=BI>O an, ERICO B. AU=E>*A'O ,
tog%th%r with 9,72:,@;2 r%gi$t%r%, -ot%r$ -$. *CE CO==I##IO> O>
ELEC*IO>#, G.R. >o. ):D);7, Octo"%r 2;, 2BB9, ;B; #CRA )9B, th%
/ollowing r%Eui$it%$ !u$t "% (r%$%ntF
). *h% (%o(l% !u$t author an, !u$t $ign th% %ntir% (ro(o$al. >o ag%nt
or r%(r%$%ntati-% can $ign /or an, on th%ir "%hal/1
2. A$ an initiati-% u(on a (%tition, *CE PROPO#AL =U#* BE
*h%$% %$$%ntial %l%!%nt$ ar% (r%$%nt only i/ th% /ull t%+t o/ th% (ro(o$%,
a!%n,!%nt$ i$ /ir$t $hown to th% (%o(l% who will %+(r%$$ th%ir a$$%nt "y
$igning $uch co!(l%t% (ro(o$al in a (%tition. *hu$, an a!%n,!%nt i$
OC>*AI># *CE FULL *E3* OF *CE PROPO#E' A=E>'=E>*#.
.. Distin/uish !7e#ision$ from !amendment$ of the %onstitution.
9R#"ision: i$ th% alt%ration$ o/ th% ,i//%r%nt (ortion$ o/
th% %ntir% ,ocu!%nt HCon$titutionI. It !ay r%$ult in th% r%writing
wh%th%r th% whol% con$titution, or th% gr%at%r (ortion o/ it, or
(%rha($ $o!% o/ it$ i!(ortant (ro-i$ion$. But what%-%r r%$ult$ th%
r%-i$ion !ay (ro,uc%, th% /actor that charact%ri0%$ it a$ an act o/
r%-i$ion i$ th% original int%ntion an, (lan authori0%, to "% carri%,
out. *hat int%ntion an, (lan !u$t cont%!(lat% a con$i,%ration o/
3 3
all th% (ro-i$ion$ o/ th% Con$titution to ,%t%r!in% which on%
$houl, "% alt%r%, or $u((r%$$%, or wh%th%r th% whol% ,ocu!%nt
$houl, "% r%(lac%, with an %ntir%ly n%w on%.
9A%#n3%#nt: o/ th% Con$titution, on th% oth%r han,,
%n-i$ag%$ a chang% or only a /%w $(%ci/ic (ro-i$ion$. *h%
int%ntion o/ an act to a!%n, i$ not to con$i,%r th% a,-i$a"ility o/
changing th% %ntir% con$titution or o/ con$i,%ring that (o$$i"ility.
*h% int%ntion rath%r i$ to i!(ro-% $(%ci/ic (art$ o/ th% %+i$ting
con$titution or to a,, to it (ro-i$ion$ ,%%!%, %$$%ntial on account
o/ chang%, con,ition$ or to $u((r%$$ (ortion$ o/ it that $%%!
o"$ol%t%, or ,ang%rou$, or !i$l%a,ing in th%ir %//%ct. (#I>CO,
>O*EF On >o-%!"%r 2), 2BB9 in it$ R%$olution o/ th% =otion /or
R%con$i,%ration o/ La!"ino, th% #u(r%!% Court "y a -ot% o/ )B !%!"%r$
,%clar%, that RA >o. 9:7; I# CO=PLE*E A>' A'EJUUA*E FOR
*CE CO>#*I*U*IO>.)
-. )ay %on/ress propose amendments to the %onstitution while at the
same time callin/ for a %onstitutional %on#ention to amend the
Yes, there is no prohibition for Congress to propose amendments
to the Constitution and at the same time call for the convening of a
Constitutional Convention to amend the Constitution. The word “or” in the
provision “…Congress, upon a vote of ¾ of all its members; ! "#$ %
constitutional Convention” under &ection ', %rt. ()** also means “%+,”.
-.+/%01& )&. C2101C, 2) #CRA ::D3
,. What is the !Doctrine of Proper 8ubmission$ in connection with
proposed amendments to the %onstitution?
“,octrine of 4roper &ubmission” means all the proposed amendments
to the Constitution shall be presented to the people for the ratification or
re5ection at the same time, not piecemeal. -9:L;<9'<: +8. %:);L;%= 41
8%7* .>25
)B. What i$ th% archi(%lagic ,octrin% or archi(%lago th%oryK
It i$ th% 2
$%nt%nc% o/ #%ction ), Art. I o/ th% Con$titution which $tat%$
that 4th% wat%r$ aroun,, "%tw%%n an, conn%cting th% i$lan,$ o/ th% archi(%lago,
r%gar,l%$$ o/ th%ir "r%a,th an, ,i!%n$ion$, /or! (art o/ th% int%rnal wat%r$ o/
th% Phili((in%$.8
11. What are the elements of !state$?

A$ h%l, in C001CT! )&. C%24& !61,%, 7# &C!% #8, the
%l%!%nt$ o/ a $tat% ar%.
). (%o(l%
2. t%rritory
7. $o-%r%ignty
4 4
D. go-%rn!%nt
12. *re the two(fold function of /o#ernment as enumerated by the
8upreme %ourt in 0*%*<' +8. <*%:%:= 1>> Phil. 46- 3)inistrant ?merely
directory@ and %onstituent ?)andatory@ Aunctions5 still applicable today?
+o more as held in %CC9% )&. C6.C, 8: &C!% ;7<. This is ,u% to
co!(l%+iti%$ o/ th% changing $oci%ty, th% two?/ol, /unction o/ th% go-%rn!%nt
a$ cla$$i/i%, "y Pr%$i,%nt Wil$on i$ no long%r r%l%-ant a$ a r%$ult o/ th%
changing $oci%ty wh%r%in what ar% con$i,%r%, !%r%ly !ini$trant /unction$ o/
th% #tat% "%/or% ar% now con$i,%r%, con$titu%nt , or -ic% -%r$a.
13. What Bind of /o#ernment was the !*quino Co#ernment$ after
former President )arcos left )alaqcanan/ for Dawaii due to the ;D8*
7e#olution in Aebruary 1,-6.
%s held in *n !e= SATURNINO BERMUDE@' <(/ SCRA <.=' th%
$a!% i$ ,% Lur%. A go-%rn!%nt /or!%, a$ a r%$ult o/ a (%o(l%<$ r%-olution, i$
con$i,%r%, ,% Lur% i/ it i$ alr%a,y acc%(t%, "y th% /a!ily o/ nation$ or oth%r
countri%$ li5% th% Unit%, #tat%$, Gr%at Britain, G%r!any, Aa(an, an, oth%r$.
<(& W*2t 2$# t*# t*$## ()) ?in3s o! 3# !20to 6o"#$n%#ntA
A$ h%l, in CO BIM CHAM VS& VALDE@ TAN BEH' -/ P*i+& <<)'
th% thr%% (7) 5in,$ o/ ,% /acto go-%rn!%nt$ ar%F
a. *h% /ir$t, or go-%rn!%nt ,% /acto in a (ro(%r l%gal
$%n$%, i$ that go-%rn!%nt that g%t$ (o$$%$$ion an,
control o/, or u$ur($, "y /orc% or "y th% -oic% o/ th%
!aLority, th% right/ul l%gal go-%rn!%nt$ an,
!aintain$ it$%l/ again$t th% will o/ th% latt%r, $uch a$
th% go-%rn!%nt o/ Englan, un,%r th%
Co!!onw%alth, /ir$t "y Parlia!%nt an, lat%r "y
Cro!w%ll a$ Prot%ctor.
". *h% $%con, i$ that which i$ %$ta"li$h%, an,
!aintain%, "y !ilitary /orc%$ who in-a,% an,
occu(y a t%rritory o/ th% %n%!y in th% cour$% o/ war,
an, which i$ ,%no!inat%, a go-%rn!%nt o/
(ara!ount /orc%, a$ th% ca$%$ o/ Ca$tin%, in =ain%,
which wa$ r%,uc%, to Briti$h (o$$%$$ion in th% war
o/ )M)2, an, *a!(ico, =%+ico, occu(i%, ,uring th%
war with =%+ico, "y th% troo($ o/ th% Unit%, #tat%$.
c. An, th% thir, i$ that %$ta"li$h%, a$ an in,%(%n,%nt
go-%rn!%nt "y th% inha"itant$ o/ a country who ri$%
in in$urr%ction again$t th% (ar%nt $tat% o/ $uch a$ th%
go-%rn!%nt o/ th% #outh%rn Con/%,%racy in r%-olt
not conc%rn%, in th% (r%$%nt ca$% with th% /ir$t 5in,,
"ut only with th% $%con, an, thir, 5in,$ o/ ,% /acto
NBut th%r% i$ anoth%r ,%$cri(tion o/
go-%rn!%nt, call%, al$o "y (u"lici$t$ a go-%rn!%nt
,% /acto, "ut which !ight, (%rha($, "% !or% a(tly
5 5
,%no!inat%, a go-%rn!%nt o/ (ara!ount /orc%. It$
,i$tingui$hing charact%ri$tic$ ar%
()), that it$ %+i$t%nc% i$ !aintain%, "y acti-%
!ilitary (ow%r with th% t%rritori%$, an, again$t th%
right/ul authority o/ an %$ta"li$h%, an, law/ul
go-%rn!%nt1 an,
(2), that whil% it %+i$t$ it n%c%$$arily "%
o"%y%, in ci-il !att%r$ "y (ri-at% citi0%n$ who, "y
act$ o/ o"%,i%nc% r%n,%r%, in $u"!i$$ion to $uch
/orc%, ,o not "%co!% r%$(on$i"l%, or wrong,o%r$, /or
tho$% act$, though not warrant%, "y th% law$ o/ th%
right/ul go-%rn!%nt.
1&. What is the postliminy theory or 2us postliminium?
Wh%n a /or%ign (ow%r occu(i%$ a $tat% an, %+%rci$%$ th% (ow%r$ o/
go-%rn!%nt, th% (olitical law$ o/ th% $ai, $tat% ar% ,%%!%, auto!atically
$u$(%n,%, "ut th% /or!%r go-%rn!%nt auto!atically co!%$ to li/% an, will "% in
/orc% an, in %//%ct again u(on th% r%?%$ta"li$h!%nt o/ th% /or!%r go-%rn!%nt.
(*aylor, Int%rnational Law, (. 9);.)
16. What is the doctrine of so#erei/nty as !auto limitation$?
In th% $uccinct languag% o/ A%llin%5, it Ni$ th% (ro(%rty o/ a
$tat%?/orc% ,u% to which it ha$ th% %+clu$i-% ca(acity o/ l%gal $%l/?
,%t%r!ination an, $%l/?r%$triction&C A st2t# t*#n' i! it 0*oos#s to'
%28 $#!$2in !$o% t*# #D#$0is# o! 5*2t ot*#$5is# is i++i%it27+#
0o%1#t#n0#&C *h% o(inion wa$ at (ain$ to (oint out though that
%-%n th%n, th%r% i$ at th% !o$t ,i!inution o/ Luri$,ictional right$,
not it$ ,i$a((%aranc%. (Cit%, in R%agan -$. Co!!i$$ion%r,
41401 )&. ./, >8 &C!% 7?; and C22*&&*+1! )&.
!@1!T&+, '78 &C!% 8<?3
1.. What is the !incorporation theory$ or the !'ncorporation %lause$
of the %onstitution?
It i$ th% (rinci(l% %!"o,i%, in #%ction 2, Articl% II o/ th% Con$titution
which $tat%$ that 4T*# P*i+i11in#s 23o1ts t*# 6#n#$2++8 200#1t#3 1$in0i1+#s
o! int#$n2tion2+ +25 2s 12$t o! t*# +25 o! t*# +2n3:& (MEEOFF VS&
P*i+ <-<, an, AGUSTIN VS& EDU' ,, SCRA <F/)&
1-. 'n case of conflict between a constitutional ri/ht of a citiEen and a
/enerally accepted principle of international law= which shall pre#ail?
In th% ca$% o/
REYES VS& BAGATSING'<;/ SCRA //), th% #u(r%!% Court h%l, that
th% con$titutional right $hall (r%-ail. *hough Articl% 22 o/ th% Vi%nna
Con-%ntion on 'i(lo!atic R%lation$ (rohi"it$ ralli%$ within ;BB /%%t o/ any
/or%ign %!"a$$y, th% $a!% $hall gi-% way to th% con$titutional right o/ th%
citi0%n$ to 4(%ac%a"ly a$$%!"l% an, to (%tition th% go-%rn!%nt /or r%,r%$$
o/ th%ir gri%-anc%$8.
6 6
1,. )ay a citiEen refuse to render personal military ser#iceFtrainin/
because he does not ha#e military inclination or he does not want to Bill or be
>o a$ h%l, in P;:PL; +8. L*C)*<= 66 Phil. 13. “The appellantAs
argument that he does not want to 5oin the armed forces because “he does
not want to Bill or be Billed” and that “he has no militarC inclination” is not
acceptable because it is his obligation to 5oin the armed forces in connection
with the “defense of the &tate” provision of the Constitution.
2B. 's the !separation of church and state$ a myth or a reality?
It i$ a r%ality a$ $hown "y th% /ollowing (ro-i$ion$ o/ th% Con$titution.
). ART& III' S#0& /& >o law $hall "% !a,% r%$(%cting an %$ta"li$h!%nt
o/ r%ligion, or (rohi"iting th% /r%% %+%rci$% th%r%o/. *h% /r%%
%+%rci$% an, %nLoy!%nt o/ r%ligiou$ (ro/%$$ion an, wor$hi(,
without ,i$cri!ination or (r%/%r%nc%, $hall /or%-%r "% allow%,. >O
2. ART& VI' S#0& ;, ())& Charita"l% in$titution$, church%$, !o$Eu%$,
non?(ro/it c%!%t%ri%$Oactually, ,ir%ctly an, %+clu$i-%ly u$%, /or
r%ligiou$, charita"l%, or %,ucational (ur(o$%$ $hall "% %+%!(t /ro!
7. ART& VI' S#0& ;F &(;)& >o (u"lic !on%y or (ro(%rty $hall "%
a((ro(riat%,, a((li%,, (ai,, /or th% "%n%/it, ,ir%ctly or in,ir%ctly, /or
th% u$%, "%n%/it, or $u((ort o/ any $%ct, church, ,%no!ination or
r%ligion, %+c%(t wh%n $uch (ri%$t, !ini$t%r.. i$ a$$ign%, to th% ar!%,
/orc%$, or to any (%nal in$titution, or go-%rn!%nt or(hanag% or
D. ART& IX' C' ;(/)& R%ligiou$ ,%no!ination$ an, $%ct$ $hall not "%
r%gi$t%r%,Oa$ (olitical (arti%$. (>O*EF R%ligiou$ organi0ation$ ar%
al$o (rohi"it%, ion conn%ction with $%ctoral r%(r%$%ntati-%$ un,%r
Art. VI)
;. ART& XIV' S#0& )()). At th% o(tion in writing "y (ar%nt$, r%ligion
$hall "% allow%, to "% taught to th%ir chil,r%n in %l%!%ntary an,
high $chool$ within th% r%gular cla$$ hour$ "y in$tructor$ ,%$ignat%,
or a((ro-%, "y r%ligiou$ authoriti%$ to which $ai, chil,r%n "%long,
without a,,itional co$t to th% go-%rn!%nt.
21. What are the factors to be considered by the Philippines in dealin/
with other nations?
A$ (ro-i,%, in #%ction : o/ Art. II, *h% Phili((in%$ $hall (ur$u% an
in,%(%n,%nt /or%ign (olicy. In it$ r%lation$ with oth%r $tat%$ th% (ara!ount
con$i,%ration $hall "% H)I n2tion2+ so"#$#i6nt8' G;H t#$$ito$i2+ int#6$it8' G)H
n2tion2+ int#$#st' 2n3 G(H t*# $i6*t to s#+!-3#t#$%in2tion'
7 7
22. 's there absolute prohibition for the Philippines to be equipped
with nuclear weapons?
>o, a$ $tat%, in #%ction M, Art. II, 4th% Phili((in%$, consistent with the
national interest, a,o(t$ an, (ur$u%$ a (olicy o/ /r%%,o! /ro! nucl%ar
w%a(on$ in it$ t%rritory.8 A$ $uch, i/ it i$ con$i$t%nt with national int%r%$t, th%
$a!% i$ not (rohi"it%,.
23. 's !di#orce$ prohibited by the 1,-. Philippine %onstitution?
Fath%r B%rna$ o(in%$ that th% (ro-i$ion o/ th% Con$titution (#%ction )2,
Art. III) which (ro-i,%$ in (art that th% 4#tat% $hall $tr%ngth%n th% /a!ily8 ,o%$
not ta5% a $tan, on ,i-orc% though it a((%ar$ that a ,i-orc% law woul, 4"r%a58
th% /a!ily in$t%a, o/ 4$tr%ngth%ning8 it. A$ $uch, a 'i-orc% Law to "% (a$$%,
"y Congr%$$ !ay or !ay not "% uncon$titutional.
23. 's abortion allowed in the Philippines?
#%ction )2, Art. II (rohi"it$ all /or!$ o/ a"ortion %+c%(t 4th%ra(%utic
a"ortion8 or wh%n th% li/% o/ th% !oth%r i$ in ,ang%r. (>ot%F In th% Unit%,
#tat%$, a"ortion i$ allow%, "ut only u( to th% 2
tri!%$t%r o/ th% (r%gnancy
2D. 's a law prohibitin/ the sale of !/irlie3bold5 ma/aEines$ to minors
#iolates the ri/ht of parents in rearin/ their children for ci#ic efficiency?
>o, a$ h%l, in th% ca$% o/ GINSBERG VS& NEW YORB' )F= US .;F
(<F.F), a law (rohi"iting th% $al% o/ 4girli% !aga0in%$8 H"ol,K) i$ con$titutional
an, ,o%$ not -iolat% th% a"o-% (ro-i$ion. *hi$ i$ $o "%cau$% (ar%nt$ coul, "uy
$ai, !aga0in%$ /or th%ir chil,r%n i/ th%y "%li%-% th% $a!% i$ alr%a,y $uita"l% to
th% un,%r$tan,ing o/ th%ir chil,. *hi$ i$ in accor,anc% with thi$ (ro-i$ion which
$tat%$ that th% (ar%nt$ ha-% th% 4natural an, (ri!ary right in r%aring th%ir chil,
/or ci-ic %//ici%ncyO8
2&. )ay the 8tate prohibit the teachin/ of a particular lan/ua/e in any
>o a$ h%l, in =EGER V#. >EBRA#PA, 29B U# 29B ()@22) "%cau$%
th% chil, i$ not a !%r% cr%atur% o/ th% #tat% an, th% (ar%nt$ ha-% th% natural
right an, ,uty o/ r%aring th%ir chil,r%n /or ci-ic %//ici%ncy.
26. )ay the 8tate require parents to enroll their small children only to
public schools #alid?
(<F;/), a law r%Euiring $!all 5i,$ to "% %nroll%, in (u"lic $chool$ only i$
uncon$titutional $inc% it int%r/%r%$ with th% right o/ (ar%nt$ in r%aring th%ir
chil,r%n. *h%y ha-% th% right to choo$% which $chool i$ "%$t $uit%, /or th%
,%-%lo(!%nt o/ th%ir chil,r%n without int%r/%r%nc% /ro! th% #tat%. *CI# I# #O
8 8
2.. Do we practice the free enterprise system in the Philippines or is it
the welfare state concept? Distin/uish the two.
A$ h%l, in ACCFA V#. CUGCO, 7B #CRA 9D@ “th% Phili((in%$
n%-%r (ractic%, th% /r%% %nt%r(ri$% $y$t%!. It i$ th% w%l/ar%?$tat% conc%(t which
i$ "%ing /ollow%, a$ $hown "y th% con$titutional (ro-i$ion on agrarian r%/or!,
hou$ing, (rot%ction to la"orO (>O*E, how%-%r, that th% )@M: Con$titution
ha-% (ro-i$ion$ which (ro-i,% /or 4/r%% %nt%r(ri$%). *h% $ai, ,octrin% wa$
COCO>U* AU*CORI*G, 2M9 #CRA )B@ wh%r% it wa$ h%l, that th%
Phili((in% Con$titution$, $tarting /ro! th% )@7; ,ocu!%nt, CAVE
REPU'IA*E' laisseD faire (or th% ,octrin% o/ /r%% %nt%r(ri$%) a$ an %cono!ic
(rinci(l%, an, although th% (r%$%nt Con$titution %n$hrin%$ /r%% %nt%r(ri$% a$ a
(olicy, it n%-%rth%l%$$ r%$%r-%$ to th% go-%rn!%nt th% (ow%r to int%r-%n%
wh%n%-%r n%c%$$ary to (ro!ot% th% g%n%ral w%l/ar%. A$ $uch, /r%% %nt%r(ri$%
,o%$ not call /or th% r%!o-al o/ 4(rot%cti-% r%gulation$8 /or th% "%n%/it o/ th%
g%n%ral (u"lic. *hi$ i$ $o "%cau$% un,%r Art. 3II, #%ction$ 9 an, @, it i$ -%ry
cl%ar that th% go-%rn!%nt r%$%r-%$ th% (ow%r to int%r-%n% wh%n%-%r n%c%$$ary
to (ro!ot% th% g%n%ral w%l/ar% an, wh%n th% (u"lic int%r%$t $o r%Euir%$.
;--2& M28 t*# PCGG Co%%ission#$s $#!s# to 211#2$ 7#!o$# 2
S#n2t# Co%%itt## 0on30tin6 2++#6#3 i$$#6+2$iti#s 0o%%itt#3 78 t*#%
5*i+# sittin6 in t*# Bo2$3 o! PHILCOMSAT' 2 1$i"2t# !i$% s#4#st#$#3 78
t*# 6o"#$n%#nt on 200ont o! ED#0ti"# O$3#$ No& < 1$o"i3in6 t*2t t*#8
s*o+3 not 7# t*# s7I#0t o! 2n8 in"#sti62tion in 0onn#0tion 5it* t*#i$ 20ts
in 0onn#0tion 5it* t*# 1#$!o$%2n0# o! t*#i$ 3ti#s 2s s0*A
>o. #uch act woul, -iolat% #%ction 2M, Art. II o/ th% Con$titution
!an,ating ,i$clo$ur% o/ all (u"lic tran$action$ in-ol-ing th% (u"lic int%r%$t.
#uch act woul, al$o -iolat% th% 4right to in/or!ation on !att%r$ o/ (u"lic
conc%rn8 a$ w%ll a$ th% 4(u"lic accounta"ility o/ (u"lic o//icial$8 a$ %!"o,i%,
in #%ction ), Art. 3I o/ th% )@M: Con$titution, not to !%ntion that $uch woul,
r%n,%r nugatory th% (ow%r o/ Congr%$$ un,%r #%ction 2), Art. VI. (#ABIO V#.
2-. What *re the limitations to the %on/ress power to eercise
le/islati#e power?
*h% li!itation$ ar%F
). it cannot (a$$ irr%(%ala"l% law$
2. (rinci(l% o/ $%(aration o/ (ow%r$
7. non?,%l%ga"ility o/ l%gi$lati-% (ow%r$
2,. What are the constitutionally allowed !dele/ation of le/islati#e
power$ by %on/ress?
*h% (%r!i$$i"l% ,%l%gation o/ l%gi$lati-% (ow%r ar%.
)) S#0& ;) (;) o! A$ti0+# VI (E!%rg%ncy (ow%r$ to th% Pr%$i,%nt
in ca$% o/ war or oth%r national %!%rg%ncy, /or a li!it%, (%rio, an,
$u"L%ct to $uch r%$triction$ a$ Congr%$$ !ay (ro-i,%, to %+%rci$% (ow%r$
n%c%$$ary an, (ro(%r to carry out a ,%clar%, national (olicy. Unl%$$
9 9
$oon%r with,rawn "y R%$olution o/ Congr%$$, $uch (ow%r$ $hall c%a$%
u(on th% n%+t a,Lourn!%nt th%r%o/.
2) S#0& ;, (;) o! A$ti0+# VI& *h% Congr%$$ !ay "y law, authori0%
th% Pr%$i,%nt to /i+ within $(%ci/i%, li!it$, an, $u"L%ct to $uch
li!itation$ an, r%$triction$ a$ it !ay i!(o$%, tari// rat%$, i!(ort an,
%+(ort Euota$, tonnag% an, whar/ag% ,u%$, an, oth%r ,uti%$ or i!(o$t$
within th% /ra!%wor5 o/ th% national ,%-%lo(!%nt (rogra! o/ th%
7) '%l%gation to local go-%rn!%nt$
D) '%l%gation o/ Rul%?!a5ing (ow%r to a,!ini$trati-% "o,i%$
;) '%l%gation to th% P%o(l% (#%ction 2, Art. 3VII o/ th%
Con$titution an, #%ction 72, Articl% VI???*h% Congr%$$ $hall, a$ %arly a$
(o$$i"l%, (ro-i,% /or a $y$t%! o/ initiati-% an, r%/%r%n,u!, an, th% %+c%(tion$
th%r%/ro!, wh%r%"y th% (%o(l% can ,ir%ctly (ro(o$% an, %nact law$ or a((ro-%
or r%L%ct any act or law or (art th%r%o/ (a$$%, "y th% Congr%$$ o/ local
l%gi$lati-% "o,y a/t%r th% r%gi$tration o/ a (%tition th%r%o/ $ign%, "y at l%a$t
)B6 o/ th% total nu!"%r o/ r%gi$t%r%, -ot%r$, o/ which %-%ry l%gi$lati-% ,i$trict
!u$t "% r%(r%$%nt%, "y at l%a$t 76 o/ th% r%gi$t%r%, -ot%r$ th%r%o/.
3>. What is the completeness test? 9he sufficiency of standard test?
(a) %ompleteness 9est $i!(ly !%an$ that th% law !u$t "% co!(l%t% in
it$%l/ wh%n it l%/t Congr%$$. It !u$t $%t /orth th%r%in th% (olicy to "% %+%cut%,,
carri%, out or i!(l%!%nt%, "y th% ,%l%gat% which i$ not gi-%n any ,i$cr%tion1
(") 8ufficiency of 8tandards 9est $i!(ly r%Euir%$ Congr%$$ to /i+ a
$tan,ar,, th% li!it$ o/ which ar% $u//ici%ntly ,%t%r!inat% or ,%t%r!ina"l% to
which th% ,%l%gat% !u$t con/or! in th% (%r/or!anc% o/ hi$ /unction$. #o!% o/
th% $tan,ar,$ to gui,% th% ,%l%gat% ar% g%n%ral w%l/ar%, (u"lic int%r%$t, %tc.
31. 's a Ailipino citiEen who became a member of the 18 *rmed
Aorces and therefore at one time a 18 %itiEen considered !natural born$ for
purposes of complyin/ with the qualifications of a member of the Douse of
G%$ a$ h%l, in A>*O>IO BE>G#O> III V#. COU#E OF
#CRA ;D; "%cau$% R%(. Act >o. 297B (ro-i,%$ that 4Any (%r$on who ha, lo$t
hi$ Phili((in% Citi0%n$hi( "y r%n,%ring $%r-ic% to, or acc%(ting co!!i$$ion in,
th% Ar!%, Forc%$ o/ th% Unit%, #tat%$, or a/t%r $%(aration /ro! th% Ar!%,
Forc%$ o/ th% Unit%, $tat%$, acEuir%, U# citi0%n$hi(, =AG REACJUIRE
RE#I'E# OR LA#* RE#I'E' I> *CE PCILIPPI>E#. *h% $ai, Oath o/
all%gianc% $hall contain a r%nunciation o/ any oth%r citi0%n$hi(.8 An, h% $hall
$till "% con$i,%r%, 4natural "orn8 Fili(ino citi0%n.
10 10
32. 'f the candidate for %on/ressman is subsequently disqualified for
non(compliance of the residence requirement under *rt. +'= may the 2
placer be declared the winner in his place? When may the 2
placer be
allowed to be declared the winner?
It ,%(%n,$. A$ h%l, in OCAMPO VS& HOUSE ELECTORAL
). *h%r% !u$t "% a /inal Lu,g!%nt ,i$Euali/ying a can,i,at% in or,%r that
th% -ot%$ o/ a ,i$Euali/i%, can,i,at% can "% con$i,%r%, 4$tray8. *hi$ /inal
Lu,g!%nt !u$t "% r%n,%r%, BEFORE THE ELECTION. *hi$ wa$ th%
ruling in th% ca$% o/ CO'ILLA V#. 'E VE>ECIA. C%nc%, wh%n a
can,i,at% ha$ not "%%n ,i$Euali/i%, "y /inal Lu,g!%nt ,uring th% %l%ction
,ay h% wa$ -ot%, /or, th% -ot%$ ca$t in hi$ /a-or cannot "% ,%clar%, $tray.
*o ,o $o woul, a!ount to ,i$%n/ranchi$ing th% %l%ctorat% in who!
$o-%r%ignty r%$i,%$. *h% r%a$on "%hin, thi$ i$ that th% (%o(l% -ot%, /or
hi! "ona /i,% an, in th% hon%$t "%li%/ that th% can,i,at% wa$ th%n
Euali/i%, to "% th% (%r$on to who! th%y woul, %ntru$t th% %+%rci$% o/ th%
(ow%r$ o/ go-%rn!%nt.
2. *h% ,i$Euali/ication o/ a can,i,at% who o"tain%, th% high%$t nu!"%r o/
-ot%$ AFTER THE ELECTION ,o%$ not %ntitl% th% $%con, (lac%r to
"% ,%clar%, th% winn%r. *h% $ai, (rinci(l% wa$ lai, ,own a$ %arly a$
)@)2 an, r%it%rat%, in th% ca$%$ o/ LABO VS& COMELEC' ABELLA
33. 'n case of #acancy in the 8enate or in the Douse of
7epresentati#es under 8ection , of *rticle +''= is it automatic for the
%:);L;% to hold a special election?

>o, th%r% !u$t "% a law (a$$%, "y Congr%$$ a((ro(riating th% /un,$ /or
th% $ai, (ur(o$%. ( 0/%,% vs. C2101C, '#: &C!% 88?3
)(& W*i+# 2 M#%7#$ o! Con6$#ss is not 2++o5#3 to 211#2$ 2s 0ons#+
!o$ 2n8 12$t8 in 0o$t o$ 7#!o$# 23%inist$2ti"# 7o3i#s' %28 *# 3o so 2s 2
No 2s *#+3 in PUYAT "s& DE GU@MAN' <<) SCRA )<& What coul,
not "% ,on% ,ir%ctly coul, not li5%wi$% "% ,on% in,ir%ctly. #o a !%!"%r o/
Congr%$$ who i$ a $toc5hol,%r o/ th% cor(oration in-ol-%, in a ca$% i$ not
allow%, to a((%ar un,%r th% gui$% that h% i$ a((%aring a$ $uch, not a$ coun$%l
/or th% cor(oration.
3&. )ay a court suspend a member of %on/ress when 8ection 16 ?3@=
*rticle +' appears to /i#e such eclusi#e power to each Douse only for
disorderly beha#ior= and with the concurrence of 2F3 of all its members=
suspend or epel a )ember. * penalty of suspension= when imposed= shall
mot eceed sity days?

G%$, thi$ wa$ th% ruling$ o/ th% #u(r%!% Court in th% ca$%$ o/ MIRIAM
211+i#s to 2++ 6o"#$n%#nt o!!i0#$s 2n3 #%1+o8##s&
11 11
36. 'n case of conflict between the entries in a 2ournal of both Douses
of %on/ress and etraneous e#idence liBe affida#its of witnesses= which shall
%s held in 6.&. vs. 4+&, 87 4hil. ?#<, the 5ournal prevails over
eEtraneous evidence liBe accounts of newspaper 5ournalists and
reporters as to what the proceedings all about.
3.. 'n case of conflict between the 2ournal and the enrolled bill= which
shall pre#ailF
*n C%&C 4G*0. )&. .*21+1/, ? &C!% 87?, it was held bC the
&upreme Court that *h% %nroll%, "ill (r%-ail$ o-%r th% Lournal. I/ th%
%nroll%, "ill (ro-i,%$ that it i$ ur%a /or!al,%hy,% i$ th% on% %+%!(t
/ro! ta+, an, not ur%a an, /or!al,%hy,% which a((%ar$ in th% Lournal
which wa$ r%ally a((ro-%,, th% /or!%r (r%-ail$ an, only CURA*IVE
LEGI#LA*IO>. Cow%-%r, i/ th% Pr%$i,%nt o/ th% Phili((in%$, #%nat%
Pr%$i,%nt an, th% #(%a5%r o/ th% Cou$% o/ R%(r%$%ntati-%$ with,raw
th%ir $ignatur%$ a$ a r%$ult o/ an ano!aly $urroun,ing th% (rinting o/
th% /inal co(y o/ th% "ill, th%n, th% Lournal will (r%-ail $inc% what i$
l%/t i$ no long%r con$i,%r%, an 4%nroll%, "ill.8
(>O*E, how%-%r, that th% Lournal (r%-ail$ o-%r th% %nroll%, "ill
on all !att%r$ r%Euir%, to "% %nt%r%, in th% Lournal$, li5% y%a$ an, nay$
on th% /inal r%a,ing o/ a "ill or on any Eu%$tion at th% r%Eu%$t o/ )Q; o/
th% !%!"%r$ (r%$%nt. HAu$tic% I$agani Cru0I)
3-. )ay %on/ress chan/e the eistin/ membership of the %ommission
on *ppointments or ;lectoral 9ribunals as a result of the chan/es of
membership of the different political parties?
Yes *f the changes in the political partC affiliations of the members
of Congress is substantial and at the same time permanent so as to
dramaticallC increase the membership of one partC while significantlC
reducing the other, the number of representatives of the different parties
in the Commission on %ppointments maC also be changed in proportion
to their actual memberships. -+T1= *n Cunanan vs. Tan, the
membership of the &enators was onlC “temporarC” so as not to result in
the change of membership in the Commission on %ppointments3
3-(a. )ay a political party 3LDP5 replace its representati#e in the
Douse of 7epresentati#es ;lectoral %ommission who= in a preliminary
#otin/ in a protest case a/ainst an LDP )ember= #oted in fa#or of the
other party and a/ainst the candidate of his #ery own party?
Hhile as a rule the different political parties maC change their
representatives in the 1lectoral Tribunal or Commission on
%ppointments, it maC not change a 2ember who completelC heard and
participated in a particular case "and has alreadC indicated his vote to
the members of the tribunal$ and replace him with another who has no
participation therein, eEcept onlC to vote for a partCImate who is involved
12 12
in the protest. &uch would be a travestC of 5ustice. -@+,C )&.
4*+1,%, &eptember #;, '<<'3
3,. )ay a committee of %on/ress cite a person for contempt of court
for refusin/ to answer its questions durin/ in#esti/ations in aid of
le/islation? Dow lon/ may it imprison such witness?
A$ h%l, in %!+%60T vs. +%/%!1+, J? 4hil. #<, 9A 5itn#ss 5*o
$#!s#s to 2ns5#$ 2 4#$8 78 t*# Co%%itt## %28 7# 3#t2in#3 3$in6 t*#
t#$% o! t*# %#%7#$s i%1osin6 s2i3 1#n2+t8 7t t*# 3#t#ntion s*o+3 not 7#
too +on6 2s to "io+2t# t*# 5itn#ss> $i6*t to 3# 1$o0#ss o! +25&:
4>. )ay the President #alidly prohibit members of the %abinet and
those of the eecuti#e department from appearin/ before any %ommittee of
%on/ress without her consent?
It ,%(%n,$. I/ th% a((%aranc% i$ ,u% to th% (ow%r o/ Congr%$$ to
in-%$tigat% in ai, o/ l%gi$lation un,%r #%ction 2), Art. VI, $uch act o/ th%
Pr%$i,%nt i$ uncon$titutional /or it woul, -iolat% th% o-%r$ight (ow%r$ o/
Congr%$$ an, "%cau$% th% a((%aranc% o/ $ai, %+%cuti-% o//ic%r$ i$
=A>'A*ORG. It woul, al$o -iolat% th% right to in/or!ation on th% (art o/ th%
citi0%n$. Cow%-%r, i/ th% in-itation to a((%ar i$ "a$%, on #%ction 22, Art. VI or
,uring th% 4Eu%$tion hour8, th%n th% Pr%$i,%nt !ay -ali,ly ,%!an, that th%y
!u$t g%t h%r con$%nt /ir$t "%cau$% $uch a((%aranc% i$ 'I#CRE*IO>ARG.
ET AL&' G&R& No& <.F--' A1$i+ ;=' ;==. ' (,, SCRA <)

4>(a. While a )ember of the %abinet may be compelled to appear
before %on/ress under 8ection 21= *rt. +' of the %onstitution= may he be
compelled to answer questions re/ardin/ his con#ersations with the
President on matters sub2ect of the in#esti/ationFinquiry in aid of le/islation?
>o i/ th% con-%r$ation$ ar% co-%r%, "y th% 4%+%cuti-% (ri-il%g%8.
4>(b. ;plain the !eecuti#e pri#ile/e$ doctrine. Distin/uish the
!presidential communications pri#ile/e$ and the !deliberati#e
process pri#ile/e$ which comprise said !eecuti#e pri#ile/e$. Who
are co#ered by this rule?

*h% +iEon an, postIHatergate cases %$ta"li$h%, th% "roa, contour$ o/
th% 1$#si3#nti2+ 0o%%ni02tions 1$i"i+#6#.
In 6nited &tates v. +iEon,
th% U.#. Court r%cogni0%, a gr%at (u"lic int%r%$t in (r%$%r-ing 9t*#
0on!i3#nti2+it8 o! 0on"#$s2tions t*2t t2?# 1+20# in t*# P$#si3#nt>s
1#$!o$%2n0# o! *is o!!i0i2+ 3ti#s&: It thu$ con$i,%r%, (r%$i,%ntial
co!!unication$ a$ 41$#s%1ti"#+8 1$i"i+#6#3.8 A((ar%ntly, th% (r%$u!(tion
i$ /oun,%, on th% 4P$#si3#nt>s 6#n#$2+iK#3 int#$#st in 0on!i3#nti2+it8.8 *h%
(ri-il%g% i$ $ai, to "% n%c%$$ary to guarant%% th% can,or o/ (r%$i,%ntial
a,-i$or$ an, to (ro-i,% 4t*# P$#si3#nt 2n3 t*os# 5*o 2ssist *i%L 5it*
!$##3o% to #D1+o$# 2+t#$n2ti"#s in t*# 1$o0#ss o! s*21in6 1o+i0i#s 2n3
2 H2MI
CR# R%(ort /or Congr%$$, Pr%$i,%ntial Clai!$ o/ E+%cuti-% Pri-il%g%F Ci$tory, Law, Practic%
an, R%c%nt '%-%lo(!%nt$ at (. 2.
D)M U.#. 9M7.
13 13
%2?in6 3#0isions 2n3 to 3o so in 2 528 %2n8 5o+3 7# n5i++in6 to
#D1$#ss #D0#1t 1$i"2t#+8&:
In *n !e= &ealed Case,
th% U.#. Court o/ A((%al$ ,%l-%, ,%%(%r. It
rul%, that th%r% ar% two (2) 5in,$ o/ %+%cuti-% (ri-il%g%1 on% i$ th%
1$#si3#nti2+ 0o%%ni02tions 1$i"i+#6# an,, th% oth%r i$ th% 3#+i7#$2ti"#
1$o0#ss 1$i"i+#6#. *h% /or!%r (%rtain$ to 90o%%ni02tions' 3o0%#nts o$
ot*#$ %2t#$i2+s t*2t $#!+#0t 1$#si3#nti2+ 3#0ision-%2?in6 2n3 3#+i7#$2tions
2n3 t*2t t*# P$#si3#nt 7#+i#"#s s*o+3 $#%2in 0on!i3#nti2+&: *h% latt%r
inclu,%$ M23"iso$8 o1inions' $#0o%%#n32tions 2n3 3#+i7#$2tions
0o%1$isin6 12$t o! 2 1$o0#ss 78 5*i0* 6o"#$n%#nt2+ 3#0isions 2n3
1o+i0i#s 2$# !o$%+2t#3&:

Accor,ingly, th%y ar% charact%ri0%, "y !ar5%, ,i$tinction$. P$#si3#nti2+
0o%%ni02tions 1$i"i+#6# a((li%$ to 3#0ision-%2?in6 o! t*# P$#si3#nt
whil%, th% 3#+i7#$2ti"# 1$o0#ss 1$i"i+#6#, to 3#0ision-%2?in6 o! #D#0ti"#
o!!i0i2+s. *h% !i$st i$ root%, in th% con$titutional (rinci(l% o/ $%(aration o/
(ow%r an, th% Pr%$i,%nt<$ uniEu% con$titutional rol%1 th% s#0on3 on
co!!on law (ri-il%g%. Unli5% th% 3#+i7#$2ti"# 1$o0#ss
1$i"i+#6#, th% 1$#si3#nti2+ 0o%%ni02tions 1$i"i+#6# a((li%$ to 3o0%#nts
in t*#i$ #nti$#t8' 2n3 0o"#$s !in2+ 2n3 1ost-3#0ision2+ %2t#$i2+s 2s 5#++ 2s
1$#-3#+i7#$2ti"# on#s
A$ a con$%Eu%nc%, congr%$$ional or Lu,icial n%gation
o/ th% 1$#si3#nti2+ 0o%%ni02tions 1$i"i+#6# i$ alway$ $u"L%ct to gr%at%r
$crutiny than ,%nial o/ th% 3#+i7#$2ti"# 1$o0#ss 1$i"i+#6#.
*urning on who ar% th% o//icial$ co-%r%, "y th% 1$#si3#nti2+
0o%%ni02tions 1$i"i+#6#, *n !e= &ealed Case con/in%$ th% (ri-il%g% only to
Whit% Cou$% #ta// that ha$ 4o(%rational (ro+i!ity8 to ,ir%ct (r%$i,%ntial
,%ci$ion?!a5ing. *hu$, th% (ri-il%g% i$ !%ant to %nco!(a$$ only tho$%
/unction$ that /or! th% cor% o/ (r%$i,%ntial authority, in-ol-ing what th% court
charact%ri0%, a$ 4Euint%$$%ntial an, non?,%l%ga"l% Pr%$i,%ntial (ow%r,8 $uch a$
co!!an,%r?in?chi%/ (ow%r, a((oint!%nt an, r%!o-al (ow%r, th% (ow%r to
grant (ar,on$ an, r%(ri%-%$, th% $ol%?authority to r%c%i-% a!"a$$a,or$ an,
oth%r (u"lic o//ic%r$, th% (ow%r to n%gotiat% tr%ati%$, %tc.

*h% $ituation in Kudicial Hatch, *nc. v. ,epartment of Kustice
th% *n !e= &ealed Case (rinci(l%$. *h%r%, whil% th% (r%$i,%ntial ,%ci$ion
in-ol-%, i$ th% %+%rci$% o/ th% Pr%$i,%nt<$ (ar,on (ow%r, a non?,%l%ga"l%, cor%?
(r%$i,%ntial /unction, th% '%(uty Attorn%y G%n%ral an, th% Par,on Attorn%y
w%r% ,%%!%, to "% too r%!ot% /ro! th% Pr%$i,%nt an, hi$ $%nior Whit% Cou$%
a,-i$or$ to "% (rot%ct%,. *h% Court conc%,%, that
/unctionally tho$% o//icial$ w%r% (%r/or!ing a ta$5 ,ir%ctly r%lat%, to th%
Pr%$i,%nt<$ (ar,on (ow%r, "ut conclu,%, that an organi0ational t%$t wa$ !or%
a((ro(riat% /or con/ining th% (ot%ntially "roa, $w%%( that woul, r%$ult /ro!
th% *n !e= &ealed CaseAs /unctional t%$t. *h% !aLority conclu,%, that, th%
l%$$%r (rot%ction$ o/ th% ,%li"%rati-% (roc%$$ (ri-il%g% woul, $u//ic%. *hat
(ri-il%g% wa$, how%-%r, /oun, in$u//ici%nt to Lu$ti/y th% con/i,%ntiality o/ th%
D,7D) withh%l, ,ocu!%nt$.
*n !e= &ealed Case +o. @9?7)2D, Aun% ):, )@@:.
CR# R%(ort /or Congr%$$, Pr%$i,%ntial Clai!$ o/ E+%cuti-% Pri-il%g%F Ci$tory, Law, Practic% an,
R%c%nt '%-%lo(!%nt$ at ((. )M?)@.
: H77I
79; F.7, ))BM, 79) U.#.A((.'.C. )M7, 9D F%,. R. E-i,. #%r-. )D).
14 14
But !or% $(%ci/ic cla$$i/ication$ o/ co!!unication$ co-%r%, "y
%+%cuti-% (ri-il%g% ar% !a,% in ol,%r ca$%$. Court$ rul%, %arly that th%
E+%cuti-% ha$ a right to withhol, ,ocu!%nt$ that !ight r%-%al %i+it2$8 o$ st2t#
i3#ntit8 o! 6o"#$n%#nt in!o$%#$s in so%# 0i$0%st2n0#s'
in!o$%2tion $#+2t#3 to 1#n3in6 in"#sti62tions.
An ar%a wh%r% th%
(ri-il%g% i$ highly r%-%r%, i$ in !o$#i6n $#+2tions.
=aLority o/ th% a"o-% Luri$(ru,%nc% ha-% /oun, th%ir way in our
Luri$,iction. In ChaveD v. 4C..
, thi$ Court h%l, that th%r% i$ a
4go-%rn!%ntal (ri-il%g% again$t (u"lic ,i$clo$ur% with r%$(%ct to $tat% $%cr%t$
r%gar,ing !ilitary, ,i(lo!atic an, oth%r $%curity !att%r$.8 In ChaveD v. 41%,
th%r% i$ al$o a r%cognition o/ th% con/i,%ntiality o/ Pr%$i,%ntial
con-%r$ation$, corr%$(on,%nc%$, an, ,i$cu$$ion$ in clo$%,?,oor Ca"in%t
!%%ting$. In &enate v. 1rmita, th% conc%(t o/ 1$#si3#nti2+ 0o%%ni02tions
1$i"i+#6# i$ /ully ,i$cu$$%,.
A$ !ay "% gl%an%, /ro! th% a"o-% ,i$cu$$ion, th% clai! o/ %+%cuti-%
(ri-il%g% i$ highly r%cogni0%, in ca$%$ wh%r% th% $u"L%ct o/ inEuiry r%lat%$ to a
(ow%r t%+tually co!!itt%, "y th% Con$titution to th% Pr%$i,%nt, $uch a$ th% ar%a
o/ !ilitary an, /or%ign r%lation$. Un,%r our Con$titution, th% Pr%$i,%nt i$ th%
r%(o$itory o/ th% co!!an,%r?in?chi%/,
(ow%r$. Con$i$t%nt with th% ,octrin% o/ $%(aration o/ (ow%r$,
th% in/or!ation r%lating to th%$% (ow%r$ !ay %nLoy gr%at%r con/i,%ntiality than
*h% a"o-% ca$%$, %$(%cially, +iEon, *n !e &ealed Case an, Kudicial
Hatch, $o!%how (ro-i,% th% %l%!%nt$ o/ 1$#si3#nti2+ 0o%%ni02tions
1$i"i+#6#, to witF
<) *h% (rot%ct%, co!!unication !u$t r%lat% to a
4Euint%$$%ntial an, non?,%l%ga"l% (r%$i,%ntial (ow%r.8
;) *h% co!!unication !u$t "% author%, or 4$olicit%, an,
r%c%i-%,8 "y a clo$% a,-i$or o/ th% Pr%$i,%nt or th% Pr%$i,%nt
hi!$%l/. *h% Lu,icial t%$t i$ that an a,-i$or !u$t "% in
4o(%rational (ro+i!ity8 with th% Pr%$i,%nt.
)) *h% 1$#si3#nti2+ 0o%%ni02tions 1$i"i+#6# r%!ain$ a
Euali/i%, (ri-il%g% that !ay "% o-%rco!% "y a $howing o/
a,%Euat% n%%,, $uch that th% in/or!ation $ought 4li5%ly
contain$ i!(ortant %-i,%nc%8 an, "y th% una-aila"ility o/ th%
in/or!ation %l$%wh%r% "y an a((ro(riat% in-%$tigating

#%% 6nited &tates v. !eCnolds, 7D; U.#. ), 9?M ()@;7)1 Chicago v. %irlines, *nc. v. Haterman
&teamship Corp., 777 U.#. )B7, )))1 Totten v. 6nited &tates, @2 U.#. )B;, )B9?)B: ()M:;).
@ H7;I
!oviaro v. 6nited &tates, 7;7 U.#. ;7, ;@?9).
)B H79I
#%% 9riedman v. @ache GalseC &tuart &hields, *nc. :7M F. 2, )779,)7D)?D7 ('.C. Cir. )@MD).
)) H7MI
79B Phil. )77 ()@@M).
#%ction )M, Articl% VII.
#%ction )9, Articl% VII.
); HD2I
#%ction )@, Articl% VII.
)9 HD7I
#%ction 2B an, 2), Articl% VII.
CR# R%(ort /or Congr%$$, Pr%$i,%ntial Clai!$ o/ E+%cuti-% Pri-il%g%F Ci$tory, Law Practic% an,
R%c%nt '%-%lo(!%nt$, supra..
15 15
#i!(ly (ut, th% "a$%$ ar% 1$#si3#nti2+ 0o%%ni02tions 1$i"i+#6# an,
%+%cuti-% (ri-il%g% on !att%r$ r%lating to 3i1+o%208 o$ !o$#i6n $#+2tions.
U$ing th% a"o-% %l%!%nt$, w% ar% con-inc%, that, in,%%,, th%
co!!unication$ %licit%, "y th% thr%% (7) Eu%$tion$ ar% co-%r%, "y th%
1$#si3#nti2+ 0o%%ni02tions 1$i"i+#6#. Airst, th% co!!unication$ r%lat% to a
4Euint%$$%ntial an, non?,%l%ga"l% (ow%r8 o/ th% Pr%$i,%nt, i.%. th% (ow%r to
%nt%r into an %+%cuti-% agr%%!%nt with oth%r countri%$. *hi$ authority o/ th%
Pr%$i,%nt to %nt%r into eEecutive agreements without th% concurr%nc% o/ th%
L%gi$latur% ha$ tra,itionally "%%n r%cogni0%, in Phili((in% Luri$(ru,%nc%.
8econd= th% co!!unication$ ar% 4r%c%i-%,8 "y a clo$% a,-i$or o/ th%
Pr%$i,%nt. Un,%r th% 4o(%rational (ro+i!ity8 t%$t, (%tition%r can "% con$i,%r%,
a clo$% a,-i$or, "%ing a !%!"%r o/ Pr%$i,%nt Arroyo<$ ca"in%t. %nd third, th%r%
i$ no a,%Euat% $howing o/ a co!(%lling n%%, that woul, Lu$ti/y th% li!itation
o/ th% (ri-il%g% an, o/ th% n2"2i+27i+it8 o/ th% in/or!ation %l$%wh%r% "y an
a((ro(riat% in-%$tigating authority.

(NOTEJ In NiDon' t*# US
S1$#%# Co$t *#+3 t*2t in"o02tion
o! 9#D#0ti"# 1$i"i+#6#: is n2"2i+in6
i! it in"o+"#s t*# 0o%%ission o! 2
0$i%# 2n3 t*#$# is 2+$#238 2 1#n3in6
0$i%in2+ 02s#&)
W% $%% no ,i$(ut% on thi$. It i$ $%ttl%, in 6nited &tates v. +iEon
4,%!on$trat%,, $(%ci/ic n%%, /or %-i,%nc% in 1#n3in6 0$i%in2+ t$i2+8
outw%igh$ th% Pr%$i,%nt<$ 4g%n%rali0%, int%r%$t in con/i,%ntiality.8 Cow%-%r,
th% (r%$%nt ca$%<$ ,i$tinction with th% +iEon ca$% i$ -%ry %-i,%nt. In +iEon,
th%r% i$ a (%n,ing cri!inal (roc%%,ing wh%r% th% in/or!ation i$ r%Eu%$t%,
an, it i$ th% ,%!an,$ o/ ,u% (roc%$$ o/ law an, th% /air a,!ini$tration o/
cri!inal Lu$tic% that th% in/or!ation "% ,i$clo$%,. *hi$ i$ th% r%a$on why th%
U.#. Court wa$ Euic5 to 4+i%it t*# s0o1# o! its 3#0ision&8 It $tr%$$%, that it
i$ 9not 0on0#$n#3 *#$# 5it* t*# 72+2n0# 7#t5##n t*# P$#si3#nt>s
6#n#$2+iK#3 int#$#st in 0on!i3#nti2+it8 D D D 2n3 0on6$#ssion2+ 3#%2n3s
!o$ in!o$%2tion&: Unli5% in +iEon, th% in/or!ation h%r% i$ %licit%,, not in a
cri!inal (roc%%,ing, "ut in a l%gi$lati-% inEuiry. In thi$ r%gar,, &enate v.
1rmita $tr%$$%, that th% -ali,ity o/ th% clai! o/ %+%cuti-% (ri-il%g% ,%(%n,$ not
only on th% groun, in-o5%, "ut, al$o, on th% 1$o0#3$2+ s#ttin6 or th% 0ont#Dt
in which th% clai! i$ !a,%. Furth%r!or%, in +iEon, th% Pr%$i,%nt ,i, not
int%r(o$% any clai! o/ n%%, to (rot%ct !ilitary, ,i(lo!atic or $%n$iti-% national
$%curity $%cr%t$. In th% (r%$%nt ca$%, E+%cuti-% #%cr%tary Er!ita cat%gorically
clai!$ %+%cuti-% (ri-il%g% on th% groun,$ o/ 1$#si3#nti2+ 0o%%ni02tions
1$i"i+#6# in r%lation to h%r %+%cuti-% an, (olicy ,%ci$ion?!a5ing (roc%$$ an,
,i(lo!atic $%cr%t$.
41. )ay a person #alidly refuse to honor an in#itation to appear before
the 8enate 0lue 7ibbon %ommittee in connection with its alle/ed
in#esti/ation !in aid of le/islation$?
G%$. In B%ng0on, Ar. -$. #%nat% Blu% Ri""on Co!!itt%%, >o-. 2B, )@@),
it wa$ h%l, that 4th% (ow%r o/ "oth hou$%$ o/ Congr%$$ to con,uct inEuiri%$ in
B%rna$, #.A., *h% )@M: Con$titution o/ th% R%(u"lic o/ th% Phili((in%$, A Co!!%ntary, 2BB7 E,. (. @B7.
16 16
ai, o/ l%gi$lation i$ not, a"$olut% or unli!it%,. N*h% right$ o/ (%r$on$
a((%aring in or a//%ct%, "y $uch inEuiri%$ $hall "% r%$(%ct%,.N It /ollow$ th%n
that th% right$ o/ (%r$on$ un,%r th% Bill o/ Right$ !u$t "% r%$(%ct%,, inclu,ing
th% right to ,u% (roc%$$ an, th% right not to "% co!(%ll%, to t%$ti/y again$t on%R$
$%l/. But "roa, a$ i$ thi$ (ow%r o/ inEuiry, it i$ not unli!it%,. *h%r% i$ no
g%n%ral authority to %+(o$% th% (ri-at% a//air$ o/ in,i-i,ual$ without
Lu$ti/ication in t%r!$ o/ th% /unction$ o/ Congr%$$. >or i$ th% Congr%$$ a law
%n/orc%!%nt or trial ag%ncy. *h%$% ar% /unction$ o/ th% %+%cuti-% an, Lu,icial
,%(art!%nt$ o/ go-%rn!%nt. >o inEuiry i$ an %n, in it$%l/1 it !u$t "% r%lat%, to
an, in /urth%ranc% o/ a l%giti!at% ta$5 o/ Congr%$$. In-%$tigation$ con,uct%,
$ol%ly /or th% (%r$onal aggran,i0%!%nt o/ th% in-%$tigator$ or to N(uni$hN tho$%
in-%$tigat%, ar% in,%/%n$i"l%.
41. )ay local le/islati#e bodies #alidly cite a person in contempt of
court 3as what %on/ress could do5 for refusin/ to appear therein or to
answer the questions of the members thereof?
:2D@2, >o-. ;, )@M:, );; #CRA D2), th% #u(r%!% Court h%l, that $uch (ow%r
wa$ not ,%l%gat%, "y Congr%$$ to local go-%rn!%nt unit$.
42. What are the bills that must eclusi#ely ori/inate from the Douse
of 7epresentati#es?
Un,%r #%ction 2D, Art. VI, All a((ro(riation$, r%-%nu% or tari// "ill$, "ill$
authori0ing incr%a$% o/ th% (u"lic ,%"t, "ill$ o/ local a((lication, an, (ri-at% "ill$
$hall originat% %+clu$i-%ly in th% Cou$% o/ r%(r%$%ntati-%$, "ut th% #%nat% !ay
(ro(o$% or concur with a!%n,!%nt$. (NOTEJ In To+#ntino "s& S#0$#t2$8 o!
Fin2n0#, th% #u(r%!% Court h%l, that th% E?VA* Law i$ con$titutional %-%n i/ th%
$a!% wa$ th% VER#IO> which ca!% /ro! th% #%nat%, not /ro! th% Cou$% o/
R%(r%$%ntati-%$. *hi$ i$ $o "%cau$% th% #%nat% i$ allow%, to 4(ro(o$% a!%n,!%nt$8
to "ill$ which !u$t %+clu$i-%ly originat% /ro! th% Cou$% o/ R%(r%$%ntati-%$.)
43. When is transfer of appropriations allowed by the %onstitutionK
Only tho$% co-%r%, "y #%ction 2; H;I which (ro-i,%$ that 4>o law $hall
"% (a$$%, authori0ing any tran$/%r o/ a((ro(riation$1 how%-%r, th% Pr%$i,%nt,
th% Pr%$i,%nt o/ th% #%nat%, th% #(%a5%r o/ th% hou$% o/ R%(r%$%ntati-%$, th%
Chi%/ Lu$tic% o/ th% #u(r%!% Court, an, th% h%a,$ o/ th% con$titutional
co!!i$$ion$ !ay, "y law, "% authori0%, to aug!%nt any it%! in th% g%n%ral
a((ro(riation$ law /or th%ir r%$(%cti-% o//ic%$ /ro! $a-ing$ in oth%r it%!$ o/
th%ir r%$(%cti-% a((ro(riation$.8
44. What is the so(called !eecuti#e impoundment$?
It !%an$ that although an it%! o/ a((ro(riation i$ not -%to%, "y th%
Pr%$i,%nt, h% how%-%r r%/u$%$ /or what%-%r r%a$on, to $(%n, /un,$ !a,%
(o$$i"l% "y Congr%$$. It i$ th% /ailur% to $(%n, or o"ligat% "u,g%t authority o/
any ty(%. Pro(on%nt$ o/ i!(oun,!%nt ha-% in-o5%, at l%a$t thr%% (7) (rinci(al
$ourc%$ o/ authority o/ th% Pr%$i,%nt. H)I authority to i!(oun, gi-%n to hi! "y
Congr%$$, %ith%r %+(r%$$ly or i!(li%,ly1 H2I th% %+%cuti-% (ow%r ,rawn /ro!
hi$ (ow%r a$ Co!!an,%r?in?chi%/1 an, H7I th% Faith/ul %+%cution clau$% o/ th%
17 17
Con$titution. >ot% that in thi$ ca$% th% #C h%l, that th% Country$i,%
'%-%lo(!%nt Fun, (C'F) or 4Por5 Barr%l8 o/ Congr%$$!%n an, #%nator$ i$
CO>#*I*U*IO>AL "%cau$% th% $a!% i$ 4$%t a$i,% /or Sin/ra$tructur%,
(urcha$% o/ a!"ulanc%$ an, co!(ut%r$ an, oth%r (riority (roL%ct$ an,
acti-iti%$, an, cr%,it /aciliti%$ to Euali/i%, "%n%/iciari%$ a$ (ro(o$%, an,
i,%nti/i%, "y $ai, #%nator$ an, Congr%$$!%n. (PCILCO>#A V#. E>RIJUE,
27; #CRA ;B9)
4&. )ay the President refuse to enforce a law on the /round that in his
opinion it is unconstitutional?
>o. Oth%rwi$%, h% will "% -iolating th% ,octrin% o/ $%(aration o/ (ow%r$
"%cau$% "y ,oing $o, h% will "% arrogating unto hi!$%l/ th% (ow%r to int%r(r%t
th% law, not !%r%ly to i!(l%!%nt it. (0.&. 2+ L C. )&. G%!!*&+, 78
#3 .)MT. )&. &4!*+.1!, >: 4hil. >#<, read also the separate
46. 9he President of the Philippines= by *dministrati#e :rder=
mandates the !*D:P9':< :A * <*9':<*L %:)P19;7'G;D
'D;<9'A'%*9':< 7;A;7;<%; 8H89;)$ and appropriatin/ funds
therefore?'s this within his !eecuti#e power$?
>o a$ h%l, "y th% #u(r%!% Court in BLA# OPLE V#. RUBE>
*ORRE#, E* AL., G.R. >o. )2:9M;, Auly 27, )@@M, th% AO %$ta"li$h%$ a
$y$t%! o/ i,%nti/ication that i$ all?%nco!(a$$ing in $co(%, a//%ct$ th% li/% an,
li"%rty o/ %-%ry Fili(ino citi0%n$ an, /or%ign r%$i,%nt$ an, th%r%/or%, it i$
$u((o$%, to "% a law (a$$%, "y Congr%$$ that i!(l%!%nt$ it, not "y an
A,!ini$trati-% Or,%r i$$u%, "y th% Pr%$i,%nt. A,!ini$trati-% Pow%r, which i$
$u((o$%, to "% %+%rci$%, "y th% Pr%$i,%nt, i$ conc%rn%, with th% wor5 o/
a((lying (olici%$ an, %n/orcing or,%r$ a$ ,%t%r!in%, "y (ro(%r go-%rn!%ntal
organ$. It %na"l%$ th% Pr%$i,%nt to /i+ a uni/or! $tan,ar, o/ a,!ini$trati-%
%//ici%ncy an, ch%c5 th% o//icial con,uct o/ hi$ ag%nt$. Pr%$cin,ing /ro! th%
/or%going (r%c%(t$, AO 7BM in-ol-%$ a $u"L%ct that i$ not a((ro(riat% to "%
co-%r%, "y an A,!ini$trati-% Or,%r. An a,!ini$trati-% or,%r i$ an or,inanc%
i$$u%, "y th% Pr%$i,%nt which r%lat%$ to $(%ci/ic a$(%ct$ in th% a,!ini$trati-%
o(%ration o/ th% go-%rn!%nt. It !u$t "% in har!ony with th% law an, $houl, "%
/or th% $ol% (ur(o$% o/ i!(l%!%nting th% law an, carrying out th% l%gi$lati-%
(olicy. *h% $u"L%ct o/ AO 7BM th%r%/or% i$ "%yon, th% (ow%r o/ th% Pr%$i,%nt to
i$$u% an, it i$ a u$ur(ation o/ l%gi$lati-% (ow%r.

4.. What is the !totality test$ used by the 8upreme %ourt in holdin/
that former President Ioseph ;strada resi/ned as President on Ianuary 2>=
*CE I##UE.
4-. 's President Cloria )acapa/al *rroyo a de 2ure or a de facto
President? 'f de 2ure= how did she succeed? 7esi/nation or permanent
disability of former President ;strada?
18 18
#inc% "oth Cou$%$ o/ Congr%$$ ha, r%cogni0%, that Arroyo i$ th%
Pr%$i,%nt wh%n th%y (a$$%, R%$olution 4%+(r%$$ing th%ir $u((ort to th%
a,!ini$tration o/ C%r E+c%ll%ncy Gloria =aca(agal Arroyo, Pr%$i,%nt o/ th%
Phili((in%$8 which wa$ (a$$%, on Aanuary 2D, 2BB)1 anoth%r r%$olution ,at%,
Aanuary 2D, 2BB) 4%+(r%$$ing /ull $u((ort to th% a$$u!(tion into o//ic% "y VP
Arroyo a$ Pr%$i,%nt o/ th% Phili((in%$81 an, th% R%$olution ,at%, F%"ruary :,
2BB) 4con/ir!ing Pr%$i,%nt Arroyo<$ no!ination o/ #%nator *%o(i$to
Guingona, Ar. a$ Vic% Pr%$i,%nt o/ th% Phili((in%$8, h%r go-%rn!%nt i$ ,% Lur%.
4,. )ay the President maBes appointment to #acancies in the 2udiciary
within two months immediately before the net presidential election and up
to the end of his term$ in order to comply with the requirement of 8ections 4
and -= *rt. +''' for him to fill up #acancies in the 2udiciary within ,> days
from the submission of the list of nominees by the Iudicial and 0ar %ouncil?
>o. #%ction );, Articl% VII a((li%$ only to t%!(orary a((oint!%nt$ to
%+%cuti-% (o$ition$ wh%n continu%, -acanci%$ th%r%in will (r%Lu,ic% (u"lic
$%r-ic% or %n,ang%r (u"lic $a/%ty an, not to th% Lu,iciary.
&>. What appointments made by the President shall be the sub2ect of
confirmation by the %ommission on *ppointments?
Only tho$% co-%r%, "y th% )
$%nt%nc% o/ #%ction )9, Art. VII which ar%
th% h%a,$ o/ th% %+%cuti-% ,%(art!%nt$, a!"a$$a,or$, oth%r (u"lic !ini$t%r$
an, con$ul$, or o//ic%r$ o/ th% ar!%, /orc%$ /ro! th% ran5 o/ colon%l or na-al
ca(tain, an, oth%r o//ic%r$ ar% -%$t%, in hi! in thi$ Con$titution.
&1. )ay the President maBe temporary appointments in#ol#in/ the
members of the %abinet while %on/ress in session or not in session?
Distin/uish ad interim appointment and appointment in an actin/ capacity.
G%$ (ro-i,%, th% t%!(orary a((oint!%nt$ o/ ca"in%t !%!"%r$ ,o not
%+c%%, on% ()) y%ar. (#E>. AJUILI>O PI=E>*EL, %t al., -$. E3EC.
#ECRE*ARG E'UAR'O ER=I*A, %t al., D:2 #CRA ;M:)
). *h% t%!(orary a((oint!%nt$ ar% -ali,. *h% (ow%r to a((oint i$
%$$%ntially %+%cuti-% in natur% an, th% l%gi$latur% !ay not int%r/%r%
with th% %+%rci$% o/ thi$ %+%cuti-% (ow%r %+c%(t in tho$% in$tanc%$
wh%n th% Con$titution %+(r%$$ly allow$ it to int%r/%r%. *h% %$$%nc% o/
an a((oint!%nt in an acting ca(acity i$ it$ t%!(orary natur%. It i$ a
$to(?ga( !%a$ur% int%n,%, to /ill an o//ic% /or a li!it%, ti!% until th%
a((oint!%nt o/ a (%r!an%nt occu(ant to th% o//ic%. In ca$% o/
-acancy in an o//ic% occu(i%, "y an alt%r %go o/ th% Pr%$i,%nt, $uch
a$ th% o//ic% o/ a ,%(art!%nt $%cr%tary, th% Pr%$i,%nt !u$t n%c%$$arily
a((oint an alt%r %go o/ h%r choic% a$ acting $%cr%tary "%/or% th%
(%r!an%nt a((oint%% o/ h%r choic% coul, a$$u!% o//ic%. Congr%$$,
through a law cannot i!(o$% on th% Pr%$i,%nt th% o"ligation o/
auto!atically a((ointing th% Un,%r$%cr%tary a$ h%r alt%r %go. C%
!u$t "% o/ th% Pr%$i,%nt<$ con/i,%nc% an, (ro-i,%, that th%
t%!(orary a((oint!%nt ,o%$ not %+c%%, on% ()) y%ar.
19 19
*h%r% i$ a n%%, to ,i$tingui$h a, int%ri! a((oint!%nt$ an,
a((oint!%nt$ in an acting ca(acity. Whil% "oth ar% %//%cti-% u(on
acc%(tanc%, a, int%ri! a((oint!%nt$ ar% %+t%n,%, only ,uring th% r%c%$$
o/ Congr%$$, wh%r%a$ acting a((oint!%nt$ !ay "% %+t%n,%, any ti!%
that th%r% i$ a -acancy. =or%o-%r, a, int%ri! a((oint!%nt$ ar% $u"!itt%,
to th% Co!!i$$ion on A((oint!%nt$ /or con/ir!ation or r%L%ction1
acting a((oint!%nt$ ar% not $u"!itt%, to th% Co!!i$$ion on
a((oint!%nt$. Acting a((oint!%nt$ ar% a way o/ t%!(orarily
circu!-%nting th% n%%, o/ con/ir!ation "y th% Co!!i$$ion on
&2. What is the !taBe care power$ of the President of the Philippines?
It i$ th% (ow%r o/ th% Pr%$i,%nt un,%r #%ction ):, Art. VII which (ro-i,%$
that *h% Pr%$i,%nt $hall ha-% control o/ all th% %+%cuti-% ,%(art!%nt$ , "ur%au$
an, o//ic%$. H# s*2++ #ns$# t*2t t*# +25s 7# !2it*!++8 #D#0t#3&
&3. What is the power of control of the President. Distin/uish it from
power of super#ision.
NControlN ha$ "%%n ,%/in%, a$ Nth% (ow%r o/ an o//ic%r to alt%r or !o,i/y
or nulli/y or $%t a$i,% what a $u"or,inat% o//ic%r ha, ,on% in th% (%r/or!anc% o/
hi$ ,uti%$ an, to $u"$titut% th% Lu,g!%nt o/ th% /or!%r /or t%$t o/ th% latt%r.N
N#u(%r-i$ionN on th% oth%r han, !%an$ No-%r$%%ing or th% (ow%r or authority o/
an o//ic%r to $%% that $u"or,inat% o//ic%r$ (%r/or! th%ir ,uti%$. (=O>'A>O
V#. #ILVO#A)
&4. )ay the President #alidly require all officers and employees under
the eecuti#e department to maintain 'D systems and ha#e 'D cards?
G%$ in accor,anc% with h%r (ow%r o/ control un,%r #%ction ):, Art. VII
o/ th% Con$titution. (PILU#A>G =AGO U>O V#. E3ECU*IVE
#ECRE*ARG E'UAR'O ER=I*A, E* AL., A(ril )@, 2BB9 & Aun% 2B, 2BB9)
But not /or a national I' $y$t%! which inclu,%$ ci-ilian$ a$ h%l, in O(l% -$.
*orr%$, $u(ra.
&&. What is the doctrine of qualified political a/ency?
It $i!(ly !%an$ that 4t*# P$#si3#nt is not #D1#0t#3 to 1#$!o$% in
1#$son 2n t*# %+ti!2$ios #D#0ti"# 2n3 23%inist$2ti"# !n0tions&
T*# O!!i0# o! t*# ED#0ti"# S#0$#t2$8 is 2n 2Di++2$8 nit 5*i0*
2ssists t*# P$#si3#nt& Un3#$ o$ 0onstittion2+ s#t-1' t*# ED#0ti"#
S#0$#t2$8 20ts !o$ 2n3 in 7#*2+! o! t*# P$#si3#ntJ 2n3 78 2t*o$it8 o!
t*# P$#si3#nt' *# *2s n3is1t#3 I$is3i0tion to 2!!i$%' %o3i!8' o$
#"#n $#"#$s# 2n8 o$3#$ o! t*# S#0$#t2$8 o! N2t$2+ R#so$0#s 2n3
ot*#$ C27in#t S#0$#t2$i#s. Wh%r% th% E+%cuti-% #%cr%tary act$ N"y
authority o/ th% Pr%$i,%ntN hi$ ,%ci$ion i$ that o/ th% Pr%$i,%nt. (Lac$on?
=agallan%$ Co., Inc. -$. Pano, 2) #CRA M@;).
&6. What are the differences between the power of the President to declare
martial law or suspend the pri#ile/e of the writ of habeas corpus under
the 1,-. %onstitution and the pre#ious %onstitutions?
20 20
Un,%r th% )@M: Phili((in% Con$titution, $uch act$ o/ th% Pr%$i,%nt !ay
"% r%-i%w%, not only "y th% #u(r%!% Court "ut al$o th% Congr%$$ o/ th%
Phili((in%$. Pr%-iou$ly, $uch woul, "% con$i,%r%, 4(olitical Eu%$tion8
which i$ "%yon, th% r%-i%w (ow%r$ o/ th% court$. Li5%wi$%, th%r% i$ a
,%/init% (%rio, /or th% $ai, $u$(%n$ion unli5% "%/or% an, !or% i!(ortantly,
th% groun,$ ar% only in-a$ion an, r%"%llion WCE> *CE PUBLIC #AFE*G
REJUIRE# I*. *h% #u(r%!% Court !ay r%-i%w, in an a((ro(riat%
(roc%%,ing /il%, "y any citi0%n, th% $u//ici%ncy o/ th% /actual "a$i$ o/ th%
(rocla!ation o/ !artial law or $u$(%n$ion o/ th% (ri-il%g% o/ th% writ or th%
%+t%n$ion th%r%o/, an, !u$t (ro!ulgat% it$ ,%ci$ion th%r%on within 7B ,ay$
/ro! it$ /iling.
A $tat% o/ !artial law ,o%$ not $u$(%n, th% o(%ration o/ th% Con$titution,
nor $u((lant th% /unctioning o/ th% ci-il court$ or l%gi$lati-% a$$%!"li%$, nor
authori0% th% con/%r!%nt o/ Luri$,iction on !ilitary court$ an, ag%nci%$ o-%r
ci-ilian$ wh%r% ci-il court$ ar% a"l% to /unction, nor auto!atically $u$(%n, th%
(ri-il%g% o/ th% writ.
*h% $u$(%n$ion o/ th% (ri-il%g% o/ th% writ $hall a((ly only to (%r$on$
Lu,icially charg%, /or r%"%llion or o//%n$%$ inh%r%nt in or ,ir%ctly conn%ct%,
with in-a$ion.
'uring th% $u$(%n$ion o/ th% (ri-il%g% o/ th% writ, any (%r$on thu$
arr%$t%, or ,%tain%, $hall "% Lu,icially charg%, within 7 ,ay$, oth%rwi$%, h%
$hall "% r%l%a$%,.
&.. )ay the President under the 1,-. %onstitution #alidly issue
decrees after declarin/ a state of national emer/ency. )ay she direct the
taBe o#er of business affected with national interest by reason of the
!emer/ency$ which she herself proclaimed?
I n t h % c a $ % o / PROF& RANDOLF S& DAVID' #t A+ VS&
COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF' #t 2+&' G&R& No& <-<)F.' M28 )' ;==., it wa$
h%l, that in ,%claring a $tat% o/ national %!%rg%ncy, Pr%$i,%nt Arroyo ,i, not
only r%ly on #%ction )M, Articl% VII o/ th% Con$titution, a (ro-i$ion calling on
th% AFP to (r%-%nt or $u((r%$$ lawl%$$ -iol%nc%, in-a$ion or r%"%llion. #h% al$o
r%li%, on #%ction ):, Articl% 3II, a (ro-i$ion on th% #tat%<$ %+traor,inary (ow%r
to ta5% o-%r (ri-at%ly?own%, (u"lic utility an, "u$in%$$ a//%ct%, with (u"lic
int%r%$t. *h% #u(r%!% Court rul%, that th% a$$ail%, PP )B): i$ uncon$titutional
in$o/ar a$ it grant$ Pr%$i,%nt Arroyo th% authority to (ro!ulgat% 4,%cr%%$.8
L%gi$lati-% (ow%r i$ (%culiarly within th% (ro-inc% o/ th% L%gi$latur%. #%ction
), Articl% VI cat%gorically $tat%$ that 4HtIh% l%gi$lati-% (ow%r $hall "% -%$t%, in
th% Congr%$$ o/ th% Phili((in%$ which $hall con$i$t o/ a #%nat% an, a Cou$% o/
R%(r%$%ntati-%$.8 *o "% $ur%, n%ith%r =artial Law nor a $tat% o/ r%"%llion nor a
$tat% o/ %!%rg%ncy can Lu$ti/y Pr%$i,%nt Arroyo<$ %+%rci$% o/ l%gi$lati-% (ow%r
"y i$$uing ,%cr%%$.
Li5%wi$%, th% %+%rci$% o/ %!%rg%ncy (ow%r$, $uch a$ th% ta5ing o-%r o/
(ri-at%ly own%, (u"lic utility or "u$in%$$ a//%ct%, with (u"lic int%r%$t, i$ al$o
uncon$titutional. *hi$ r%Euir%$ a ,%l%gation /ro! Congr%$$.
&-. What are the requisites of 2udicial re#iew?
21 21
Court$ !ay %+%rci$% th% (ow%r o/ Lu,icial r%-i%w only wh%n th%
/ollowing r%Eui$it%$ ar% (r%$%ntF first, th%r% !u$t "% an actual ca$% or
contro-%r$y1 second, (%tition%r$ ha-% to rai$% a Eu%$tion o/ uncon$titutionality1
third, th% con$titutional Eu%$tion !u$t "% rai$%, at th% %arli%$t o((ortunity1 an,
fourth, th% ,%ci$ion o/ th% con$titutional Eu%$tion !u$t "% n%c%$$ary to th%
,%t%r!ination o/ th% ca$% it$%l/.
&,. When may the courts still #alidly decide moot and academic cases?
A !oot an, aca,%!ic ca$% i$ on% that c%a$%$ to (r%$%nt a Lu$ticia"l%
contro-%r$y "y -irtu% o/ $u(%r-%ning %-%nt$,
$o that a ,%claration th%r%on
woul, "% o/ no (ractical u$% or -alu%. G%n%rally, court$ ,%clin% Luri$,iction
o-%r $uch ca$%
or ,i$!i$$ it on groun, o/ !ootn%$$. *h% 9%oot 2n3
2023#%i08 (rinci(l% i$ not a !agical /or!ula that can auto!atically ,i$$ua,%
th% court$ in r%$ol-ing a ca$%. Court$ will ,%ci,% ca$%$, oth%rwi$% !oot an,
aca,%!ic, i/F
first, th%r% i$ a gra-% -iolation o/ th% Con$titution (P$o"in0# o!
B2t2n62s "s& Ro%+o' &R& No& </;--(' M28 ;-' ;==(' (;F SCRA
second, th% %+c%(tional charact%r o/ th% $ituation an, th%
(ara!ount (u"lic int%r%$t i$ in-ol-%, (L20son "s& P#$#K' G&R& No&
<(--,=' M28 <=' ;==<' )/- SCRA -/.)N
third, wh%n con$titutional i$$u% rai$%, r%Euir%$ /or!ulation o/
controlling (rinci(l%$ to gui,% th% "%nch, th% "ar, an, th% (u"lic
(P$o"in0# o! B2t2n62s "s& Ro%+o)1 an,
fourth, th% ca$% i$ ca(a"l% o/ r%(%tition y%t %-a,ing r%-i%w
(*lbaJa #. %ommission on ;lections= G&R& No& <.))=;' E+8 ;)' ;==('
()/ SCRA F,' *cop #. Cuin/ona= Ir.= G&R& No& <)(,//' E+8 ;' ;==;'
),) SCRA /--' 8anlaBas #. ;ecuti#e 8ecretary' G&R& No& </F=,/'
F#7$2$8 )' ;==(' (;< SCRA ./.& )
6>. Define locus standi.
0ocus standi i$ ,%/in%, a$ 4a right o/ a((%aranc% in a court o/ Lu$tic% on
a gi-%n Eu%$tion.8
In (ri-at% $uit$, $tan,ing i$ go-%rn%, "y th% 4r%al?(arti%$?
in int%r%$t8 rul% a$ contain%, in #%ction 2, Rul% 7 o/ th% )@@: Rul%$ o/ Ci-il
Proc%,ur%, a$ a!%n,%,. It (ro-i,%$ that 4#"#$8 20tion %st 7# 1$os#0t#3 o$
3#!#n3#3 in t*# n2%# o! t*# $#2+ 12$t8 in int#$#st.8 Accor,ingly, th% 4r%al?
(arty?in int%r%$t8 i$ 4t*# 12$t8 5*o st2n3s to 7# 7#n#!it#3 o$ inI$#3 78 t*#
I36%#nt in t*# sit o$ t*# 12$t8 #ntit+#3 to t*# 2"2i+s o! t*# sit&8
#uccinctly (ut, th% (lainti//<$ $tan,ing i$ "a$%, on hi$ own right to th% r%li%/

61. What are the tests of locus standi in the PhilippinesK
4rovince of @atangas v. !omulo, G.R. >o. );2::D, =ay 2:, 2BBD, D2@ #CRA :79.
!oCal Cargo Corporation v. Civil %eronautics @oard, G.R. >o$. )B7B;;?;9, Aanuary 29, 2BBD, D2) #CRA 2)1 )da. ,e ,abao v. Court of
%ppeals, supra.
Blac5<$ Law 'ictionary, 9
E,. )@@), (. @D).
&alonga v. Harner @arnes L Co., MM Phil. )2; ()@;)).
22 22
*h% original wa$F H)I I/ th% act in-ol-%$ th% ,i$"ur$%!%nt o/ (u"lic
/un,$, !%r% ta+(ay%r ha$ th% ca(acity to $u% an, Eu%$tion $uch act. H2I I/ it ,o%$
not in-ol-% ,i$"ur$%!%nt o/ (u"lic /un,$, only tho$% who ar% 4,ir%ctly inLur%,8
"y th% $ai, law or contract %nt%r%, into "y th% go-%rn!%nt.
Ca$% law in !o$t Luri$,iction$ now allow$ "oth 4citi0%n8 an, 4ta+(ay%r8
$tan,ing in (u"lic action$. *h% ,i$tinction wa$ /ir$t lai, ,own in @eauchamp
v. &ilB,
wh%r% it wa$ h%l, that th% (lainti// in a ta+(ay%r<$ $uit i$ in a ,i//%r%nt
cat%gory /ro! th% (lainti// in a citi0%n<$ $uit. In t*# !o$%#$' t*# 1+2inti!! is
2!!#0t#3 78 t*# #D1#n3it$# o! 17+i0 !n3s' 5*i+# in t*# +2tt#$' *# is 7t t*#
%#$# inst$%#nt o! t*# 17+i0 0on0#$n
Cow%-%r, to (r%-%nt Lu$t a"out any (%r$on /ro! $%%5ing Lu,icial
int%r/%r%nc% in any o//icial (olicy or act with which h% ,i$agr%%, with, an, thu$
hin,%r$ th% acti-iti%$ o/ go-%rn!%ntal ag%nci%$ %ngag%, in (u"lic $%r-ic%, th%
Unit%, #tat% #u(r%!% Court lai, ,own th% !or% $tring%nt 43i$#0t inI$88 t#st
in 1E 4arte 0evitt,
lat%r r%a//ir!%, in Tileston v. 6llman.
*h% $a!% Court
rul%, that /or a (ri-at% in,i-i,ual to in-o5% th% Lu,icial (ow%r to ,%t%r!in% th%
-ali,ity o/ an %+%cuti-% or l%gi$lati-% action, *# %st s*o5 t*2t *# *2s
sst2in#3 2 3i$#0t inI$8 2s 2 $#s+t o! t*2t 20tion' 2n3 it is not s!!i0i#nt
t*2t *# *2s 2 6#n#$2+ int#$#st 0o%%on to 2++ %#%7#$s o! t*# 17+i0&
*hi$ Court a,o(t%, th% 93i$#0t inI$8: t#st in our Luri$,iction. In
4eople v. )era,
it h%l, that th% (%r$on who i!(ugn$ th% -ali,ity o/ a $tatut%
!u$t ha-% 42 1#$son2+ 2n3 s7st2nti2+ int#$#st in t*# 02s# s0* t*2t *# *2s
sst2in#3' o$ 5i++ sst2in 3i$#0t inI$8 2s 2 $#s+t.8 *h% )era ,octrin% wa$
u(h%l, in a litany o/ ca$%$, $uch a$, Custodio v. 4resident of the &enate,
2anila !ace Gorse TrainersA %ssociation v. ,e la 9uente,
4ascual v.
&ecretarC of 4ublic HorBs
an, %ntiIChinese 0eague of the 4hilippines v.
Cow%-%r, "%ing a !%r% (roc%,ural t%chnicality, th% r%Euir%!%nt o/ locus
standi !ay "% wai-%, "y th% Court in th% %+%rci$% o/ it$ ,i$cr%tion. *hi$ wa$
,on% in th% <F(F E%#$6#n08 Po5#$s C2s#s' %raneta v. ,inglasan,
wh%r% th%
4t$2ns0#n3#nt2+ i%1o$t2n0#8 o/ th% ca$%$ (ro!(t%, th% Court to act li"%rally.
#uch li"%rality wa$ n%ith%r a rarity nor acci,%ntal. In %Nuino v. Comelec,
thi$ Court r%$ol-%, to (a$$ u(on th% i$$u%$ rai$%, ,u% to th% 4!2$-$#20*in6
i%1+i02tions8 o/ th% (%tition notwith$tan,ing it$ cat%gorical $tat%!%nt that
(%tition%r th%r%in ha, no (%r$onality to /il% th% $uit. In,%%,, th%r% i$ a chain o/
ca$%$ wh%r% thi$ li"%ral (olicy ha$ "%%n o"$%r-%,, allowing or,inary citi0%n$,
2:; Py @), )2B #W2, :9; ()@7M).
7B2 U.#. 977.
7)M U.#. DD9.
9; Phil. ;9 ()@7:).
G.R. >o. )):, >o-%!"%r :, )@D; (Unr%(ort%,).
G.R. >o. 2@D:, Aanuary )), )@;@ (Unr%(ort%,).
))B Phil. 77) ()@9B).
:: Phil. )B)2 ()@D:).
MD Phil. 79M ()@D@) *h% Court h%l,F 4A"o-% all, th% tran$c%n,%ntal i!(ortanc% to th% (u"lic o/ th%$% ca$%$ ,%!an,$ that th%y "% $%ttl%,
(ro!(tly an, ,%/init%ly, "ru$hing a$i,%, i/ w% !u$t, t%chnicaliti%$ o/ (roc%,ur%.8
L?>o. DBBBD, Aanuary 7), )@:;, 92 #CRA 2:;.
23 23
!%!"%r$ o/ Congr%$$, an, ci-ic organi0ation$ to (ro$%cut% action$ in-ol-ing
th% con$titutionality or -ali,ity o/ law$, r%gulation$ an, ruling$.

*hu$, th% Court ha$ a,o(t%, a rul% that %-%n wh%r% th% (%tition%r$ ha-%
/ail%, to $how ,ir%ct inLury, th%y ha-% "%%n allow%, to $u% un,%r th% (rinci(l%
o/ 4t$2ns0#n3#nt2+ i%1o$t2n0#.8 P%rtin%nt ar% th% /ollowing ca$%$F
(<) ChaveD v. 4ublic 1states %uthoritC,
wh%r% th% Court
rul%, that t*# #n!o$0#%#nt o! t*# 0onstittion2+ $i6*t to
in!o$%2tion 2n3 t*# #4it27+# 3i!!sion o! n2t$2+ $#so$0#s
2$# %2tt#$s o! t$2ns0#n3#nt2+ i%1o$t2n0# 5*i0* 0+ot*# t*#
1#tition#$ 5it* locus standiN

32) @agong %lCansang 2aBabaCan v. /amora,
th% Court h%l, that 96i"#n t*# t$2ns0#n3#nt2+ i%1o$t2n0# o! t*#
iss#s in"o+"#3' t*# Co$t %28 $#+2D t*# st2n3in6
$#4i$#%#nts 2n3 2++o5 t*# sit to 1$os1#$ 3#s1it# t*# +20? o!
3i$#0t inI$8 to t*# 12$ti#s s##?in6 I3i0i2+ $#"i#5: o/ th%
Vi$iting Forc%$ Agr%%!%nt1

()) 0im v. 1Eecutive &ecretarC,
whil% th% Court not%, that
th% (%tition%r$ !ay not /il% $uit in th%ir ca(acity a$ ta+(ay%r$
a"$%nt a $howing that 4Bali5atan B2?B)8 in-ol-%$ th% %+%rci$% o/
Congr%$$< ta+ing or $(%n,ing (ow%r$, it r%it%rat%, it$
ruling in @agong %lCansang 2aBabaCan v. /amora,
t*2t in
02s#s o! t$2ns0#n3#nt2+ i%1o$t2n0#' t*# 02s#s %st 7# s#tt+#3
1$o%1t+8 2n3 3#!init#+8 2n3 st2n3in6 $#4i$#%#nts %28 7#
By way o/ $u!!ary, th% /ollowing rul%$ !ay "% cull%, /ro! th% ca$%$
,%ci,%, "y thi$ Court. *a+(ay%r$, -ot%r$, conc%rn%, citi0%n$, an, l%gi$lator$
!ay "% accor,%, $tan,ing to $u%, (ro-i,%, that th% /ollowing r%Euir%!%nt$ ar%
9aJada #. 9u#era, G.R. >o. 97@);, A(ril 2D, )@M;, )79 #CRA 2:, wh%r% th% Court h%l, that wh%r% th% Eu%$tion i$ on% o/ (u"lic ,uty an, th%
%n/orc%!%nt o/ a (u"lic right, th% (%o(l% ar% th% r%al (arty in int%r%$t, an, it i$ $u//ici%nt that th% (%tition%r i$ a citi0%n int%r%$t%, in th% %+%cution o/
th% law1
Le/aspi #. %i#il 8er#ice %ommission, G.R. >o. :2))@, =ay 2@, )@M:, );B #CRA ;7B, wh%r% th% Court h%l, that in ca$%$ in-ol-ing an
a$$%rtion o/ a (u"lic right, th% r%Euir%!%nt o/ (%r$onal int%r%$t i$ $ati$/i%, "y th% !%r% /act that th% (%tition%r i$ a citi0%n an, (art o/ th% g%n%ral
(u"lic which (o$$%$$%$ th% right.
Kapatiran n/ m/a <a/lilin/Bod sa Pamahalaan n/ Pilipinas= 'nc. #. 9an, L. >o. M)7)), Aun% 7B, )@MM, )97 #CRA 7:), wh%r% th% Court h%l,
that o"L%ction$ to ta+(ay%r$< lac5 o/ (%r$onality to $u% !ay "% ,i$r%gar,%, in ,%t%r!ining th% -ali,ity o/ th% VA* law1
*lbano #. 7eyes, G.R. >o. M7;;), Auly )), )@M@, ):; #CRA 29D, wh%r% th% Court h%l, that whil% no %+(%n,itur% o/ (u"lic /un,$ wa$ in-ol-%,
un,%r th% Eu%$tion%, contract, non%th%l%$$ con$i,%ring it$ i!(ortant rol% in th% %cono!ic ,%-%lo(!%nt o/ th% country an, th% !agnitu,% o/ th%
/inancial con$i,%ration in-ol-%,, (u"lic int%r%$t wa$ ,%/init%ly in-ol-%, an, thi$ cloth%, (%tition%r with th% l%gal (%r$onality un,%r th% ,i$clo$ur%
(ro-i$ion o/ th% Con$titution to Eu%$tion it.
*ssociation of 8mall Landowners in the Philippines= 'nc. #. 8ec. of */rarian 7eform= G.R. >o. :M:D2, Auly )D, )@M@, ):; #CRA 7D7, wh%r%
th% Court rul%, that whil% (%tition%r$ ar% $trictly $(%a5ing, not co-%r%, "y th% ,%/inition o/ a 4(ro(%r (arty,8 non%th%l%$$, it ha$ th% ,i$cr%tion to
wai-% th% r%Euir%!%nt, in ,%t%r!ining th% -ali,ity o/ th% i!(l%!%ntation o/ th% CARP.
ConEales #. )acarai/= Ir&, G.R. >o. M:979, >o-%!"%r )@, )@@B, )@) #CRA D;2, wh%r% th% Court h%l, that it %nLoy$ th% o(%n ,i$cr%tion to
%nt%rtain ta+(ay%r<$ $uit or not an, that a !%!"%r o/ th% #%nat% ha$ th% r%Eui$it% (%r$onality to "ring a $uit wh%r% a con$titutional i$$u% i$ rai$%,.
)aceda #. )acarai/= Ir., G.R. >o. MM2@), =ay 7), )@@), )@: #CRA ::), wh%r% th% Court h%l, that (%tition%r a$ a ta+(ay%r, ha$ th% (%r$onality
to /il% th% in$tant (%tition, a$ th% i$$u%$ in-ol-%,, (%rtain$ to ill%gal %+(%n,itur% o/ (u"lic !on%y1
:smeJa #. %omelec, G.R. >o. )BB7)M, )BB7BM, )BBD):,)BBD2B, Auly 7B, )@@), )@@ #CRA :;B, wh%r% th% Court h%l, that wh%r% $%riou$
con$titutional Eu%$tion$ ar% in-ol-%,, th% 4tran$c%n,%ntal i!(ortanc%8 to th% (u"lic o/ th% ca$%$ in-ol-%, ,%!an,$ that th%y "% $%ttl%, (ro!(tly
an, ,%/init%ly, "ru$hing a$i,% t%chnicaliti%$ o/ (roc%,ur%$1
De Cuia #. %omelec, G.R. >o. )BD:)2, =ay 9, )@@2, 2BM #CRA D2B, wh%r% th% Court h%l, that th% i!(ortanc% o/ th% i$$u%$ in-ol-%,
conc%rning a$ it ,o%$ th% (olitical %+%rci$% o/ Euali/i%, -ot%r$ a//%ct%, "y th% a((ortion!%nt, n%c%$$itat%$ th% "ru$hing a$i,% o/ th% (roc%,ural
r%Euir%!%nt o/ locus standi.
G.R. >o. )772;B, Auly @, 2BB2, 7MD #CRA );2.

G.R. >o$. )7M;:B, )7M;:2, )7M;M:, )7M9MB, )7M9@M, Octo"%r )B, 2BBB, 7D2 #CRA DD@.

G.R. >o. );)DD;, A(ril )), 2BB2, 7MB #CRA :7@.


24 24
). th% ca$%$ in-ol-% con$titutional i$$u%$1
2. /or t2D128#$s, th%r% !u$t "% a clai! o/ ill%gal ,i$"ur$%!%nt o/
(u"lic /un,$ or that th% ta+ !%a$ur% i$ uncon$titutional1
7. /or "ot#$s, th%r% !u$t "% a $howing o/ o"-iou$ int%r%$t in th%
-ali,ity o/ th% %l%ction law in Eu%$tion1
D. /or 0on0#$n#3 0itiK#ns, th%r% !u$t "% a $howing that th% i$$u%$
rai$%, ar% o/ tran$c%n,%ntal i!(ortanc% which !u$t "% $%ttl%, %arly1
;. /or +#6is+2to$s, th%r% !u$t "% a clai! that th% o//icial action
co!(lain%, o/ in/ring%$ u(on th%ir (r%rogati-%$ a$ l%gi$lator$.
#igni/icantly, r%c%nt ,%ci$ion$ $how a c%rtain tough%ning in th% Court<$
attitu,% towar, l%gal $tan,ing.
In OilosbaCan, *nc. v. 2orato,
th% Court rul%, that th% $tatu$ o/
OilosbaCan a$ a (%o(l%<$ organi0ation ,o%$ not gi-% it th% r%Eui$it% (%r$onality
to Eu%$tion th% -ali,ity o/ th% on?lin% lott%ry contract, !or% $o wh%r% it ,o%$ not
rai$% any i$$u% o/ con$titutionality. =or%o-%r, it cannot $u% a$ a ta+(ay%r
a"$%nt any all%gation that (u"lic /un,$ ar% "%ing !i$u$%,. >or can it $u% a$ a
conc%rn%, citi0%n a$ it ,o%$ not all%g% any $(%ci/ic inLury it ha$ $u//%r%,.
In Telecommunications and @roadcast %ttorneCs of the 4hilippines, *nc.
v. Comelec,
th% Court r%it%rat%, th% 4,ir%ct inLury8 t%$t with r%$(%ct to
conc%rn%, citi0%n$< ca$%$ in-ol-ing con$titutional i$$u%$. It h%l, that 4th%r%
!u$t "% a $howing that th% citi0%n (%r$onally $u//%r%, $o!% actual or
thr%at%n%, inLury ari$ing /ro! th% all%g%, ill%gal o//icial act.8
In 0acson v. 4ereD,
th% Court rul%, that on% o/ th% (%tition%r$, 0aban ng
,emoBratiBong 4ilipino (L'P), i$ not a r%al (arty?in?int%r%$t a$ it ha, not
,%!on$trat%, any inLury to it$%l/ or to it$ l%a,%r$, !%!"%r$ or $u((ort%r$.
In &anlaBas v. 1Eecutive &ecretarC,
th% Court rul%, that only th%
(%tition%r$ who ar% !%!"%r$ o/ Congr%$$ ha-% $tan,ing to $u%, a$ th%y clai!
that th% Pr%$i,%nt<$ ,%claration o/ a $tat% o/ r%"%llion is 2 s$12tion o! t*#
#%#$6#n08 1o5#$s o! Con6$#ss' t*s i%12i$in6 t*#i$ +#6is+2ti"# 1o5#$s. A$
to (%tition%r$ &anlaBas, 4artido 2anggagawa, and &ocial Kustice &ocietC, th%
Court ,%clar%, th%! to "% ,%-oi, o/ $tan,ing, %Euating th%! with th% L'P in

62. What is the !taBe o#er$ pro#ision of the %onstitution. )ay the
President #alidly eercise the same?

*hi$ i$ #%ction ):, Articl% 3II , which r%a,$F

G.R. >o. ))M@)B, >o-%!"%r )9, )@@;, 2;B #CRA )7B.
G.R. >o. )72@22, A(ril 2), )@@M, 2M@ #CRA 77:.
G.R. >o. )D::MB, )D::M), )D::@@, )D:M)B, =ay )B, 2BB), 7;: #CRA :;9.
G.R. >o. );@BM;, F%"ruary 7, 2BBD, D2) #CRA 9;9.
25 25
S#0& <-& In ti!%$ o/ national %!%rg%ncy, wh%n th% (u"lic
int%r%$t $o r%Euir%$, th% #tat% !ay, ,uring th% %!%rg%ncy an,
un,%r r%a$ona"l% t%r!$ (r%$cri"%, "y it, t%!(orarily ta5% o-%r or
,ir%ct th% o(%ration o/ any (ri-at%ly?own%, (u"lic utility or
"u$in%$$ a//%ct%, with (u"lic int%r%$t.

Whil% th% Pr%$i,%nt alon% can ,%clar% a $tat% o/ national %!%rg%ncy,
how%-%r, without l%gi$lation, h% ha$ no (ow%r to ta5% o-%r (ri-at%ly?own%,
(u"lic utility or "u$in%$$ a//%ct%, with (u"lic int%r%$t. *h% Pr%$i,%nt cannot
,%ci,% wh%th%r %+c%(tional circu!$tanc%$ %+i$t warranting th% ta5% o-%r o/
(ri-at%ly?own%, (u"lic utility or "u$in%$$ a//%ct%, with (u"lic int%r%$t .
>or can h% ,%t%r!in% wh%n $uch %+c%(tional circu!$tanc%$ ha-% c%a$%,.
Li5%wi$%, 5it*ot +#6is+2tion, th% Pr%$i,%nt ha$ no (ow%r to (oint out th% ty(%$
o/ "u$in%$$%$ a//%ct%, with (u"lic int%r%$t that $houl, "% ta5%n o-%r. In $hort,
th% Pr%$i,%nt ha$ no a"$olut% authority to %+%rci$% all th% (ow%r$ o/ th% #tat%
un,%r #%ction ):, Articl% VII in th% a"$%nc% o/ an %!%rg%ncy (ow%r$ act (a$$%,
"y Congr%$$.
97. What are the limitations of the President"s power of eecuti#e
*h% $a!% i$ not a-aila"l% in ca$%$ o/ i!(%ach!%nt a$ w%ll a$ -iolation o/
%l%ction law$, rul%$ an, r%gulation$ without th% /a-ora"l% r%co!!%n,ation o/
th% Co!!i$$ion on El%ction$. (#%ction )@, Art. VII an, #%ction ;, Art. I3?C))
64. Distin/uish pardon from amnesty.
A$ h%l, in BARRIOJUI>*O V#. FER>A>'E, M2 Phil. 9D2, th%
,i$tinction$ ar% a$ /ollow$F
H)I Par,on i$ grant%, "y th% Chi%/ E+%cuti-% an, a$ $uch it i$ a
(ri-at% act which !u$t "% (l%a,%, an, (ro-%, "y th% (%r$on (ar,on%,,
"%cau$% th% court$ ta5% no notic% th%r%o/1 whil% a!n%$ty "y Procla!ation
o/ th% Chi%/ E+%cuti-% with th% concurr%nc% o/ Congr%$$, an, it i$ a
(u"lic act o/ which th% court$ $houl, ta5% Lu,icial notic%.
H2I Par,on i$ grant%, to on% a/t%r con-iction (o/ or,inary cri!%$) 1
whil% a!n%$ty i$ grant%, to cla$$%$ o/ (%r$on$ or co!!uniti%$ who !ay
"% guilty o/ (olitical o//%n$%$, g%n%rally "%/or% or a/t%r th% in$titution o/
th% cri!inal (ro$%cution an, $o!%ti!%$ a/t%r con-iction.
H7I Par,on loo5$ /orwar, an, r%li%-%$ th% o//%n,%r /ro! th%
con$%Eu%nc%$ o/ an o//%n$% o/ which h% ha$ "%%n con-ict%,, that i$, it
a"oli$h%, or /orgi-%$ th% (uni$h!%nt, an, /or that r%a$on it ,o%$ NNnor
wor5 th% r%$toration o/ th% right$ to hol, (u"lic o//ic%, or th% right o/
$u//rag%, unl%$$ $uch right$ "% %+(r%$$ly r%$tor%, "y th% t%r!$ o/ th%
(ar,on,N an, it Nin no ca$% %+%!(t$ th% cul(rit /ro! th% (ay!%nt o/ th%
ci-il in,%!nity i!(o$%, u(on hi! "y th% $%nt%nc%N articl% 79, R%-i$%,
P%nal Co,%). whil% a!n%$ty loo5$ "ac5war, an, a"oli$h%$ an, (ut$ into
o"li-ion th% o//%n$% it$%l/, it $o o-%rloo5$ an, o"lit%rat%$ th% o//%n$% with
which h% i$ charg%, that th% (%r$on r%l%a$%, "y a!n%$ty $tan,$ "%/or% th%
law (r%ci$%ly a$ though h% ha, co!!itt%, no o//%n$%. ($%ction )BH9I,
Articl% VII, Phili((in% Con$titution1 #tat% -$. Blaloc5, 92 >.C., 2D2, 2D:1
26 26
In r% Brigg$, )7; >.C., ))M1 D: #.E. DB2., DB71 E+ (art% Law, 7; GA.,
2M;, 2@91 #tat% %+ r%l Anh%u$%rBu$ch Br%wing A$$Rn. -$. E"y, ):B =o.,
D@:1 :) #.W ;2, 9)1 Bur,ic5 -$ Unit%, #tat%$, >.G., 7; #. Ct., 29:1 2:)1
279 U.#., :@1 ;@ Law. %,., D:9.)
HDI Par,on i$ co!(l%t% with th% act o/ th% Pr%$i,%nt whil% A!n%$ty i$
-ali, only with th% concurr%nc% o/ th% !aLority o/ th% !%!"%r$ o/ all th%
!%!"%r$ o/ Congr%$$.
6&. 's it required for the person applyin/ for amnesty to admit his
/uilt before his amnesty application be considered?
Ye,s as held in )1!% )&. 41401, ? &C!% '>#. B%/or% on% !ay -ali,ly
a((ly /or %+%cuti-% cl%!%ncy ((ar,on or a!n%$ty) h% =U#* A'=I*
I=PRI#O>=E>*. *hi$ rul% a"an,on%, th% contrary ruling in
BarrioEuinto -$. F%rnan,%0.
66. )ay a public officer= who has been /ranted an absolute pardon by
the %hief ;ecuti#e= entitled to automatic reinstatement to her former
position without need of a <ew appointment?
+o. %s held in MONSANTO VS& FACTORAN'F#7$2$8' <F,F' a
(ar,on loo5$ to th% /utur%. It i$ not r%tro$(%cti-%. It !a5%$ no
a!%n,$ /or th% (a$t. It a//or,$ no r%li%/ /or what ha$ "%%n $u//%r%, "y
th% o//%n,%r. It ,o%$ not i!(o$% u(on th% go-%rn!%nt any o"ligation
to !a5% r%(aration /or what ha$ "%%n $u//%r%,. N#inc% th% o//%n$% ha$
"%%n %$ta"li$h%, "y Lu,icial (roc%%,ing$, that which ha$ "%%n ,on%
or $u//%r%, whil% th%y w%r% in /orc% i$ (r%$u!%, to ha-% "%%n
right/ully ,on% an, Lu$tly $u//%r%,, an, no $ati$/action /or it can "%
r%Euir%,.N T*is 5o+3 #D1+2in 5*8 1#tition#$' t*o6* 12$3on#3'
02nnot 7# #ntit+#3 to $#inst2t#%#nt' n+#ss 211oint#3 262in 78
t*# 211ointin6 2t*o$it8' $#0#i"# 720?128 !o$ +ost #2$nin6s 2n3

6.. )ay the power of eecuti#e clemency applied to administrati#e
cases liBe the suspension of a Pro#incial Co#ernor?
Y#s& T*is 52s t*# $+in6 o! t*# S1$#%# Co$t in L+2%2s "s& ED#0&
S#0& O$7os' O0t& </' <FF<& T*# 5o$3 90on"i0tion in S#0tion <F' A$t& VII o!
t*# Constittion !ay "% u$%, %ith%r in a cri!inal ca$% or in an a,!ini$trati-%
6-. 's the mere filin/ of a criminal case a/ainst a recipient of a
conditional pardon with the condition Lnot a/ain #iolate any of the penal
laws of the Philippines and this condition be #iolated= he will be proceeded
a/ainst in the manner prescribed by lawL sufficient to re#oBe such
conditional pardon without first securin/ con#iction a/ainst the /rantee?

G%$. A$ h%l, in *ORRE# V#. GO>ALE#, );2 #CRA 2:2, th%
,%t%r!ination o/ wh%th%r th% con,ition$ o/ a con-ict<$ (ar,on ha, "%%n
"r%ach%, r%$t$ %+clu$i-%ly in th% $oun, Lu,g!%nt o/ th% Pr%$i,%nt an, that $uch
27 27
,%t%r!ination woul, not "% r%-i%w%, "y th% court$. A$ h%l, in *%$oro -$.
'ir%ctor o/ Pri$on$, in acc%(ting th% t%r!$ un,%r which th% (arol% ha, "%%n
grant%,, *%$oro ha, in %//%ct agr%%, that th% Go-%rnor?G%n%ralR$ ,%t%r!ination
(rath%r than that o/ th% r%gular court$ o/ law) that h% ha, "r%ach%, on% o/ th%
con,ition$ o/ hi$ (arol% "y co!!itting a,ult%ry whil% h% wa$ con,itionally at
li"%rty, wa$ "in,ing an, conclu$i-% u(on hi!.
6,. What are the requisites before the President or his representati#es
may #alidly contract or /uarantee forei/n loans?
Un,%r #%ction 2B, Art. VII, th% Pr%$i,%nt !ay contract or guarant%%
/or%ign loan$ on "%hal/ o/ th% R%(u"lic o/ th% Phili((in%$ $u"L%ct to th%
/ollowing con,ition$F
a. th%r% !u$t "% (rior concurr%nc% o/ th% =on%tary Boar,1
". $u"L%ct to $uch li!itation$ a$ !ay "% (ro-i,%, /or "y law.
Furth%r, th% =on%tary Boar, $hall, within 7B ,ay$ /ro! th% %n, o/ %-%ry
Euart%r o/ th% cal%n,ar y%ar, $u"!it to th% Congr%$$ a co!(l%t% r%(ort o/ it$
,%ci$ion$ on a((lication$ /or loan$ to "% contract%, or guarant%%, "y th%
go-%rn!%nt or go-%rn!%nt own%, an, controll%, cor(oration$ which woul,
ha-% th% %//%ct o/ incr%a$ing th% /or%ign ,%"t, an, containing oth%r !att%r$ a$
!ay "% (ro-i,%, /or "y law.
.>. What is 2udicial power?
Au,icial (ow%r inclu,%$ th% ,uty o/ th% court$ o/ Lu$tic% to $%ttl% actual
contro-%r$i%$ in-ol-ing right$ which ar% l%gally ,%!an,a"l% an, %n/orc%a"l%,
an, to ,%t%r!in% wh%th%r or not th%r% ha$ "%%n a gra-% a"u$% o/ ,i$cr%tion
a!ounting to lac5 or in %+c%$$ o/ Luri$,iction on th% (art o/ any "ranch or
in$tru!%ntality o/ th% go-%rn!%nt.
.1. )ay 2udicial power be eercised by the 8upreme %ourt in cases of
decisions of the Douse of 7epresentati#es ;lectoral tribunal since 8ection 16=
*rt. +' of the %onstitution pro#ides that the D7;9 is the !sole 2ud/e$ of all
contestests in#ol#in/ the election= returns and qualifications of the members
of the Douse of 7epresentati#es?
G%$ i/ th%r% i$ all%gation o/ gra-% a"u$% o/ ,i$cr%tion a!ounting to lac5
or in %+c%$$ o/ Luri$,iction on th% (art o/ th% CRE* (BO>'OC V#. PI>E'A)
.2. What is a political question?
*n %02%!* )&. %0@%, '#? &C!% ;, it was defined as a Eu%$tion
which ,%al$ with th% n%c%$$ity, %+(%,i%ncy an, wi$,o! o/ a (articuar act, th%
$a!% i$ (olitical an, not Lu$ticia"l%

In #ani,a, -$. Co!%l%c, :7 #CRA 777, (olitical Eu%$tion$ wa$ ,%/in%,
a$ Eu%$tion$ which ar% n%atly a$$ociat%, with th% wi$,o!, not th% l%gality o/ a
(articular act. Wh%r% th% -ort%+ o/ th% contro-%r$y r%/%r$ to th% l%gality or
-ali,ity o/ th% cont%$t%, act, th% !att%r i$ ,%/init%ly Lu$ticia"l% or non?(olitical.
In *ana,a -$. Cu%nco, )B7 Phil., (olitical Eu%$tion wa$ ,%/in%, a$
Eu%$tion$ to "% an$w%r%, "y th% (%o(l% in th%ir $o-%r%ign ca(acity or in r%gar,
28 28
to which /ull ,i$cr%tionary authority i$ -%$t%, to th% %+%cuti-% or l%gi$lati-%
"ranch o/ th% go-%rn!%nt.
Or in Gon0al%$ -$. CO=ELEC, 2) #CRA ::D , wh%n th% cru+ o/ th%
(ro"l%! ,%al$ with th% wi$,o! o/ an act, it i$ (olitical).
.3. What is the etent of the fiscal autonomy /ranted to the 2udiciary
under the 1,-. %onstitution?
A$ (ro-i,%, un,%r #%ction 7, At. VIII, th% Lu,iciary $hall %nLoy /i$cal
autono!y an, a$ $uch a((ro(riation$ /or th% Lu,iciary !ay not "%
r%,uc%, "y th% l%gi$latur% "%low th% a!ount a((ro(riat%, /or th%
(r%-iou$ y%ar an,, a/t%r a((ro-al, $hall "% auto!atically an, r%gularly
.4. What are the cases to be decided by the 8upreme %ourt en banc?
All ca$%$ in-ol-ing th% con$titutionality o/ a tr%aty, int%rnational or
%+%cuti-% agr%%!%nt, or law, which $hall "% h%ar, "y th% #u(r%!% Court
%n "anc, inclu,ing tho$% in-ol-ing th% con$titutionality, a((lication, or
o(%ration o/ (r%$i,%ntial ,%cr%%$, (rocla!ation$, or,%r$, in$truction$,
or,inanc%$, an, oth%r r%gulation$, $hall "% ,%ci,%, with th% concurr%nc%
o/ a !aLority o/ th% !%!"%r$ who actually too5 (art in th% ,%li"%ration$
on th% i$$u%$ in th% ca$% an, -ot%, th%r%on. Al$o, no ,octrin% or (rinci(l%
o/ law lai, ,own "y th% court %n "anc or in ,i-i$ion !ay "% !o,i/i%, or
r%-%r$%, %+c%(t "y th% court $itting %n "anc.
Al$o i/ two (2) ,i-i$ion$ o/ th% #u(r%!% Court ha-% con/licting
,%ci$ion$, th% $a!% $hall "% r%$ol-%, "y th% #u(r%!% Court %n "anc.
Ca$%$ r%/%rr%, to "y th% ,i-i$ion to th% "anc in-ol-ing no-%l Eu%$tion$ o/
law , th% $a!% $hall "% ,%ci,%, "y th% %n "anc acc%(t%, "y th% latt%r.
Finally, ,i$!i$$al o/ Lu,g%$ an, ,i$"ar!%nt o/ lawy%r$ ar% al$o ,%ci,%,
"y th% #u(r%!% Court %n "anc.
:;. What ar% th% (ow%r$ o/ th% #u(r%!% CourtK
A$ %nu!%rat%, in Art. VIII, #%ction ;, t h% #u(r%!% Court $hall ha-% th%
/ollowing (ow%r$F
(<) ED#$0is# o$i6in2+ I$is3i0tion o"#$ 02s#s 2!!#0tin6
2%72ss23o$s' ot*#$ 17+i0 %inist#$s 2n3 0ons+s' 2n3 o"#$
1#titions !o$ 0#$tio$2$i' 1$o*i7ition' %2n32%s' 4o
52$$2nto' 2n3 *27#2s 0o$1s&
(;) R#"i#5' $#"is#' $#"#$s#' %o3i!8' o$ 2!!i$% on 211#2+ o$
0#$tio$2$i 2s t*# +25 o$ t*# R+#s o! Co$t %28 1$o"i3#'
!in2+ I36%#nts 2n3 o$3#$s o! +o5#$ 0o$ts inJ
(2) A++ 02s#s in 5*i0* t*# 0onstittion2+it8 o$
"2+i3it8 o! 2n8 t$#2t8' int#$n2tion2+ o$
#D#0ti"# 26$##%#nt' +25' 1$#si3#nti2+ 3#0$##'
1$o0+2%2tion' o$3#$' inst$0tion' o$3in2n0#' o$
$#6+2tion is in 4#stionN
29 29
(7) A++ 02s#s in"o+"in6 t*# +#62+it8 o! 2n8 t2D'
i%1ost' 2ss#ss%#nt' o$ to++' o$ 2n8 1#n2+t8
i%1os#3 in $#+2tion t*#$#toN
(0) A++ 02s#s in 5*i0* t*# I$is3i0tion o! 2n8 +o5#$
0o$t is in iss#N
(3) A++ 0$i%in2+ 02s#s in 5*i0* t*# 1#n2+t8
i%1os#3 is $#0+sion 1#$1#t2 o$ *i6*#$N
(#) A++ 02s#s in 5*i0* on+8 2n #$$o$ o$ 4#stion o!
+25 is in"o+"#3&
()) Assi6n t#%1o$2$i+8 I36#s o! +o5#$ 0o$ts to ot*#$ st2tions
2s 17+i0 int#$#st %28 $#4i$#& S0* t#%1o$2$8 2ssi6n%#nt
s*2++ not #D0##3 . %ont*s 5it*ot t*# 0ons#nt o! t*# I36#
(() O$3#$ 2 0*2n6# o! "#n# o$ 1+20# o! t$i2+ to 2"oi3 2
%is02$$i26# o! Isti0#&
(/) P$o%+62t# $+#s 0on0#$nin6 t*# 1$ot#0tion 2n3
#n!o$0#%#nt o! 0onstittion2+ $i6*ts' 1+#23in6 ' 1$20ti0# '
2n3 1$o0#3$# in 2++ 0o$ts' t*# 23%ission to t*# 1$20ti0# o!
+25' t*# Int#6$2t#3 B2$' 2n3 +#62+ 2ssist2n0# to t*#
n3#$1$i"i+#6#3& S0* $+#s s*2++ 1$o"i3# 2 si%1+i!i#3 2n3
in#D1#nsi"# 1$o0#3$# !o$ t*# s1##38 3is1osition o! 02s#s'
s*2++ 7# ni!o$% !o$ 2++ 0o$ts o! t*# s2%# 6$23#' 2n3 s*2++
not 3i%inis*' in0$#2s# o$ %o3i!8 s7st2nti"# $i6*ts& R+#s
o! 1$o0#3$# o! s1#0i2+ 0o$ts 2n3 42si-I3i0i2+ 7o3i#s
s*2++ $#%2in #!!#0ti"# n+#ss 3is211$o"#3 78 t*# S1$#%#
(.) A11oint 2++ o!!i0i2+s 2n3 #%1+o8##s o! t*# I3i0i2$8 in
200o$32n0# 5it* t*# 0i"i+ s#$"i0# +25&
.6. What is the !writ of amparo$?
It i$ a writ i$$u%, "y th% court$ /or th% 1$ot#0tion 2n3
#n!o$0#%#nt o! t*# 0onstittion2+ $i6*ts o! 2 1#$son n3#$ 3#t#ntion&
(S#0tion / (/)' A$t& VIII)
... What are the 3(fold Aunctions of Iudicial 7e#iew?
*h%$% ar% th%F
)) l%giti!i0ing /unction
2) ch%c5ing /unction
7) $y!"olic or %,ucational /unction
.-. )ay inferior courts also eercise the power of 2udicial re#iew
3declarin/ a law= treaty= etc. unconstitutional5 in the li/ht of the requirements
of 8ection 4325 of *rticle +''' that not e#en any of the 8upreme %ourt"s three
335 di#isions= sittin/ separately could not declare a law= treaty= etc.=
G%$ "%cau$% th% (ow%r o/ Lu,icial r%-i%w i$ Lu$t a (art o/ Lu,icial (ow%r
which i$ a-aila"l% to all court$ (#%ction ), Art. VIII). Li5%wi$%, a$ $hown "y
#%ction ; H2I (a), th% ,%ci$ion o/ low%r court$ ,%claring a law uncon$titutional
i$ $u"L%ct to r%-i%w "y th% #u(r%!% Court. (YNOT VS& IAC' M2$0* ;=' <F,-)
30 30
.,. What is the !operati#e fact doctrine$?
It $i!(ly !%an$ that th% ,%claration o/ uncon$titutionality o/ a law,
tr%aty, %tc., i$ (ro$(%cti-%. A$ $uch, all act$ ,on% in conn%ction with th% $ai,
law "%/or% it$ ,%claration o/ uncon$titutionality $hall "% con$i,%r%, l%gal, -ali,
an, "in,ing. It i$ only th% ,%claration o/ uncon$titutionality which i$ th%
4o(%rati-% /act8 which woul, $to( th% (%o(l% /ro! co!(lying with it$
(ro-i$ion$. (,1 %.@%Y%+* )&. 4+@, 8J &C!% 7#<3
->. What are the qualities of one aspirin/ to become a member of the
2udiciary aside from the citiEenship and a/e qualifications?
A %#%7#$ o! t*# I3i0i2$8 %st 7# 2 1#$son o! 1$o"#n
0o%1#t#n0#' int#6$it8' 1$o7it8 2n3 in3#1#n3#n0#&
-1. 1nder the 1,-. %onstitution= may the salaries of the members of
the 2udiciary be taed without #iolatin/ 8ection 1>= *rticle +''' which would
ha#e the effect of decreasin/ the sameA
>o. *hi$ wa$ th% ruling in +*T%9%+ )&. C22*&&*+1!, '># &C!%
#J7 which abandoned the contrarC rulings in the cases of 41!91CT )&.
211!, J> 4hil. >># and 1+,1+C*% )&. ,%)*,, <8 4hil. ;<;
-2. 1p to when are members of the 2udiciary entitled to hold on to
their positions?
#%ction )), Art. VIII (ro-i,%$ that th% =%!"%r$ o/ th% #u(r%!% Court
an, Lu,g%$ o/ th% low%r court $hall hol, o//ic% ,uring goo, "%ha-ior until th%y
r%ach th% ag% o/ :B y%ar$ or "%co!% inca(acitat%, to ,i$charg% th% ,uti%$ o/
th%ir o//ic%. *h% #u(r%!% Court %n "anc $hall ha-% th% (ow%r to ,i$ci(lin%
Lu,g%$ o/ low%r court$, or or,%r th%ir ,i$!i$$al "y a -ot% o/ !aLority o/ th%
!%!"%r$ who actually too5 (art in th% ,%li"%ration$ on th% i$$u%$ in th% ca$%
an, -ot%, th%r%on&
M7. =ay an R*C Au,g% "% a((oint%, a$ a !%!"%r o/ th% Pro-incial
P%ac% an, Or,%r Council o/ th% (lac% wh%r% h% hol,$ o//ic%K
>o. T*# %#%7#$s o! t*# S1$#%# Co$t 2n3 ot*#$ 0o$ts
#st27+is*#3 78 +25 s*2++ not 7# 3#si6n2t#3 to 2n8 26#n08 1#$!o$%in6 42si-
I3i0i2+ o$ 23%inist$2ti"# !n0tions& (*+ !1= K6,.1 !,09
2%+/%+, ctober >, '<JJ3
MD. Ar% th% ,i//%r%nt a,!ini$trati-% an, Eua$i?Lu,icial "o,i%$
(CO=ELEC, >LRC, >APOLCO=, =ILI*ARG CO==I##IO>#) "oun, "y
th% r%Euir%!%nt o/ S#0tion <(' A$t& VIII t*2t 9No 3#0ision s*2++ 7# $#n3#$#3
78 2n8 0o$t 5it*ot #D1$#ssin6 t*#$#in 0+#2$+8 2n3 3istin0t+8 t*# !20ts 2n3
t*# +25 on 5*i0* it is 72s#3:A
No& It 211+i#s on+8 to t*# 0o$ts 2s 3#!in#3 o$ in0+3#3 78 S#0tion <'
A$t& VIII& (%*! 9!%+C1 )&. C%!!%&C&, 'J &C!% '>>' ),% ,1
1&4*!*T6 )&. C9*, 7? &C!% 8>7' @6&C%Y+ )&. 1+!*01, ':# &C!% ?'
2%+.C% )&. C2101C, ''# &C!% #?8' )%00%,0*, )&. *+C*+., '#'
31 31
&C!% #:>' +%40C2 )&. 0,, '#? &C!% ?>, +6+%0 )&. C%, ';<
&C!% 8>; 2n3 2angelen vs. C%, #'> &C!% #8:3
-&. What are the periods /i#en to the different courts to decide cases
before them?
Un,%r #%ction );, Art. VIII, all ca$%$ or !att%r$ /il%, a/t%r th%
%//%cti-ity o/ thi$ Con$titution !u$t "% ,%ci,%, or r%$ol-%, within 2D !onth$
/ro! ,at% o/ $u"!i$$ion /or th% #u(r%!% Court, an, unl%$$ r%,uc%, "y th%
#u(r%!% Court, )2 !onth$ /or all low%r coll%giat% court$, an, 7 !onth$ /or all
oth%r low%r court$. A ca$% $hall "% ,%%!%, $u"!itt%, /or ,%ci$ion or r%$olution
u(on th% /iling o/ th% la$t (l%a,ing, "ri%/ or !%!oran,u! r%Euir%, "y th% Rul%$
o/ Court or "y th% court it$%l/.
-6. 's the requirement under 8ection 1&= *rt. +''' mandatory or
merely directory?
#%ction );, Art. VIII i$ !an,atory in all court$ %+c%(t th% #u(r%!% Court
wh%r% $ai, (ro-i$ion i$ con$i,%r%, !%r%ly ,ir%ctory. *hi$ i$ $o "%cau$% it i$
4i!(o$$i"l%8 /or th% #u(r%!% Court to co!(ly with $uch (ro-i$ion con$i,%ring
th% -olu!% o/ ca$%$ /il%, "%/or% it. (C!46& )&. C% <J &C!% 7#7'
2%0%C!% )&. C%, ''? &C!% 78>' 2%!C10*+ )&. C!6/, '#' &C!% >'
2n3 ,1 !2% )&. C%, '># &C!% #:>3
,-. What are co#ered by the powers of the %i#il 8er#ice %ommissionA
Un,%r #%ction 2, Articl% I3?B o/ th% Con$titution, th% ci-il $%r-ic%
%!"rac%$ all "ranch%$, $u",i-i$ion$, in$tru!%ntaliti%$, an, ag%nci%$ o/ th%
go-%rn!%nt, inclu,ing go-%rn!%nt own%, an, controll%, cor(oration$ WI*C
--. What are the requirements before one may be appointed in the ci#il
ser#ice? ;ceptions?
A((oint!%nt$ in th% C# $hall "% !a,% only accor,ing to !%rit an,
/itn%$$ to "% ,%t%r!in%, a$ /ar a$ (ractica"l%, an, #D0#1t 2s to 1ositions 5*i0*
2$# 1o+i08 3#t#$%inin6' 1$i%2$i+8 0on!i3#nti2+ o$ *i6*+8 t#0*ni02+, "y
co!(%titi-% %+a!ination.
M@. '%/in% th% thr%% (7) %+c%(tion$ to th% rul% that th% a((oint%% !u$t "%
cho$%n "a$%, on !%rit an, /itn%$$ to "% ,%t%r!in%, "y co!(%titi-%
Po+i08 3#t#$%inin6 i$ on% charg%, with laying ,own o/ (rinci(al or
/un,a!%ntal gui,%lin%$ or rul%$, $uch a$ that h%a, o/ a ,%(art!%nt.
P$i%2$i+8 0on!i3#nti2+ 1osition i$ on% ,%noting not only con/i,%nc% in
th% a(titu,% o/ th% a((oint%% /or th% ,uti%$ o/ th% o//ic% "ut (ri!arily
clo$% inti!acy which %n$ur%$ /r%%,o! o/ int%rcour$% without
%!"arra$$!%nt or /r%%,o! /ro! !i$gi-ing$ or "%trayal$ o/ th% (%r$onal
tru$t on con/i,%ntial !att%r$ o/ th% $tat% (E+a!(l%F Chi%/ L%gal Coun$%l
o/ th% P>B, B%$a -$. P>B, 77 #CRA 77B)
32 32
Hi6*+8 t#0*ni02+ 1osition r%Euir%$ th% a((oint%% th%r%to to (o$$%$$
t%chnical $5ill or training in th% $u(r%!% or $u(%rior ,%gr%%.
@B. 's the position of %ity ;n/ineer of 0a/uio %ity a !hi/hly
technical$ positionK
>o. *h% (o$ition o/ City Engin%%r o/ Baguio City i$ t%chnical 4"ut not
highly $o.8 (,1 0& &%+T& )&. 2%00%!1, J? 4hil. #J<3
,1. 's there such a thin/ as !net(in(ranB$ or seniority rule in fillin/
up #acancies in the classified ci#il ser#ice?
+o. %s held in 2edenilla vs. C&C, 9ebruarC '<, '<<', there is no need
“to wait for the deadwoods to retire” before one maC be promoted to fillIup a
vacancC as a result of the presence of other emploCees with longer Cears of
service or “neEtIinIranB”. Hhat is important is that the appointee meets all the
Nualifications for the said position.
,2. What is the etent of the powers of the %8% in appointment cases?
*t has onlC the power to approve the appointment if the appointee meets
all the Nualifications and the power to denC the appointment if the appointee
does not meet the Nualifications. *T ,1& +T G%)1 TG1 4H1! T
&6@&T*T6T1 TG1 %44*+T11 CG&1+ @Y TG1 %44*+T*+.
%6TG!*TY H*TG %+TG1! HG*CG *T @10*1)1& T @1 2!1
,3. 's the position of %ity or Pro#incial Le/al :fficer a primarily
confidential position?
Yes, as held in C%,*1+T1 )&. &%+T&, '7# &C!% ;,=' t*# P$o"in0i2+
L#62+ O!!i0#$ is 2 1$i%2$i+8 0on!i3#nti2+ o!!i0#' 7t not *is 2ssist2nt& T*#
s2%# 52s $#it#$2t#3 in &%2&+ )&. C%, '7> &C!% 5*#$# it 52s *#+3 t*2t
T*# Cit8 L#62+ o!!i0#$ is 2 1$i%2$i+8 0on!i3#nti2+ o!!i0#$&
,4. )ay /o#Mt. employees form unions for purposes of collecti#e
bar/ainin/ and to striBe a/ainst the /o#ernment?
A$ h%l, in %00*%+C1 9 .)T. H!O1!& )&. 201, '#7 &C!%
and 1Eecutive rder +o. 'J: , Kune ', '<J?, government emploCees maC form
unions but not authoriDed to striBe or demand for collective bargaining
agreement with the government. authoriDing govt. emploCees to form
,&. )ay /o#ernment employees be remo#ed without cause as a result
of a /o#ernment reor/aniEation?
>o. *hi$ i$ cl%ar /ro! RA 99;9, Aun% )B, )@MM , which i$ 4An act to
(rot%ct th% $%curity o/ t%nur% o/ ci-il $%r-ic% o//ic%r$ an, %!(loy%%$ in th%
i!(l%!%ntation o/ go-%rn!%nt r%organi0ation.8 *h%r% !u$t "% /ull co!(lianc%
o/ th% ,u% (roc%$$ r%Euir%!%nt. It !u$t "% "a$%, on Lu$t cau$% an, with ,u%
(roc%$$.( ,%!* )&. 2*&+, %ugust J, '<J<, 90!1/% )&. +.4*+,
9ebruarC #;, '<<:, 21+,/% )&. P6*&62@*+., Kune 7, '<<:, ,TC vs.
33 33
C&C, ctober 8, '<<', !omualdeD vs. C&C, %ugust '#, '<<8 an, Torio vs.
C&C, #:< &C!% ;??3
,6. )ay a person be appointed in a temporary capacity as a
%ommissioner of the %ommission on ;lections?
>o, #%ction ), Art. I3?C (ro-i,%$ that 4In no 02s# s*2++ 2n8 %#%7#$ 7#
211oint#3 o$ 3#si6n2t#3 in 2 t#%1o$2$8 o$ 20tin6 02120it8& 4)@rillantes vs.
Yorac, ,ec. 'J, '<<'3
,.. What are the more important powers of the %:);L;%K
Un,%r S#0tion ;' A$t& IX-C' its 1o5#$s 2$# to %n/orc% an, a,!ini$t%r
all law$ r%lati-% to th% con,uct o/ %l%ction, (l%"i$cit%, initiati-%, r%/%r%n,u! an,
r%callO.original Luri$,iction o-%r all cont%$t$ r%lating to th% %l%ction$, r%turn$,
an, Euali/ication$ o/ all %l%cti-% r%gional, (ro-incial an, city o//icial$ an,
a((%llat% Luri$,iction o-%r all cont%$t$ in-ol-ing %l%cti-% !unici(al o//icial$
,%ci,%, "y court$ o/ g%n%ral Luri$,iction an, %l%cti-% "arangay o//icial$
,%ci,%, "y trial court$ o/ li!it%, Luri$,iction. Al$o, it ha$ th% (ow%r toF
2& D#1tiK# +25 #n!o$0#%#nt 26#n0i#s' in0+3in6 t*# AFP&&
7& R#6ist#$ 1o+iti02+ 12$ti#s' #D0#1t $#+i6ios 6$o1s
0& Fi+# 0o%1+2ints !o$ "io+2tion o! #+#0tion +25s
3& R#6+2t# t*# #nIo8%#nt o$ ti+iK2tion o! 2++ !$2n0*is#s !o$ t*#
o1#$2tion o! t$2ns1o$t2tion 2n3 ot*#$ 17+i0 ti+iti#s' %#3i2 o!
,-. Which court has 2urisdiction o#er election cases in#ol#in/
municipal and baran/ay officialsK
El%ction ca$%$ in-ol-ing !unici(al o//icial $hall "% /il%, "%/or% th% R*C
who$% ,%ci$ion !ay "% a((%al%, to th% CO=ELEC. *ho$% in-ol-ing "arangay
o//icial$ $hall "% /il%, with th% =*C who$% ,%ci$ion i$ li5%wi$% $u"L%ct to
a((%al to th% CO=ELEC who$% ,%ci$ion in "oth in$tanc%$ i$ /inal an, not
,,. Where must election cases in#ol#in/ city and pro#incial officials be
It !u$t "% /il%, with th% CO=ELEC, not with th% court$.
1>>. Does the President ha#e discretion on the release of the 'nternal
7e#enue *llotment 3'7*5 for the Local Co#ernment 8er#ice ;qualiEation
Aund 3LC8;A5 and may she #alidly impose conditions for the release
>o, local go-%rn!%nt$ ha-% /i$cal autono!y un,%r Art. 3 o/ th% )@M:
Con$titution. A$ h%l, "y th% #u(r%!% Court in th% ca$% o/ PROVI>CE OF
BA*A>GA# V#. CO>. ALBER*O RO=ULO, E* AL., =ay 2:, 2BBD,
auto!atic r%l%a$% o/ /un,$ o/ Local Go-%rn!%nt Unit$, (articularly th% IRA, i$
!an,at%, with no con,ition$ i!(o$%, /or it$ r%l%a$%. *o allow th% Pr%$i,%nt to
i!(o$% con,ition$ /or th% r%l%a$% o/ th% IRA a!ount$ to control to local
go-%rn!%nt unit$ wh%n th% Pr%$i,%nt<$ (ow%r o-%r local go-%rn!%nt unit$ i$
34 34
con/in%, to g%n%ral $u(%r-i$ion, not (ow%r o/ control a$ %nunciat%, in D$i+on
"s& Li%' ;)/ SCRA <)/&
1>1. What are the requirements for a #alid chan/e of residence for
purposes of the requirement on !residence$ under the Local Co#ernment
In th% ca$% o/ 'U=PI*?=ICCELE>A V#. CO=ELEC, it wa$ h%l, that
to -ali,ly %//%ct a chang% o/ r%$i,%nc%, th%r% !u$t "% animus manendi coupled
with animus non re#ertendi. *h% int%nt to r%!ain in th% n%w ,o!icil% o/
choic% !u$t "% /or an in,%/init% (%rio, o/ ti!%, !u$t "% -oluntary an, th%
r%$i,%nc% at th% n%w ,o!icil% !u$t "% actual.
)B2. I$ th% 7?t%r! li!it o/ %l%ct%, local o//icial$ a((lica"l% to a t%r!
acEuir%, through $ucc%$$ionK
No' t*# )-t#$% +i%it 211+i#s on+8 i! t*# o!!i0i2+ 52s DULY ELECTED
to t*# s2i3 1osition !o$ t*$## ()) 0ons#0ti"# t#$%s' not 78 s00#ssion&
(BE>AA=I> BORAA V#. CO=ELEC, an, AO#E *. CAPCO, AR., G.R. >o.
)77D@;, #%(t%!"%r 7, )@@M)
1>3. 'n the creation of a new pro#ince= city= municipality or baran/ay
or when it will be di#ided= mer/ed or abolished= or its boundary substantially
altered= who shall #ote in the plebiscite to be conductedK
All th% r%$i,%nt$ o/ th% (olitical unit$ a//%ct%,, i.%., /or!%r an, n%w local
go-%rn!%nt unit to "% /or!%,, !u$t (artici(at% in th% (l%"i$cit%. (T%+ )&.
C2101C, '7# &C!% ?#? and 4adilla vs. C2101C, #'7 &C!% ?8>
abandoning the doctrines in 4%!1,1& )&. 1(1C6T*)1 &1C!1T%!Y, '#J
&C!% ; and 041/ )&. 21T! 2%+*0% C22*&&*+, '8; &C!% ;883
':7. Hhat are the grounds for impeachmentF
Only /or 4Cul(a"l% -iolation o/ th% con$titution, tr%a$on, "ri"%ry, gra/t
an, corru(tion, oth%r high cri!%$, or "%trayal o/ (u"lic tru$t8.
)B;. What i$ th% %+t%nt o/ a Lu,g!%nt in i!(%ach!%nt ca$%$K
Au,g!%nt in ca$%$ o/ i!(%ach!%nt $hall not %+t%n, /urth%r than r%!o-al
/ro! o//ic% an, ,i$Euali/ication to hol, any oth%r o//ic% un,%r th% R%(u"lic o/
th% Phili((in%$ "ut $hall n%-%rth%l%$$ "% lia"l% to (ro$%cution, trial an,
(uni$h!%nt accor,ing to law.
)B9. Wh%n i$ an i!(%ach!%nt co!(laint ,%%!%, 4initiat%,8 to "ar
anoth%r co!(laint within a (%rio, o/ on% y%arK
AL' (</ SCRA ((' No"#%7#$ <=' ;==)' an i!(%ach!%nt co!(laint ,%%!%,
4initiat%,8 to "% a "ar to th% /iling o/ anoth%r co!(laint within a )?y%ar (%rio,
u(on it$ HaI /iling1 an, H"I COUPLE' WI*C CO>GRE## *API>G I>I*IAL
35 35
)B:. Who in-%$tigat%$ an, (ro$%cut%$ (u"lic o//icial$ /or cri!%$
co!!itt%, in th% (%r/or!anc% o/ th%ir o//icial ,uti%$K E+c%(tion
It i$ th% O//ic% o/ th% O!"u,$!an an, th% O//ic% o/ th% #(%cial
Pro$%cutor %+c%(t i/ th% o//%n$% i$ in -iolation o/ %l%ction law$, rul%$ an,
r%gulation$ wh%r%in only th% CO=ELEC ha$ th% (ow%r to in-%$tigat% an, to
/il% th% a((ro(riat% in/or!ation in court. -CorpuD vs. TanodbaCan, '7< &C!%
1>-. What is co#ered by the !academic freedom$ pro#ision of the 1,-.
It co-%r$ not only aca,%!ic /r%%,o! on th% (art o/ th% $chool "ut al$o
tho$% o/ th% t%ach%r$, (ro/%$$or$ an, th% $tu,%nt$ "%cau$% th% (ro-i$ion $tat%$
that 4Aca,%!ic /r%%,o! $hall "% %nLoy%, in all in$titution$ o/ high%r l%arning8
whil% un,%r th% )@:7 Con$titution, only in$titution$ o/ high%r l%arning %nLoy
aca,%!ic /r%%,o! "%cau$% th% (ro-i$ion th%n $tat%$ that 92++ instittions o!
*i6*#$ +#2$nin6 s*2++ #nIo8 2023#%i0 !$##3o% (A$t& XV' S#0tion , G<H' <F-)
1>,. What is the etent of academic freedom on the part of schoolsK
It inclu,%$ th% (ow%r to ,%t%r!in%F
a. who !ay t%ach,
". what !ay "% taught,
c. how it $hall "% taught, an,
,. who !ay "% a,!itt%, to $tu,yNR (E!(ha$i$ $u((li%,1 citing #inco,
Phili((in% Political Law, D@), ()@92) an, th% concurring o(inion o/
Au$tic% Fran5/urt%r in #w%%0y -. >%w Ca!($hir% (7;D U# 27D
H)@;:I, GARCIA V#. FACUL*G A'=I##IO>, 9M #CRA 2::).

11>. Does academic freedom on the part of the school carries with it
the power to re#oBe a de/ree or honor it has bestowed to its students?
G%$. A$ h%l, in UP BOAR' OF REGE>*# V#. CA, Augu$t 7), )@@@,
4aca,%!ic Fr%%,o! inclu,%$ th% (ow%r o/ a Uni-%r$ity to REVOPE a
,%gr%% or honor it ha$ con/%rr%, to a $tu,%nt a/t%r it wa$ /oun, out that
th% $tu,%nt<$ gra,uation wa$ o"tain%, through /rau,. Aca,%!ic /r%%,o!
i$ gi-%n a wi,% $(h%r% o/ authority. I/ an in$titution o/ high%r l%arning
can ,%ci,% on who can an, cannot $tu,y in it, it c%rtainly can al$o
,%t%r!in% on who! it can con/%r th% honor an, ,i$tinction o/ "%ing it$
111. )ay a school punish its students for ille/al acts committed outside
the school premises and beyond school hours but within the semester where
they are enrolled?
Yes because theC still carrC the name of the school and their actuations
affect the reputation of the school. - %+.101& )&. &*&+, ''# &C!% #;3 This
rule was reiterated in the cased of ,1 0% &%001 6+*)1!&*TY )&. C% -#::J3
where a rumble between two fraternities tooB place outside the school campus
but the students involved were 1(41001, bC the school. The &upreme Court,
36 36
however, while conceding the power of the school over its students held that the
penaltC of eEpulsion is too harsh a penaltC. *t should be 1(C06&*+,
meaning, theC are not allowed to enroll at the ,e 0a sale but theC should be
given transfer credentials so that theC maC enroll in another school.
112. What are the underlyin/ principles behind the constitutional
proscription that the 8tate cannot be sued without its consent?
@C reason of public policC -if everC citiDen is allowed to sue the
government, it will be distracted from performing its functions to serve the
people and it will be left 5ust answering cases in court3, bC reason of
sovereigntC -the people shall not be allowed to sue the verC entitC that gives it
said right;3 and bC reason of consent -when the people ratified the Constitution
which includes the provision that the &tate cannot be sued without its consent,
it has consented or waived said right to sue3.
113. Dow may the 8tate /i#es its consent to be sued?
E+(r%$$ly wh%n th%r% i$ a law allowing it an, i!(li%,ly wh%n it %nt%r$
into a contract with an in,i-i,ual "%cau$% in th% latt%r, it ,%$c%n,%, to th% l%-%l
o/ an in,i-i,ual !a5ing it $u$c%(ti"l% to count%rclai!$ or $uit$.
114. )ay the /o#ernment be sued in the eercise of its /o#ernmental
G%$ i/ th% go-%rn!%nt ag%ncy ha$ a chart%r which allow$ it to "% $u%,.
(!%Y )&. C9* 9 @60%C%+, '': &C!% 7>;3. %lso, the government is not
allowed to invoBe its immunitC from suit if bC doing so, it will be causing an
in5ustice to its citiDens. -2*+*&T1!* )&. C9* of Cebu, 7: &C!% and
&%+T*%. )&. !146@0*C, J? &C!% #<73
11&. 's the 18 Co#ernment also immune from suit in the Philippines
in connection with the eercise of its /o#ernmental functions?
G%$. *hi$ wa$ th% ruling in 6.&. )&. !6*/, '8; &C!% where it was held
that even if there is a contract entered into bC the 6& .overnment but the same
involves its “5usre imperii” functions -governmental functions”, it cannot be
sued. *t is onlC when the contract involves its “5us gestiones” or business or
proprietarC functions that it maC be sued.
'';& A$# +o02+ 6o"#$n%#nts 2+so #ntit+#3 to in"o?# i%%nit8 !$o%
11.. )ay a municipality be held liable for dama/es as a result of the
death of a person arisin/ from the collapse of a sta/e constructed by the local
/o#ernment in connection with its town fiesta?
Yes, a town fiesta is a business or proprietarC function, not governmental,
since no law reNuires anC town, citC, province or barangaC to hold an annual
fiesta. -T!* )&. 9+T%+*00%, J> &C!% ><<3
37 37
11.. )ay the /o#ernment still be held liable to a pri#ate indi#idual if
the contract it entered into is #oid but the other party had already complied
with his obli/ations under said a/reement?
Yes, because the government shall not enrich itself at the eEpense of its
citiDens. ('EPAR*=E>* OF CEAL*C V#. C.V. CA>CCELA, %t al., D:;
#CRA 2)M)
Pre-Bar Quizzer in Political Law
(Bill of Rights)
(Doctinal Rulings, Requisites and Definitions
43 43
June, 2009
1. Define police power.
It i$ th% (ow%r -%$t%, in th% l%gi$latur% "y th% Con$titution to !a5%,
or,ain, %$ta"li$h all !ann%r o/ whol%$o!% an, r%a$ona"l% law$ /or th% goo,
an, w%l/ar% o/ th% #tat% an, it$ (%o(l%. (ERMITA MALATE HOTEL VS&
CITY MAYOR' E+8 )<' <F.-)
2. What are the basic purposesFaspects of police powerN
a. to (ro!ot% th% g%n%ral w%l/ar%, co!/ort an, con-%ni%nc% o/ th%
(%o(l%1 (A##OCIA*IO> OF #=ALL LA>'OW>ER# V#.
#ECRE*ARG, ):; #CRA 7D71 U# V#. *ORIBIO, ); Phil. M;
". to (ro!ot% an, (r%$%r-% (u"lic h%alth1 (VILLA>UEVA V#.
CA#*A>E'A, #%(t%!"%r 2), )@M:1 'EC# V#. #A> 'IEGO, )MB
Phil. ;@;Ta((r%h%n, an, con/in% l%(%r$ in a l%(ro$ariu!)
c. to (ro!ot% an, (rot%ct (u"lic $a/%ty1 (AGU#*I> V#. E'U, MM
#CRA )@;1 *A3ICAB OPERA*OR# V#. AUI>IO, ))@ #CRA M@: )
,. to !aintain an, $a/%guar, (%ac% an, or,%r1 (GUAO> V#. 'E
%. to (rot%ct (u"lic !oral$1 ('E LA CRU V#. PARA#, )27 #CRA
;9@1 ER=I*A =ALA*E CO*EL V#. CI*G =AGOR, Auly 7), )@9:1
A== PRO=O*IO># V#. CA, 29B #CRA 7)@1 VELA#CO V#.
VILLEGA#, F%"ruary )7, )@M7)
/. to (ro!ot% th% %cono!ic $%curity o/ th% (%o(l%. (ICCO>G V#.
CER>A>'E, )B) Phil. )));;)
2(a. )ay an :rdinance of the %ity of )anila #alidly require peopleFcouples
checBin/ in the different motels in the city to ?1@ re/ister at the motel"s desB
facin/ a public streetO and ?2@ show their identification card= etc.K
A. G%$. It i$ a -ali, %+%rci$% o/ (olic% (ow%r to (ro!ot% (u"lic !oral$,
i.%., cur" (ro$titution or illicit r%lation$hi($. ERMITA MALATE HOTEL VS&
CITY MAYOR' E+8 )<' <F.-)
*h% %+a!in%% i$ (r%$u!%, to ha-% !a$t%r%, th% Con$titutional (ro-i$ion$.
38 38
2(b. )ay the %ity of )anila #alidly prohibit the operation of ni/ht clubs=
sauna parlors= massa/e parlors= BaraoBe bars= beerhouses= and similar
establishments in the ;rmita()alate *rea and /i#es the eistin/
establishments three 335 months to transfer to any place outside said area
under pain of imprisonment of up to 1 year and fine of P&=>>>.>> or chan/e
the nature of their business to /ift shops= restaurants= etc. ?
A. *h% Or,inanc% i$ uncon$titutional. It -iolat%$ th% ,u% (roc%$$ clau$%
"y ,%(ri-ing th% own%r$ o/ $ai, %$ta"li$h!%nt$ o/ th%ir l%giti!at% "u$in%$$%$. It
li5%wi$% -iolat%$ th% %Eual (rot%ction clau$%. *h%r% i$ no logic in allowing $ai,
%$ta"li$h!%nt$ in oth%r (art$ o/ th% City o/ =anila "ut not in th% Er!ita?=alat%
ar%a. Finally, %-%n a$$u!ing that th% $ai, Or,inanc% i$ int%n,%, to (ro!ot%
(u"lic !oral$, th% !%an$ %!(loy%, i$ con$titutionally in/ir! an, not a -ali,
%+%rci$% o/ (olic% (ow%r. (CITY OF MANILA' $#1$#s#nt#3 78 M28o$
2(c. )ay the %ity of )anila #alidly prohibit hotels and motels= etc.= at the
;rmita()alate area= to offer !short time$ admission therein?
A. *h% Or,inanc% i$ uncon$titutional an, i$ not a -ali, %+%rci$% o/ (olic%
(ow%r. *h%r% i$ nothing i!!oral in $taying in a !ot%l or hot%l /or a (%rio, o/
thr%% (7) hour$ only "%cau$% a (%r$on<$ $tay th%r%in coul, "% /or (ur(o$%$ oth%r
than ha-ing $%+ or u$ing ill%gal ,rug$. Furth%r, th%r% i$ nothing that woul,
(r%-%nt (%o(l% %ngag%, in illicit r%lation$hi($ to ch%c5 in in $ai, !ot%l$ "y
(aying )2 hour$ or !or% though th%y will Lu$t $tay th%r% /or 7 hour$. (WHITE
MAYOR ALFREDO LIM' G&R& No& <;;,(.' E2n2$8 ;=' ;==F&)
3. Distin/uish police power with power of eminent domain.
*h% ,i$tinction$ ar%F
). *h% (ow%r o/ %!in%nt ,o!ain i$ th% inh%r%nt right o/ th%
#tat% to con,%!n or to ta5% (ri-at% (ro(%rty /or (u"lic u$%
u(on (ay!%nt o/ Lu$t co!(%n$ation whil% (olic% (ow%r i$
th% (ow%r o/ th% $tat% to (ro!ot% (u"lic w%l/ar% "y
r%$training an, r%gulating th% u$% o/ li"%rty an, (ro(%rty
without co!(%n$ation1
2. In th% %+%rci$% o/ (olic% (ow%r, %nLoy!%nt o/ a (ro(%rty i$
r%$trict%, "%cau$% th% continu%, u$% th%r%o/ woul, "%
inLuriou$ to (u"lic w%l/ar%. In $uch ca$%, th%r% i$ no
co!(%n$a"l% ta5ing (ro-i,%, non% o/ th% (ro(%rty int%r%$t$
i$ a((ro(riat%, /or th% u$% or /or th% "%n%/it o/ th% (u"lic.
Oth%rwi$%, th%r% $houl, "% co!(%n$a"l% ta5ing i/ it woul,
r%$ult to (u"lic u$%.
7. Pro(%rti%$ con,%!n%, un,%r (olic% (ow%r ar% u$ually
no+iou$ or int%n,%, /or no+iou$ (ur(o$%1 h%nc% , no
co!(%n$ation $hall "% (ai,. Li5%wi$%, in th% %+%rci$% o/
(olic% (ow%r, (ro(%rty right$ o/ (ri-at% in,i-i,ual$ ar%
$u"L%ct%, to r%$traint$ an, "ur,%n$ in or,%r to $%cur% th%
g%n%ral co!/ort, h%alth an, (ro$(%rity o/ th% $tat%.
39 39
AL., DM; #CRA ;M9)
D. What are the tests for a #alid eercise of police power
a. th% int%r%$t$ o/ th% (u"lic, not !%r% (articular cla$$, r%Euir% th%
%+%rci$% o/ (olic% (ow%r1 (LAWFUL SUBEECT)
". th% !%an$ %!(loy%, i$ r%a$ona"ly n%c%$$ary /or th%
acco!(li$h!%nt o/ th% (ur(o$% an, not un,uly o((r%$$i-% to
in,i-i,ual$. (LAWFUL MEANS). In $hort, th% %n, ,o%$ not
Lu$ti/y th% !%an$.
&. Define due process.
'u% (roc%$$ i$ a law which h%ar$ "%/or% it con,%!n$,
which (roc%%,$ u(on inEuiry an, r%n,%r$ Lu,g!%nt only a/t%r trial
(P%r 'ani%l W%"$t%r in th% DARTMOUTH COLLEGE CASE)
6. What are the Kinds of Due Process?
a. $u"$tanti-% ,u% (roc%$$???r%Euir%$ th% intrin$ic -ali,ity o/ th% law in
int%r/%ring with th% right$ o/ th% (%r$on to li/%, li"%rty or (ro(%rty. In
$hort, it i$ to ,%t%r!in% wh%th%r it ha$ a -ali, go-%rn!%ntal o"L%cti-%
li5% /or th% int%r%$t o/ th% (u"lic a$ again$t !%r% (articular cla$$.
". Proc%,ural ,u% (roc%$$???on% which h%ar$ "%/or% it con,%!n$, or th%
(roc%,ur% a$ (oint%, out "y 'ani%l W%"$t%r.
.. What are the requisites of !2udicial due process$?

A$ h%l, in BANCO ESPANOL VS& PALANCA' )- P*i+& F;<& *h%
r%Eui$it%$ ar%F
). *h%r% !u$t "% an i!(artial court or tri"unal cloth%, with Lu,icial
(ow%r to h%ar an, ,%ci,% th% !att%r "%/or% it1
2. Auri$,iction !u$t "% law/ully acEuir%, o-%r th% (%r$on o/ th%
,%/%n,ant or o-%r th% (ro(%rty $u"L%ct o/ th% (roc%%,ing$1
7. *h% ,%/%n,ant !u$t "% gi-%n th% o((ortunity to "% h%ar,1
D. Au,g!%nt !u$t "% r%n,%r%, only a/t%r law/ul h%aring.
-. What are the requisites of due process before administrati#e
A$ h%l, in 9'0*H +8. %'7= 6, Phil. 63&, th% r%Eui$it%$ ar%F
a. th% right to a h%aring which inclu,%$ th% right to (r%$%nt %-i,%nc%1
". th% tri"unal !u$t con$i,%r th% %-i,%nc% (r%$%nt%,1
c. th% ,%ci$ion !u$t ha-% $o!%thing to $u((ort it$%l/1
,. th% %-i,%nc% !u$t "% $u"$tantial1
%. th% ,%ci$ion !u$t "% "a$%, on th% %-i,%nc% (r%$%nt%, ,uring th%
/. th% tri"unal or "o,y !u$t act on it$ own in,%(%n,%nt
con$i,%ration o/ th% law or /act$1
40 40
g. th% "oar, or "o,y $hall in all contro-%r$ial Eu%$tion$, r%n,%r it$
,%ci$ion in $uch a !ann%r that th% (arti%$ to th% (roc%%,ing$ can
5now th% -ariou$ i$$u%$ in-ol-%,.
,. 'f an accused was represented by a non(lawyer durin/ the trial of
his criminal case= what ri/ht of the said accused was #iolated? 's he entitled
to a new trial?
I/ an accu$%, wa$ r%(r%$%nt%, "y a non?lawy%r ,uring th% %ntir% trial
(though $h% thought that h% wa$ a lawy%r), hi$ right to ,u% (roc%$$ wa$
-iolat%, an, th%r%/or%, h% %ntitl%, to a n%w trial. (DELGADO VS& CA'
No"#%7#$ <=' <F,.)& Cow%-%r, %-%n i/ h% wa$ not r%(r%$%nt%, "y a non?
lawy%r at th% $tart o/ th% cri!inal trial "ut wa$ r%(r%$%nt%, "y a lawy%r
wh%n h% (r%$%nt%, hi$ %-i,%nc%, th%r% i$ no -iolation o/ hi$ right to ,u%
(roc%$$ or right to coun$%l. (CONSULTA VS& PEOPLE' G&R& No&
<-F.(;' F#7$2$8 <;' ;==F)
1>. What are the requisites of procedural due process in disciplinary
actions a/ainst studentsK
A$ h%l, in GU@MAN VS& NU' <(; SCRA -=.' th% r%Eui$it%$ ar%F
). th% $tu,%nt$ !u$t "% in/or!%, in writing o/ th%
natur% an, cau$% o/ any accu$ation again$t th%!1
2. th%y $hall ha-% th% right to an$w%r th% charg%$
again$t th%!, with th% a$$i$tanc% o/ coun$%l1
7. th%y $hall "% in/or!%, o/ th% %-i,%nc% again$t th%!1
D. th%y $hall ha-% th% right to a,,uc% %-i,%nc% in th%ir
own "%hal/1
;. th% %-i,%nc% !u$t "% ,uly con$i,%r%, "y th%
in-%$tigating co!!itt%% or o//icial ,%$ignat%, "y th% $chool
authoriti%$ to h%ar an, ,%ci,% th% ca$%.
11. What are the requisites of due process before an employee may be
dismissed from his worB?
*h% r%Eui$it%$ o/ 'u% Proc%$$ "%/or% th% >LRC ar%F
). >otic%1 an,
2. C%aring
12. 's due process satisfied in administrati#e proceedin/s if the
respondent is not assisted by counsel?
*h%r% i$ no law, wh%th%r th% Ci-il #%r-ic% Act or th% A,!ini$trati-%
Co,% o/ )@M:, which (ro-i,%$ that a r%$(on,%nt in an a,!ini$trati-% ca$%
$houl, "% a$$i$t%, "y coun$%l in or,%r that th% (roc%%,ing$ th%r%in i$ con$i,%r%,
-ali,. >ot only, that, (%tition%r h%r%in wa$ gi-%n th% o((ortunity $%-%ral ti!%$
to %ngag% th% $%r-ic%$ o/ a lawy%r to a$$i$t hi! "ut h% con/i,%ntly in/or!%, th%
in-%$tigator$ that h% coul, (rot%ct hi!$%l/. (LUMIOUED VS& EXENEA' ;,;
SCRA <;/)
41 41
12(a. 's there a #iolation of a person"s ri/ht to due process before an
administrati#e body liBe the %i#il 8er#ice %ommission if a party was
not allowed to cross(eamine the witnesses a/ainst him despite his
>o. *h% right to ,u% (roc%$$ i$ not -iolat%, %-%n i/ a (arty to an
a,!ini$trati-% ca$% wa$ not allow%, to cro$$?%+a!in% th% oth%r (arty or
hi$ witn%$$%$. What h% i$ %ntitl%, to i$ th% right to "% h%ar,. (ATTY&
<..,=F' A1$i+ ;;' ;==,)
12(b. Dow about in in#esti/ations in#ol#in/ disciplinary actions
a/ainst students= are the latter entitled to cross(eamine the
complainant and his witnesses?
A. >o. *h% right to ,u% (roc%$$ on th% (art o/ a $tu,%nt i$ not -iolat%,
%-%n i/ h% wa$ not allow%, to cro$$?%+a!in% th% oth%r (arty or hi$
witn%$$%$. 'u% (roc%$$ i$ $%r-%, i/ wa$ gi-%n th% chanc% to (r%$%nt hi$
REYES' RTC ).' M2ni+2' G&R& No' <;-F,=' D#0#%7#$ <F' ;==-)
13. What are the requisites for a #alid classificationK

A$ h%l, in P%o(l% -$. Cayat, 9M Phil. )2, th% r%Eui$it%$ ar%F
a. *h%r% !u$t "% r%al an, $u"$tantial ,i$tinction$1
". It !u$t "% g%r!an% tot h% (ur(o$%$ o/ th% law1
c. It !u$t not "% li!it%, to %+i$ting con,ition$ only1 an,
,. It !u$t a((ly %Eually to all !%!"%r$ o/ th% $a!% cla$$.
14. 's there #iolation of the equal protection clause if policemen who
are char/ed of a criminal offense punishable for more than si 365 years will
remain suspended until after the his acquittal unliBe other public officers
whose maimum suspension e#en when facin/ /raft and corrupt char/es is
only three 335 months?
>o th%r% i$ o -iolation. In CI=AGA> V#. PEOPLE, th% #u(r%!% Court
h%l, that th% /act that (olic%!%n charg%, with a cri!inal o//%n$% (uni$ha"l%
"y !or% than 9 y%ar$ ar% to "% $u$(%n,%, ,uring th% %ntir% ,uration o/ th%
ca$% unli5% oth%r go-%rn!%nt %!(loy%%$ i$ -ali, $inc% it r%$t$ on -ali,
cla$$i/ication "%cau$% (olic%!%n carry w%a(on$ an, th% "a,g% o/ th% law
which can "% u$%, to hara$$ or inti!i,at% witn%$$%$ again$t th%!.
1&. What are the requisites of a #alid search warrant or warrant of
No s#2$0* 52$$2nt o$ 52$$2nt o! 2$$#st s*2++ iss# #D0#1t 1on
1$o727+# 02s# to 7# 3#t#$%in#3 1#$son2++8 78 t*# I36# 2!t#$ #D2%in2tion
n3#$ o2t* o$ 2!!i$%2tion o! t*# 0o%1+2in2nt 2n3 t*# 5itn#ss#s *# %28
1$o30#' 2n3 12$ti0+2$+8 3#s0$i7in6 t*# 1+20# to 7# s#2$0*#3 2n3 t*#
1#$sons o$ t*in6s to 7# s#iK#3& (S#0tion ;' A$t& III)
42 42
In 233ition' R+# <;. o! t*# R+#s on C$i%in2+ P$o0#3$# $#4i$#s
t*2t no 52$$2nt s*2++ 7# iss#3 !o$ %o$# t*2n on# (<) s1#0i!i0 o!!#ns# 2n3
t*2t in t*# i%1+#%#nt2tion o! 2 s#2$0* 52$$2nt 5*#n t*# $#s1on3#nt is not
1$#s#nt' 5itn#ss#s 2$# $#4i$#3& Fin2++8' 2 Ci$0+2$ iss#3 78 t*# S1$#%#
Co$t $#4i$#s t*2t no 52$$2nt o$ 52$$2nt o! 2$$#st s*2++ 7# i%1+#%#nt#3
3$in6 t*# ni6*t' 5##?-#n3s o$ *o+i328s' #D0#1t in #D0#1tion2+
>O*EF Un,%r th% Cu!an #%curity ActQAnti?
*%rrori$! Law, R%(u"lic Act >o. @7:2, A((ro-%, on
=arch 9, 2BB: an, %//%cti-% on Auly );, 2BB: (*hi$
Law $hall "% auto!atically $u$(%n,%, on% ()) !onth
"%/or% an, two (2) !onth$ a/t%r th% hol,ing o/ any
%l%ction) a (%r$on !ay "% ta5%n into cu$to,y "y th%
(olic% i/ th%r% i$ a writt%n authori0ation "y th% Anti?
*%rrori$! Council an, $uch ,%t%ntion !ay "%
%+t%n,%, u(on writt%n a((ro-al o/ th% Co!!i$$ion
o/ Cu!an Right$ in ca$% o/ actual or i!!in%nt
t%rrori$t attac5..
8ec. 1-. P%rio, o/ ,%t%ntion without Lu,icial warrant o/ arr%$t.?
*h% (ro-i$ion$ o/ Articl% )2; o/ th% R%-i$%, P%nal Co,%,
notwith$tan,ing, any (olic% or law %n/orc%!%nt (%r$onn%l, 5*o'
*2"in6 7##n 3+8 2t*o$iK#3 in 5$itin6 78 t*# Anti-T#$$o$is%
Con0i+ ha$ ta5%n cu$to,y o/ a (%r$on charg%, with or $u$(%ct%,
o/ th% cri!% o/ t%rrori$! or th% cri!% o/ con$(iracy to co!!it
t%rrori$! $hall, WI*COU* I>CURRI>G A>G CRI=I>AL
OF *CREE (7) 'AG# count%, /ro! th% !o!%nt $ai, charg%, or
$u$(%ct%, (%r$on ha$ "%%n a((r%h%n,%, or arr%$t%,, ,%tain%,, an,
ta5%n into cu$to,y "y th% $ai, (olic%, or law %n/orc%!%nt
(%r$onn%lF Pro-i,%,, *hat th% arr%$t o/ tho$% $u$(%ct%, o/ th%
cri!% o/ t%rrori$! or con$(iracy to co!!it t%rrori$! !u$t r%$ult
/ro! th% $ur-%illanc% un,%r #%ction : an, %+a!ination o/ "an5
,%(o$it$ un,%r #%ction 2: (/ thi$ Act.
*h% (olic% or law %n/orc%!%nt (%r$onn%l conc%rn%, $hall,
"%/or% ,%taining th% (%r$on $u$(%ct%, o/ th% cri!% o/ t%rrori$!,
(r%$%nt hi! or h%r "%/or% any Lu,g% at th% latt%r<$ r%$i,%nc% or
o//ic% n%ar%$t th% (lac% wh%r% th% arr%$t too5 (lac% at any ti!% o/
th% ,ay or night. It $hall "% th% ,uty o/ th% Lu,g%, a!ong oth%r
thing$, to a$c%rtain th% i,%ntity o/ th% (olic% or law %n/orc%!%nt
(%r$onn%l an, th% (%r$on or (%r$on$ th%y ha-% arr%$t%, an,
(r%$%nt%, "%/or% hi! or h%r, to inEuir% o/ th%! th% r%a$on$ why
th%y ha-% arr%$t%, th% (%r$on an, ,%t%r!in% "y Eu%$tioning an,
(%r$onal o"$%r-ation wh%th%r or not th% $u"L%ct ha$ "%%n
$u"L%ct%, to any (hy$ical, !oral or ($ychological tortur% "y
who! an, why. *h% Lu,g% $hall th%n $u"!it a writt%n r%(ort o/
what h%Q$h% ha, o"$%r-%, wh%n th% $u"L%ct wa$ "rought "%/or%
43 43
hi! to th% (ro(%r court that ha$ Luri$,iction o-%r th% ca$% o/ th%
(%r$on thu$ arr%$t%,.
*h% Lu,g% $hall /orthwith $u"!it hi$ r%(ort within 7
cal%n,ar ,ay$ /ro! th% ti!% th% $u$(%ct wa$ "rought to hi$Qh%r
r%$i,%nc% or o//ic%.
I!!%,iat%ly a/t%r ta5ing cu$to,y o/ a (%r$on charg%, with
or $u$(%ct%, o/ th% cri!% o/ t%rrori$! or con$(iracy to co!!it
t%rrori$!, th% (olic% or law %n/orc%!%nt (%r$onn%l $hall noti/y in
writing th% Lu,g% o/ th% court n%ar%$t th% (lac% o/ a((r%h%n$ion or
arr%$t1 (ro-i,%,, *hat wh%r% th% arr%$t i$ !a,% ,uring #atur,ay$,
#un,ay$, holi,ay$ or a/t%r o//ic% hour$, th% writt%n notic% $hall "%
$%r-%, at th% r%$i,%nc% o/ th% Lu,g% n%ar%$t th% (lac% wh%r% th%
accu$%, wa$ arr%$t%,. *h% (%nalty o/ )B y%ar$ an, ) ,ay to )2
y%ar$ i!(ri$on!%nt $hall "% i!(o$%, u(on th% (olic% or law
%n/orc%!%nt (%r$onn%l who /ail$ to noti/y any Lu,g% a$ (ro-i,%,
in th% (r%c%,ing (aragra(h.
8ection 1,. P%rio, o/ '%t%ntion in th% %-%nt o/ an actual or
i!!in%nt t%rrori$t attac5.? In th% -%nt o/ an actual or i!!in%nt
t%rrori$t attac5,, $u$(%ct$ !ay not "% ,%tain%, /or !or% than thr%%
,ay$ without th% writt%n a((ro-al o/ a !unici(al, city, (ro-incial
or r%gional o//icial o/ a Cu!an Right$ Co!!i$$ion, or Lu,g% o/
th% !unici(al, r%gional trial court, th% #an,igan"ayan or a Lu$tic%
o/ th% Court o/ A((%al$ n%ar%$t th% (lac% o/ arr%$t. I/ th% arr%$t i$
!a,% ,uring #atur,ay$, #un,ay$ or holi,ay$, or a/t%r o//ic% hour$,
th% arr%$ting (olic% o/ law %n/orc%!%nt (%r$onn%l $hall "ring th%
(%r$on thu$ arr%$t%, to th% r%$i,%nc% o/ any o/ th% o//icial$
!%ntion%, a"o-% that i$ n%ar%$t th% (lac% wh%r% th% accu$%, wa$
arr%$t%,. *h% a((ro-al in writing o/ any o/ th% $ai, o//icial$ $hall
"% $%cur%, "y th% (olic% or law %n/orc%!%nt (%r$onn%l conc%rn%,
within /i-% ,ay$ a/t%r th% ,at% o/ th% ,%t%ntion o/ th% (%r$on$
conc%rn%,1 Pro-i,%,, how%-%r, *hat within thr%% ,ay$ a/t%r th%
,%t%ntion th% $u$(%ct$ who$% conn%ction with th% t%rror attac5 or
thr%at i$ not %$ta"li$h%,, $hall "% r%l%a$%, i!!%,iat%ly.
16. 'n case the place to be searched as indicated in the search warrant
is erroneous because it is different from the place mentioned by the
applicants who searched the place indicated by them in their affida#it= are the
thin/s seiEed admissible in e#idence?
>o. A$ h%l, in PEOPLE V#. CA, 2@) #CRA DBB, WHAT IS

1.. What are the different instances when a warrantless search and
seiEure is allowed under our eistin/ 2urisprudence?
Warrantl%$$ $%arch i$ allow%, in th% /ollowing in$tanc%$F
44 44
). cu$to!$ $%arch%$1
2. $%arch%$ o/ !o-ing -%hicl%1
7. $%i0ur% o/ %-i,%nc% in (lain -i%w1
D. con$%nt%, $%arch%$1
;. $%arch inci,%ntal to a law/ul arr%$t1 an,
9. $to( an, /ri$5 !%a$ur%$. (PEOPLE V#. ARU*A, 2MM
#CRA 929)
1-. )ay a 2ud/e deputiEe his %lerB of %ourt to taBe the deposition of
the applicant for a search warrant sub2ect to clarificatory questions after his
hearin/ in other cases?
>o. A$ h%l, in Bach% -$. Rui0, 7: #CRA M27, th% %+a!ination o/ th%
co!(lainant ant th% witn%$$%$ h% !ay (ro,uc% !u$t "% ,on% (%r$onally "y th%
Lu,g%. Oth%rwi$%, th% warrant $hall "% -oi,. A$ $uch, th% #C h%l, in PE>'O>
V#. CA, >o-%!"%r )9, )@@B that wh%n th% Eu%$tion$ a$5%, to th% a((licant /or
a $%arch warrant wa$ (r%?ty(%,, th% $a!% i$ not -ali, $inc% th%r% coul, ha-%
"%%n no $%arching Eu%$tion$.
1,. )ay a search warrant be issued for the crimes of search warrant
for estafa= falsification= ta e#asion and insurance fraud?
>o, $uch woul, "% a 4g%n%ral warrant8 an, -iolat%$ th% rul% that a
warrant $hall "% i$$u%, /or on% ()) $(%ci/ic o//%n$%. (A$ian #ur%ty -$. C%rr%ra,
;D #CRA 7)2)

2>. What is a !scatter(shot warrant$?
It i$ a $%arch warrant i$$u%, /or !or% than on% ()) $(%ci/ic o//%n$%
li5% a $%arch warrant i$$u%, /or !or% than on% $(%ci/ic o//%n$% li5% on%
/or %$ta/a, ro""%ry, th%/t an, Euali/i%, th%/t8. (*A=BA#E> V#.
PEOPLE, Auly )D, )@@;1 PEOPLE V#. CA, 2)9 #CRA )B))
21. )ay a 2ud/e #alidly issue a warrant of arrest based from the
'nformation and the 7esolution of the Prosecutor findin/ probable cause
a/ainst the accused?
>o. *h%r% will "% no "a$i$ /or th% i$$uanc% $inc% th% Pro$%cutor i$ n%ith%r
th% co!(lainant nor th% witn%$$ to th% ca$%. C% coul, not ha-% ,%t%r!in%,
(ro"a"l% cau$% "a$%, /ro! th% $ai, ,ocu!%nt$. (VICENTE LIM'SR& AND
in th% ca$% o/ #oli-%n -$. =a5a$iar, ,%ci,%, un,%r th% )@M: Con$titution, th%
Court not%, that th% a,,ition o/ th% wor, (%r$onally a/t%r th% wor, ,%t%r!in%,
an, th% ,%l%tion o/ th% grant o/ authority "y th% )@:7 Con$titution to i$$u%
warrant$ to oth%r r%$(on,%nt o//ic%r$ a$ to !ay "% authori0%, "y law ,o%$ not
r%Euir% th% Lu,g% to (%r$onally %+a!in% th% co!(lainant an, hi$ witn%$$ in hi$
,%t%r!ination o/ (ro"a"l% cau$% /or th% i$$uanc% o/ a warrant o/ arr%$t.What th%
Con$titution un,%r$cor%$ i$ th% %+clu$i-% an, (%r$onal r%$(on$i"ility o/ th%
i$$uing Lu,g% to $ati$/y hi!$%l/ o/ th% %+i$t%nc% o/ (ro"a"l% cau$%. Following
%$ta"li$h%, ,octrin% an, (roc%,ur%$, h% $hallF
45 45
()) (%r$onally %-aluat% th% r%(ort$ an, th% $u((orting
,ocu!%nt$ $u"!itt%, "y th% /i$cal r%gar,ing th% %+i$t%nc% o/ (ro"a"l%
cau$% an,, on th% "a$i$ th%r%o/, i$$u% a warrant o/ arr%$t1
(2) I/ on th% "a$i$ th%r%o/ h% /in,$ no (ro"a"l% cau$%, h% !ay
,i$r%gar, th% /i$calR$ r%(ort an, r%Euir% th% $u"!i$$ion o/ $u((orting
a//i,a-it$ o/ witn%$$%$ to ai, hi! in arri-ing at a conclu$ion a$ to th%
%+i$t%nc% o/ (ro"a"l% cau$%.
*h% ca$% o/ P%o(l% -$. Conora"l% EnriEu% B. Inting r%it%rat%$ th%
/ollowing ,octrin%$F
()) *h% ,%t%r!ination o/ (ro"a"l% cau$% i$ a /unction o/ th%
Lu,g%. It i$ not /or th% Pro-incial Fi$cal or Pro$%cutor nor /or th% El%ction
#u(%r-i$or to a$c%rtain. Only th% Lu,g% alon% !a5%$ thi$ ,%t%!ination.
(2) *h% (r%li!inary inEuiry !a,% "y th% (ro$%cutor ,o%$ not
"in, th% Lu,g%. It !%r%ly a$$i$t hi! to !a5% th% ,%t%r!ination o/
(ro"a"l% cau$%. *h% Lu,g% ,o%$ not ha-% to /ollow what th% (ro$%cutorR$
(r%$%nt to hi!. By it$%l/, th% (ro$%cutorR$ c%rti/ication o/ (ro"a"l% cau$%
i$ in%//%ctual. It i$ th% r%(ort, th% a//i,a-it$, th% tran$cri(t$ o/
$t%nogra(hic not%$, an, all oth%r $u((orting ,ocu!%nt$ "%hin, th%
(ro$%cutorR$ c%rti/ication which ar% !at%rial in a$$i$ting th% Lu,g% to
!a5% hi$ ,%t%r!ination.
(7) Pr%li!inary inEuiry $houl, "% ,i$tingui$h%, /ro! th%
(r%li!inary in-%$tigation (ro(%r. Whil% th% /or!%r $%%5$ to ,%t%r!in%
(ro"a"l% cau$% /or th% i$$uanc% o/ warrant o/ arr%$t, th% latt%r a$c%rtain$
wh%th%r th% o//%n,%r $houl, "% h%l, /or trial or "% r%l%a$%,.
22. *s to the requirement that the 2ud/e must !personally$ determine
probable cause= must he eamine the complainant and his witnesses face to
face in order to comply with the said constitutional pro#ision?
It ,%(%n,$.
In conn%ction with th% i$$uanc% o/ a #EARCC WARRA>*, h% !u$t
(%r$onally %+a!in% th% co!(lainant an, th% witn%$$%$, with $%arching
Eu%$tion$, /ac% to /ac%.
In conn%ction with th% i$$uanc% o/ a warrant o/ arr%$t, how%-%r, th% wor,
91#$son2++88 a/t%r th% wor, ,%t%r!in%, ,o%$ not n%c%$$arily !%an that th%
Lu,g% $houl, %+a!in% th% co!(lainant an, hi$ witn%$$%$ (%r$onally or /ac% to
/ac% "%/or% i$$uing th% warrant o/ arr%$t "ut th% %+clu$i-% r%$(on$i"ility on th%
(art o/ $ai, Lu,g% to $ati$/y hi!$%l/ o/ th% %+i$t%nc% o/ (ro"a"l% cau$%. A$ $uch,
th%r% i$ no n%%, to %+a!in% th% co!(lainant an, hi$ witn%$$%$ /ac% to /ac%. It i$
$u//ici%nt i/ th% Lu,g% i$ con-inc%, o/ th% %+i$t%nc% o/ (ro"a"l% cau$% u(on
r%a,ing th% a//i,a-it$ or ,%(o$ition o/ th% co!(lainant an, hi$ witn%$$%$.
23. 's the 2ud/e bound by the findin/s of eistence of !probable cause$
by the Prosecutor as indicated in his %ertification in the information so that
the issuance of a warrant of arrest is only ministerial? 'f not satisfied of the
46 46
eistence of probable cause= may the 2ud/e require the Prosecutor to submit
additional e#idenceK
*h% Lu,g% i$ not "oun, "y th% /in,ing$ o/ th% Pro$%cutor "%cau$% th% $ai,
/in,ing i$ only 4(ro"a"l% cau$%8 that a cri!% wa$ co!!itt%,. Pro"a"l% cau$% to
Lu$ti/y th% i$$uanc% o/ a warrant o/ arr%$t i$ a Lu,icial /unction -%$t%, only in
th% Lu,g%. In /act, h% can r%Euir% th% Pro$%cutor to $u"!it a,,itional %-i,%nc% i/
h% i$ not con-inc%, o/ th% %+i$t%nc% o/ (ro"a"l% /or th% i$$uanc% o/ a warrant o/
arr%$t. (P. -$. Villanu%-a, ))B #CRA D9;1 Plac%r -$. Villanu%-a, )29 #CRA
24. 's L:peration KapBapL bein/ done by the police because the
suspect has somethin/ bul/in/ in his waist and Beeps on touchin/ his
abdomen as if touchin/ a /un #alid?
A$ h%l, in PEOPLE V#. =E>GO*E, G.R. >o. M:B;@, Aun%, )@@2, 2)B
#CRA ):D, 4OPERA*IO> PAPPAP8 or warrantl%$$ $%arch without (ro"a"l%
cau$% i$ uncon$titutional. #uch $%arch i$ -ali, only i/ co-%r%, "y #%ction ;,
Articl% ))7 o/ th% Rul%$ o/ Court which (ro-i,%$F
#%c. ;. Arr%$t without warrant1 wh%n law/ul.? A (%ac%
o//ic%r or (ri-at% (%r$on !ay, without warrant, arr%$t a (%r$onF
(a) Wh%n, in hi$ (r%$%nc%, th% (%r$on to "% arr%$t%,
ha$ co!!itt%,, i$ actually co!!itting, or i$ att%!(ting to
co!!it an o//%n$%1
(") Wh%n an o//%n$% ha$ in /act Lu$t "%%n
co!!itt%,, an, h% ha$ (%r$onal 5nowl%,g% o/ /act$
in,icating that th% (%r$on to "% arr%$t%, ha$ co!!itt%, it1
(c) Wh%n th% (%r$on to "% arr%$t%, i$ a (ri$on%r who
ha$ %$ca(%, /ro! a (%nal %$ta"li$h!%nt or (lac% wh%r% h%
i$ $%r-ing /inal Lu,g!%nt or t%!(orarily con/in%, whil% hi$
ca$% i$ (%n,ing, or ha$ %$ca(%, whil% "%ing tran$/%rr%,
/ro! on% con/in%!%nt to anoth%r.
Co!(ar% thi$ ca$% to =A>ALILI V#. PEOPLE, Octo"%r @, )@@:. *h%
(olic%!%n $aw $%-%ral $u$(iciou$ loo5ing !%n at ,awn who ran wh%n th%y
w%nt n%ar th%!. A$ th% (olic%!%n ran a/t%r th%!, an unlic%n$%, /ir%ar! wa$
con/i$cat%,. *h% $%arch wa$ ,%clar%, -ali, "y th% #u(r%!% Court. >ot%,
how%-%r, that in =ALACA* V#. CA, 2M7 #CRA );@, th% #C h%l, that !%r%
$u$(icion$ not $u//ici%nt to -ali,at% warrantl%$$ arr%$t.
;/& M28 t*# I+oi+o Po+i0# 2$$#sts 5it*ot 52$$2nt o$ s#2$0* t*#
1#$son 3is#%72$?in6 !$o% 2 s*i1 5it*ot 52$$2nt 72s#3 so+#+8 on 2n
in!o$%2tion $#+28#3 to t*#% 78 2n in!o$%2nt t*2t t*# ss1#0t>s 726
0ont2ins %2$iI2n2A
>o. A$ h%l, in 41401 vs. %22*+6*,*+, ';8 &C!% 7:# a
warrantl%$$ arr%$t o/ th% accu$%, wa$ uncon$titutional. *hi$ wa$ %//%ct%, whil%
h% wa$ co!ing ,own th% -%$$%l, to all a((%aranc%$ no l%$$ innoc%nt than th%
47 47
oth%r ,i$%!"ar5ing (a$$%ng%r$. C% ha, not co!!itt%, nor wa$ actually
co!!itting or att%!(ting to co!!it an o//%n$% in th% (r%$%nc% o/ th% arr%$ting
o//ic%r$. C% wa$ not %-%n acting $u$(iciou$ly. In $hort, th%r% wa$ no (ro"a"l%
cau$% that, a$ th% (ro$%cution incorr%ctly $ugg%$t%,, ,i$(%n$%, with th%
con$titutional r%Euir%!%nt o/ a warrant.
26. 'n arrests without warrant based on the fact that a crime has 2ust
been committed= what Bind of Bnowled/e is required on the part of the
arrestin/ officer?
In PEOPLE VS& GALVE@' )// SCRA ;(.' t*# S1$#%# Co$t *#+3
t*2t t h% (olic%!an arr%$t%, th% accu$%,?a((%llant on th% "a$i$ $ol%ly o/ what
R%ynal,o Ca$tro ha, tol, hi! an, not "%cau$% h% $aw th% accu$%,?a((%llant
co!!it th% cri!% charg%, again$t hi!. In,%%,, th% (ro$%cution a,!itt%, that
th%r% wa$ no warrant o/ arr%$t i$$u%, again$t accu$%,?a((%llant wh%n th% latt%r
wa$ ta5%n into cu$to,y. Con$i,%ring that th% accu$%,?a((%llant wa$ not
co!!itting a cri!% at th% ti!% h% wa$ arr%$t%, nor ,i, th% arr%$ting o//ic%r
ha-% any (%r$onal 5nowl%,g% o/ /act$ in,icating that accu$%,?a((%llant
co!!itt%, a cri!%, hi$ arr%$t without a warrant cannot "% Lu$ti/i%,.
2.. What is the effect on the ille/ality of the arrest by the subsequent
act of the accused in postin/ bond for his pro#isional liberty and enterin/ a
plea durin/ his arrai/nment?
By %nt%ring a (l%a o/ not guilty ,uring th% arraign!%nt, th% accu$%,?
a((%llant wai-%, hi$ right to rai$% th% i$$u% o/ ill%gality o/ hi$ arr%$t. I* I#
GALVE@' )// SCRA ;(.)
2-. 's a warrantless search and seiEure by a pri#ate indi#idual #alid?
G%$ $inc% th% con$titutional (ro-i$ion i$ not a((lica"l% to hi!. (PEOPLE
OF *CE PCILIPPI>E# V#. A>'RE =AR*I, G.R. >O. M);9), Aanuary )M,
E* AL., DM2 #CRA 99B)
2,. What are the requisites of a #alid search incidental to a #alid
A$ h%l, in >OLA#CO V#. PA>O, )7@ #CRA ;D), a $%arch inci,%ntal
to a -ali, arr%$t !u$t "% ,on% at th% (lac% wh%r% th% accu$%, i$ arr%$t%, or it$
i!!%,iat% -icinity or on th% (%r$on o/ th% accu$%,. A$ $uch, i/ accu$%, wa$
arr%$t%, whil% in$i,% a L%%(n%y, th%r% i$ no -ali, $%arch inci,%ntal to a -ali,
arr%$t i/ $h% will "% "rought to h%r r%$i,%nc% an, th%r%a/t%r $%arch th% $ai,
(lac%. Or a$ h%l, in E#PA>O V#. CA, 2MM #CRA ;MM, i/ th% accu$%, wa$
48 48
arr%$t%, in th% $tr%%t ,uring a "uy?"u$t o(%ration, th% $%arch o/ hi$ hou$% n%ar"y
i$ not a -ali, $%arch inci,%ntal to a -ali, arr%$t.
3>. 'f the accused was #alidly arrested without warrant inside a ni/ht
club for ille/al possession of firearm= may the arrestin/ officers #alidly
search his car parBed se#eral meters from the place of arrest based on
!search incidental to a #alid arrest$?
Wh%r% th% gun tuc5%, in a (%r$on<$ wai$t i$ (lainly -i$i"l% to th% (olic%,
no $%arch warrant i$ n%c%$$ary an, in th% a"$%nc% o/ any lic%n$% /or $ai,
/ir%ar!, h% !ay "% arr%$t%, at onc% a$ h% i$ in %//%ct co!!itting a cri!% in th%
(r%$%nc% o/ th% (olic% o//ic%r$. >o warrant i$ n%c%$$ary in $uch a $ituation, it
"%ing on% o/ th% r%cogni0%, %+c%(tion$ un,%r th% Rul%$. A$ a con$%Eu%nc% o/
th% accu$%,<$ -ali, warrantl%$$ arr%$t in$i,% th% nightclu", h% !ay "% law/ully
$%arch%, /or ,ang%rou$ w%a(on$ or anything which !ay "% u$%, a$ (roo/ o/ th%
co!!i$$ion o/ an o//%n$%, without a $%arch warrant in accor,anc% with #%ction
)2, Rul% )29. *hi$ i$ a -ali, $%arch inci,%ntal to a law/ul arr%$t.
In /act, th% $u"$%Eu%nt ,i$co-%ry in hi$ car which wa$ (ar5%, in a ,i$tant In /act, th% $u"$%Eu%nt ,i$co-%ry in hi$ car which wa$ (ar5%, in a ,i$tant
(lac% /ro! wh%r% th% ill%gal (o$$%$$ion o/ /ir%ar! wa$ co!!itt%, Ha/t%r h% (lac% /ro! wh%r% th% ill%gal (o$$%$$ion o/ /ir%ar! wa$ co!!itt%, Ha/t%r h%
r%Eu%$t%, that h% will "ring hi$ car to th% Polic% #tation a/t%r hi$ warrantl%$$ r%Eu%$t%, that h% will "ring hi$ car to th% Polic% #tation a/t%r hi$ warrantl%$$
arr%$t) , o/ a ,rug (ara(h%rnalia an, $ha"u, CA>>O* BE #AI' *O CAVE arr%$t) , o/ a ,rug (ara(h%rnalia an, $ha"u, CA>>O* BE #AI' *O CAVE
BEE> =A'E 'URI>G A> ILLEGAL #EARCC "%cau$% o/ hi$ con$%nt, not BEE> =A'E 'URI>G A> ILLEGAL #EARCC "%cau$% o/ hi$ con$%nt, not
,u% to $%arch inci,%ntal to a -ali, arr%$t. A$ $uch, th% it%!$ ,o not /all un,%r ,u% to $%arch inci,%ntal to a -ali, arr%$t. A$ $uch, th% it%!$ ,o not /all un,%r
th% %+clu$ionary rul% an, th% unlic%n$%, /ir%ar!$, ,rug (ara(h%rnalia an, th% th% %+clu$ionary rul% an, th% unlic%n$%, /ir%ar!$, ,rug (ara(h%rnalia an, th%
$ha"u, can "% u$%, a$ %-i,%nc% again$t th% accu$%, $ha"u, can "% u$%, a$ %-i,%nc% again$t th% accu$%,. - . -PEOPLE VS& GO' )/( PEOPLE VS& GO' )/(
SCRA )),) SCRA )),)
31. )ay the police authorities #alidly search the rented apartment of a
suspect without a search warrant or without the consent of the said person
019 W'9D 9D; %:<8;<9 :A 9D; :W<;7 :A 9D; *P*79);<9?
>o. PEOPLE V#. 'A=A#O, 2)2 #CRA ;D: a"an,on%, th% ruling in
Lo(%0 -$. Co!!i$$ion%r. In or,%r that th%r% i$ a -ali, con$%nt to a warrantl%$$
$%arch, th% con$%nt !u$t co!% /ro! th% (%r$on ,ir%ctly a//%ct%, "y $ai,
warrantl%$$ $%arch.
32. What is the !plain #iew doctrine$ in connection with warrantless
search and seiEure?
As *#+3 in PEOPLE VS& VALDE@' )(< SCRA ;/' t*# !plain #iew$
doctrine' 5*i0* %28 Isti!8 2 s#2$0* 5it*ot 52$$2nt' APPLIES ONLY
3o0t$in# 0o+3 not 7# s#3 to Isti!8 t*# s#iK$# o! 2n n+i0#ns#3 !i$#2$% in
P#o1+# "s& D2%2so' s1$2' 5*i0* 52s s##n on to1 o! 2 t27+# 2!t#$ t*#
o1#nin6 o! t*# 212$t%#nt>s 3oo$ 5it*ot 2 52$$2nt no$ 0ons#nt o! t*#
o0012nt t*#$#in&
33. Define probable cause in connection with the issuance of a search
49 49
*h% N(ro"a"l% cau$%N /or a -ali, $%arch warrant, ha$ "%%n ,%/in%, Na$
$uch /act$ an, circu!$tanc%$ which woul, l%a, a r%a$ona"ly ,i$cr%%t an,
(ru,%nt !an to "%li%-% that an o//%n$% ha$ "%%n co!!itt%,, an, that th% o"L%ct$
$ought in conn%ction with th% o//%n$% ar% in th% (lac% $ought to "% $%arch%,N.
(Juint%ro -$. >BI, Aun% 27, )@MM). *hi$ (ro"a"l% cau$% !u$t "% $hown to "%
within th% (%r$onal 5nowl%,g% o/ th% co!(lainant or th% witn%$$%$ h% !ay
(ro,uc% an, not "a$%, on !%r% h%ar$ay. (P. V#. #G AUCO, 9D PCIL. 99:1
ALVARE V#. CFI, 9D PCIL. 771 U# V#. A''I#O>, 2M PCIL. ;99).
34. What is the !sufficiency test$ in connection with applications for a
search warrant?
N*h% tru% t%$t o/ $u//ici%ncy o/ a ,%(o$ition or a//i,a-it to warrant
i$$uanc% o/ a $%arch warrant i$ wh%th%r it 52s 3$25n in 2 %2nn#$ t*2t
1#$I$8 0o+3 7# 0*2$6#3 t*#$#on 2n3 t*# 2!!i2nt 7# *#+3 +i27+# !o$ 32%26#
02s#3& *h% oath r%Euir%, !u$t r%/%r to th% truth o/ th% /act$ within th%
(%r$onal 5nowl%,g% o/ th% a((licant o/ a $%arch warrant an,Qor hi$ witn%$$%$,
not o/ th% /act$ !%r%ly r%(ort%, "y a (%r$on who! on% con$i,%r$ to "%
r%lia"l%.N ('R. >E=E#IO PRU'E>*E V#. *CE CO>. E3ECU*IVE AU'GE
ABELAR'O =. 'AGRI*, R*C 77, =anila & P%o(l% o/ th% Phili((in%$, GR
>o. M2M:B, '%c%!"%r )D, )@M@)
3&. )ay the police and military authorities #alidly search the citiEens
without warrant in checBpoints set up by them? What is the etent of the
search that they may conduct?
M7@MM, #%(t%!"%r 2@, )@M@, th% #u(r%!% Court h%l, that warrantl%$$ $%arch%$
an, $%i0ur%$ in !ilitary an, (olic% ch%c5(oint$ ar% not ill%gal a$ th%$%
!%a$ur%$ to (rot%ct th% go-%rn!%nt an, $a/%guar,$ th% li-%$ o/ th% (%o(l%. *h%
ch%c5(oint$ ar% l%gal a$ wh%r% th% $ur-i-al o/ th% organi0%, go-%rn!%nt i$ on
th% "alanc%, or wh%r% th% li-%$ an, $a/%ty o/ th% (%o(l% ar% in gra-% (%ril.
Cow%-%r, th% #u(r%!% Court clari/i%, that th% !ilitary o//ic%r$ !anning th%
ch%c5(oint$ !ay con,uct VI#UAL #EARCC O>LG, >O* BO'ILG #EARCC.
36. 's an unlicensed firearm seiEed in the house of the accused without
warrant by the military authorities= after they were /i#en consent by the said
owner of the house for them to search for rebel soldiers= admissible in
>o. In VEROY VS& LAYAGUE' ;<= SCRA F-, th% #u(r%!% Court
h%l, that th% own%r o/ th% hou$% allow%, th% (olic%!%n to %nt%r hi$ hou$%
"%cau$% th%y will "% $%arching /or r%"%l $ol,i%r$ "ut wh%n in$i,% th% hou$%,
th%y in$t%a, $%i0%, an unlic%n$%, /ir%ar!. A$ $uch, th%r% wa$ no con$%nt to
$%arch /or /ir%ar!$ an, a$ a con$%Eu%nc%, th% /ir%ar! i$ not a,!i$$i"l% a$
3.. 'f the 2ud/e finds that thereMs probable cause= must he issue a
warrant of arrest as a matter of courseK
It ,%(%n,$F
50 50
"%cau$% a warrant i$ i$$u%, in or,%r to ha-% Luri$,iction o/ th%
court o-%r th% (%r$on o/ an accu$%, an, to a$$ur% th% court o/ hi$
(r%$%nc% wh%n%-%r hi$ ca$% i$ call%, in court. A$ $uch, i/ th% court
"%li%-%$ that th% (r%$%nc% o/ th% accu$%, coul, "% ha, %-%n
without a warrant o/ arr%$t, th%n h% !ay not i$$u% $ai, warrant.
>ot%F *hi$ ca$% in-ol-%$ a !inor o//%n$%)
2. GO@O VS& TAC-AN' )== SCRA ;./. I/ th% o//%n$% co!!itt%,
i$ a $%riou$ on% li5% that o"taining in thi$ ca$% /or !ur,%r, th%
Au,g% !u$t i$$u% a warrant o/ arr%$t a/t%r ,%t%r!ining th%
%+i$t%nc% o/ (ro"a"l% cau$%)
3-. 'f the applicant for a search warrant testifies that his Bnowled/e of
the facts and circumstances was deri#ed from a !hi/hly reliable informant$=
would such fact sufficient to con#ince the court of the eistence of !probable
>o, 5nowl%,g% "a$%, on h%ar$ay in/or!ation ,o%$ not Lu$ti/y th%
%+i$t%nc% o/ (ro"a"l% cau$%. (Pru,%nt% -$. 'ayrit, $u(ra.) In /act, wh%n th%
$tat%!%nt$ in th% a//i,a-it$ o/ witn%$$%$ ar% !%r% g%n%raliti%$, !%r% conclu$ion$
o/ law, an, not (o$iti-% $tat%!%nt$ o/ (articular act$, th% warrant i$$u%, "y
-irtu% th%r%o/ i$ not -ali,. Pon$ica -$. Ignalaga, Auly 7),)@M:)
3,. 'n the seiEure of alle/ed pirated tapes= what must the applicant
submit to the court in order that the search warrant to be issued shall be
In C%ntury Fo+ -$. CA, )9D #CRA 9;; an, COLU=BIA PIC*URE#
V#. CA, 29) #CRA )DD, it wa$ h%l, that th% !a$t%r co(y o/ th% all%g%,ly
(irat%, ta(% $houl, "% (r%$%nt%, "%/or% th% Lu,g% in or,%r to con-inc% hi! o/
th% %+i$t%nc% o/ (ro"a"l% cau$%)
4>. What is the effect on the e#idence obtained in #iolation of 8ections
2 and 3 of *rticle '''?
Any %-i,%nc% o"tain%, in -iolation o/ #%ction$ 2 an, 7 o/ Articl% III
$hall "% ina,!i$$i"l% /or any (ur(o$% in any (roc%%,ing.
41. 1nder the Duman 8ecurity *ctF*nti(9errorism Law= 7epublic *ct
<o. ,3.2= *ppro#ed on )arch 6= 2>>. and effecti#e on Iuly 1&= 2>>.= may
police authorities the listen to= intercept and record= with the use of any
mode= form or Bind or type of electronic or other sur#eillance equipment or
interceptin/ and tracBin/ de#ices= or with the use of any other suitable ways
or means for that purpose= any communication= messa/e= con#ersation=
discussion= or spoBen or written words of a person without #iolatin/ the ri/ht
to pri#acy?
G%$ un,%r #%ction$ : an, M o/ th% law which (ro-i,%$F

8ection .. #ur-%illanc% o/ $u$(%ct$ an, int%rc%(tion an,
r%cor,ing o/ co!!unication$. *h% (ro-i$ion$ o/ RA D2BB (Anti?
Wir%ta((ing Law) to th% contrary notwith$tan,ing, a (olic% or law
%n/orc%!%nt o//icial an, th% !%!"%r$ o/ hi$ t%a! !ay, u(on a
51 51
writt%n or,%r o/ th% Court o/ A((%al$, li$t%n to, int%rc%(t an,
r%cor,, with th% u$% o/ any !o,%, /or! or 5in, or ty(% o/
%l%ctronic or oth%r $ur-%illanc% %Eui(!%nt or int%rc%(ting an,
trac5ing ,%-ic%$, or with th% u$% o/ any oth%r $uita"l% way$ or
!%an$ /or that (ur(o$%, any co!!unication, !%$$ag%,
con-%r$ation, ,i$cu$$ion, or $(o5%n or writt%n wor,$ "%tw%%n
!%!"%r$ o/ a Lu,icially ,%clar%, an, outlaw%, t%rrori$t
organi0ation, a$$ociation, or grou( o/ (%r$on$ or o/ any (%r$on
charg%, with or $u$(%ct%, o/ th% cri!% o/ t%rrori$! or con$(iracy
to co!!it t%rrori$!.
Pro-i,%,, *hat $ur-%illanc%, int%rc%(tion an, r%cor,ing o/
co!!unication$ "%tw%%n lawy%r$ an, cli%nt$, ,octor$ an,
(ati%nt$, Lournali$t$ an, th%ir $ourc%$ an, con/i,%ntial "u$in%$$
corr%$(on,%nc% $hall not "% authori0%,.
8ection -. For!al A((lication /or Au,icial Authori0ation.?
*h% writt%n or,%r o/ th% authori0ing ,i-i$ion o/ th% Court o/
A((%al$ to trac5 ,own, ta(, li$t%n, int%rc%(t, an, r%cor,
co!!unication$, !%$$ag%$, con-%r$ation$, ,i$cu$$ion$, or $(o5%n
or writt%n wor,$ o/ any (%r$on $u$(%ct%, o/ th% cri!% o/ t%rrori$!
or th% cri!% o/ con$(iracy to co!!it t%rrori$!, $hall only "%
grant%, "y th% authori0ing ,i-i$ion o/ th% Court o/ A((%al$ UPO>
A> E3?PAR*E writt%n a((lication o/ a (olic% or law %n/orc%!%nt
o//icial who ha$ "%%n ,uly authori0%, in writing "y th% Anti?
*%rrori$! Council cr%at%, in #%ction ;7 o/ thi$ Act to /il% $uch %+?
(art% a((lication, an, u(on %+a!ination un,%r oath an,
a//ir!ation o/ th% a((licant an, th% witn%$$%$ who !ay (ro,uc% to
• *hat th%r% i$ (ro"a"l% cau$% to "%li%-% "a$%, on
(%r$onal 5nowl%,g% o/ /act$ an, circu!$tanc%$ that th%
$ai, cri!% o/ t%rrori$! or con$(iracy to co!!it
t%rrori$! ha$ "%%n co!!itt%,, or i$ "%ing co!!itt%,, or
i$ a"out to "% co!!itt%,1
• *hat th%r% i$ (ro"a"l% cau$% to "%li%-% "a$%, on
(%r$onal 5nowl%,g% o/ /act$ an, circu!$tanc%$ that
%-i,%nc% which i$ %$$%ntial to th% con-iction o/ any
charg%, or $u$(%ct%, (%r$on /or, or to th% $olution or
(r%-%ntion o/ any $uch cri!%$, will "% o"tain%,1 an,
• *hat th%r% i$ no oth%r %//%cti-% !%an$ r%a,ily a-aila"l%
/or acEuiring $uch %-i,%nc%.
8ec. ,. Cla$$i/ication an, Cont%nt$ o/ th% Or,%r o/ th%
Court. *h% writt%n or,%r grant%, "y th% authori0ing ,i-i$ion o/ th%
Court o/ A((%al$ a$ w%ll a$ it$ or,%r, i/ any, to %+t%n, or r%n%w th%
$a!%, th% original a((lication o/ th% a((licant, inclu,ing hi$
a((lication to %+t%n, or r%n%w, i/ any, an, th% writt%n
authori0ation$ o/ th% Anti?*%rrori$! Council $hall "% ,%%!%, an,
ar% h%r%"y ,%clar%, a$ cla$$i/i%, in/or!ationF Pro-i,%,, *hat th%
(%r$on "%ing $ur-%ill%, or who$% co!!unication$, l%tt%r$, (a(%r$,
!%$$ag%$, con-%r$ation$, ,i$cu$$ion$, $(o5%n or writt%n wor,$
an, %//%ct$ ha-% "%%n !onitor%,, li$t%n%, to, "ugg%, or r%cor,%,
52 52
"y law %n/orc%!%nt authoriti%$ ha$ th% right to "% in/or!%, o/ th%
act$ ,on% "y th% law %n/orc%!%nt authoriti%$ in th% (r%!i$%$ or to
chall%ng%, i/ h% or $h% int%n,$ to ,o $o, th% l%gality o/ th%
int%r/%r%nc% "%/or% th% Court o/ A((%al$ which i$$u%, $ai, writt%n
or,%r. *h% writt%n or,%r o/ th% authori0ing ,i-i$ion o/ th% court o/
A((%al$ $hall $(%ci/y th% /ollowingF
• *h% i,%ntity, $uch a$ na!% an, a,,r%$$, i/ 5nown, o/
th% charg%, o/ $u$(%ct%, (%r$on$ who$%
co!!unication$, !%$$ag%$, con-%r$ation$,
,i$cu$$ion$, or $(o5%n or writt%n wor,$ ar% to "%
trac5%, ,own, ta((%,, li$t%n%, to, int%rc%(t%, or
r%cor,%, an,, in ca$% o/ ra,io, %l%ctronic, or
t%l%(hon% (wh%th%r wir%l%$$ or oth%rwi$%)
co!!unication$, !%$$ag%$, con-%r$ation$,
,i$cu$$ion$, or $(o5%n or writt%n wor,$, th%
%l%ctronic tran$!i$$ion $y$t%!$ or th% t%l%(hon%
nu!"%r$ to "% trac5%, ,own, ta((%,, li$t%n%, to,
int%rc%(t%,, an, r%cor,%, an, th%ir location$ i/ th%
(%r$on $u$(%ct%, o/ th% cri!% o/ t%rrori$! or
con$(iracy to co!!it t%rrori$! i$ not /ully 5nown,
$uch (%r$on $hall "% $u"L%ct to continuou$
$ur-%illanc% (ro-i,%, th%r% i$ r%a$ona"l% groun, to
,o $o1
• *h% i,%ntity (na!% an, a,,r%$$, an, th% (olic% or
law %n/orc%!%nt organi0ation) o/ th% !%!"%r$ o/ hi$
t%a! Lu,icially authori0%, to trac5 ,own, ta(, li$t%n
to, int%rc%(t, an, r%cor, th% co!!unication$,
!%$$ag%$, con-%r$ation$, ,i$cu$$ion$, or $(o5%n or
writt%n wor,$1
• *h% o//%n$% or o//%n$%$ co!!itt%,, or "%ing
co!!itt%,, or $ought to "% (r%-%nt%,1 an,
• *h% l%ngth o/ ti!% which th% authori0ation $hall "%
u$%, or carri%, out.
8ection. 1>. E//%cti-% P%rio, o/ Au,icial Authori0ation.
Any authori0ation grant%, "y th% authori0ing ,i-i$ion o/ th% court
o/ A((%al$O$hall only "% %//%cti-% /or th% l%ngth o/ ti!%
$(%ci/i%, in th% writt%n or,%r o/ th% authori0ing ,i-i$ion o/ th%
Court o/ A((%al$, which $hall not %+c%%, 7B ,ay$ /ro! th% ,at% o/
r%c%i(t o/ th% writt%n or,%r o/ th% authori0ing ,i-i$ion o/ th% court
o/ A((%al$ "y th% a((licant (olic% or law %n/orc%!%nt o//icial.
*h% CA !ay %+t%n, or r%n%w th% $ai, authori0ation /or
anoth%r non?%+t%n,i"l% (%rio,, which $hall not %+c%%, 7B ,ay$
/ro! th% %+(iration o/ th% original (%rio,O*h% %+?(art%
a((lication /or r%n%wal ha$ "%%n ,uly authori0%, "y th% Anti?
t%rrori$! Council in writing.
42. 1nder the Duman 8ecurity *ctF*nti(9errorism Law= 7epublic *ct
<o. ,3.2= *ppro#ed on )arch 6= 2>>. and effecti#e on Iuly 1&= 2>>.= may
53 53
police authorities eamine the banB accounts of indi#iduals without #iolatin/
their ri/ht to pri#acy?
G%$ un,%r #%ction$ 2: an, 2M o/ th% $ai, law. It (ro-i,%$F
8ection 2.. Au,icial authori0ation r%Euir%, to %+a!in% "an5 ,%(o$it$,
account$ an, r%cor,$.
*h% Lu$tic%$ o/ CA ,%$ignat%, a$ $(%cial court to han,l% anti?t%rrori$!
ca$%$ a/t%r $ati$/ying th%!$%l-%$ o/ th% %+i$t%nc% o/ (ro"a"l% cau$% in a h%aring
call%, /or that (ur(o$% thatF
• A (%r$on charg%, with or $u$(%ct%, o/ th% cri!% o/ t%rrori$! or
con$(iracy to co!!it t%rrori$!1
• O/ a Lu,icially ,%clar%, an, outlaw%, t%rrori$t organi0ation or
grou( o/ (%r$on$1
• O/ a !%!"%r o/ $uch Lu,icially ,%clar%, an, outlaw%,
organi0ation, a$$ociation or grou( o/ (%r$on$, !ay authori0% in
writing any (olic% or law %n/orc%!%nt o//ic%r an, th% !%!"%r$ o/
hi$ t%a! ,uly authori0%, in writing "y th% anti?t%rrori$! council
). %+a!in% or cau$% th% %+a!ination o/, th% ,%(o$it$,
(lac%!%nt$, tru$t account$, a$$%t$, an, r%cor,$ in a "an5 or
/inancial in$titution1 an,
2. gath%r or cau$% th% gath%ring o/ any r%l%-ant in/or!ation
a"out $uch ,%(o$it$, (lac%!%nt$, tru$t account$, a$$%t$, an,
r%cor,$ /ro! a "an5 or /inancial in$titution. *h% "an5 or
/inancial in$titution $hall not r%/u$% to allow $uch
%+a!ination or to (ro-i,% th% ,%$ir%, in/or!ation, wh%n $o
or,%r%, "y an, $%r-%, with th% writt%n or,%r o/ th% Court o/
8ec. 2-. A((lication to %+a!in% ,%(o$it$, account$ an, r%cor,$.
*h% writt%n or,%r o/ th% CA authori0ing th% %+a!ination o/ "an5
,%(o$it$, (lac%!%nt$, tru$t account$, a$$%t$ an, r%cor,$F
• A (%r$on charg%, with or $u$(%ct%, o/ th% cri!% o/ t%rrori$! or
con$(iracy to co!!it t%rrori$!1
• O/ a Lu,icially ,%clar%, an, outlaw%, t%rrori$t organi0ation or
grou( o/ (%r$on$1
• O/ a !%!"%r o/ $uch Lu,icially ,%clar%, an, outlaw%,
organi0ation, a$$ociation or grou( o/ (%r$on$, in a "an5 or
/inancial in$titution?
POLICE OR LAW E>FORCE=E>* OFFICIAL who ha$ "%%n ,uly
authori0%, "y th% Anti?*%rrori$! Council to /il% $uch %+?(art% a((lication an,
u(on %+a!ination un,%r oath or a//ir!ation o/ th% a((licant an, hi$ witn%$$%$
h% !ay (ro,uc% to %$ta"li$h th% /act$ that will Lu$ti/y th% n%%, an, urg%ncy o/
%+a!ining an, /r%%0ing th% "an5 ,%(o$it$, (lac%!%nt$, tru$t account$, a$$%t$
an, r%cor,$F
54 54
• O/ A (%r$on charg%, with or $u$(%ct%, o/ th% cri!% o/ t%rrori$! or
con$(iracy to co!!it t%rrori$!1
• O/ a Lu,icially ,%clar%, an, outlaw%, t%rrori$t organi0ation or
grou( o/ (%r$on$1
• O/ a !%!"%r o/ $uch Lu,icially ,%clar%, an, outlaw%,
organi0ation, a$$ociation or grou( o/ (%r$on$.
43. )ay a wife #alidly seiEe the diaries= checBs and /reetin/ cards of
the alle/ed paramours of her husband in the latter"s clinic and use the same
as e#idence in a le/al separation case between them?
A$ h%l, in @ULUETA VS& CA' F#7$2$8 <=' <FF., th% %-i,%nc%
o"tain%, "y th% wi/% who /orci"ly o(%n%, th% ,raw%r$ at th% clinic o/ h%r
,octor?hu$"an, an, too5 ,iari%$, ch%c5$ an, gr%%ting car,$ o/ hi$ all%g%,
(ara!our$ i$ ina,!i$$i"l% a$ %-i,%nc%. *hi$ i$ $o "%cau$% th% inti!aci%$ o/
hu$"an, an, wi/% ,o%$ not Lu$ti/y th% "r%a5ing o/ ca"in%t$ to ,%t%r!in% !arital
43. 's the freedom of speech and epression affected by the Duman
8ecurity *ct?
G%$, un,%r 8ection 26 o/ th% law, it (ro-i,%$ that (%r$on$ who ha-% "%%n
charg%, with t%rrori$! or con$(iracy to co!!it t%rrori$!???%-%n i/ th%y ha-%
"%%n grant%, "ail "%cau$% %-i,%nc% o/ guilt i$ not $trongTcan "%F 4Prohi"it%,
/ro! u$ing any c%llular (hon%$, co!(ut%r$, or oth%r !%an$ o/ co!!unication$
with (%o(l% out$i,% th%ir r%$i,%nc%.8
44. What is the rule on criticisms on the acts of public officers?
A (u"lic o//icial $houl, not "% too onion?$5inn%, with r%/%r%nc% to
co!!%nt$ u(on hi$ o//icial act$. *h% int%r%$t o/ th% go-%rn!%nt an, th% $oci%ty
,%!an,$ /ull ,i$cu$$ion o/ (u"lic a//air$. (U# -$. Bu$to$, 7: Phil. :7))
4&. )ay the abo#e rule applicable to pri#ate indi#iduals who are public
fi/ures or pri#ate indi#iduals who are candidates for public office?
A$ h%l, "y th% #u(r%!% Court in th% ca$% o/ BAGUIO =I'LA>'
LABO, AR., DDD #CRA 2M H>o-%!"%r 2;, 2BBD , th% articl% in-ol-ing a (ri-at%
in,i-i,ual running /or =ayor o/ Baguio City i$ $till within th% !antl% o/
(rot%ction guarant%%, "y th% /r%%,o! o/ %+(r%$$ion (ro-i,%, in th%
Con$titution $inc% it i$ th% (u"lic<$ right to "% in/or!%, o/ th% !%ntal, !oral
an, (hy$ical /itn%$$ o/ can,i,at%$ /or (u"lic o//ic%. *hi$ wa$ r%cogni0%, a$
%arly a$ th% ca$% o/ U# V#. #E'A>O, )D Phil. 77M H)@B@I an, th% ca$% o/
>EW GORP *I=E# V#. #ULLIVA>, 7:9 U.#. 2;D wh%r% th% U# #u(r%!%
Court h%l,F
9Lit is o! t*# t%ost 0ons#4#n0#
t*2t t*# 1#o1+# s*o+3 3is0ss t*# 0*2$20t#$
2n3 42+i!i02tions o! 02n3i32t#s !o$ t*#i$
s!!$26#s& T*# i%1o$t2n0# to t*# St2t# 2n3
55 55
to so0i#t8 o! s0* 3is0ssions is so "2st' 2n3
t*# 23"2nt26#s 3#$i"#3 so 6$#2t' t*2t t*#8
%o$# t*2n 0ont#$72+2n0# t*#
in0on"#ni#n0# o! 1$i"2t# 1#$sons 5*os#
0on30t %28 7# in"o+"#3' 2n3 o002sion2+
inI$8 to t*# $#1t2tions o! in3i"i32+s
%st 8i#+3 to t*# 17+i0 5#+!2$#' 2+t*o6*
2t ti%#s s0* inI$8 %28 7# 6$#2t& T*#
17+i0 7#n#!it !$o% 17+i0it8 is so 6$#2t 2n3
t*# 0*2n0# o! inI$8 to 1$i"2t# 0*2$20t#$ so
s%2++' t*2t s0* 3is0ssion %st 7#
1$i"i+#6#3& 9
C+#2$+8' t*# 4#stion#3 2$ti0+#s 0onstitt# !2i$ 0o%%#nt on 2
%2tt#$ o! 17+i0 int#$#st 2s it 3#2+t 5it* t*# 0*2$20t#$ o! t*# 1$i"2t#
$#s1on3#nt 5*o 52s $nnin6 !o$ t*# to1 #+#0ti"# 1ost in B26io Cit8 2t t*2t
46. )ay the %:);L;% #alidly prohibit columnists= radio announcers
and 9+ commentator for commentin/ for or a/ainst any issue durin/ the
plebiscite period since they can air their #iews in a pro/ram sponsored by the
%:);L;% itselfK
>o, $uch woul, "% an un,u% int%r/%r%nc% on th% /r%%,o! o/ %+(r%$$ion.
E3PRE## CI# VIEW. Pl%"i$cit% i$$u%$ ar% !att%r$ o/ (u"lic conc%rn an,
i!(ortanc%. *h% (%o(l%R$ right to "% in/or!%, an, to "% a"l% to /r%%ly an,
int%llig%ntly !a5% a ,%ci$ion woul, "% "%tt%r $%r-%, "y acc%$$ to an una"ri,g%,
,i$cu$$ion o/ th% i$$u%$, I>CLU'I>G *CE FORU=. *h% (%o(l% a//%ct%, "y
th% i$$u%$ (r%$%nt%, in a (l%"i$cit% $houl, not "% un,uly "ur,%n%, "y
r%$triction$ on th% /oru! wh%r% th% right to %+(r%$$ion !ay "% %+%rci$%,.
(P*0L'9: +. 8*<'D*D +8. %:);L;%= G.R. >O. @BM:M, Aanuary 2@, )@@B)
4.. What are the requisites that a newspaper must comply in order
that its news item on an on/oin/ trial in court will not be actionable for
bein/ libelous?
In Eli0al,% -$. Guti%rr%0,:9 #CRA DDM, it wa$ h%l, that in or,%r that any
n%w$ it%! r%lating to a Lu,icial (roc%%,ing will not "% actiona"l%, th% $a!%
!u$t "% HaI a tru% an, /air r%(ort o/ th% actual (roc%%,ing$1 H"I !u$t "% ,on% in
goo, /aith1 an, HcI no co!!%nt$ nor r%!ar5$ $hall "% !a,% "y th% writ%rU
4-. What are the tests of obscenity?
*h% thr%% (7) t%$t$ a$ h%l, in =ill%r -$. Cali/ornia, 7: L. E,. 2, D)@ ar%F
). Wh%th%r th% a-%rag% (%r$on a((lying to cont%!(orary co!!unity
$tan,ar,$ woul, /in, th% wor5 a((%al$ to (ruri%nt int%r%$t1
2. Wh%th%r th% wor5 ,%(ict$ or ,%$cri"%$ a (at%ntly o//%n$i-% $%+ual
7. Wh%th%r th% wor5 a$ a whol% lac5$ $%riou$ lit%rary , arti$tic,
(olitical or $ci%nti/ic -alu%.
56 56

4,. )ay the %ity )ayor order the confiscation without a search
warrant ma/aEines which he belie#es to be obscene? What is the correct
procedure for him to follow?
>o. (Pita -$. CA, ):M #CRA 792). A City =ayor !ay not or,%r th%
warrantl%$$ $%i0ur% o/ !aga0in%$ which h% "%li%-%$ to "% o"$c%n%1 oth%rwi$%,
h% will "%co!% th% co!(lainant, (ro$%cutor an, Lu,g% at th% $a!% ti!%. C%
$houl, o"tain a $%arch warrant /ro! a Lu,g% "y /ollowing th% (roc%,ur% lai,
,own "y th% Rul%$ on how to $%cur% a $%arch warrant.
&>. )ay public school teachers #alidly file mass lea#es= instead of
/oin/ on striBe= after their demand to the /o#ernment was not met$
In GE#I*E %t al. -$. COUR* OF APPEAL#, DDD #CRA ;) h%l, that
4th%$% !a$$ action$ w%r% to all int%nt$ an, (ur(o$%$ a $tri5%1 th%y con$titut%, a
conc%rt%, an, unauthori0%, $to((ag% o/, or a"$%nc% /ro!, wor5 which it wa$
th% t%ach%r$< ,uty to (%r/or!, un,%rta5%n /or %$$%ntially %cono!ic r%a$on$.8 It
i$ un,i$(ut%, /act that th%r% wa$ a wor5 $to((ag% an, that (%tition%r$< (ur(o$%
wa$ to r%ali0% th%ir ,%!an,$ "y withhol,ing th%ir $%r-ic%$. *h% /act that th%
con-%ntional t%r! 4$tri5%8 wa$ not u$%, "y th% $tri5ing %!(loy%%$ to ,%$cri"%
th%ir co!!on cour$% o/ action i$ incon$%Eu%ntial, #I>CE *CE #UB#*A>CE
*h% right o/ go-%rn!%nt %!(loy%%$ to organi0% I# LI=I*E' *O *CE
I>CLU'I>G *CE RIGC* *O #*RIPE. (Bangali$an -$. CA, 2:9 #CRA 9)@)
&1. What is the procedure to be followed in the application of rally
permits before the %ity or )unicipal )ayor in accordance with 0P 0ilan/
*h% a((licant$ /or a (%r!it to hol, an a$$%!"ly $houl, in/or! th%
lic%n$ing authority o/ th% ,at%, th% (u"lic (lac% wh%r% an, th% ti!% when it will
ta5% (lac%. I/ it w%r% a (ri-at% (lac%, only th% con$%nt o/ th% own%r or th% on%
%ntitl%, to it$ l%gal (o$$%$$ion i$ r%Euir%,. #uch a((lication $houl, "% /il%,
w%ll ah%a, in ti!% to %na"l% th% (u"lic o//icial conc%rn%, to a((rai$% wh%th%r
th%r% !ay "% -ali, o"L%ction$ to th% grant o/ th% (%r!it or to it$ grant "ut at
anoth%r (u"lic (lac%. It i$ an in,i$(%n$a"l% con,ition to $uch r%/u$al or
!o,i/ication that th% cl%ar an, (r%$%nt ,ang%r t%$t "% th% $tan,ar, /or th%
,%ci$ion r%ach%,. I/ h% i$ o/ th% -i%w that th%r% i$ $uch an i!!in%nt an, gra-%
,ang%r o/ a $u"$tanti-% %-il, th% a((licant$ !u$t "% h%ar, on th% !att%r.
*h%r%a/t%r, hi$ ,%ci$ion, wh%th%r /a-ora"l% or a,-%r$%, !u$t "% tran$!itt%, to
th%! at th% %arli%$t o((ortunity. *hu$ i/ $o !in,%,, th%y can ha-% r%cour$% to
th% (ro(%r Lu,icial authority. (BAYAN' BARAPATAN' BILUSANG
EDUARDO ERMITA, in hi$ ca(acity a$ E+%cuti-% #%cr%tary, =anila City
=ayor LITO ATIEN@A, Chi%/ o/ th% Phili((in% >ational Polic%, G%n.
W%$t%rn Polic% 'i$trict Chi%/ G#n& PEDRO BULAONG, G.R. >o. )9@MDM,
=ay, 2BB9)
57 57
&2. 's 0P --> unconstitutional for bein/ #a/ue 3+oid for +a/ueness
Doctrine5 and o#erbroad 3:#erbreadth Doctrine)K
>o. It i$ -%ry cl%ar that it ,%al$ only on (u"lic a$$%!"li%$ that ,%al$
with ralli%$, !a$$ action$ an, $i!ilar act$ an, not all 5in,$ o/ (u"lic
a$$%!"li%$. A$ $uch, it i$ not -agu%.
>%ith%r i$ th% law o-%r"roa,. It r%gulat%$ th% %+%rci$% o/ th% right to
(%ac%/ul a$$%!"ly an, (%tition on+8 to th% %+t%nt n%%,%, to a-oi, a cl%ar an,
(r%$%nt ,ang%r o/ th% $u"$tanti-% %-il$ Congr%$$ ha$ th% right to (r%-%nt.

&3. 's the %alibrated Pre(empti#e 7esponse 3%P75 of the *rroyo
*dministration towards rallyists constitutional?
*h% Court r%it%rat%$ it$ "a$ic (olicy o/ u(hol,ing th% /un,a!%ntal right$
o/ our (%o(l%, %$(%cially /r%%,o! o/ %+(r%$$ion an, /r%%,o! o/ a$$%!"ly. For
thi$ r%a$on, th% $o?call%, cali"rat%, (r%%!(ti-% r%$(on$% (olicy, th% (olicy o/
,i$(%r$ing rallyi$t$ through wat%r cannon$, ha$ no (lac% in our l%gal /ir!a!%nt
an, !u$t "% $truc5 ,own a$ a ,ar5n%$$ that $hrou,$ /r%%,o!. It !%r%ly
con/u$%$ our (%o(l% an, i$ u$%, "y $o!% (olic% ag%nt$ to Lu$ti/y a"u$%$. On th%
oth%r han,, B.P. >o. MMB cannot "% con,%!n%, a$ uncon$titutional1 it ,o%$ not
curtail or un,uly r%$trict /r%%,o!$1 it !%r%ly r%gulat%$ th% u$% o/ (u"lic (lac%$
a$ to th% ti!%, (lac% an, !ann%r o/ a$$%!"li%$. Far /ro! "%ing in$i,iou$,
4!a+i!u! tol%ranc%8 i$ /or th% "%n%/it o/ rallyi$t$, not th% go-%rn!%nt. *h%
,%l%gation to th% !ayor$ o/ th% (ow%r to i$$u% rally 4(%r!it$8 i$ -ali, "%cau$%
it i$ $u"L%ct to th% con$titutionally?$oun, 4cl%ar an, (r%$%nt ,ang%r8 $tan,ar,.
(BMP)' 2n3 GABRIELA -$. EDUARDO ERMITA, in hi$ ca(acity a$
E+%cuti-% #%cr%tary, =anila City =ayor LITO ATIEN@A, Chi%/ o/ th%
Phili((in% >ational Polic%, G%n. ARTURO M& LOMIBAO' NCRPO Chi%/
M2I& G#n& VIDAL OUEROL' an, W%$t%rn Polic% 'i$trict Chi%/ G#n&
PEDRO BULAONG, G.R. >o. )9@MDM, =ay, 2BB9)
&4. )ay the )97%0 suspend for three 335 months the airin/ of the
pro/ram *n/ Datin/ Daan of 0rother ;liseo 8oriano as a result of #ul/ar
and uncouth lan/ua/e he uttered a/ainst the host of the pro/ram *n/
9aman/ Daan of the '/lesia <i Kristo?
A. G%$ a$ 4$u"$%Eu%nt (uni$h!%nt8. In /act, it i$ a -ali, 4(rior r%$traint8
!%a$ur% on th% (art o/ th% =*RCB (#ORIA>O V#. LAGUAR'IA,
A(ril 2@, 2BB@) H'i$$%nting O(inionF *h% $u$(%n$ion o/ th% (rogra!
i$ ill%gal. It con$titut%$ 4(rior r%$traint8. C% i$ (r%-%nt%, /ro! ho$ting
th% (rogra! ,uring th% $ucc%%,ing ,ay$ %-%n i/ h% will Lu$t $ay th%
4Lor,<$ Pray%r8 or to gr%%t 4goo, !orning8 to hi$ -i%w%r$. P%r
Au$tic% Antonio Car(ioI
&4(a. )ay the %ity of %auayan= 'sabela= #alidly close the 0ombo 7adio
8tations therein on the /round that their buildin/ was constructed on an
!a/ricultural land$ ?that is why the %ity did not issue business permit for it to
operate@ which has not been con#erted to !commercial land$ by the D*7
despite the fact that it has been there for so many years and was questioned
only when the said station was critical of the Dy"s in 'sabela who own the
only other radio station therein?
58 58
A& T*# 20t o! t*# Cit8 o! C2282n' Is27#+2 0onstitt#s 1$io$ $#st$2int&
It s*2++ 128 P<=M in 32%26#s !o$ t*# +oss#s s!!#$#3 78 Bo%7o R238o 2s 2
$#s+t o! t*# i++#62+ 0+os$#& (>EW#OU>'# BROA'CA#*I>G >E*WORP
I>C. an, CO>#OLI'A*E' BROA'CA#*I>G #G#*E=,
I>C. -$. CO>. CEA#AR G. 'G, FELICI#I=O G. =EER, BAG>O#
CAUAGA>, G.R. >o$. ):B2:B &):@D)), A(ril 2, 2BB@)

&4(b. Distin/uish !clear and present dan/er$= !dan/erous tendency
rule$ and !balancin/ of interest test$.

Cl%ar an, (r%$%nt ,ang%r an, ,ang%rou$ t%n,%ncy rul% (wh%th%r th%
wor,$ u$%, in $uch circu!$tanc%$ an, ar% o/ $uch a natur% a$ to cr%at% a cl%ar
an, (r%$%nt ,ang%r that th%y will "ring a"out th% $u"$tanti-% %-il$ that th% #tat%
ha$ th% right to (r%-%nt)
'ang%rou$ t%n,%ncy rul% (I/ th% wor,$ utt%r%, cr%at% a ,ang%rou$
t%n,%ncy which th% #tat% ha$ th% right to (r%-%nt, th%n $uch wor,$ ar%

*h% "alancing?o/?int%r%$t t%$t (Wh%n a (articular con,uct i$ r%gulat%, in
th% int%r%$t o/ th% (u"lic or,%r, an, th% r%gulation r%$ult$ in an in,ir%ct,
con,itional, (artial a"ri,g!%nt o/ $(%%ch, th% ,uty o/ th% court$ i$ to ,%t%r!in%
which o/ th% 2 con/licting int%r%$t$ ,%!an, gr%at%r (rot%ction un,%r th%
circu!$tanc%$ (r%$%nt%,.)
&&. )ay 8enator Iuan Ponce ;nrile pre#ent the mo#ie producer of the
;D8* ' 7e#olution mo#ie from includin/ his participation durin/ the
uprisin/ since it #iolates his ri/ht to pri#acy?
>o, a$ "%tw%%n Enril%<$ right to (ri-acy an, th% /r%%,o! o/ %+(r%$$ion
on th% (art o/ th% !o-i% (ro,uc%r, th% latt%r<$ right (r%-ail "%cau$% Enril%<$ (art
in th% !o-i% ,%al$ $ol%ly on hi$ act$ a$ a (u"lic o//ic%r th%n. *o %+clu,% hi! a$
int%gral (art o/ th% r%-olution woul, "% a ,i$tortion o/ hi$tory. (%Y1!
4!,6CT*+ )&. K6,.1 C%460+., K6%+ 4+C1 1+!*01, 1T %0.,
';: &C!% J;'3
&6. )ay the mother of a murdered )ayor stop the filmin/ of the life
story of her son which would include his alle/ed lo#e affairs which would
blacBen his memory?
G%$. A$ "%tw%%n th% right to (ri-acy in-o5%, "y th% !oth%r an, th%
/r%%,o! o/ %+(r%$$ion in-o5%, "y th% !o-i% (ro,uc%r, th% $tat% $hall "alanc%
th%ir r%$(%cti-% int%r%$t$. #inc% th% !o-i% (ro,uc%r i$ (ri!arily a/t%r (ro/it$
only, th% right to (ri-acy $hall (r%-ail. (Lagun0a, -$. Gon0al%$).

&.. What are the two 325 aspects of the 7'CD9 9: 7;L'C':18
P7:A;88':< *<D W:78D'P ? Distin/uish each.
2& F$##3o% to 7#+i#"#N 2n3
7& F$##3o% to 20t&
59 59
I> th% /ir$t, $uch /r%%,o! i$ a"$olut%. C% !ay in,ulg% in hi$ own
th%ori%$ a"out li/% an, ,%ath1 wor$hi( any go, h% choo$%$, or non% at all. C%
!ay not "% (uni$h%, %-%n i/ h% cannot (ro-% what h% "%li%-%$.
In th% $%con,, i/ th% in,i-i,ual %+t%rnali0%$ what h% "%li%-%$, hi$
/r%%,o! to ,o $o "%co!%$ $u"L%ct to th% authority o/ th% #tat%. *hi$ i$ $o
"%cau$% r%ligiou$ /r%%,o! can "% %+%rci$%, only with ,u% r%gar, to th% right$
o/ oth%r$. E+a!(l%F 4Go /orth an, !ulti(ly???cannot !arry $%-%ral ti!%$ Lu$t to
&-. )ay a Ieho#ah"s Witnesses )ember who is the %ourt 'nterpreter
of 79% 0ranch 2&3= Las Pinas %ity= be held liable for !/rossly immoral
conduct$ for li#in/ with a married man while her #ery own marria/e was still
(R#so+tion o! t*# Motion !o$ R#0onsi3#$2tion)' (=, SCRA <' t*# S1$#%#
Co$t *#+3 t*2t s*# is not +i27+# !o$ gro$$ly i!!oral con,uct "%cau$%F
• #h% i$ a !%!"%r o/ th% A%ho-ah<$ Witn%$$%$ an, th% Watch *ow%r
• *hat th% conLugal arrang%!%nt wa$ in con/or!ity with th%ir
r%ligiou$ "%li%/$1
• *hat th% conLugal arrang%!%nt with Juila(io ha$ th% a((ro-al o/ h%r
E$critor li5%wi$% clai!%, that $h% ha, %+%cut%, a 4'ECLARA*IO>
OF PLE'GI>G FAI*CFUL>E##8 in accor,anc% with h%r r%ligion
which allow$ !%!"%r$ o/ th% A%ho-ah<$ witn%$$%$ who ha-% "%%n
a"an,on%, "y th%ir $(ou$%$ to %nt%r into !arital r%lation$. *h%
'%claration thu$ !a5%$ th% r%$ulting union !oral an, "in,ing within th%
congr%gation all o-%r th% worl, %+c%(t in countri%$ wh%r% ,i-orc% i$
allow%,. E$critor<$ conLugal arrang%!%nt cannot "% (%nali0%, a$ $h% ha$
!a,% out a ca$% /or %+%!(tion /ro! th% law "a$%, on h%r /un,a!%ntal
right to r%ligion.
&,. )ay children of Ieho#ah"s Witnesses in public schools be forced to
sin/ the <ational *nthemO recite the Patriotic Pled/eO and 8alute the Ala/
under pain of bein/ epelled for non(compliance?
>o $inc% $uch i$ in -iolation o/ th%ir r%ligiou$ "%li%/$. (ROEL
#CCOOL# OF CEBU, =arch ), )@@7). R%ligiou$ /r%%,o! i$ $u(%rior to th%
$tatut% r%Euiring th% (u(il$ to sing the +ational %nthem; recite the 4atriotic
4ledge; and &alute the 9lag. The doctrine laid down in .erona vs. &ecretarC of
1ducation was reversed.
6>. Dow may the ri/ht to tra#el be impaired?
*h% li"%rty o/ a"o,% an, o/ changing th% $a!% within th% li!it$
(r%$cri"%, "y law $hall not "% i!(air%, %+c%(t u(on law/ul or,%r o/ th% court.
>%ith%r $hall th% right to tra-%l "% i!(air%, %+c%(t in th% int%r%$t o/ national
$%curity, (u"lic $a/%ty, or (u"lic h%alth, a$ !ay "% (ro-i,%, "y law.
60 60
9). 's the ri/ht to tra#el affected by the Duman 8ecurity *ct?
G%$, 8ection 26 (ro-i,%$ that (%r$on$ who ha-% "%%n charg%, with
t%rrori$! or con$(iracy to co!!it t%rrori$!???%-%n i/ th%y ha-% "%%n grant%,
"ail "%cau$% %-i,%nc% o/ guilt i$ not $trongTcan "%F
• '%tain%, un,%r hou$% arr%$t1
• R%$trict%, /ro! tra-%ling1 an,Qor
U(on a((lication o/ th% (ro$%cutor, th% $u$(%ct<$ right to tra-%l
$hall "% li!it%, to th% !unici(ality or city wh%r% h% r%$i,%$ or wh%r%
th% ca$% i$ (%n,ing, in th% int%r%$t o/ national $%curity an, (u"lic
$a/%ty. *ra-%l out$i,% o/ $ai, !unici(ality or city, without th%
authori0ation o/ th% court, $hall "% ,%%!%, a -iolation o/ th% t%r!$
an, con,ition$ o/ th% "ail which $hall th%n "% /or/%it%, a$ (ro-i,%, in
th% Rul%$ o/ Court.
*h%$% r%$triction$ $hall "% t%r!inat%, u(on acEuittal o/ th%
accu$%,1 or th% ,i$!i$$al o/ th% ca$% /il%, again$t hi!1 or %arli%r u(on
th% ,i$cr%tion o/ th% court or u(on !otion o/ th% (ro$%cutor.
.;& M28 Fo$%#$ P$#si3#nt M2$0os "2+i3+8 0o%1#+ t*# 6o"#$n%#nt to
iss# *i% *is t$2"#+ 121#$s in o$3#$ t*2t *# 0o+3 $#t$n to t*# P*i+i11in#s
!$o% *is US #Di+# in 200o$32n0# 5it* *is 0onstittion2+ $i6*t to t$2"#+A
>o. (FER'I>A>' =ARCO#, E* AL. V#. CO>. RAUL
=A>GLAPU#, E* AL., G.R. >O. MM2)), #%(t%!"%r );, )@M@ an, th%
R%$olution o/ th% =otion /or R%con$i,%ration ,at%, Octo"%r 2:, )@M@). What
i$ (ro-i,%, "y th% Phili((in% Con$titution i$ th% right to tra-%l an, not th% right
to r%turn. *h%$% two (2) right$ ar% ,i//%r%nt un,%r th% Uni-%r$al '%claration o/
Cu!an Right$ an, Int%rnational Co-%nant on Ci-il an, Political Right$. *CE
63. What is the !residual power$ of the President?
It i$ th% (ow%r o/ th% Pr%$i,%nt in "alancing th% g%n%ral w%l/ar% an, th%
co!!on goo, again$t th% %+%rci$% o/ right$ o/ c%rtain in,i-i,ual$. *h% (ow%r
in-ol-%, i$ th% Pr%$i,%ntR$ RE#I'UAL POWER to (rot%ct th% g%n%ral w%l/ar%
o/ th% (%o(l%.
64. )ay a person out on bail be #alidly allowed to tra#el abroad?
G%$, $u"L%ct to th% /ollowing r%Eui$it%$ ( =anotoc -$. CA, )D2 #CRA
61 61
C% !u$t how%-%r H)I con-inc% th% court$ o/ th% urg%ncy o/ hi$ tra-%l,
H2I th% ,uration th%r%o/, an, H7I that hi$ $ur%ti%$ ar% willing to un,%rta5% th%
r%$(on$i"ility o/ allowing hi! to tra-%l.
6&. 's the ri/ht to information on matters of public concern absolute?
>o. Whil% th% right o/ th% (%o(l% to in/or!ation on !att%r$ o/ (u"lic
conc%rn $hall "% r%cogni0%, an, acc%$$ to o//icial r%cor,$O$hall "% a//or,%,
th% citi0%n, it !u$t "% $u"L%ct to $uch li!itation$ a$ !ay "% (ro-i,%, "y law a$
w%ll a$ r%a$ona"l% con,ition$ i!(o$%, "y (u"lic o//icial$ in cu$to,y o/ $ai,
r%cor,$ li5% th% (ay!%nt o/ th% %+(%n$%$ o/ r%(ro,uction o/ (u"lic ,ocu!%nt$1
th% r%Eu%$t !u$t "% ,on% ,uring o//ic% hour$, %tc.
66. )ay the %:);L;% be compelled to publish the names of the
nominees of the different party(list /roups for the )ay 14= 2>>. elections
despite the prohibition on such publication as embodied by the Party(List
GE#, th% CO=ELEC !u$t (u"li$h th% $a!% ,%$(it% th%
(rohi"ition in th% law. #uch (rohi"ition -iolat%$ th% right to in/or!ation on
!att%r$ o/ (u"lic conc%rn on th% (art o/ th% citi0%n. (BA>*AG REPUBLIC
V#. CO=ELEC, =AG D, 2BB:)
6.. )ay the President #alidly prohibit members of her %abinet as well
as other officers in the eecuti#e department from attendin/ in#esti/ations in
aid of le/islation by %on/ress?
>o. #uch woul, -iolat% th% right o/ th% (%o(l% to in/or!ation on !att%r$
o/ (u"lic conc%rn. It i$ only through $ai, in-%$tigation$ that th% (%o(l% will "%
in/or!%, o/ th% wor5ing$ o/ th% ,i//%r%nt ,%(art!%nt$ o/ th% go-%rn!%nt.
ET AL&' G&R& No& <.F--' A1$i+ ;=' ;==. )

6-. )ay a 0aran/ay #alidly eercise the power of eminent domain?
G%$, $u"L%ct to th% a((ro-al "y th% Pr%$i,%nt.( Barangay =atictic -$.
El"inia$, )DM #CRA M7)
6,. What are the requisites before an epropriator may #alidly obtain a
writ of possession to taBe o#er possession of the epropriated property?
It ,%(%n,$F
<& I/ th% %+(ro(riation i$ /or a 4N2tion2+ 6o"#$n%#nt 1$oI#0ts8 or
4n2tion2+ in!$2st$0t$# 1$oI#0ts8, li5% tho$% co-%r%, "y th% 4Buil,?
O(%rat%?*ran$/%r8, RA M@:D $hall "% /ollow%,. *hi$ !%an$ that th%r%
!u$t "% a HaI Co!(laint /or %+(ro(riation which i$ $u//ici%nt in /or! an,
in $u"$tanc%1 an, H2I th% )BB6 o/ th% !ar5%t -alu% o/ th% (ro(%rty
$ought to "% %+(ro(riat%, !u$t /ir$t "% (ai, to th% own%r o/ th% (ro(%rty.
(-, SCRA (-()
62 62
;& In or,inary %+(ro(riation ca$%$, th% rul% i$ that in th% ca$% o/ BIGLA>G?
AWA V#. AU'GE BACALLA, 7;D #CRA ;92. It (ro-i,%$F
PUR#UA>* *O #EC*IO> 2, RULE 9: OF *CE )@@: RULE# OF
• t*# !i+in6 o! 2 0o%1+2int !o$ #D1$o1$i2tion s!!i0i#nt in !o$%
2n3 s7st2n0#N 2n3
• t*# %2?in6 o! 2 3#1osit #4i"2+#nt to t*# ASSESSED VALUE
)& I/ th% %+(ro(riation i$ "%ing ,on% "y a Local Go-%rn!%nt Unit, th%
#u(r%!% Court ,%ci$ion in th% ca$% o/ THE CITY OF ILOILO VS&
co!(li%, withF
). th% co!(laint /or %+(ro(riation /il%, in court i$
$u//ici%nt in /or! an, $u"$tanc%1 an,
;& t*# #D1$o1$i2to$ %st 3#1osit t*# 2%ont
#4i"2+#nt to </P o! t*# !2i$ %2$?#t "2+# o!
t*# 1$o1#$t8 to 7# #D1$o1$i2t#3 72s#3 on its
0$$#nt t2D 3#0+2$2tion&
.>. Who determines the 2ust compensation in epropriation cases?
What are the factors to be considered in determinin/ the same?
'%t%r!ination o/ Lu$t co!(%n$ation i$ a Lu,icial /unction with th%
a$$i$tanc% or r%co!!%n,ation o/ th% court?a((oint%, co!!i$$ion%r$. (=anoto5
-$. CA, =ay 2),)@M:)
*h% /actor$ to "% con$i,%r%, in ,%t%r!ining th% Lu$t
co!(%n$ationQ!ar5%t -alu% ar%F

). co$t o/ acEui$ition1
2. th% curr%nt -alu% o/ li5% (ro%rti%$1
7. it$ actual or (ot%ntial u$%$1
D. (articular ca$% o/ lan,$1
;. th%ir $i0%, $ha(%, location1 an,
9. th% ta+ ,%claration$ th%r%on.
Finally, not% that a$ h%l, in th% ca$% o/ R%(u"lic -$. #anto$, )D)
#CRA 7B, th% !ar5%t -alu% a$ r%co!!%n,%, "y th% "oar, o/ co!!i$$ion%r$
a((oint%, "y th% court w%r% at "%$t only A'VI#ORG A>' PER#UA#IVE
'%c%!"%r )D, )@@2).
.1. What are the requisites of !taBin/$ in epropriation cases?
*h% R%Eui$it%$ o/ ta5ing ar%F
63 63
a. th% %+(ro(riator !u$t %nt%r th% (ro(%rty1
". th% %ntranc% !u$t not "% /or Lu$t a !o!%ntary (%rio,1
c. th% %ntry !u$t "% un,%r warrant o/ color or titl%1
,. th% (ro(%rty !u$t "% ,%-ot%, /or (u"lic u$%1 an,
%. th% own%r !u$t "% ou$t%, /ro! "%n%/icial u$% o/ hi$ lan,. (R%(. -$.
Ca$t%ll-i, ;M #CRA 779)

.2. )ay a pri#ate property already used as a pri#ate cemetery be
epropriated for a public purposeK
>o, a (ri-at% (ro(%rty which i$ alr%a,y ,%-ot%, to (u"lic u$% !ay not "%
%+(ro(riat%, /or anoth%r (u"lic (ur(o$%. (City o/ =anila -$. Chin%$%
Co!!unity, DB Phil. 7D@).
.3. What are the ri/hts of a person under custodial in#esti/ation under
the !)ahinay Doctrine$ or the !;panded )iranda Doctrine$?
*h% right$ ar%F
). *h% (%r$on arr%$t%,, ,%tain%,, in-it%, or un,%r cu$to,ial
in-%$tigation !u$t "% in/or!%, in a languag% 5nown to an,
un,%r$too, "y hi! o/ th% r%a$on /or th% arr%$t an, h% !u$t "%
$hown a co(y o/ th% warrant o/ arr%$t, i/ any1 E-%ry oth%r
warning$, in/or!ation or co!!unication !u$t "% in a
languag% 5nown to an, un,%r$too, "y $ai, (%r$on1
2. C% !u$t "% warn%, that h% ha$ th% right to r%!ain $il%nt an,
that any $tat%!%nt h% !a5%$ !ay "% u$%, a$ %-i,%nc% again$t
7. C% !u$t "% in/or!%, that h% ha$ th% right to "% a$$i$t%, at all
ti!%$ an, ha-% th% (r%$%nc% o/ an in,%(%n,%nt an, co!(%t%nt
lawy%r, (r%/%ra"ly o/ hi$ own choic%1
D. C% !u$t "% in/or!%, that i/ h% ha$ no lawy%r or cannot a//or,
th% $%r-ic%$ o/ a lawy%r, on% will "% (ro-i,%, /or hi!1 an, that
a lawy%r !ay al$o "% %ngag%, "y any (%r$on in hi$ "%hal/, or
!ay "% a((oint%, "y th% court u(on (%tition o/ th% (%r$on
arr%$t%, or on% acting in hi$ "%hal/1
;. *hat wh%th%r or not th% (%r$on arr%$t%, ha$ a lawy%r, , h% !u$t
"% in/or!%, that no cu$to,ial in-%$tigation in any /or! $hall
"% con,uct%, %+c%(t in th% (r%$%nc% o/ hi$ coun$%l or a/t%r a
-ali, wai-%r ha$ "%%n !a,%1
9. *h% (%r$on arr%$t%, !u$t "% in/or!%, that, at any ti!%, h% ha$
th% right to co!!unicat% or con/%r "y th% !o$t %+(%,i%nt
!%an$???t%l%(hon%, ra,io, l%tt%r or !%$$%ng%r???with hi$ lawy%r
(%ith%r r%tain%, or a((oint%,), any !%!"%r o/ hi$ i!!%,iat%
/a!ily1 or any !%,ical ,octor, (ri%$t or !ini$t%r cho$%n "y hi!
or "y any on% /ro! hi$ i!!%,iat% /a!ily or "y hi$ coun$%l, or
"% -i$it%, "yQcon/%r with ,uly accr%,it%, national or
int%rnational non?go-%rn!%ntal organi0ation. I* #CALL BE
64 64
:. C% !u$t "% in/or!%, that h% ha$ th% right to wai-% any o/ $ai,
right$ (ro-i,%, it i$ !a,% -oluntarily, 5nowingly an,
int%llig%ntly an, %n$ur% that h% un,%r$too, th% $a!%1
M. In a,,ition, i/ th% (%r$on arr%$t%, wai-%$ hi$ right to a lawy%r,
h% !u$t "% in/or!%, that it !u$t "% ,on% in writing A>' in
th% (r%$%nc% o/ coun$%l, oth%rwi$%, h% !u$t "% warn%, that th%
wai-%r i$ -oi, %-%n i/ h% in$i$t on hi$ wai-%r an, choo$%$ to
@. *hat th% (%r$on arr%$t%, !u$t "% in/or!%, that h% !ay
in,icat% in any !ann%r at any ti!% or $tat% o/ th% (roc%$$ that
h% ,o%$ not wi$h to "% Eu%$tion%, with th% warning that onc%
h% !a5%$ $uch in,ication, th% (olic% !ay not int%rrogat% hi! i/
th% $a!% ha, not y%t co!!%nc%,, or th% int%rrogation ha$
)B. *h% (%r$on arr%$t%, !u$t "% in/or!%, that hi$ initial wai-%r o/
hi$ right to r%!ain $il%nt, th% right to coun$%l or any o/ hi$
right$ ,o%$ not "ar hi! /ro! in-o5ing it at any oth%r ti!%
,uring th% (roc%$$, r%gar,l%$$ o/ wh%th%r h% !ay ha-%
an$w%r%, $o!% Eu%$tion$ or -olunt%%r%, $o!% in/or!ation or
)). C% !u$t "% in/or!%, that any $tat%!%nt OR EVI'E>CE, a$
th% ca$% !ay "%, o"tain%, in -iolation o/ any o/ th% /or%going,
wh%th%r incul(atory or %+cul(atory, in whol% or in (art,
.4. What are the ri/hts of a person under !custodial detention$ for
one suspected or arrested as a terrorist under the Duman 8ecurity *ct?
*h% right$ ar% %!"o,i%, un,%r #%ction 2) th%r%o/ which
8ection 21. Right$ o/ a (%r$on un,%r cu$to,ial ,%t%ntion.? *h%
!o!%nt a (%r$on charg%, with or $u$(%ct%, o/ th% cri!% o/ t%rrori$! or
th% cri!% o/ con$(iracy to co!!it t%rrori$! i$ a((r%h%n,%, or arr%$t%,
an, ,%tain%,, h% $hall /orthwith "% in/or!%, "y th% arr%$ting (olic% or
law %n/orc%!%nt o//ic%r$ to who$% cu$to,y th% (%r$on conc%rn%, i$
"rought, o/ hi$ or h%r rightF
). to "% in/or!%, o/ th% natur% an, cau$% o/ hi$ arr%$t, to
r%!ain $il%nt an, to ha-% co!(%t%nt an, in,%(%n,%nt
coun$%l (r%/%ra"ly o/ hi$ own choic%. I/ th% (%r$on cannot
a//or, th% $%r-ic%$ o/ coun$%l o/ hi$ or h%r choic%, th%
(olic% or law %n/orc%!%nt o//ic%r$ conc%rn%, $hall
i!!%,iat%ly contact th% /r%% l%gal a$$i$tanc% unit o/ th% IBP
or th% Pu"lic attorn%y<$ o//ic% (PAO). It $hall "% th% ,uty o/
th% /r%% l%gal a$$i$tanc% unit o/ th% IBP or th% PAO<$ thu$
65 65
contact%, to i!!%,iat%ly -i$it th% (%r$on ,%tain%, an,
(ro-i,% hi! with l%gal a$$i$tanc%. *h%$% right$ cannot "%
wai-%, %+c%(t in writing an, in th% (r%$%nc% o/ th% coun$%l
o/ choic%1
2. in/or!%, o/ th% cau$% or cau$%$ o/ hi$ ,%t%ntion in th%
(r%$%nc% o/ hi$ l%gal coun$%l1
7. allow%, to co!!unicat% /r%%ly with hi$ l%gal coun$%l an,
to con/%r with th%! at any ti!% without r%$triction1
D. allow%, to co!!unicat% /r%%ly an, (ri-at%ly without
r%$triction$ with th% !%!"%r$ o/ hi$ /a!ily or with hi$
n%ar%$t r%lati-%$ an, "% -i$it%, "y th%!1 an,
;. allow%, /r%%ly to a-ail o/ th% $%r-ic%$ o/ a (hy$ician or
(hy$ician$ o/ choic%.
.&. *re the abo#e ri/hts a#ailable to a suspect if he is under
in#esti/ation by by a pri#ate person?
AR., %t al., D:; #CRA 2DM). *h% clai! that hi$ a//i,a-it i$ ina,!i$$i"l% in
%-i,%nc% in accor,anc% with $%ction )2 H)I o/ th% Bill o/ Right$ i$ not t%na"l%.
*h% 4in-%$tigation8 un,%r $ai, (ro-i$ion r%/%r$ to 4cu$to,ial in-%$tigation
wh%r% a $u$(%ct ha$ alr%a,y "%%n ta5%n into (olic% cu$to,y an, that th%
in-%$tigating o//ic%r$ "%gin to a$5 Eu%$tion$ to %licit in/or!ation an,
con/%$$ion$ or a,!i$$ion$ /ro! th% $u$(%ct. #uccinctly $tat%,, cu$to,ial
in-%$tigation r%/%r$ to th% critical (r%?trial $tag% wh%n th% in-%$tigation c%a$%$
to "% a g%n%ral inEuiry into an un$ol-%, cri!% "ut ha$ "%gan to /ocu$ on a
(articular (%r$on a$ a $u$(%ct (P%o(l% -$. 'u%na$, Ar., D29 #CRA 999). Cl%arly,
th%r%/or%, th% right$ %nu!%rat%, "y th% accu$%, ar% not a-aila"l% BEFORE
GOVER>=E>* I>VE#*IGA*OR# E>*ER *CE PIC*URE. *h% (rot%cti-%
!antl% o/ $%ction )2, articl% III ,o%$ not a((ly to a,!ini$trati-% in-%$tigation$
(P%o(l% -$. Au,g% Ay$on, ):; #CRA 2)9)1 con/%$$ion to a (ri-at% in,i-i,ual
(Pi!(o -$. CA, 272 #CRA ;7)1 -%r"al a,!i$$ion !a,% to a ra,io announc%r
who wa$ not a (art o/ th% in-%$tigation (P%o(l% -$. Or,ono, 77D #CRA 9:7)1
or %-%n to a =ayor a((roach%, a$ a (%r$onal con/i,ant% an, not in hi$ o//icial
ca(acity (P%o(l% -$. u%la, 727 #CRA ;M@). In /act, %-%n a -i,%ota(%,
int%r-i%w wh%r% th% accu$%, willingly a,!it hi$ guilt in th% (r%$%nc% o/
n%w$!%n i$ not co-%r%, "y th% $ai, (ro-i$ion though th% trial court$ w%r%
warn%, "y th% $u(r%!% Court to ta5% %+tr%!% caution in a,!itting $i!ilar
con/%$$ion$ "%cau$% o/ th% ,i$tinct (o$$i"ility that th% (olic%, with th%
conni-anc% o/ un$cru(ulou$ !%,ia (ractition%r$, !ay att%!(t to l%giti!i0%
co%rc%, %+traLu,icial con/%$$ion$ an, (lac% th%! "%yon, th% %+clu$ionary rul%
"y ha-ing an accu$%, a,!it an o//%n$% on t%l%-i$ion (P%o(l% -$. En,ino, 7;7
#CRA 7B:).
.6. When is custodial in#esti/ation deemed to ha#e started so as to
entitle the suspect to be informed of his ri/hts under the )ahinay Doctrine F
Cu$to,ial in-%$tigation "%gin$ wh%n it i$ no long%r a g%n%ral inEuiry into
an un$ol-%, cri!% "ut $tart$ to /ocu$ on a (articular (%r$on a$ a $u$(%ct, i.%.,
wh%n th% (olic% in-%$tigator $tart$ int%rrogating or %+acting con/%$$ion /ro! th%
$u$(%ct in conn%ction with an all%g%, o//%n$%.
66 66
BY THE POLICE AUTHORITIES. T*s' t*#$# 52s 0sto3i2+
in"#sti62tion 5*#n t*# 1o+i0# 2t*o$iti#s' 1on t*#i$ 2$$#st o! so%# o! t*#
200s#3' i%%#3i2t#+8 2s?#3 t*#% $#62$3in6 t*#i$ 12$ti0i12tion in t*#
0o%%ission o! t*# 0$i%# ' #"#n 5*i+# t*#8 5#$# sti++ 52+?in6 2+on6 t*#
*i6*528 on t*#i$ 528 to t*# 1o+i0# st2tion& (PEOPLE V#. BARIJUI*, 7D)
... *re spontaneous admissions made before a person could be
informed of his ri/hts durin/ custodial in#esti/ation admissible as e#idence?
G%$. S1ont2n#os st2t#%#nts "o+nt2$i+8 6i"#n' 2s 5*#$#
211#++2nt o$2++8 23%itt#3 ?i++in6 t*# "i0ti% 7#!o$# t*# 72$2n628
021t2in (5*o is n#it*#$ 2 1o+i0# o!!i0#$ no$ 2 +25 #n!o$0#%#nt 26#nt)'
3o not !2++ n3#$ 0sto3i2+ in"#sti62tion& S0* 23%ission' #"#n
5it*ot t*# 2ssist2n0# o! 2 +258#$' 3o#s not "io+2t# 211#++2nt>s
0onstittion2+ $i6*ts AND THEREFORE ADMISSIBLE IN
EVIDENCE& (PEOPLE V#. 'A>O, G.R. >O. )):9@B, 77@ #CRA ;);,
#EP*. ), 2BBB1 PEOPLE V#. =AGORGA, G.R. >O. )7;DB;, 7D9
#CRA D;M, >OVE=BER 2@, 2BBB).
.-. What are the requisites before an etra2udicial confession is
*o "% a,!i$$i"l% in %-i,%nc%, an %+traLu,icial con/%$$ion !u$t
"%F (i) -oluntary1 (ii) !a,% with th% assistance of competent and
independent counsel1 (iii) %+(r%$$1 an, (i-) in writing.
A $u$(%ct<$ con/%$$ion, wh%th%r -%r"al or non?-%r"al, wh%n ta5%n
without th% a$$i$tanc% o/ coun$%l, without a -ali, wai-%r o/ $uch
a$$i$tanc%, r%gar,l%$$ o/ th% a"$%nc% o/ co%rcion or th% /act that it ha,
"%%n -oluntarily gi-%n, i$ ina,!i$$i"l% in %-i,%nc%, %-%n i/ a((%llant<$
con/%$$ion w%r% go$(%l truth. (PEOPLE V#. 'A>O, G.R. >O. )):9@B,
77@ #CRA ;);, #EP*. ), 2BBB1 PEOPLE V#. #A=OL'E, G.R. >O.
)2M;;), 779 #CRA 972, AUL. 7), 2BBB).
*o "% a,!i$$i"l% in %-i,%nc%, an %+traLu,icial con/%$$ion
!u$t "%F (i) -oluntary1 (ii) !a,% with th% assistance of competent
and independent counsel1 (iii) %+(r%$$1 an, (i-) in writing.
A $u$(%ct<$ con/%$$ion, wh%th%r -%r"al or non?-%r"al, wh%n
ta5%n without th% a$$i$tanc% o/ coun$%l, without a -ali, wai-%r o/
$uch a$$i$tanc%, r%gar,l%$$ o/ th% a"$%nc% o/ co%rcion or th% /act
that it ha, "%%n -oluntarily gi-%n, i$ ina,!i$$i"l% in %-i,%nc%,
%-%n i/ a((%llant<$ con/%$$ion w%r% go$(%l truth.
.,. 's the presence of a lawyer to assist the suspect durin/ custodial
in#esti/ation sufficient to comply with the requirements of the %onstitution?
67 67
No& As *#+3 in PEOPLE VS& PATUNGAN' )/( SCRA (<)' t*#
%#$# 1$#s#n0# o! 2 +258#$ is not s!!i0i#nt 0o%1+i2n0# 5it* t*#
0onstittion2+ $#4i$#%#nt o! 2ssist2n0# o! 0ons#+& Assist2n0# o! 0ons#+
%st 7# #!!#0ti"#' "i6i+2nt 2n3 in3#1#n3#nt& A +258#$ 5*o 0o+3 Ist *#2$
t*# in"#sti62tion 6oin6 on 5*i+# 5o$?in6 on 2not*#$ 02s# *2$3+8 s2tis!i#s
t*# %ini%% $#4i$#%#nts o! #!!#0ti"# 2ssist2n0# o! 0ons#+& Not on+8 52s
t*# 200s#3 s7I#0t#3 to 0sto3i2+ in"#sti62tion 5it*ot 0ons#+' *# 52s
+i?#5is# 3#ni#3 #!!#0ti"# 2ssist2n0# o! 0ons#+ 3$in6 t*# t2?in6 o! *is
#Dt$2-I3i0i2+ 0on!#ssion&
->. Arom what time must the counsel assist the suspect durin/
custodial in#esti/ation? Who must choose such counsel?
In PEOPLE V. AI=E>E, G.R. >o. M29BD. '%c%!"%r )2, )@@), it wa$
h%l, that th% coun$%l !u$t "% (r%$%nt /ro! th% inc%(tion o/ th% cu$to,ial
in-%$tigation not at any ti!% th%r%a/t%r. Al$o, th% lawy%r who a$$i$t$ th% $u$(%ct
un,%r cu$to,ial int%rrogation $houl, "% o/ th% latt%rR$ own choic%, not on%
/oi$t%, on hi! "y th% (olic% in-%$tigator$ or oth%r (arti%$. In thi$ ca$%, th%
/or!%r Lu,g% who$% a$$i$tanc% wa$ r%Eu%$t%, "y th% (olic% wa$ %-i,%ntly not o/
=arco$ Ai!%n%0R own choic%1 $h% wa$ th% (olic% o//ic%r$R own choic%1 $h% ,i,
not a$5 =arco$ i/ h% wa$ willing to ha-% h%r r%(r%$%nt hi!. *hi$ i$ not th%
!o,% o/ $olicitation o/ l%gal a$$i$tanc% cont%!(lat%, "y th% Con$titution.
Furth%r!or%, th% /or!%r Lu,g% wa$ not (r%$%nt wh%n =arco$ wa$ "%ing
int%rrogat%, "y th% (olic%. Whil% $h% a$5%, hi! i/ h% ha, -oluntarily gi-%n th%
$tat%!%nt$ contain%, in th% ty(%writt%n ,ocu!%nt, thi$ i$ /ar /ro! "%ing
$u"$tantial co!(lianc% with th% con$titutional ,uty o/ (olic% in-%$tigator$
,uring cu$to,ial int%rrogation.
-1. 's the etra2udicial confession of a suspect obtained without the
assistance of a lawyer= but speaBs of /ospel truth= admissible in e#idence?
CABILE#, 2MD #CRA )@@1 an, PEOPLE V#. *A>, 2M9 #CRA 2B:, it wa$ h%l,
that %-%n i/ th% con/%$$ion o/ th% accu$%, $(%a5$ th% truth, i/ it wa$ !a,%
without th% a$$i$tanc% o/ coun$%l, it i$ ina,!i$$i"l% in %-i,%nc% r%gar,l%$$ o/
th% a"$%nc% o/ co%rcion or %-%n i/ it wa$ -oluntarily gi-%n.
In or,%r that a con/%$$ion i$ a,!i$$i"l%, th% /ollowing r%Eui$it%$ !u$t "%
a. th% con/%$$ion !u$t "% -oluntary1
". th% con/%$$ion !u$t "% !a,% with th% a$$i$tanc% o/ a co!(%t%nt an,
in,%(%n,%nt coun$%l1
c. th% con/%$$ion !u$t "% %+(r%$$1 an,
,. th% con/%$$ion !u$t "% in writing.
*h% a"o-% r%Euir%!%nt$, how%-%r, ar% not a((lica"l% wh%n th% $u$(%ct
!a5%$ an $(ontan%ou$ $tat%!%nt, not %licit%, through Eu%$tioning "y th%
authoriti%$, BU* GIVE> I> A> OR'I>ARG =A>>ER WCEREBG *CE
*hi$ wa$ th% ,%ci$ion o/ th% #u(r%!% Court in th% ca$% o/ PEOPLE VS&
ANDAN' M2$0* )' <FF- wh%n th% accu$%, !a,% a -oluntary an, -%r"al
68 68
con/%$$ion to th% =unici(al =ayor that h% co!!itt%, th% cri!% i!(ut%, to
hi!. A$ $uch, hi$ uncoun$%ll%, con/%$$ion i$ a,!i$$i"l% in %-i,%nc%&
-2. What are the two 325 Binds of coerced or in#oluntary confessions
under 8ection 12= *rt. ''' of the %onstitution?
*h% two (2) 5in,$ o/ in-oluntary or co%rc%, con/%$$ion$ un,%r Art. III,
#%ction )2 o/ th% Con$titution. *h%$% ar%F
a. con/%$$ion which ar% th% (ro,uct o/ thir, ,%gr%% !%tho,$ $uch a$
tortur%, /orc%, -iol%nc%, thr%at, inti!i,ation1 an,
". tho$% which ar% gi-%n without th% "%n%/it o/ =iran,a Warning$.
-3. What is the status of coerced confessions as e#idence in court?
Co%rc%, or in-oluntary con/%$$ion$ ar% ina,!i$$i"l% a$ %-i,%nc% "%ing
th% 4/ruit o/ th% (oi$on%, tr%%.8
-4. 's the ri/ht to counsel satisfied if the suspect was assisted by the
8tation %ommander of the Western Police District while he was bein/
in#esti/ated by the policemen of the same station? Dow about if the
in#esti/ation is bein/ conducted by the <0' and the suspect was ordered
assisted by a lawyer(applicant therein?
*h%r% i$ no co!(lianc% o/ th% con$titutional r%Euir%!%nt o/ co!(%t%nt
an, in,%(%n,%nt coun$%l to a$$i$t an accu$%, ,uring cu$to,ial in-%$tigation
wh%n th% accu$%, wa$ a$$i$t%, "y th% #tation Co!!an,%r o/ th% WP', Atty.
'% lo$ R%y%$, whil% "%ing in-%$tigat%, "y oth%r (olic%!%n o/ th% $a!% (olic%
$tation "%cau$% th% int%r%$t o/ th% (olic% i$ naturally a,-%r$% to th% accu$%,. In
/act, th% #C in th% ca$% o/ PEOPLE V#. AA>UARIO, 29: #CRA 9BM h%l, that
a lawy%r a((lying /or a (o$ition in th% >BI coul, not -ali,ly a$$i$t an accu$%,
"%ing in-%$tigat%, th%n "y th% >BI. (PEOPLE V#. OBRERO, 772 #CRA )@B)
-&. 's the ri/ht to counsel a#ailable to a suspect durin/ a police line(
*h% #u(r%!% Court ha, con/licting ,%ci$ion$ on thi$ a$(%ct "ut %n,%, u(
with th% rul% that $inc% th% accu$%, will not "% !a,% to !a5% any t%$ti!ony
,uring th% (olic% lin%?u(, th%n h% i$ not un,%r cu$to,ial in-%$tigation an,
th%r%/or%, th%r% i$ no n%%, /or hi! to "% a$$i$t%, "y a lawy%r. ( P -$. U$!an
Ca$$an, );: #CRA 29)1 Ga!"oa -$. Au,g% Cru0, )92 #CRA 9D21 'E LA
*ORRE V#. CA, 2@D #CRA )@9 an, PEOPLE V#. CA**O>)
-6. 's there a #alid custodial in#esti/ation if the lawyer who assisted
him durin/ custodial in#esti/ation is a public attorney who was not chosen
by the accused himself but /i#en to him free of char/e? %ould the Aiscal also
represent the accused durin/ custodial in#esti/ation to satisfy the
requirement of the %onstitution that the accused is assisted by counsel?
*h% coun$%l !u$t "% th% choic% o/ th% accu$%, or $u$(%ct. (P. -$. Al%gria,
#%(t%!"%r 2M, )@@B) Al$o, th% Fi$cal coul, not ha-% (rot%ct%, th% right$ o/ th%
69 69
$u$(%ct, %-%n i/ th%y ar% 5nown to %ach oth%r, $inc% th% Fi$cal i$ th%r% /or th%
(ri-at% co!(lainant. (P. -$. =ato$?Vi,uaya, #%(t%!"%r )), )@@B)
-.. 'f the etra2udicial admission or confession of the accused is
declared inadmissible as e#idence= must the accused be acquitted as a matter
of ri/ht?
)2;777, =arch 2B, 2BB2, th% #u(r%!% Court h%l, that though th% %+traLu,icial
con/%$$ion o/ th% accu$%, wa$ ,%clar%, ina,!i$$i"l% /or -iolation o/ hi$ right to
coun$%l, i/ th%r% ar% %-i,%nc% $u//ici%nt to (ro-% hi$ guilt "%yon, r%a$ona"l%
,ou"t, li5% circu!$tantial %-i,%nc%, th%n h% can $till "% con-ict%, o/ th% cri!%
charg%,. *hi$ i$ $o "%cau$% H)I th% co!(ro!i$ing circu!$tanc%$ w%r% ,uly
(ro-%n which w%r% con$i$t%nt with %ach oth%r an, which l%a, with !oral
c%rtainty to th% conclu$ion that h% wa$ guilty o/ th% cri!% charg%,1 an, H2I th%
totality o/ $uch circu!$tanc%$ %li!inat%, "%yon, ,ou"t th% (o$$i"ility o/ hi$
innoc%nc%. In P%o(l% -$. =ahinay, it wa$ h%l, that con-iction !ay "% ha, on
circu!$tantial %-i,%nc% (ro-i,%, th% /ollowing r%Eui$it%$ ar% (r%$%ntF HaI th%r%
i$ !or% than on% circu!$tanc%1 H"I th% /act$ /ro! which th% in/%r%nc%$ ar%
,%ri-%, ar% (ro-%n1 an, HcI th% co!"ination o/ all circu!$tanc%$ i$ $uch a$ to
(ro,uc% a con-iction "%yon, r%a$ona"l% ,ou"t.
--. )ay a con#icted person be released from 2ail throu/h
52s *#+3 t*2t $#s1on3#nt E36# is 6i+t8 o! 6$oss i6no$2n0# o! t*# +25 !o$
o$3#$in6 t*# $#+#2s# o! B2621o$o 1#n3in6 t*# 211$o"2+ o! *is 211+i02tion
!o$ 12$o+# 2n3 7#!o$# t*# 0o%1+#tion o! t*# %ini%% 1#$io3 o! t*#
s#nt#n0# i%1os#3 1on *i%& It is 12t#nt+8 #$$on#os to $#+#2s# 2 0on"i0t on
$#0o6niK2n0#& S#0tion ;(' R+# <<( 1$o"i3#s t*2t t*#$# s*2++ no 72i+ !o$ 2
0on"i0t 2!t#$ !in2+ I36%#nt& T*# on+8 #D0#1tion is 5*#n t*# 0on"i0t
211+i#s !o$ P$o72tion 7#!o$# *# 0o%%#n0#s to s#$"# *is s#nt#n0# 2n3 t*2t
t*# o!!#ns# 2n3 t*# 1#n2+t8 !o$ t*# o!!#ns# is 5it*in t*# 1$"i#5 o! t*#
P$o72tion L25&
#%ction$ ; an, )9 o/ Rul% ))D o/ th% Rul%$ o/ Court (on th% ,i//%r%nt
5in,$ o/ "ail) APPLIE# O>LG *O A> ACCU#E' U>'ERGOI>G
-,. )ay a 2ud/e require !cash bond$ only?
>o. *h% Rul%$ (ro-i,%$ /or /our (D) way$ o/ (o$ting "on, an, it i$ gra-%
a"u$% o/ ,i$cr%tion on th% (art o/ th% Lu,g% to r%Euir% ca$h "on, only. (Al!%,a
-$. Villalu0, 99 #CRA 7M).
,>. )ay an accused char/ed of a capital offense and the e#idence of
/uilt is stron/ be /ranted bail?
70 70
G%$. *h% (ur(o$% o/ th% "on, i$ to a$$ur% th% court o/ th% (r%$%nc% o/ th%
accu$%, ,uring th% trial o/ hi$ ca$%. I/ th% (ro"a"ility o/ 4/light8 i$ nil, th%n th%
accu$%, !ay "% allow%, to (o$t "ail. (BEL*RA> V#. *CE #ECRE*ARG OF
AU#*ICE, A(ril, 2BB:)
,1. )ay a person sub2ect of etradition from another country and
where the cases a/ainst him in said country are bailable= be allowed to post
bail pendin/ the etradition hearin/s?
No& A$ h%l, in U>I*E' #*A*E# V#. AU'GE PURUGGA>A>
& =ARP AU=E>E, >o-%!"%r, 2BB2, a (%r$on /acing %+tra,ition
(roc%%,ing$ i$ not %ntitl%, to "ail %-%n i/ th% cri!% h% wa$ charg%, o/ in a
/or%ign country i$ "aila"l%. *hi$ i$ $o "%cau$% th% con$titutional (ro-i$ion on
th% right to "ail un,%r Art. III o/ th% )@M: Con$titution a((li%$ only to cri!inal
ca$%$, not in %+tra,ition (roc%%,ing$. (EDUARDO RODRIGUE@ VS& THE
PRESIDING EUDGE' RTC <-' MANILA' (,) SCRA ;F=)& T*is is so
7#02s# o! t*# 1ossi7i+it8 o! !+i6*t
,2. 'n etradition cases= is the respondent therein entitled to notice and
hearin/ before the issuance of a warrant of arrest a/ainst him?
>o. In #ECRE*ARG OF AU#*ICE V#. AU'GE LA>*IO>, 722 #CRA
)9B (*h% =ar5 Ai!%n%0 Ca$%) , th% #u(r%!% Court on a @?9 -ot% h%l, that th%
%+tra,it%% i$ %ntitl%, to notic% an, h%aring wh%n a r%Eu%$t /or %+tra,ition "y
anoth%r country i$ $till "%ing %-aluat%,. Cow%-%r, on =otion /or
R%con$i,%ration in th% $a!% ca$%, in a @?9 ,%ci$ion, th% #u(r%!% Court h%l,
that th% (ro$(%cti-% %+tra,it%% i$ not %ntitl%, to notic% an, h%aring whil% hi$
ca$% i$ $till un,%r %-aluation "%cau$% thi$ woul, ,%/%at th% (ur(o$% o/ th% arr%$t
warrant $inc% it coul, gi-% warning that r%$(on,%nt$ woul, "% arr%$t%, an,
%-%n %ncourag% th%! to /l%% "ut %ntitl%, to notic% an, h%aring i/ th% ca$% i$
alr%a,y /il%, in court. (E'UAR'O RO'RIGUE V#. *CE PRE#I'I>G
AU'GE, R*C ):, =A>ILA, DM7 #CRA 2@B)
It i$ a ,i//%r%nt !att%r i/ at /ir$t, th% %+tra,it%% wa$ allow%, "ail. *h%
canc%llation o/ hi$ "ail "on, !ay "% !a,% only a/t%r notic% an, h%aring.
Oth%rwi$%, hi$ right to ,u% (roc%$$ o/ law will "% -iolat%,.
,3. What is the !;P1'P:'8; 71L;$?
I/ th% %-i,%nc% in a cri!inal ca$% i$ %-%nly "alanc%,, th% con$titutional
(r%$u!(tion o/ innoc%nc% tilt$ th% $cal% o/ Lu$tic% in /a-or o/ th% accu$%, an,
h% $houl, "% acEuitt%, /ro! th% cri!% charg%,. Wh%r% th% incul(atory /act$ an,
circu!$tanc%$ ar% ca(a"l% o/ two or !or% int%r(r%tation$ on% o/ which i$
con$i$t%nt with th% innoc%nc% o/ th% accu$%, an, th% oth%r con$i$t%nt with hi$
guilt, th%n th% %-i,%nc% ,o%$ not /ul/ill th% t%$t o/ !oral c%rtainty an, i$ not
$u//ici%nt to $u((ort a con-iction "%cau$% o/ th% accu$%,<$ con$titutional
(r%$u!(tion o/ innoc%nc%.(PEOPLE VS& DE LOS SANTOS' )// SCRA (</)
,4. )ay the court re#erse the order of trial in a criminal case?
>o. $uch woul, -iolat% th% right o/ th% accu$%, to (r%$u!(tion o/
innoc%nc%. *o "% r%Euir%, to (r%$%nt hi$ %-i,%nc% /ir$t woul, "% !a5ing hi!
(ro-% hi$ innoc%nc% an, not th% #tat% (ro-ing hi$ guilt. (Al%Lan,ro -$. P%(ito,
71 71
@9 #CRA 722) Cow%-%r, i/ th% accu$%, ,o%$ not o"L%ct to $uch a (roc%,ur%,
th%n a r%-%r$% or,%r o/ trial i$ allow%, "y th% Rul%$. (#acay -$. #an,igan"ayan,
Auly )B,l@M9) In /act it $houl, "% not%, that un,%r th% n%wly a,o(t%, )@M;
Rul%$ o/ Cri!inal Proc%,ur% (#%c. 7%), Rul% ))@)th% $ai, (roc%,ur% i$ now
%+(r%$$ly $anction%,. *hu$F
NCow%-%r, wh%n th% accu$%, a,!it$ th% act or
o!i$$ion charg%, in th% co!(laint or in/or!ation
"ut int%r(o$%$ a law/ul ,%/%n$%, th% or,%r o/ trial
!ay "% !o,i/i%, accor,ingly.N
,&. What is the etent of the obli/ation of a counsel de oficio for an
accused in a criminal case?
Whil% an accu$%, !ay "% gi-%n a coun$%l ,% o/icio which i$ not a lawy%r
o/ hi$ own choic% "%cau$% h% coul, not a//or, th% $%r-ic%$ o/ a ,% (art% lawy%r,
only th% /aith/ul (%r/or!anc% "y coun$%l o/ hi$ ,uty towar,$ hi$ cli%nt can gi-%
!%aning an, $u"$tanc% to th% accu$%,<$ right to ,u% (roc%$$ an, to "%
(r%$u!%, innoc%nt until (ro-%n oth%rwi$%. C%nc%, a lawy%r<$ ,uty, %$(%cially
that o/ a ,%/%n$% coun$%l, !u$t not "% ta5%n lightly. It !u$t "% (%r/or!%, with
all th% 0%al an, -igor at hi$ co!!an, to (rot%ct an, $a/%guar, th% accu$%,<$
/un,a!%ntal right$. *h% ca-ali%r attitu,% o/ Atty. =anolo Broton%l o/ th% PAO
cannot go unnotic%,. It i$ ,i$c%rni"l% in HaI hi$ r%/u$al to cro$$?%+a!in% Ol%"y
>a,%ra (th% co!(lainant /or RAPE)1 H"I th% !ann%r in which h% con,uct%,
=aricri$ >a,%ra<$ cro$$?%+a!ination1 an, HcI hi$ /ailur% not only to (r%$%nt
%-i,%nc% /or th% accu$%, "ut to in/or! th% accu$%, o/ hi$ right to ,o $o, i/ h%
,%$ir%$. (PEOPLE V#. >A'ERA, AR., 72D #CRA D@B)
,6. 'f the accused has the ri/ht to be present durin/ the trial of
his case= can he also refuse to appear durin/ the hearin/s of his case?
No& D$in6 2$$2i6n%#nt' 1$o%+62tion o! t*# 3#0ision 2n3
5*#n *# is to 7# i3#nti!i#3 78 t*# 5itn#ss#s !o$ t*# 1$os#0tion' *# %st 7#
1$#s#nt& Ho5#"#$' *# 02n "2+i3+8 52i"# *is 1$#s#n0# 2!t#$ 2$$2i6n%#nt
5*#n *# st2t# in o1#n 0o$t o$ in 2n 2!!i32"it t*2t 5*#n#"#$ 2 5itn#ss
%#ntions *is n2%# 3$in6 t*# 1$#s#nt2tion o! t*# 1$os#0tion>s #"i3#n0#'
*# 23%its t*2t *# is t*# on# 7#in6 $#!#$$#3 to& (A4ino "s& Mi+it2$8
Co%%ission' .) SCRA /(.N P "s& E36#' <;/ SCRA ;.F)
,.. When may !speedy trial$ be raised by the accused to cause the
dismissal of his case? What Bind of delays must occur before the same could
be in#oBedA
In AAI=E BER>A* V#. #A>'IGA>BAGA>, =ay 2B, 2BBD, it wa$
h%l, that th% right to $(%%,y trial i$ -iolat%, only i/ th% (roc%%,ing$ w%r%
att%n,%, "y -%+atiou$, ca(riciou$ an, o((r%$$i-% ,%lay$. *h% ,%t%r!ination o/
wh%th%r th% ,%lay$ ar% o/ $ai, natur% i$ r%lati-% an, cannot "% "a$%, on !%r%
!ath%!atical r%c5oning o/ ti!%. Particular r%gar, to th% /act$ an,
circu!$tanc%$ o/ th% ca$%. A$ h%l, in th% ca$% o/ 'E LA PE>A V#.
#A>'IGA>BAGA>, c%rtain /actor$ $hall "% con$i,%r%, an, "alanc%, to
,%t%r!in% i/ th%r% i$ ,%lay, a$ /ollow$F
L%ngth o/ th% ,%lay1
72 72
R%a$on$ /or th% ,%lay1
A$$%rtion or /ailur% to a$$%rt $uch right "y th% accu$%,1 an,
Pr%Lu,ic%, cau$%, "y th% ,%lay.
*h%r% i$ no -iolation o/ th% right to $(%%,y ,i$(o$ition o/ hi$ ca$%
"%cau$% (%tition%r /ail%, to a$$%rt hi$ con$titutional right to a $(%%,y ,i$(o$ition
o/ hi$ ca$%. 'uring th% M?y%ar (%rio, (rior to A(ril )@, 2BB2, (%tition%r ,i, not
co!(lain a"out th% long ,%lay in ,%ci,ing hi$ ca$%.
,-. )ay the ri/ht to speedy disposition of cases be in#oBed for the
dismissal of cases pendin/ before quasi(2udicial bodies liBe the :ffice of the
G%$, unr%a$ona"l% ,%lay$ li5% /ailur% to ,%ci,% a co!(laint again$t th%
r%$(on,%nt /or !or% than thr%% (7) y%ar$ /ro! th% ti!% all th% (l%a,ing$ w%r%
/il%, -iolat%$ th% r%$(on,%nt<$ right to a $(%%,y ,i$(o$ition o/ hi$ ca$% an, th%
ca$% !u$t "% ,i$!i$$%,. ('U*ER*E V#. #A>'IGA>BAGA>, 2M@ #CRA
:2)1 A>GCCA>GCO V#. O=BU'#=A>, 29@ #CRA 7B))
*h% ,%t%r!ination o/ wh%th%r an accu$%, ha, "%%n ,%ni%, th% right to
$(%%,y trial ,%(%n,$ on th% $urroun,ing circu!$tanc%$ o/ %ach ca$%. Although
it too5 a"out M y%ar$ "%/or% th% trial o/ thi$ ca$% wa$ r%$u!%,, $uch ,%lay ,i,
not a!ount to -iolation o/ (%tition%r<$ right to $(%%,y trial con$i,%ring that
$uch ,%lay wa$ not attri"uta"l% to th% (ro$%cution.
*h% /actor$ to con$i,%r in ,%t%r!ining wh%th%r or not $uch right ha$ "%%n
). l%ngth o/ ,%lay,
2. r%a$on$ /or $uch ,%lay, an,
7. a$$%rtion or /ailur% to a$$%rt $uch right$ "y th% accu$%,
an, th% (r%Lu,ic% cau$%, "y th% ,%lay.
(ii) #(%%,y *rial Act o/ )@@M. *h% authority o/ th% #%cr%tary
o/ Au$tic% to r%-i%w r%$olution$ o/ hi$ $u"or,inat%$ %-%n a/t%r an
in/or!ation ha$ alr%a,y "%%n /il%, in court ,o%$ not (r%$%nt an
irr%concila"l% con/lict with th% 7B?,ay (%rio, (r%$cri"%, in #%c. :
o/ th% #(%%,y *rial Act o/ )@@M. (#U=BA>G V#. GE>. COUR*
=AR*IAL, G.R. >O. )DB)MM, 77: #CRA 22:, AUG. 7, 2BBB1
BLA>CO V#. #A>'IGA>BAGA>, G.R. >O#. )79:;: V ;M,
7D9 #CRA )BM, >OV. 2:, 2BBB1 #OLAR *EA=
E>*ER*AI>=E>*, I>C. CO>. COW, G.R. >O. )DBM97, 77M
#CRA ;), AUG. 22, 2BBB).
,,. Was the failure of the court to ha#e a si/n lan/ua/e epert to
inform the accused who is a deaf(mute of the contents of the criminal
information fatal to the #alidity of the proceedin/s which resulted in the
con#iction of the said accused?
G%$ "%cau$% th% accu$%, wa$ ,%ni%, o/ th% right to "% in/or!%, o/ th%
natur% an, cau$% o/ th% accu$ation again$t hi!. A$ $uch, th% %ntir% (roc%%,ing$
i$ null an, -oi, an, anoth%r trial "% con,uct%, in th% (r%$%nc% o/ a $ign
73 73
languag% %+(%rt to in/or! th% accu$%, o/ th% (roc%%,ing$. (#al%$ -$. CA, )9D
#CRA :):1 P -$. Cri$ologo, );B #CRA 9;7)
1>>. )ay an accused in a !Domicide$ case be con#icted of !)urder$
without #iolatin/ his ri/ht to be informed of the nature and cause of
accusation a/ainst him?
G%$. E-%n i/ th% In/or!ation wa$ ca(tion%, 4ForF Co!ici,%8 only "ut th%
"o,y o/ th% In/or!ation all%g%$ 4tr%ach%ry8 or 4%-i,%nt (r%!%,itation8 an, th%
$a!% wa$ r%a, to th% accu$%,, h% coul, "% con-ict%, o/ =ur,%r. *hi$ i$ $o
"%cau$% it i$ th% "o,y o/ th% In/or!ation that i$ "in,ing, not th% ca(tion th%r%o/
an, th%r%/or%, th% accu$%, wa$ ,uly in/or!%, o/ th% natur% an, cau$% o/
accu$ation again$t hi!. (P -$. R%$a-aga, );@ #CRA D29)

1>1. What is the effect of the testimony of a witness who did not return
to court for his cross eamination? Dow about if there is only partial cross(
A witn%$$ who ,i, not r%turn to court /or hi$ cro$$?%+a!ination woul,
r%n,%r hi$ %ntir% t%$ti!ony ina,!i$$i"l% /or "%ing h%ar$ay. It li5%wi$% -iolat%,
th% right o/ con/rontation on th% (art o/ th% accu$%,. (Ortiga$, AR. -$.
Lu/than$a, 9D #CRA 9)B) I/ th% witn%$$ wa$ (artially %+a!in%,, only th%
(ortion o/ hi$ ,ir%ct t%$ti!ony wh%r% h% wa$ cro$$?%+a!in%, $hall "%
a,!i$$i"l% a$ %-i,%nc%.( P -$. #%n%ri$, @@ #CRA @2)
1>2. What are the requisites of a #alid trial in absentia? )ay an
accused who 2umped bail after arrai/nment be #alidly con#icted by the trial
*h% r%Eui$it%$ o/ a -ali, trial in a"$%ntia ar% th% /ollowingF
• *h% accu$%, wa$ ,uly arraign%,1
• *h% accu$%, wa$ noti/i%, o/ th% h%aring1 an,
• *h% accu$%,<$ a"$%nc% H,uring th% trialI i$ unLu$ti/ia"l%.
1>3. )ay an accused compel the trial court to issue subpoena to a
Physician who is already worBin/ in the 1nited 8tates to testify on his
treatment of the accused? Would the failure of said witness to appear and
testify for the accused #iolates his ri/ht to subpoena witnesses and the
production of e#idence in his fa#orK
>o. #uch witn%$$ i$ "%yon, th% Luri$,iction o/ th% Phili((in% Court$.
Furth%r, hi$ right to $u"(o%na witn%$$%$ an, th% (ro,uction o/ %-i,%nc% will not
"% -iolat%, $inc% th% ho$(ital coul, (ro,uc% $ai, r%cor,$ an, anoth%r (hy$ician
coul, t%$ti/y on th% cont%nt$ th%r%o/. (Ca-ili -$. Con. Flor%n,o, );D #CRA 9)B1
FaLar,o -$. Garcia, @M #CRA ;)D)
1>4. )ay the accused be presented by the prosecution as the latter"s
>o. #uch woul, -iolat% th% right o/ th% accu$%, again$t $%l/?
incri!ination an, i/ $uch ha((%n%,, th% (roc%%,ing$ $hall "% null an, -oi,.
(Cha-%0 -$. CA, 2D #CRA 997)
74 74
1>&. Cenerally= to what Bind of e#idence does the ri/ht a/ainst self(
incrimination applies?
G%n%rally, it a((li%$ only to 4t%$ti!onial co!(ul$ion.8 A$ $uch,
/orcing a (%r$on to gi-% a $a!(l% o/ hi$ urin% to ,%t%r!in% wh%th%r a wo!an i$
(r%gnant (Villa/lor -$. #u!!%r$, D) Phil. 92)1 wh%th%r a (%r$on i$ $u//%ring
/ro! $%+ually tran$!itt%, ,i$%a$% (U# -$. *ang *%ng, 27 Phil. )D;) or un,%r th%
in/lu%nc% o/ (rohi"it%, ,rug$ (PEOPLE V#. BA>ICI*, G.R. >O. )72BD;, 77@
#CRA M9, AUG. 2;, 2BBB1 PEOPLE V#. CO>*I>E>*E, G.R. >O#. )BBMB)?
B2, 77@ #CRA ), AUG. 2;, 2BBB) ,o%$ not -iolat% th% (%r$on<$ right again$t
$%l/?incri!ination. Li5%wi$% /orcing on% to try a (air o/ $ho%$, (ant$ or $hirt
,o%$ not /all un,%r th% a"o-% (ro$cri(tion.
1>6. Dow about forcin/ a person to /i#e a sample of his handwritin/?.
*hough th% $a!% ,o%$ not r%Euir% t%$ti!onial co!(ul$ion, th% right
again$t $%l/?incri!ination will "% -iolat%, "y $ai, act. *hi$ i$ $o "%cau$% it
in-ol-%$ th% u$% o/ th% int%llig%nc% o/ th% (%r$on. (B%ltran -$. #a!$on, ;B Phil.
1>.. Does the ri/ht a/ainst self(incrimination applicable to ci#il and
administrati#e cases also?
G%$ "ut unli5% in cri!inal ca$%$ wh%r% th% accu$%, coul, not "%
(r%$%nt%, "y th% (ro$%cution an, hi$ right not to ta5% th% witn%$$ $tan, i$
a"$olut%, an a,-%r$% (arty in a ci-il or a,!ini$trati-% ca$%$ !ay "% (r%$%nt%,
"y th% oth%r (arty "ut coul, r%/u$% to an$w%r only i/ th% Eu%$tion (ro(oun,%,
call$ /or an incri!inatory an$w%r.
1>-. )ay a court steno/rapher who had resi/ned from the /o#ernment
be compelled to transcribe her notes under pain of contempt without
#iolatin/ her ri/ht a/ainst in#oluntary ser#itude?
G%$. *hi$ i$ $o "%cau$% th% t%$ti!ony wa$ ta5%n whil% $h% wa$ $till in th%
go-%rn!%nt an, a$ $uch, it wa$ h%r o"ligation to tran$cri"% th% $a!%, ha-ing
r%c%i-%, h%r $alary /or th% ,ay wh%n th% t%$ti!ony wa$ ta5%n. (Aclaracion -$.
Gat!aitan, 9D #CRA )7))

1>,. 's the Death Penalty already abolished by the 1,-.

Whil% th% #u(r%!% Court an$w%r%, th% $a!% in th% a//ir!ati-% in th%
ca$%$ o/ P -$. Ga-arra, );; #CRa 72:1 P -$. =a$ang5ay, );; #CRA ))71 P -$.
At%ncio, );9 #CRA 2D21 P -$. Intino, #%(t%!"%r 29, )@MM it h%l, in P%o(l% -$.
=uno0, ):B #CRA )B: that it wa$ !%r%ly $u$(%n,%,.
11>. 's death as a penalty a cruel or unuasual punishment?
>o. (P -$. E$toi$ta, @7 Phil. 9D:). It i$ only wh%n th% (uni$h!%nt i$
$hoc5ing to th% con$ci%nc% o/ th% co!!unity an, ,i$(ro(ortionat% to th%
o//%n$% charg%, that th% (%nalty "%co!%$ cru%l an, unu$ual. In /act, th%
#u(r%!% Court h%l, in ECCEGARAG V#. #ECRE*ARG OF AU#*ICE that
75 75
,%ath through L%thal InL%ction i$ th% !o$t hu!an% way o/ i!(l%!%nting th%
,%ath (%nalty.
<<<& W*2t 2$# t*# $#4isit#s 7#!o$# 2n 200s#3 %28 "2+i3+8 in"o?#
3o7+# I#o12$38A
*h%r% i$ ,ou"l% L%o(ar,y wh%n th%r% i$F
H)I -ali, co!(laint o/ in/or!ation1
H2I /il%, in a court o/ co!(%t%nt Luri$,iction1
H7I th% accu$%, wa$ -ali,ly arraign%,1 an,
HDI th% accu$%, wa$ con-ict%, or acEuitt%,, or th% HDI th% accu$%, wa$ con-ict%, or acEuitt%,, or th%
ca$% wa$ ,i$!i$$%, or oth%rwi$% t%r!inat%, without th% ca$% wa$ ,i$!i$$%, or oth%rwi$% t%r!inat%, without th%
%+(r%$$ con$%nt o/ th% accu$%,. ( %+(r%$$ con$%nt o/ th% accu$%,. (PEOPLE V#. AL=ARIO, PEOPLE V#. AL=ARIO,
7;; #CRA )) 7;; #CRA ))
112. 'f the dismissal was with the epress consent of the accused= may
the dismissal result in double 2eopardy?
G%$ in two (2) in$tanc%$.

A$ a g%n%ral rul%, i/ th% ,i$!i$$al i$ through th%
in$tanc% o/ th% accu$%, or with hi$ %+(r%$$ con$%nt,
th%r% i$ no ,ou"l% L%o(ar,y. Cow%-%r, thi$ rul% a,!it$
o/ two (2) %+c%(tion$F
)) th% !otion to ,i$!i$$ i$ "a$%, on in$u//ici%ncy o/
%-i,%nc% or '%!urr%r to E-i,%nc%1 an,
#3 #3 th% !otion to ,i$!i$$ i$ "a$%, on th% ,%nial o/ th% th% !otion to ,i$!i$$ i$ "a$%, on th% ,%nial o/ th%
accu$%,<$ right to $(%%,y trial accu$%,<$ right to $(%%,y trial. - . -PEOPLE V#. AL=ARIO, PEOPLE V#. AL=ARIO,
7;; #CRA )) 7;; #CRA ))
?,ou"l% L%o(ar,y ha$ $%t in. In th%$% two (2) in$tanc%$, th% corr%ct
,%$cri(tion o/ what ha((%n%, i$ that th% accu$%, wa$ 4acEuitt%,8 an, not 4th%
ca$% wa$ ,i$!i$$%, with hi$ con$%nt8.
It !u$t "% (oint%, out, how%-%r, that in PEOPLE VS& TAMPAL' ;((
SCRA ;=; 2n3 PEOPLE VS& LEVISTE' ;// SCRA ;),, th% #C r%-%r$%, th%
,i$!i$$al o/ th% cri!inal ca$% "y th% trial court "a$%, on 4$(%%,y trial8 $inc%
th% $a!% wa$ not (r%,icat%, 4on th% cl%ar right o/ th% accu$%, to $(%%,y trial.8
It i$ only wh%n th%r% i$ a cl%ar -iolation o/ th% accu$%,<$ right to $(%%,y trial
that th% ,i$!i$$al r%$ult$ in ,ou"l% L%o(ar,y.
113. 9he accused was char/ed of theft of electricity based on the %ity
:rdinance of 0atan/as %ity. *fter arrai/nment= the case was dismissed
because it was found out that the same has prescribed because it was filed
after more than 6> days. 9he Aiscal filed another information based on the
7e#ised Penal %ode. Das double 2eopardy set in?
G%$. I/ th% accu$%, wa$ charg%, o/ 4th%/t o/ %l%ctricity8 "a$%, on th% City
Or,inanc% o/ Batanga$ an, not "a$%, on th% R%-i$%, P%nal Co,% an, lat%r on
th% ca$% i$ ,i$!i$$%, "y th% Lu,g% ,u% to th% /act that th% cri!% ha$ (r%$cri"%,,
th% go-%rn!%nt can no long%r charg% th% accu$%, o/ th% $a!% cri!% un,%r th%
76 76
R%-i$%, P%nal Co,% $inc% ,ou"l% L%o(ar,y ha$ $%t in. I/ an act i$ (uni$h%, "y
law an, an or,inanc%, acEuittal or con-iction in on% $hall "ar (ro$%cution /ro!
th% oth%r. (PEOPLE VS& RELOVA' <(, SCRA ;F;)
114. 9he accused was char/ed of /ra#e coercion before the )9% and
was duly arrai/ned. 9he Iud/e dismissed it without any motion form the
accused because the case is alle/edly outside the )9%"s 2urisdiction. *nother
information for the same offense was filed with the 79% which was liBewise
dismissed because of lacB of 2urisdiction. *s such= the Aiscal filed a 3
information for /ra#e coercion before the )9%. 9he accused pleaded double
2eopardy. 's he correctK
G%$. #inc% th% accu$%, wa$ alr%a,y arraign%, in th% )
"%/or% th% =*C which ha$ Luri$,iction o-%r th% $a!% an, th% ca$% wa$
$u"$%Eu%ntly ,i$!i$$%, without hi$ %+(r%$$ con$%nt, th%n ,ou"l% L%o(ar,y ha$
$%t in.
11&. 9he accused was arrai/ned of homicide and entered a plea of
/uilty but prayed that he be /i#en the chance to pro#e incomplete self(defense
which the court /ranted. *fter presentin/ his e#idence to pro#e !incomplete
self(defense$= the court acquitted him because what was alle/edly pro#en by
him was complete self(defense. )ay the accused #alidly in#oBe double
2eopardy if the Prosecutor mo#es for the reinstatement of the case for him to
present the e#idence of the prosecution?
>o "%cau$% on% o/ th% r%Eui$it%$ o/ ,ou"l% L%o(ar,y i$ !i$$ing. *h%r%
wa$ no -ali, arraign!%nt. *hi$ i$ $o "%cau$% hi$ (l%a wa$ on% o/ guilty an, y%t,
h% wa$ acEuitt%,. In thi$ ca$%, h% ha$ to "% r%?arraign%, /or hi! to %nt%r a (l%a
o/ 4not guilty8 in or,%r that h% coul, "% -ali,ly acEuitt%,.
116. 9he accused was con#icted of frustrated murder. Within 1& days
from promul/ation= he filed a )otion for <ew 9rial based on a !newly(
disco#ered e#idence$ which was /ranted by the court. *fter the presentation
of the alle/ed !newly(disco#ered e#idence$= the accused was acquitted. )ay
the prosecution appeal the acquittal since the e#idence presented was not
really a newly(disco#ered e#idence but a for/otten one and that e#en
assumin/ that the same is a newly(disco#ered e#idence= it was insufficient to
o#erturn the e#idence of /uilt as pro#en by the prosecution.
In th% ca$% o/ P -$. Au,g% C%rnan,o, )BM #CRA )2), th% #u(r%!% Court
h%l, that in,%%,, th% %-i,%nc% (r%$%nt%, wa$ not 4n%wly?,i$co-%r%, %-i,%nc%8
an, that a$$u!ing it to "% $o, it wa$ not $u//ici%nt to o-%rturn th% %-i,%nc% o/
guilt a$ $hown "y th% (ro$%cution<$ %-i,%nc%. Cow%-%r, though th% ,%ci$ion
wa$ %rron%ou$, ,ou"l% L%o(ar,y ha$ $%t in an, th% go-%rn!%nt coul, no long%r
a((%al th% ,%ci$ion. #o %-%n i/ th% court o"-iou$ly %rr%, in th% a((r%ciation o/
th% %-i,%nc% r%$ulting in a ,%ci$ion o/ acEuittal in$t%a, o/ con-iction, a((%al
woul, (ut th% accu$%, in ,ou"l% L%o(ar,y. (=a0o -$. =un. Court, ))7 #CRA
11.. )ay the /o#ernment appeal a 2ud/ment of acquittal or for the
increase of the penalty imposed?
77 77
>o $inc% ,ou"l% L%o(ar,y ha$ $%t in. (PEOPLE V#. CO>. VELA#CO,
G.R. >O. )2:DDD, 7DB #CRA 2B:, #EP*. )7, 2BBB). A$ !an,at%, "y th%
Con$titution, $tatut%$ an, cognat% Luri$(ru,%nc%, an acEuittal i$ /inal an,
una((%ala"l% on th% groun, o/ ,ou"l% L%o(ar,y, wh%th%r it ha((%n$ at th% trial
court o/ a Lu,g!%nt o/ acEuittal "rought "%/or% th% #u(r%!% Court on c%rtiorari
cannot "% ha, unl%$$ th%r% i$ a /in,ing o/ !i$trial, a$ in .alman vs.
Cow%-%r, i/ th% accu$%, wa$ th% on% who a((%al%, th% ,%ci$ion o/ th%
CFI con-icting hi! o/ ho!ici,% (though h% wa$ charg%, o/ !ur,%r), th%
a((%llat% court !ay con-ict hi! o/ !ur,%r i/ th% %-i,%nc% warrant$ an, that th%
low%r court !i$?a((r%ciat%, th% %-i,%nc%. *hi$ i$ $o "%cau$% i/ th% accu$%,
a((%al$ th% ,%ci$ion, th% $a!% will "% $u"L%ct to a co!(l%t% r%?%+a!ination o/
th% %-i,%nc% on r%cor,.
11-. What is t he L8uper#enin/ Aact Doctrine.L
It $i!(ly (ro-i,%$ that an accu$%,<$ con-iction $hall not "% a "ar to
anoth%r (ro$%cution /or an o//%n$% which n%c%$$arily inclu,%$ th% o//%n$%
charg%, in th% /or!%r co!(laint or in/or!ation wh%n th% gra-%r o//%n$%
,%-%lo(%, ,u% to $u(%r-%ning /act$ ari$ing /ro! th% $a!% act or o!i$$ion
con$tituting th% /or!%r charg% or that th% /act$ con$tituting th% gra-%r charg%
"%ca!% 5nown only or w%r% ,i$co-%r%, a/t%r a (l%a wa$ %nt%r%, in th% /or!%r
co!(laint or in/or!ation. (#%ction :, Rul% )):, 2BBB Rul%$ o/ Cri!inal
Proc%,ur%1 P -$. *aro5, :7 Phil. 29B1 P -$. Villa$i$, D9 O.G. 29M1 =%lo -$.
P%o(l%, M; Phil. :991 P -$. Buling, )B: Phil. :)21 P -$. A,il, :9 #CRA D921 P.
-$. *ac?an, )M2 #CRA 9B)1 an, P -$. City Court o/ =anila, )2) #CRA 97:

11,. When may the !e(post facto law$ rule be in#oBed?
Only i/ th% law $ought to "% a((li%, i$ a 4cri!inal law or (%nal8.
Oth%rwi$%, th% $a!% !ay not "% in-o5%, a$ wh%n th% Eu%$tion%, law
in-ol-%$ th% Luri$,iction o/ th% #an,igan"ayan which i$ not a (%nal law. E+
(o$t /acto law (rohi"it$ th% r%tro$(%cti-ity o/ (%nal law$. RA M2D@ i$ not a
(%nal law. It i$ a $u"$tanti-% law on Luri$,iction which i$ not (%nal in
charact%r. (PA>FILO =. LAC#O> V#. *CE E3ECU*IVE #ECRE*ARG,
UBIA, AR., G.R. >o. )2MB@9, Aanuary 2B, )@@@)
12>. What are the different forms of e(post facto law?
In or,%r that a law i$ an %+ (o$t /acto law, th% $a!% !u$t "% on%T
a. which !a5%$ an act ,on% cri!inal "%/or% th% (a$$ing o/ th%
law an, which wa$ innoc%nt wh%n co!!itt%,, an, (uni$h%$
$uch action1
". which aggra-at%$ a cri!% or !a5%$ it gr%at%r than wh%n it wa$
c. which chang%$ th% (uni$h!%nt an, in/lict$ a gr%at%r
(uni$h!%nt than th% law ann%+%, to th% cri!% wh%n it wa$
78 78
,. which alt%r$ th% l%gal rul%$ o/ %-i,%nc% an, r%c%i-%$ l%$$ or
,i//%r%nt t%$ti!ony than th% law r%Euir%, a th% ti!% o/ th%
co!!i$$ion o/ th% o//%n$% in or,%r to con-ict th% ,%/%n,ant1
%. %-%ry law which, in r%lation to th% o//%n$% or it$ con$%Eu%nc%$,
alt%r$ th% $ituation o/ a (%r$on to hi$ ,i$a,-antag%1
/. that which a$$u!%$ to r%gulat% ci-il right$ an, r%!%,i%$ "ut in
%//%ct i!(o$%$ a (%nalty or ,%(ri-ation o/ a right which wh%n
,on% wa$ law/ul1
g. ,%(ri-%$ a (%r$on accu$%, o/ a cri!% o/ $o!% law/ul (rot%ction
to which h% ha$ "%co!% %ntitl%,, $uch a$ th% (rot%ction o/ a
/or!%r con-iction or acEuittal, or a (rocla!ation o/ a!n%$ty
79 79