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Physics 30 Lessons 1 to 20 Review

Kinematics
1. Emily takes a trip, driving with a constant velocity of 89.5 km/h to the north except for
a 22. min rest stop. !f Emily"s average velocity is ##.8 km/h to the north, how long
does the trip take$ %2.82 h&
2. 'o ()alify for the finals in a racing event, a race car m)st achieve an average speed of
25 km/h on a track with a total length of 1* m. !f a partic)lar car covers the first
half of the track at an average speed of 2+ km/h, what minim)m average speed m)st it
have in the second half of the event to ()alify$ %28 km/h&
,+. - tortoise can r)n with a speed of 1. cm/s, and a hare can r)n exactly 2 times as
fast. !n a race, they .oth start at the same time, .)t the hare stops to rest for 2. min.
'he tortoise wins .y 2. cm. %a& /ow long does the race take$ %.& 0hat is the length
of the race$
%12* s, 12.* m&
,1. 2)nner - is initially *. km west of a flagpole and is r)nning with a constant velocity
of 9. km/h d)e east. 2)nner 3 is initially 5. km east of the flagpole and is r)nning
with a constant velocity of 8. km/h d)e west. /ow far are the r)nners from the
flagpole when their paths cross$ %.2 km west of flagpole&
5. - worker drops a wrench from the top of a tower 8. m tall. 0ith what velocity does
the wrench strike the gro)nd$ %4+9.* m/s&
*. - physics st)dent throws a soft.all straight )p into the air. 'he .all was in the air for a
total of +.5* s .efore it was ca)ght at its original position. %a& 0hat was the initial
velocity of the .all$ %.& /ow high did it rise$ %51#.5 m/s, 15.5 m&
#. - small sand.ag is dropped from rest from a hovering hot4air .alloon. -fter 2. s, what
is the velocity of the sand.ag and how far .elow the hot4air .alloon is the sand .ag$ %4
2. x 1
1
m/s, 42. x 1
1
m&
8. - .all thrown vertically )pward is ca)ght .y the thrower after 5. s. %a& 6ind the initial
velocity of the .all. %.& 6ind the maxim)m height it reaches. %525 m/s, +1 m&
9. - peregrine falcon dives at a pigeon. 'he falcon starts downward from rest with free4
fall acceleration. !f the pigeon is #*. m .elow the initial position of the falcon, how
long does it take the falcon to reach the pigeon$ -ss)me that the pigeon remains at
rest.
%+.91 s&
,1. - .all is thrown )pward from the gro)nd with an initial speed of 25 m/s7 at the same
instant, a .all is dropped from rest from a .)ilding 15 m high. -fter how long will the
.alls .e at the same height$ %.* s&
11. - rocket moves )pward, starting from rest with an acceleration of 529.1 m/s
2
for 1. s.
!t r)ns o)t of f)el at the end of the 1. s .)t does not stop. /ow high does it rise a.ove
the gro)nd$ %915 m&
1
12. - .all is thrown vertically )pward with a speed of 25. m/s from a height of 2. m.
a. /ow high does the .all rise$ %+1.9 m&
.. /ow long does it take to reach its highest point$ %2.55 s&
c. /ow long does the .all take to hit the gro)nd after it reaches its highest point$
%2.*+ s&
d. 0hat is the .all"s velocity when it ret)rns to the level from which it started$
%425. m/s&
1+. - mo)ntain clim.er stands at the top of a 5. m cliff hanging over a calm pool of
water. 'he clim.er throws two stones vertically 1. s apart and o.serves that they ca)se
a single splash when they hit the water. 'he first stone has an initial velocity of 52.
m/s.
a. /ow long after release of the first stone will the two stones hit the water$ %+.1 s&
.. 0hat is the initial velocity of the second stone when it is thrown$ %49.2 m/s&
c. 0hat will the velocity of each stone .e at the instant .oth stones hit the water$
%4+1.1 m/s, 4++ m/s&
11. - model rocket is la)nched straight )pward with an initial speed of 5. m/s. !t
accelerates with a constant )pward acceleration of 2. m/s
2
)ntil its engines stop at an
altit)de of 15 m.
a. 0hat is the maxim)m height reached .y the rocket$ %+1 m&
.. 0hen does the rocket reach maxim)m height$ %8.5 s&
c. /ow long is the rocket in the air$ %1*.1 s&
15. 'wo cars are travelling along a straight line in the same direction, the lead car at 25 m/s
and the other car at +5 m/s. -t the moment the cars are 15 m apart, the lead driver
applies the .rakes, ca)sing the car to have an acceleration of 42. m/s
2
.
a. /ow long does it take for the lead car to stop$ %12 s&
.. -ss)me that the driver of the chasing car applies the .rakes at the same time as
the driver of the lead car. 0hat m)st the chasing car"s minim)m negative
acceleration .e to avoid hitting the lead car$ %4+.1 m/s
2
&
c. /ow long does it take the chasing car to stop$ %11 s&
1*. 8ne swimmer in a relay race has a .5 s lead and is swimming at a constant speed of
1. m/s. 'he swimmer has 5. m to swim .efore reaching the end of the pool. -
second swimmer moves in the same direction as the leader. 0hat constant speed m)st
the second swimmer have in order to catch )p to the leader at the end of the pool$
%1.1# m/s&
Vectors
1. - girl delivering newspapers covers her ro)te .y travelling three .locks west, fo)r
.locks north, then six .locks east. %a& 0hat is her res)ltant displacement$ %.& 0hat is
the total distance she travels$ %5 .locks 9 5
o
: of E, 1+ .locks&
2. - s).marine dives 11. m at an angle of 1. .elow the hori;ontal. 0hat are the
hori;ontal and vertical components of the s).marine"s displacement$ %18 m, 419 m&
+. - ()arter.ack takes the .all from the line of scrimmage, r)ns .ackward for 1. yards,
then r)ns sideways parallel to the line of scrimmage for 15. yards. -t this point, he
throws a 5.4yard forward pass straight down the field. 0hat is the magnit)de of the
foot.all"s res)ltant displacement$ %12.# yards&
2
1. - golfer takes two p)tts to sink his .all in the hole once he is on the green. 'he first
p)tt displaces the .all *. m east, and the second p)tt displaces it 5.1 m so)th. 0hat
displacement wo)ld p)t the .all in the hole in one p)tt$ %8.# m 9 12.
o
< of E&
5. - kayaker paddles )pstream in a river at +.5 m/s relative to the water. 8.servers on
shore note that he is moving at only 1.# m/s )pstream. =etermine the velocity of the
c)rrent in the river. %41.8 m/s&
*. - >et4ski speeds across a river at 11 m/s relative to the water. 'he >et ski"s heading is
d)e so)th. 'he river is flowing west at a rate of 5. m/s. =etermine the >et4ski"s velocity
relative to the shore. %12 m/s ?21
o
0 of <@&
#. - .)sh pilot wants to fly her plane to a lake that is 25. km ?+.
o
E of :@ from her
starting point. 'he plane has an air speed of 21. km/h, and a wind is .lowing from
the west at 1. km/h.
%a& !n what direction sho)ld she head the plane to fly directly to the lake$
%2.5
o
E of :&
%.& !f she )ses the heading determined in %a&, what will .e her velocity relative to the
gro)nd$ %22# km/h ?+.
o
E of :@&
%c& /ow long will it take her to reach her destination$ %1.1 h&
8. -n airplane travels d)e north for 1 km, then d)e west for 15 km, and then d)e so)th
for 5 km.
%a& Aalc)late the total displacement of the airplane. %1.* x 1
2
km ?18
o
: of 0@&
%.& 'he time the airplane takes to fly the three different parts of the trip are as
followsB 2. min)tes, 1. min)tes, and 12. min)tes. Aalc)late the velocities
for each of the three segments of the trip. %+. x 1
2
km/h :orth, 2.2 x 1
2
km/h
0est, 2.5 x 1
2
km/h <o)th&
Dynamics
1. !s it possi.le to have motion in the a.sence of a force$ Explain. %Ces, constant velocity&
2. !f an o.>ect is at rest, can we concl)de that no external forces are acting on it$ %:o&
+. -n o.>ect thrown into the air stops at the highest point in its path. !s it in e()ili.ri)m at
this point$ Explain. %:o, gravity is p)lling down&
1. <tate :ewton"s first law.
5. 0hat physical ()antity is a meas)re of the amo)nt of inertia an o.>ect has$ %mass&
*. - large crate is placed on the .ed of a tr)ck .)t not tied down.
a. -s the tr)ck accelerates forward, the crate slides across the .ed )ntil it hits the
tailgate. Explain what ca)ses this. %'he crate remained at rest while the tr)ck
accelerated )nder it.&
.. !f the driver slammed on the .rakes, what co)ld happen to the crate$ %'he crate
contin)es forward and slams into the .ack of the ca..&
#. Earth is attracted to an o.>ect with a force e()al to and opposite the force Earth exerts
on the o.>ect. Explain why Earth"s acceleration is not e()al to and opposite that of the
o.>ect.
8. Explain :ewton"s second law in terms of inertia.
+
9. -n astrona)t on the moon has a 11 kg crate and a 2+ kg crate. /ow do the forces
re()ired to lift the crates straight )p on the moon compare with the forces re()ired to
lift them on Earth$
1. - freight train has a mass of 1.5 x 1
#
kg. !f the locomotive can exert a constant p)ll of
#.5 x 1
5
:, how long wo)ld it take to increase the speed of the train from rest to 85
km/h$ %18 s&
11. - 5. kg .)cket of water is raised from a well .y a rope. !f the )pward acceleration of
the .)cket is +. m/s
2
, find the force exerted .y the rope on the .)cket of water. %*1 :&
12. - .oat moves thro)gh the water with two forces acting on it. 8ne is a 2.1 x 1
+
:
forward p)sh .y the motor, and the other is a 1.8 x 1
+
: resistive force d)e to the
water.
a. 0hat is the acceleration of the 12 kg .oat$ %.25 m/s
2
&
.. !f it starts from rest, how far will it move in 1. s$ %12.5 m&
c. 0hat will its velocity .e at the end of this time interval$ %2.5 m/s&
1+. - +. kg .all is dropped from the roof of a .)ilding 1#*.1 m high. 0hile the .all is
falling to Earth, a hori;ontal wind exerts a constant force of 12. : on it.
a. /ow far from the .)ilding does the .all hit the gro)nd$ %#2. m&
.. /ow long does it take to hit the gro)nd$ %*. s&
c. 0hat is its speed when it hits the gro)nd$ %*+.* m/s&
11. - 2. kg mass starts from rest and slides down a .8 m long inclined plane in .5 s.
0hat net force is acting on the mass along the incline$ %1+ :&
15. - #5 kg person escapes from a .)rning .)ilding .y >)mping from a window 25 m
a.ove a catching net. -ss)ming that air resistance exerts a 95 : force on the person
d)ring the fall, determine the person"s velocity >)st .efore hitting the net. %2. x 1
1

m/s&
1*. 'he parach)te on a race car that weighs 882 : opens at the end of a ()arter4mile r)n
when the car is travelling +5 m/s. 0hat total retarding force m)st .e s)pplied .y the
parach)te to stop the car in a distance of 11 m$ %45. x 1
2
:&
1#. - 125 kg car is p)lling a +25 kg trailer. 'ogether, the car and trailer have an
acceleration of 2.15 m/s
2
directly forward.
a. =etermine the net force on the car. %2*9 :&
.. =etermine the net force on the trailer. %*99 :&
18. - .15 kg .ase.all is thrown )pward with an initial speed of 2. m/s.
a. 0hat is the force on the .all when it reaches half its maxim)m height$ %D1.1# :&
.. =isregarding air resistance, what is the force on the .all when it reaches its peak$
%D1.1# :&
19. 6ind the force exerted .y each ca.le to
s)pport the *25 : .ag in the diagram.
%1. x 1
+
:, 8. x 1
2
:&
1
+#
o
.ag
2. - .ox of .ooks weighing +19 : is shoved across the floor .y a force of 185 : exerted
downward at an angle of +5E .elow the hori;ontal.
a. !f µ
k
.etween the .ox and the floor is .5#, how long does it take to move the .ox
1. m, starting from rest$ %2 s&
.. !f µ
k
.etween the .ox and the floor is .#5, how long does it take to move the .ox
1. m, starting from rest$ %the .ox does not move&
21. - 1. kg wagon is towed )p a hill inclined at 18.5E with respect to the hori;ontal. 'he
tow rope is parallel to the incline and exerts a force of 11 : on the wagon. -ss)me
that the wagon starts from rest at the .ottom of the hill, and disregard friction.
a. /ow fast is the wagon going after moving +. m )p the hill$ %1.9 m/s&
.. /ow fast is the wagon going after moving 8. m )p the hill$ %8. m/s&
22. - clerk moves a .ox of cans down an aisle .y p)lling on a rope attached to the .ox.
'he clerk p)lls with a force of 185. : at an angle of 25. with the hori;ontal. 'he
.ox has a mass of +5. kg, and the coefficient of kinetic friction .etween .ox and floor
is .15. 6ind the acceleration of the .ox. %1.1 m/s
2
&
2+. - girl coasts down a hill on a sled, reaching the .ottom with a speed of #. m/s. 'he
coefficient of friction .etween the sled"s r)nners and the snow is .5, and the girl and
sled together weigh *15 :. /ow far does the sled travel on the s)rface .efore coming
to rest$ %5. x 1
1
m&
Projectiles, Uniform Circlar !otion an" #ravitation
1. -n o.>ect is thrown hori;ontally at a velocity of 18 m/s from the top of a cliff. !f the
o.>ect hits the gro)nd 1 m from the .ase of the cliff, how high is the cliff $ % 151 m &
2. -n o.>ect is thrown from the gro)nd into the air at an angle of 1
o
from the hori;ontal
at a speed of 18 m/s.
-. 0hat is the maxim)m height achieved$ % *.82 m &
3. 0hat is the maxim)m range achieved$ % +2.5 m &
+. - st)dent standing 1. m from a tall .)ilding. !f the st)dent throws a .all at a velocity
of 12 m/s at an angle of +5E to the hori;ontal, at what height will the .all hit the
.)ilding$ % ass)me the .all was thrown from gro)nd level & % 1 .92 m &
1. - st)dent is standing on the top of a .)ilding and he throws an o.>ect into the air at a
speed of 1* m/s at an angle of 25
o
a.ove the hori;ontal. !f the .)ilding is #5 m tall, how
far from the .ase of the .)ilding will the o.>ect hit the gro)nd $ % *#. * m &
5. 'he fastest recorded pitch in Fa>or Geag)e 3ase.all, thrown .y :olan 2yan in 19#1,
was clocked at 1*2.+ km/h %1.8 mi/h&. !f a pitch were thrown hori;ontally with this
velocity, how far wo)ld the .all fall vertically .y the time it reached home plate, 18.+ m
%*. ft& away$ %.89 m&
*. - .all is fired from the gro)nd with an initial speed of 1.# x 1
+
m/s %approximately
five times the speed of so)nd& at an initial angle of 55.E to the hori;ontal. :eglecting
air resistance, find %a& the .all"s hori;ontal range and %.& the amo)nt of time the .all is
in motion. %2.## x 1
5
m, 281 s&
5
#. - person standing at the edge of a seaside cliff kicks a stone over the edge with a
hori;ontal speed of 18 m/s. 'he cliff edge is 52 m a.ove the water. /ow long does it
take for the stone to fall to the water$ 0ith what speed does it strike the water$ %+.+ s,
+* m/s&
8. - daredevil is shot o)t of a cannon at 15.E to the hori;ontal with an initial speed of
25. m/s. - net is positioned a hori;ontal distance of 5. m from the cannon. -t what
height a.ove the cannon sho)ld the net .e placed in order to catch the daredevil$ %1.#
m&
9. - place kicker m)st kick a foot.all from a point +*. m %a.o)t 1. yd& from the goal,
and the .all m)st clear the cross.ar, which is +.5 m high. 0hen kicked, the .all leaves
the gro)nd with a speed of 2. m/s at an angle of 5+E to the hori;ontal.
a. 3y how m)ch does the .all clear or fall short of clearing the cross.ar$ %1. m&
.. =oes the .all approach the cross.ar while still rising or while falling$ %falling&
1. - spherical stone with a mass of 1.25 kg is attached to one end of a 9 cm string and is
the sw)ng in a hori;ontal circle. !f the maxim)m force that the string can withstand
.efore .reaking is 15 :, what maxim)m speed can .e attained .y the stone$ %18 m/s&
11. - satellite is located 1 km a.ove the s)rface of the Earth. /ow long wo)ld it take
for the satellite to complete one or.it of the Earth$ 0hat is its speed$ %**+1 s, #2+
m/s&
12. H)piter has a mass of 1.9 x 1
2#
kg and a radi)s of or.it of #.#8 x 1
11
m. <at)rn has a
mass of 5.*# x 1
2*
kg and a radi)s of or.it of 1.1+ x 1
12
m. 0hat is the gravitational
force of attraction .etween H)piter and <at)rn when one of the planets is on the exact
opposite side of the <)n from the other planet$ %1.1# x 1
19
:&
1+. - hill has a radi)s of c)rvat)re of * m. 0ith what maxim)m speed can a car go over
the hill witho)t leaving the gro)nd$ %21.+ m/s&
11. - satellite is or.iting the Earth with a period of * h. =etermine the height of the
satellite a.ove the Earth"s s)rface. %#.11 x 1
#
m&
15. 'wo st)dents with masses of *5 kg and #1 kg are standing +. m apart. 0hat is the
gravitational force of attraction .etween the st)dents$ %+.5* x 1
48
:&
1*. 0hat wo)ld .e the acceleration d)e to gravity on the Earth if Earth"s mass was tripled
and the radi)s was do).led$ %#.+* m/s
2
&
1#. -n o.>ect with a mass of 5. kg is sw)ng 22 times in 5#.5 s. !f the diameter of the
circle is *. m, what is the tension in the rope$ %8*.# :&
18. - merry4go4ro)nd is .eing t)rned with a fre()ency of .25 /;. - child, with a mass of
1 kg, is sitting on the floor of the merry4go4ro)nd which has a coefficient of friction of
.+5. 0hat is the maxim)m distance from the centre where the child can sit witho)t
.eing thrown off the merry4go4ro)nd$ Explain why the child wo)ld .e thrown off.
%1.+9 m&
19. 'wo masses, 2 kg and 5 kg, are placed 2 m apart. - third mass of 5 kg is
placed in .etween the two large masses a distance of 5. m from the larger mass. 0hat
is the force acting on the 5 kg mass$ %*.+# x 1
4*
: toward the 5 kg mass&
*
!lti$le Choice %ection
1. Ise the following information to answer this ()estion.
-s an ice4dancer spins, a fringe on her cost)me sleeve .ecomes detached.
=irection of 2otation
'he path it will follow, as viewed from a.ove, will .e
a& !J
.& !
c& !!!
d& !!
2. Ise the following information to answer this ()estion.
- plastic food .ag in the space sh)ttle =iscovery appears to float motionless in
the air as the sh)ttle or.its Earth. <everal types of forces are possi.le. <ome
examples incl)de
!& magnetic
!!& gravitational
!!!& frictional
!J& centripetal
J& forces too small to .e meas)red
'he ma>or force or forces acting on the food .ag co)ld .e descri.ed as
a& !!! only
.& J only
c& !! and !J
d& !J and !!!
+. 'he term which is defined as the gravitational force on a .ody is
a& mass
.& weight
c& inertia
d& acceleration d)e to gravity
#
1. 'he gravitational field aro)nd a planet varies
a& directly as the s()are of the distance from the planet"s s)rface
.& directly as the s()are of the distance from the planet"s centre
c& inversely as the s()are of the distance from the planet"s s)rface
d& inversely as the s()are of the distance from the planet"s centre
5. 'he )niversal gravitation constant %K& was meas)red directly .y
a& Lepler
.& :ewton
c& Aavendish
d& 3rahe
*. - satellite in an elliptical or.it
a& has )niform speed
.& has the greatest or.it speed when it is closest to the planet it is or.iting
c& has the greatest or.it speed when it is f)rthest from the planet it is or.iting
d& cannot .e explained .y the )niversal law of gravitation
#. - proposed design for an Earth space station wo)ld involve it rotating. 'he most
important reason for having a space station rotate is
a& it wo)ld give the inha.itants a night/day se()ence to keep their .iological clocks
sta.le
.& it wo)ld give the inha.itants a more complete view of the Earth .elow
c& it wo)ld give the inha.itants a complete view of the s)rro)nding space so they
co)ld avoid .eing hit .y space M>)nkM
d& the centripetal acceleration of the station co)ld sim)late gravity for the
inha.itants
8. 6or a satellite in a circ)lar or.it aro)nd the Earth.
a& the or.ital velocity m)st .e smaller for a large mass
.& the or.ital velocity will .e the same for any mass
c& the or.ital velocity m)st .e larger for a larger mass
d& f)el m)st .e carried to provide energy to maintain the or.ital velocity
9. !n order to la)nch a comm)nications satellite and place it into a geosynchrono)s or.it
aro)nd Earth, it is most important to control the
a& altit)de and speed of the satellite
.& mass and si;e of the satellite
c& si;e and shape of the satellite
d& mass and altit)de of the satellite
F)ltiple choice answers
1. A 2. A +. 3 1. = 5. A *. 3 #. = 8. 3 9. -
8