You are on page 1of 159

FOAM RESPONSE TRAINING PROGRAM

FOAM RESPONSE TRAINING PROGRAM
NATIONAL FOAM
NATIONAL FOAM
NATIONAL FOAM
LIQUID FUELS IN
GENERAL
LIQUID FUELS IN
GENERAL
LIQUID FUEL TERMS
• • FLASH POINT FLASH POINT
Minimum temperature at which a liquid fuel gives off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable
mixture with air at the surface of the fuel.
• • FIRE POINT FIRE POINT
The temperature at which a liquid fuel will produce vapors sufficient to support continuous
combustion once ignited.
• • BOILING POINT BOILING POINT
Temperature of a substance when the vapor pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure.
• • FLAMMABLE LIMITS FLAMMABLE LIMITS
The percentage of a substance (vapor) in air that will burn once it is ignited. Most
substances have an upper (too rich) and a lower (too lean) flammable limit.
FLAMMABLE / COMBUSTIBLE
• • FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
Those liquid fuels having a flash point below 100°F (38°C)
• • COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
Those liquid fuels having a flash point at or above 100°F
(38°C)
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
DENSITY
DENSITY
LESS THAN H
LESS THAN H
2 2
O
O
WATER = 1
WATER = 1
VAPOR DENSITY
VAPOR DENSITY VAPOR DENSITY
OF AIR = 1 OF AIR = 1
VAPOR DENSITY VAPOR DENSITY
OF GASOLINE 3 OF GASOLINE 3- -4 4
VAPOR DENSITY VAPOR DENSITY
METHANE 0.6 METHANE 0.6
VAPOR PRESSURE
Vapors
Vapors
AS TEMPERATURE INCREASES
VAPOR PRESSURE INCREASES
AS TEMPERATURE INCREASES
AS TEMPERATURE INCREASES
VAPOR PRESSURE INCREASES
VAPOR PRESSURE INCREASES
FUEL FUEL FUEL FUEL
FLAMMABLE LIMITS Vs
FLAMMABLE RANGE
LIQUID SPILL LIQUID SPILL
VAPORS
FUEL VAPORS REACHING FIRE POINT FUEL VAPORS REACHING FIRE POINT
WITHIN FLAMMABLE RANGE WITHIN FLAMMABLE RANGE
VAPORS HAVE REACHED
VAPORS HAVE REACHED
THE UPPER LIMITS
THE UPPER LIMITS
INTRODUCTION TO FOAM
INTRODUCTION TO FOAM
WHAT IS FOAM ?
Per NFPA 11 Standard for Low Expansion Foam
Per NFPA 11 Standard for Low Expansion Foam
Fire-fighting foam is an aggregate of air-filled bubbles
formed from aqueous solutions and is lower in density
than flammable liquids. It is used principally to form a
cohesive floating blanket on flammable and combustible
liquids and prevents or extinguishes fire by excluding air
and cooling the fuel. It also prevents reignition by
suppressing formation of flammable vapors. It has the
property of adhering to surfaces, which provides a degree
of exposure protection from adjacent fires.
C
A
B
D
Class B Risks Involve
Class B Risks Involve
Flammable and Combustible Liquids
Flammable and Combustible Liquids
CLASS “B” FIRES & SPILL SECURITY
CLASS “B” FIRES & SPILL SECURITY
HYDROCARBONS
HYDROCARBONS
•PRODUCTS OF CRUDE OIL
FLOAT ON WATER
• Gasoline
• Diesel
• JP8
• Heptane
• Kerosene


PRODUCTS OF CRUDE OIL
PRODUCTS OF CRUDE OIL
FLOAT ON WATER
FLOAT ON WATER


Gasoline
Gasoline


Diesel
Diesel


JP8
JP8


Heptane
Heptane


Kerosene
Kerosene
POLAR SOLVENTS
POLAR SOLVENTS
• PRODUCTS OF DISTILLATION, HAVE AN
• AGGRESSIVE DESIRE TO MIX WITH WATER
• Ketones
• Esters
• Alcohol
• Amine
• MTBE


PRODUCTS OF DISTILLATION, HAVE AN
PRODUCTS OF DISTILLATION, HAVE AN


AGGRESSIVE DESIRE TO MIX WITH WATER
AGGRESSIVE DESIRE TO MIX WITH WATER


Ketones
Ketones


Esters
Esters


Alcohol
Alcohol


Amine
Amine


MTBE
MTBE
WHY USE FOAM ?
WHY USE FOAM ?
E
E
Prevent Ignition or Re
Prevent Ignition or Re
-
-
Ignition
Ignition
E
E
Suppress the Release of
Suppress the Release of
Flammable Vapors
Flammable Vapors
E
E
Post Fire Security
Post Fire Security
E
E
Protect Fire & Rescue Personnel
Protect Fire & Rescue Personnel
WHAT IS FOAM NOT EFFECTIVE ON ?
WHAT IS FOAM NOT EFFECTIVE ON ?
FOAM IS NOT EFFECTIVE ON:
FOAM IS NOT EFFECTIVE ON:
CLASS “C”
ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL FIRES
CLASS “C”
CLASS “C”
ENERGIZED
ENERGIZED
ELECTRICAL FIRES
ELECTRICAL FIRES
DANGER
DANGER: Foam is an excellent conductor
of electricity and should not be
used on Class “C” fires.
THREE DIMENSIONAL FIRES
THREE DIMENSIONAL FIRES
THREE DIMENSIONAL FIRES
EXTINGUISH THREE DIMENSIONAL
EXTINGUISH THREE DIMENSIONAL
FIRES WITH DRY CHEMICAL
FIRES WITH DRY CHEMICAL
EXTINGUISH GROUND FIRES WITH FOAM
EXTINGUISH GROUND FIRES WITH FOAM
FOAM IS NOT EFFECTIVE ON:
FOAM IS NOT EFFECTIVE ON:
PRESSURIZED GASES
PRESSURIZED GASES
PRESSURIZED GASES


Propane
Propane


Vinylchloride
Vinylchloride


Butane
Butane
FOAM IS NOT EFFECTIVE ON:
FOAM IS NOT EFFECTIVE ON:
COMBUSTIBLE METALS
COMBUSTIBLE METALS
FOAM IS NOT EFFECTIVE ON:
FOAM IS NOT EFFECTIVE ON:
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF
FOAM
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF
FOAM
CHEMICAL FOAMS
CHEMICAL FOAMS
HOPPER
HOPPER
EDUCTOR
EDUCTOR


Developed in the early 1920’s
Developed in the early 1920’s


Relied on a chemical reaction to produce foam
Relied on a chemical reaction to produce foam


Hard to use, powder would cake and clog
Hard to use, powder would cake and clog
eductor
eductor


B” POWDER
B” POWDER


A” POWDER
A” POWDER
MECHANICAL FOAMS
MECHANICAL FOAMS


Developed for the US Navy in the
Developed for the US Navy in the
1930’s by National Foam
1930’s by National Foam


A Liquid Foam Concentrate that relies
A Liquid Foam Concentrate that relies
on mechanical agitation to produce
on mechanical agitation to produce
expanded foam
expanded foam
FOAM TETRAHEDRON
FOAM TETRAHEDRON
MECHANICAL
AGITATION
FOAM
CONCENTRATE
AIR
FOAM
CONCENTRATE
MECHANICAL
AGITATION
AIR
WATER
WATER
WATER
FOAM TERMINOLOGY
FOAM TERMINOLOGY
•FOAM CONCENTRATE
As Purchased from Manufacturer
•+ Water =
•FOAM SOLUTION
Concentrate Proportioned with Water
•+ Air =
•FINISHED FOAM
Air Aspirated Foam Solution


FOAM CONCENTRATE
FOAM CONCENTRATE
As Purchased from Manufacturer
As Purchased from Manufacturer


+
+
Water
Water
=
=


FOAM SOLUTION
FOAM SOLUTION
Concentrate Proportioned with Water
Concentrate Proportioned with Water


+
+
Air
Air
=
=


FINISHED FOAM
FINISHED FOAM
Air Aspirated Foam Solution
Air Aspirated Foam Solution
PRODUCTION of MECHANICAL FOAM
PRODUCTION of MECHANICAL FOAM
WATER
WATER
FOAM
FOAM
CONCENTRATE
CONCENTRATE
PROPORTIONING
PROPORTIONING
DEVICE
DEVICE
FINISHED
FINISHED
FOAM
FOAM
FOAM SOLUTION
FOAM SOLUTION
AIR
AIR
FOAM PROPERTIES
FOAM PROPERTIES


KNOCKDOWN
KNOCKDOWN


HEAT RESISTANCE
HEAT RESISTANCE


FUEL TOLERANCE
FUEL TOLERANCE


VAPOR SUPPRESSION
VAPOR SUPPRESSION


COOLING
COOLING
KNOCKDOWN
KNOCKDOWN


Speed at which fire is controlled
Speed at which fire is controlled
FOAM BLANKET
FOAM BLANKET
BURNING FUEL
BURNING FUEL
FUEL
FUEL
HEAT RESISTANCE
HEAT RESISTANCE
•Foam’s ability to withstand exposure to heat
•Foam’s ability to withstand exposure to heat
FOAM BLANKET
FOAM BLANKET
FOAM BLANKET
Direct flame impingement
Direct flame impingement
Direct flame impingement
Hot metal tank wall
Hot metal tank wall
Hot metal tank wall
FUEL TOLERANCE
FUEL TOLERANCE


Ability of foam bubbles to pass through and shed
Ability of foam bubbles to pass through and shed
the fuel as they surface
the fuel as they surface
FOAM BUBBLES RE
FOAM BUBBLES RE
-
-
SURFACING
SURFACING
FUEL
FUEL
FUEL TOLERANCE
FUEL TOLERANCE
• •Foam bubbles surfacing and Foam bubbles surfacing and
shedding the fuel. shedding the fuel.
Foam solution from Foam solution from
proportioning system proportioning system
High back pressure High back pressure
foam maker foam maker
Finished Finished
Foam Foam
Subsurface Injection
Subsurface Injection
Air Air
VAPOR SUPPRESSION
VAPOR SUPPRESSION


Ability of the foam blanket to prohibit fuel vapors from
Ability of the foam blanket to prohibit fuel vapors from
migrating through the finished foam blanket
migrating through the finished foam blanket
FINISHED FOAM BLANKET
FINISHED FOAM BLANKET
VAPORS
VAPORS
VAPORS
FUEL
FUEL
DEVELOPMENT OF
MECHANICAL FOAMS
DEVELOPMENT OF
MECHANICAL FOAMS


Hydrolyzed Protein
Hydrolyzed Protein


Solid proteins are boiled to
Solid proteins are boiled to
produce liquid protein
produce liquid protein


Soy Bean
Soy Bean (Navy Bean Soup) (Navy Bean Soup)


Chicken Beaks & Feathers
Chicken Beaks & Feathers


Fish Bones
Fish Bones


Hoof & Horn
Hoof & Horn
PROTEIN
PROTEIN
FOAM PROPERTIES
FOAM PROPERTIES
PROPERTY PROTEIN
1. KNOCKDOWN FAIR
2. HEAT
RESISTANCE
EXCELLENT
3. FUEL
TOLERANCE
4. VAPOR
SUPPRESSION
EXCELLENT
5. ALCOHOL
TOLERANCE
NONE
FAIR
DEVELOPMENT OF
FLUOROPROTEIN FOAMS
DEVELOPMENT OF
FLUOROPROTEIN FOAMS


Combination of Hydrolyzed Protein
Combination of Hydrolyzed Protein
and
and
Fluorochemical
Fluorochemical
Surfactants
Surfactants


Lowers surface
Lowers surface
tension
tension


Provides
Provides
excellent fuel
excellent fuel
tolerance
tolerance
PROTEIN
PROTEIN
FLUORO
SURFACTANTS
Ingredient
FLUORO
SURFACTANTS
Ingredient
FLUORO-
PROTEIN
FLUORO-
PROTEIN
FOAM PROPERTIES
FOAM PROPERTIES
PROTEIN
1. KNOCKDOWN FAIR GOOD
2. HEAT
RESISTANCE
EXCELLENT EXCELLENT
3. FUEL
TOLERANCE
EXCELLENT
4. VAPOR
SUPPRESSION
EXCELLENT EXCELLENT
5. ALCOHOL
TOLERANCE
NONE NONE
FLUORO-
PROTEIN
FAIR
PROPERTY
DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS
DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS


A Blend of detergent type
A Blend of detergent type
foaming agents and stabilizers
foaming agents and stabilizers
PROTEIN
PROTEIN
SYNTHETIC
DETERGENTS
SYNTHETIC
DETERGENTS
FLUORO
SURFACTANTS
Ingredient
FLUORO
SURFACTANTS
Ingredient
FLUORO-
PROTEIN
FLUORO-
PROTEIN
HIGH EXPANSION FOAM
  Synthetic Detergent Based Foam
  Designed for use on class A materials and having lower surface
tension than water
  Limits the amount of oxygen required to support combustion
  Suitable for combating fires in confined spaces such as coal mines, aircraft
hangers, warehouses and where total flooding is required
  Expansion Ratios from 200 to 1000:1
  Designed for use with high expansion equipment, it can also be used
with both medium and low expansion foam equipment
DEVELOPMENT OF AFFF
DEVELOPMENT OF AFFF


Developed by the US Navy
Developed by the US Navy


Spill Fire Control
Spill Fire Control


Quick Drainage
Quick Drainage


Produces an Aqueous Film
Produces an Aqueous Film
PROTEIN
PROTEIN
SYNTHETIC
DETERGENTS
SYNTHETIC
DETERGENTS
FLUORO
SURFACTANTS
Ingredient
FLUORO
SURFACTANTS
Ingredient
FLUORO-
PROTEIN
FLUORO-
PROTEIN
AQUEOUS FILM
FORMING FOAMS
(AFFF)
AQUEOUS FILM
FORMING FOAMS
(AFFF)
FOAM PROPERTIES
FOAM PROPERTIES
PROTEIN
FLUORO-
PROTEIN
AFFF
1. KNOCKDOWN FAIR GOOD
EXCELLENT
2. HEAT
RESISTANCE
EXCELLENT EXCELLENT
3. FUEL
TOLERANCE
EXCELLENT MODERATE
4. VAPOR
SUPPRESSION
EXCELLENT EXCELLENT GOOD
5. ALCOHOL
TOLERANCE
NONE NONE NONE
FAIR
FAIR
PROPERTY
DEVELOPMENT OF FFFP FOAMS
DEVELOPMENT OF FFFP FOAMS
PROTEIN
PROTEIN
SYNTHETIC
DETERGENTS
SYNTHETIC
DETERGENTS
FLUORO
SURFACTANTS
Ingredient
FLUORO
SURFACTANTS
Ingredient
FLUORO-
PROTEIN
FLUORO-
PROTEIN
AQUEOUS FILM
FORMING FOAMS
(AFFF)
AQUEOUS FILM
FORMING FOAMS
(AFFF)
FILM FORMING
FLUOROPROTEIN
(FFFP)
FILM FORMING
FLUOROPROTEIN
(FFFP)
Film forming
Film forming
technology only
technology only
FOAM PROPERTIES
FOAM PROPERTIES
PROTEIN
FLUORO-
PROTEIN
AFFF
FFFP
1. KNOCKDOWN FAIR GOOD EXCELLENT GOOD
2. HEAT
RESISTANCE
EXCELLENT EXCELLENT GOOD
3. FUEL
TOLERANCE
EXCELLENT MODERATE GOOD
4. VAPOR
SUPPRESSION
EXCELLENT EXCELLENT GOOD GOOD
5. ALCOHOL
TOLERANCE
NONE NONE NONE NONE
FAIR
FAIR
PROPERTY
PROTEIN
PROTEIN
DEVELOPMENT OF AR-AFFF FOAMS
DEVELOPMENT OF AR-AFFF FOAMS
SYNTHETIC
DETERGENTS
SYNTHETIC
DETERGENTS
FLUORO
SURFACTANTS
Ingredient
FLUORO
SURFACTANTS
Ingredient
FLUORO-
PROTEIN
FLUORO-
PROTEIN
SYNTHETIC
POLYMERS
Ingredient
SYNTHETIC
POLYMERS
Ingredient
AQUEOUS FILM
FORMING FOAMS
(AFFF)
AQUEOUS FILM
FORMING FOAMS
(AFFF)
ALCOHOL
RESISTANT
AFFF
ALCOHOL
RESISTANT
AFFF
FILM FORMING
FLUOROPROTEIN
(FFFP)
FILM FORMING
FLUOROPROTEIN
(FFFP)
FOAM PROPERTIES
FOAM PROPERTIES
PROTEIN
FLUORO- -
PROTEIN
AFFF FFFP AR-AFFF
1. KNOCKDOWN FAIR GOOD EXCELLENT GOOD EXCELLENT
2. HEAT
RESISTANCE
EXCELLENT EXCELLENT GOOD
3. FUEL
TOLERANCE
EXCELLENT MODERATE GOOD GOOD
4. VAPOR
SUPPRESSION
EXCELLENT EXCELLENT GOOD GOOD GOOD
5. ALCOHOL
TOLERANCE
NONE NONE NONE EXCELLENT NONE
FAIR
FAIR GOOD
PROPERTY


Coo
Coo
ls
ls
Suppresses Vapor
Suppresses Vapor
Excludes Oxygen
Excludes Oxygen
HOW FOAM WORKS
HOW FOAM WORKS
VAPORS
VAPORS
VAPORS
Fuel
Fuel
A F F F
A F F F
Finished Foam
Finished Foam
Cools Hot
Cools Hot
Surfaces
Surfaces
Aqueous Film Formation
Aqueous Film Formation
Across Fuel Surface
Across Fuel Surface
VAPORS
VAPORS
Fuel
Fuel
SURFACE TENSION
SURFACE TENSION
UNTREATED WATER
UNTREATED WATER
(High surface tension)
(High surface tension)
AFFF
AFFF
Foam Solution
Foam Solution
(Low surface tension)
(Low surface tension)
Hydrocarbon Fuel
Hydrocarbon Fuel
(Gasoline,
(Gasoline,
Heptane
Heptane
, etc.)
, etc.)
F F F P
F F F P
Finished Foam
Finished Foam
Cools Hot
Cools Hot
Surfaces
Surfaces
Aqueous Film Formation
Aqueous Film Formation
Across Fuel Surface
Across Fuel Surface
VAPORS
VAPORS
Fuel
Fuel
·
·
Aqueous Film Formation on Hydrocarbons
Aqueous Film Formation on Hydrocarbons
·
·
Polymeric Membrane Formation on Polar Fuels
Polymeric Membrane Formation on Polar Fuels
Polymeric Membrane Formation
Polymeric Membrane Formation
Across Fuel Surface
Across Fuel Surface
Finished Foam
Finished Foam
Cools Hot
Cools Hot
Surfaces
Surfaces
AR-AFFF
AR-AFFF
Fuel
Fuel
VAPORS
VAPORS
VAPORS
FOAM
PROPORTIONING
FOAM
PROPORTIONING
LINE EDUCTORS
LINE EDUCTORS
¬
¬
Low Cost
Low Cost
¬
¬
No Moving Parts
No Moving Parts
¬
¬
Minimal Maintenance
Minimal Maintenance
¬
¬
Portable
Portable
¬
¬
Simple Operation
Simple Operation
NOTE: CHECK MANUFACTURERS’ RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR INLET PRESSURE TO EDUCTOR
NOTE: CHECK MANUFACTURERS’ RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR INLET PRESSURE TO EDUCTOR
IN-LINE EDUCTOR
IN-LINE EDUCTOR
200 200 psi psi
Inlet Pressure Inlet Pressure
70 70 psi psi
Loss Across Loss Across Eductor Eductor
130 130 psi psi
Remaining Remaining
EDUCTOR JET EDUCTOR JET RECOVERY SECTION RECOVERY SECTION
LOW PRESSURE AREA LOW PRESSURE AREA
CONCENTRATE CONCENTRATE
PICK PICK- -UP TUBE UP TUBE
METERING & CHECK VALVE METERING & CHECK VALVE
Line Proportioners on
average are only 65%
efficient.
Line Proportioners on
average are only 65%
efficient.
Concentrate
200 psi inlet
70 psi Friction Loss
Friction Loss Can
not Exceed 30 psi
100 psi Nozzle
130 psi Outlet
IN-LINE 60 gpm EDUCTOR OPERATION
IN-LINE 60 gpm EDUCTOR OPERATION
EDUCTOR OUTLET PRESSURE = 130 psi
NOZZLE REQUIRES 100 psi - 100 psi
REMAINING FOR HOSE FRICTION LOSS = 30 psi
Nominal Solution
Flow @ 200 psi
Nozzle Flow
@ 100 psi
Hose
Size
Max. Hose Lay
at “0” Elev.
Line Eductor
Size
60 GPM 1-3/4” 400’ 60 GPM
Approx. Coverage
Area
600 Sq. Ft. 60 GPM
60 GPM 1-1/2” 300’ 60 GPM 600 Sq. Ft. 60 GPM
200 psi inlet
Friction Loss Can
not Exceed 30 psi
100 psi Nozzle
130 psi Outlet
IN-LINE 95 gpm EDUCTOR OPERATION
IN-LINE 95 gpm EDUCTOR OPERATION
Nominal Solution
Flow @ 200 psi
Nozzle Flow
@ 100 psi
Hose
Size
Max. Hose Lay
at “0” Elev.
Line Eductor
Size
95 GPM 1-3/4” 200’ 95 GPM
Approx. Coverage
Area
950 Sq. Ft. 95 GPM
EDUCTOR OUTLET PRESSURE = 130 psi
NOZZLE REQUIRES 100 psi - 100 psi
REMAINING FOR HOSE FRICTION LOSS = 30 psi
70 psi Friction Loss
95 GPM 1-1/2” 100’ 95 GPM 950 Sq. Ft. 95 GPM
Concentrate
FOAM CONCENTRATE USE @ 100 GPM
Concentrate
200 psi inlet 130 psi Outlet
1/2% of 100 gpm = 1/2 gpm Concentrate Per Minute
1% of 100 gpm =1 gpm Concentrate Per Minute
3% of 100 gpm = 3 gpm Concentrate Per Minute
6% of 100 gpm = 6 gpm Concentrate Per Minute
1/2% of 100 gpm = 1/2 gpm Concentrate Per Minute
1% of 100 gpm =1 gpm Concentrate Per Minute
3% of 100 gpm = 3 gpm Concentrate Per Minute
6% of 100 gpm = 6 gpm Concentrate Per Minute
EDUCTOR APPLICATIONS FOR
HANDLINE & MASTER STREAMS
Eductor Model
GPM Flow @
200 psi Inlet
Hose Size & Max. Hose Lay
GPM Nozzle Flow
@ 100 psi Inlet
LP-9
LP-17
LP-25
Aspirating
Nozzle
98
250
375
PC-31
PC-50
PC-60
250
400
500
3”
1-1/2”
4” 5”
100’
200’
2200’
200’
500’
500’
900’
1300’
LP-35 492
JS-10
100
1-3/4” 2-1/2”
250’
100’
100’
PUMPER
200 PSI DISCHARGE
TO EDUCTOR
EDUCTOR
NO INLET HOSE
LAY RESTRICTIONS
FOAM SUPPLY
HAND LINE NOZZLES
OR
GROUND MONITORS
30 PSI ALLOWABLE
BACK PRESSURE
Friction loss calculations from NFPA Handbook, 16th Edition
TO
LINE EDUCTOR RELAY EVOLUTION
Friction loss calculations from NFPA Handbook, 16th Edition
Eductor Model
GPM Flow @
200 psi Inlet
Hose Size & Max. Hose Lay
GPM Nozzle Flow
@ 100 psi Inlet
LP-17
LP-25
LP-35
Aspirating
Nozzle
250
375
492
PC-31
PC-50
PC-60
250
400
500
3” 2-1/2” 4” 5”
550’
250’
1400’
600’
350’
2500’
1400’ 3500’
EDUCTOR SIZE UP TIPS FOR HYDROCARBON FIRES
EDUCTOR SIZE UP TIPS FOR HYDROCARBON FIRES
Multiply eductor flow rate by 10 to approximate area.
For Alcohol's, multiply by 10 then divide by 2.
Multiply eductor flow rate by 10 to approximate area.
For Alcohol's, multiply by 10 then divide by 2.


A 60
A 60
gpm
gpm
eductor
eductor
will cover 600 sq. ft.
will cover 600 sq. ft.
•A 90 gpm eductor will cover 900 sq. ft.
•A 120 gpm eductor will cover 1200 sq. ft.
COMMON EDUCTOR FAILURES
COMMON EDUCTOR FAILURES
C MIS-MATCHED EDUCTOR AND NOZZLE
C AIR LEAKS IN PICK-UP TUBE OR HOSE CONNECTION
C IMPROPER FLUSHING AFTER USE
C KINKED DISCHARGE HOSE LINE
C NOZZLE ELEVATION
C TOO MUCH HOSE BETWEEN EDUCTOR AND NOZZLE
C INCORRECT INLET PRESSURE TO EDUCTOR
C PARTIALLY CLOSED NOZZLE SHUT-OFF
C COLLAPSED OR OBSTRUCTED PICKUP TUBE
C PICKUP TUBE TOO LONG
C C MIS MIS- -MATCHED EDUCTOR AND NOZZLE MATCHED EDUCTOR AND NOZZLE
C C AIR LEAKS IN PICK AIR LEAKS IN PICK- -UP TUBE OR HOSE CONNECTION UP TUBE OR HOSE CONNECTION
C C IMPROPER FLUSHING AFTER USE IMPROPER FLUSHING AFTER USE
C C KINKED DISCHARGE HOSE LINE KINKED DISCHARGE HOSE LINE
C C NOZZLE ELEVATION NOZZLE ELEVATION
C C TOO MUCH HOSE BETWEEN EDUCTOR AND NOZZLE TOO MUCH HOSE BETWEEN EDUCTOR AND NOZZLE
C C INCORRECT INLET PRESSURE TO EDUCTOR INCORRECT INLET PRESSURE TO EDUCTOR
C C PARTIALLY CLOSED NOZZLE SHUT PARTIALLY CLOSED NOZZLE SHUT- -OFF OFF
C C COLLAPSED OR OBSTRUCTED PICKUP TUBE COLLAPSED OR OBSTRUCTED PICKUP TUBE
C C PICKUP TUBE TOO LONG PICKUP TUBE TOO LONG
BY-PASS LINE EDUCTOR
BY-PASS LINE EDUCTOR
RECOVERY SECTION RECOVERY SECTION
EDUCTOR JET EDUCTOR JET
LOW PRESSURE AREA LOW PRESSURE AREA
METERING & CHECK VALVE METERING & CHECK VALVE
INLET INLET
FOAM / WATER SELECTOR FOAM / WATER SELECTOR
WATER PASSAGE WATER PASSAGE
NOTE: CHECK MANUFACTURER’S RECOMMENDATIONS NOTE: CHECK MANUFACTURER’S RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR INLET PRESSURE TO EDUCTOR FOR INLET PRESSURE TO EDUCTOR
CONCENTRATE CONCENTRATE
PICK PICK- -UP TUBE UP TUBE
LOW PRESSURE IN LINE EDUCTOR
LOW PRESSURE IN LINE EDUCTOR
NOTE: CHECK MANUFACTURER’S RECOMMENDATIONS NOTE: CHECK MANUFACTURER’S RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR INLET PRESSURE TO EDUCTOR FOR INLET PRESSURE TO EDUCTOR
INLET INLET
Metering Valve Metering Valve
CONCENTRATE CONCENTRATE
PICK PICK- -UP TUBE UP TUBE
Pressure Balancing Valve Pressure Balancing Valve
PREMIX PRESSURE SYSTEM
PREMIX PRESSURE SYSTEM
NITROGEN CYL.
NITROGEN CYL.
REGULATORS
REGULATORS
DISCHARGE
DISCHARGE
SYSTEM
SYSTEM
ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR
PREMIX
PREMIX
PRESSURE
PRESSURE
VESSEL
VESSEL
EXTERNAL AROUND THE PUMP
PROPORTIONING DEVICE
ALL WATER PUMP DISCHARGES HAVE FOAM
ALL WATER PUMP DISCHARGES HAVE FOAM
ALL WATER PUMP DISCHARGES HAVE FOAM
WATER WATER
PUMP PUMP
DISCHARGE DISCHARGE
PROPORTIONING PROPORTIONING
DEVICE DEVICE
CONCENTRATE CONCENTRATE
WATER TANK
ALL WATER PUMP DISCHARGES HAVE FOAM
ALL WATER PUMP DISCHARGES HAVE FOAM
ALL WATER PUMP DISCHARGES HAVE FOAM
CONCENTRATE CONCENTRATE
TANK TANK
WATER WATER
PUMP PUMP
DISCHARGE DISCHARGE
METERING METERING
VALVE VALVE
PV VENT PV VENT
AROUND THE PUMP PROPORTIONING WITH MANUAL VARIABLE METERING
AROUND THE PUMP PROPORTIONING WITH MANUAL VARIABLE METERING
PROPORTIONER PROPORTIONER
ALL WATER PUMP DISCHARGES HAVE FOAM
FLOW SENSING AROUND THE PUMP PROPORTIONING SYSTEM
FLOW SENSING AROUND THE PUMP PROPORTIONING SYSTEM
FLOW FLOW
METER METER
METERING METERING
VALVE VALVE
CONCENTRATE CONCENTRATE
TANK TANK
PV VENT PV VENT
WATER TANK WATER TANK
DISCHARGE DISCHARGE
FLOW FLOW
METER METER
PROPORTIONER PROPORTIONER
CONDUCTIVITY SENSING AROUND THE PUMP PROPORTIONING SYSTEM
CONDUCTIVITY SENSING AROUND THE PUMP PROPORTIONING SYSTEM
WATER WATER
PUMP PUMP
CONCENTRATE CONCENTRATE
TANK TANK
PROPORTIONER PROPORTIONER
MICROPROCESSOR MICROPROCESSOR
CONDUCTIVITY CONDUCTIVITY
SENSOR SENSOR
METERING METERING
VALVE VALVE
DISCHARGE DISCHARGE
PV VENT PV VENT
SAMPLING SAMPLING
UNIT UNIT
M
WATER
TANK
WATER
TANK
BY-PASS BALANCED PRESSURE
BY-PASS BALANCED PRESSURE
CONCENTRATE CONCENTRATE
TANK TANK
DIAPHRAGM DIAPHRAGM
VALVE VALVE
PROPORTIONER PROPORTIONER
CONCENTRATE CONCENTRATE
PUMP PUMP
METERING METERING
VALVE VALVE
WATER WATER
SUCTION SUCTION
DISCHARGE DISCHARGE
PV VENT PV VENT
RELIEF RELIEF
VALVE VALVE
WATER PUMP WATER PUMP
WATER
TANK
DEMAND BALANCED PRESSURE
DEMAND BALANCED PRESSURE
CONCENTRATE CONCENTRATE
TANK TANK
PROPORTIONER PROPORTIONER
CONCENTRATE CONCENTRATE
PUMP PUMP
METERING METERING
VALVE VALVE
WATER WATER
SUCTION SUCTION
DISCHARGE DISCHARGE
PV VENT PV VENT
WATER PUMP WATER PUMP
HYDROSTATIC HYDROSTATIC
DRIVE UNIT DRIVE UNIT
COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM
COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM
AGENT TANK
WATER WATER
PUMP PUMP
AIR AIR
COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR
FLOWMETER FLOWMETER
MIXER MIXER
AGENT AGENT
METERING METERING
AGENT AGENT
PUMP PUMP
POWER
UNIT
WATER
TANK
Finished Foam Finished Foam
Discharge Discharge
CLASS “A” / “B” SYSTEMS
RESULTS
RESULTS
PRECAUTIONS
PRECAUTIONS
Class “A” Class “A” Class “B” Class “B”
Common Piping Common Piping
Flush the concentrate discharge lines every time
you switch between concentrates.
Failure to flush when switching between
concentrates may cause clogging and
possibly shut down the system.
DISCHARGE
DEVICES AND
NOZZLES
DISCHARGE
DEVICES AND
NOZZLES
NOZZLES
NOZZLES
4 to 6:1
STANDARD FIRE NOZZLE
8 to 10:1
STANDARD FIRE NOZZLE
& LOW-X FOAM ATTACHMENT
10:1
FOAM NOZZLE
10:1
FOAM NOZZLE
WITH PICK-UP
10:1
FOAM NOZZLE
STANDARD FIRE NOZZLE &
FOAM ATTACHMENT
10:1
30 to 50:1
STANDARD FIRE NOZZLE
WITH MID-X FOAM ATTACHMENT
FOAM NOZZLE PERFORMANCE
4.1
4.1
8.1
8.1
6:1
6:1
EXPANSION
EXPANSION EXPANSION
25% DRAIN TIME
25% DRAIN TIME 25% DRAIN TIME
GPM
GPM GPM
13:50
13:50
0:17
0:17
6:15
6:15
1:04
1:04
RANGE
RANGE RANGE
75’
75’
s/s
s/s
90’
90’
s/s
s/s
50’ fog
50’ fog
65’
65’
s/s
s/s
8.1
8.1
82
82
100
100
74
74
98
98
Structural Nozzle
With Attachment
Aspirating Foam Nozzle
Typical Structural Nozzle
(Actual Test Comparisons Based on Universal Gold 3%) (Actual Test Comparisons Based on Universal Gold 3%)
FOAM BUBBLE FORMATION
FOAM BUBBLE FORMATION
ASPIRATING Vs NON-ASPIRATING NOZZLE DESIGN
AIR
AIR
AIR
AIR
FOAM SOLUTION FOAM SOLUTION
AIR
AIR
FINISHED FOAM
FINISHED FOAM
CORRECT BUBBLE FORMATION
CORRECT BUBBLE FORMATION
AIR
AIR
INDUCTION OF AIR
INDUCTION OF AIR
AFTER THE NOZZLE
AFTER THE NOZZLE
FOAM BUBBLE FORMATION AIR-ASPIRATED
FOAM BUBBLE FORMATION AIR-ASPIRATED
AIR
NON-ASPIRATING NOZZLE DESIGN
INDUCTION OF AIR AFTER THE NOZZLE
INDUCTION OF AIR AFTER THE NOZZLE
AIR
FOAM BUBBLE FORMATION NON-AIR-ASPIRATED
FOAM BUBBLE FORMATION NON-AIR-ASPIRATED
Solution being
Solution being
stripped from bubble
stripped from bubble
Foam
Foam
Bubble
Bubble
Droplet of
Droplet of
Solution
Solution
EXPANSION RATIOS
Per NFPA 11
EXPANSION RATIOS
Per NFPA 11


LOW EXPANSION
LOW EXPANSION
Up To 20:1
Up To 20:1


MEDIUM EXPANSION
MEDIUM EXPANSION
20 TO 200:1
20 TO 200:1


HIGH EXPANSION
HIGH EXPANSION
200 TO
200 TO
1000:1
1000:1
APPLICATION
TECHNIQUES
APPLICATION
TECHNIQUES
APPLICATION TECHNIQUES
APPLICATION TECHNIQUES


BOUNCE OFF
BOUNCE OFF


BANK
BANK
-
-
IN
IN


RAINDOWN
RAINDOWN


DO NOT
DO NOT
PLUNGE
PLUNGE
APPLICATION TECHNIQUE
APPLICATION TECHNIQUE
BOUNCE OF
BOUNCE OF
BOUNCE OF
BANK-IN
BANK
BANK
-
-
IN
IN
APPLICATION TECHNIQUE
APPLICATION TECHNIQUE
ROLL THE FOAM
ROLL THE FOAM
BLANKET ON TO THE FIRE
BLANKET ON TO THE FIRE
HIT THE GROUND IN
HIT THE GROUND IN
FRONT OF THE SPILL
FRONT OF THE SPILL
APPLICATION TECHNIQUE
APPLICATION TECHNIQUE
RAIN DOWN
RAIN DOWN
RAIN DOWN
DO NOT PLUNGE
DO NOT PLUNGE
PRESERVE THE FOAM BLANKET
PRESERVE THE FOAM BLANKET
• Aspirate for the best foam performance
• Do Not apply water to a foam blanket
• Do Not wade in foam blanket
• Reapplication of foam as necessary


Aspirate for the best foam performance
Aspirate for the best foam performance


Do Not
Do Not
apply water to a foam blanket
apply water to a foam blanket


Do Not
Do Not
wade in foam blanket
wade in foam blanket


Reapplication of foam as necessary
Reapplication of foam as necessary
APPLICATION
RATES
APPLICATION
RATES
APPLICATION RATES
APPLICATION RATES
• •
WHAT THEY CAN TELL YOU ?
WHAT THEY CAN TELL YOU ?


HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS


WATER REQUIREMENTS
WATER REQUIREMENTS


CONCENTRATE REQUIREMENTS
CONCENTRATE REQUIREMENTS


RESOURCE PRE
RESOURCE PRE
-
-
PLANNING
PLANNING
• AREA x RATE = GPM of Solution
2000 .10 200 gpm
• AREA x RATE = GPM of Solution
2000 2000 .10 .10 200 200 gpm gpm
APPLICATION RATES
APPLICATION RATES
• AREA x RATE = GPM of Solution
2000 .10 200 gpm
• GPM x %CON. = GPM of Concentrate
200 .03 6 gpm
• AREA x RATE = GPM of Solution
2000 2000 .10 .10 200 200 gpm gpm
• GPM x %CON. = GPM of Concentrate
200 200 .03 .03 6 6 gpm gpm
APPLICATION RATES
APPLICATION RATES
• AREA x RATE = GPM of Solution
2000 .10 200 gpm
• GPM x %CON. = GPM of Concentrate
200 .03 6 gpm
• GPM x %Water = GPM of Water
200 .97 194 gpm
• AREA x RATE = GPM of Solution
2000 2000 .10 .10 200 200 gpm gpm
• GPM x %CON. = GPM of Concentrate
200 200 .03 .03 6 6 gpm gpm
• GPM x %Water = GPM of Water
200 200 .97 .97 194 194 gpm gpm
APPLICATION RATES
APPLICATION RATES
• AREA x RATE = GPM of Solution
2000 .10 200 gpm
• GPM x %CON. = GPM of Concentrate
200 .03 6 gpm
• GPM x %Water = GPM of Water
200 .97 194 gpm
• GPM x TIME = TOTAL GAL CONC.
6 15 90 gal
• AREA x RATE = GPM of Solution
2000 2000 .10 .10 200 200 gpm gpm
• GPM x %CON. = GPM of Concentrate
200 200 .03 .03 6 6 gpm gpm
• GPM x %Water = GPM of Water
200 200 .97 .97 194 194 gpm gpm
• GPM x TIME = TOTAL GAL CONC.
6 6 15 15 90 gal 90 gal
APPLICATION RATES
APPLICATION RATES
• AREA x RATE = GPM of Solution
2000 .10 200 gpm
• GPM x %CON. = GPM of Concentrate
200 .03 6 gpm
• GPM x %Water = GPM of Water
200 .97 194 gpm
• GPM x TIME = TOTAL GAL CONC.
6 15 90 gal
• GPM x TIME = TOTAL GAL WATER
194 15 2910 gal
• AREA x RATE = GPM of Solution
2000 2000 .10 .10 200 200 gpm gpm
• GPM x %CON. = GPM of Concentrate
200 200 .03 .03 6 6 gpm gpm
• GPM x %Water = GPM of Water
200 200 .97 .97 194 194 gpm gpm
• GPM x TIME = TOTAL GAL CONC.
6 6 15 15 90 gal 90 gal
• GPM x TIME = TOTAL GAL WATER
194 194 15 15 2910 gal 2910 gal
APPLICATION RATES
APPLICATION RATES
TESTING CRITERIA
TESTING CRITERIA
TEST CRITERIA
TEST CRITERIA
Testing For:
Testing For:


Extinguishment (Time)
Extinguishment (Time)


Sealability
Sealability
Vapor Suppression
Vapor Suppression
Heat Resistance
Heat Resistance


Burnback
Burnback
Resistance
Resistance
UL 162 TESTING CRITERIA
UL 162 TESTING CRITERIA
Fixed gal.
Fixed gal.
Aspirating
Aspirating
Nozzle
Nozzle
1 MIN PREBURN
1 MIN PREBURN
50 ft
50 ft
2
2
Type II
Type II
-
-
Fixed 5 min
Fixed 5 min
Foam Application
Foam Application
EXTINGUISHMENT ?
EXTINGUISHMENT ?
UL 162 TESTING CRITERIA
UL 162 TESTING CRITERIA
SEALABILITY ?
SEALABILITY ?
2 Torch tests over
2 Torch tests over
a 15 min. Period
a 15 min. Period
UL 162 TESTING CRITERIA
UL 162 TESTING CRITERIA
21
21
BURNBACK RESISTANCE ?
BURNBACK RESISTANCE ?


1 min.
1 min.
Preburn
Preburn


Remove Chimney
Remove Chimney


Not Greater Than 20%
Not Greater Than 20%
Reinvolvement
Reinvolvement
over a
over a
5 min. Time Period
5 min. Time Period
UL 162 TESTING CRITERIA
UL 162 TESTING CRITERIA
10 ft²
10 ft²
27
27
SCALE
2.00
1.00
3.00
COLOR SEPARATION OR LINE COLOR SEPARATION OR LINE
TESTING FOR
PROPORTIONING ACCURACY
TESTING FOR
PROPORTIONING ACCURACY
AS VIEWED THROUGH EYE PIECE AS VIEWED THROUGH EYE PIECE
REFRACTOMETER
REFRACTOMETER
REFRACTOMETER
LIGHT LIGHT
EYE PIECE EYE PIECE
LENS COVER LENS COVER
LENS LENS
SAMPLE SAMPLE
1 %
CONDUCTIVITY
CONDUCTIVITY
3 % 6 %
TESTING FOR
PROPORTIONING ACCURACY
TESTING FOR
PROPORTIONING ACCURACY
EXPANSION & DRAINAGE TESTING
EXPANSION & DRAINAGE TESTING
FOAM STREAM
FOAM STREAM
CYLINDER WITH
CYLINDER WITH
5 ml GRADUATIONS
5 ml GRADUATIONS
1600
1600
mL
mL
FOAM
FOAM
CONTAINER
CONTAINER
FOAM SLIDER FOAM SLIDER
CLEAR TUBING &
CLEAR TUBING &
SHUTOFF VALVE
SHUTOFF VALVE
HAZMAT
FOAMS
HAZMAT
FOAMS
HAZMAT VAPOR MITIGATION
HAZMAT VAPOR MITIGATION
C C
Insulates chemical from:
Insulates chemical from:
º
º
Solar radiation
Solar radiation
º
º
Ambient air
Ambient air
º
º
Heat input
Heat input
C C
Reduces vaporization
Reduces vaporization
C C
Suppresses vapors
Suppresses vapors
C C
Absorbs vapors and particulates
Absorbs vapors and particulates
UNIVERSAL
GOLD
Medium Expansion
Medium Expansion
FOAM STABILIZERS
FOAM STABILIZERS
C C
More durable than conventional foam blankets
More durable than conventional foam blankets
C C
Combination of alcohol foam and a chemical stabilizer
Combination of alcohol foam and a chemical stabilizer
C C
Provides long term
Provides long term
sealability
sealability
of non
of non
-
-
water
water
-
-
reactive hazardous
reactive hazardous
materials
materials
C C
It is not readily biodegradable
It is not readily biodegradable
C C
Must be disposed of in accordance with U.S. EPA regulations,
Must be disposed of in accordance with U.S. EPA regulations,
preferably through incineration
preferably through incineration
VAPORS
VAPORS
VAPORS
THE NEW HAZARD “BLENDED FUELS”
THE NEW HAZARD “BLENDED FUELS”
THE NEW HAZARD
THE NEW HAZARD
ARE YOU
PREPARED
ARE YOU
ARE YOU
PREPARED
PREPARED
FROM NOVEMBER TO FEBRUARY THIS
PUMP CONTAINS OXYGENATED FUEL
BLENDED GASOLINE
BLENDED GASOLINE
MTBE - TAME - ETBE - Ethanol - Methanol
NEW HAZARDS, BLENDED FUELS
NEW HAZARDS, BLENDED FUELS


GASOLINE BLENDING
GASOLINE BLENDING


Blending a Polar Solvent with a
Blending a Polar Solvent with a
Hydrocarbon
Hydrocarbon


Process Performed at Refinery Level
Process Performed at Refinery Level


RESULTS
RESULTS


Higher vapor pressure and low surface
Higher vapor pressure and low surface
tension
tension


PRODUCTS USED IN BLENDING
PRODUCTS USED IN BLENDING


MTBE
MTBE
-
-
Methyl Tertiary BUTYL ETHER
Methyl Tertiary BUTYL ETHER


METHANOL
METHANOL


ETHANOL
ETHANOL
MTBE STUDY RESULTS
MTBE STUDY RESULTS
º
º
Air
Air
-
-
aspirated nozzles are a must
aspirated nozzles are a must
º
º
AFFF’s
AFFF’s
have extreme difficulty with film formation and have not
have extreme difficulty with film formation and have not
been able to achieve UL listings, even at higher application rat
been able to achieve UL listings, even at higher application rat
es
es
º
º
AR
AR
-
-
AFFF’s
AFFF’s
do not produce a polymeric membrane due to low
do not produce a polymeric membrane due to low
alcohol content but are effective at increased application rates
alcohol content but are effective at increased application rates
because of their blanket stability
because of their blanket stability
º
º
Universal Gold is UL listed for type
Universal Gold is UL listed for type
lll
lll
application
application
º
º
Aer
Aer
-
-
O
O
-
-
Foam XL
Foam XL
-
-
3 is UL listed type
3 is UL listed type
ll
ll
&
&
lll
lll
application
application
º
º
Re
Re
-
-
Application may have to be more frequent
Application may have to be more frequent
MTBE STUDY RESULTS
MTBE STUDY RESULTS
º
º
MTBE Blended fuels burn hotter than regular gasoline
MTBE Blended fuels burn hotter than regular gasoline
º
º
They have an increased vapor pressure
They have an increased vapor pressure
º
º
The longer the
The longer the
preburn
preburn
, the more difficult the extinguishment
, the more difficult the extinguishment
º
º
Foam blanket quality is critical to extinguishment and post fire
Foam blanket quality is critical to extinguishment and post fire
security
security
º
º
Reduced surface tension inhibits effective film formation typica
Reduced surface tension inhibits effective film formation typica
lly
lly
expected from
expected from
AFFF’s
AFFF’s
º
º
Low levels of polar attractiveness do not activate polymeric
Low levels of polar attractiveness do not activate polymeric
precipitation from within AR
precipitation from within AR
-
-
AFFF’s
AFFF’s
NFPA APPLICATION TYPES
NFPA APPLICATION TYPES
MOELLER TUBE MOELLER TUBE
NFPA TYPE I
NFPA TYPE I
FIXED PROTECTION FIXED PROTECTION
NFPA TYPE II
NFPA TYPE II
GROUND ATTACK GROUND ATTACK
NFPA TYPE III
NFPA TYPE III
FUEL FUEL
FOAM SOLUTION INLET FOAM SOLUTION INLET
OBSOLETE OBSOLETE
FUEL FUEL
MONITOR & HAND MONITOR & HAND
LINE APPLICATION LINE APPLICATION
FUEL FUEL
DEFLECTOR DEFLECTOR
FOAM SOLUTION INLET FOAM SOLUTION INLET
Foam Concentrate Should be Listed for Type II or Type III
MTBE TEST RESULTS
MTBE TEST RESULTS
0% 0% 20% 20% 40% 40% 60% 60% 80% 80% 100% 100%
50 38 6 6
38 12 50
Extinguishment Extinguishment
Sealability Sealability
Burnback Burnback
Passed Passed
Passed
Passed
Failed
Failed
Fluoro-
Protein
AR-AFFF
FILM FORMATION ON
MTBE/GASOLINE BLENDS
FILM FORMATION ON
MTBE/GASOLINE BLENDS
15
15
-
-
30% MTBE BLENDED FUEL
30% MTBE BLENDED FUEL • • UNLEADED GASOLINE UNLEADED GASOLINE
FILM FORMATION FILM FORMATION
SCREW SCREW
FUEL FUEL
CONCENTRATE LABELING
CONCENTRATE LABELING
UNDERSTANDING THE FOAM PAIL LABEL
UNDERSTANDING THE FOAM PAIL LABEL


FOAM CONCENTRATE TYPE
FOAM CONCENTRATE TYPE


PERCENT OF USAGE
PERCENT OF USAGE


STORAGE TEMPERATURE RANGE
STORAGE TEMPERATURE RANGE


APPROVAL & LISTINGS
APPROVAL & LISTINGS


HANDLING CONSIDERATIONS
HANDLING CONSIDERATIONS
3 x 3 AR-AFFF
UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES U.L.
FACTORY MUTUAL F.M.
U. S. COAST GUARD U.S.C.G.
MILITARY (QPL) MIL. SPEC.
CLASS “B” FOAM CONCENTRATE APPROVALS
CLASS “B” FOAM CONCENTRATE APPROVALS
MIL-SPEC CONCENTRATES
MIL-SPEC CONCENTRATES
• • MUST MEET LATEST REV. OF MIL MUST MEET LATEST REV. OF MIL- -F F- -24385_ 24385_
• • EACH MFGR. USES SPECIFIC LABELING OR NAMES TO EACH MFGR. USES SPECIFIC LABELING OR NAMES TO
IDENTIFY THEIR OWN MIL IDENTIFY THEIR OWN MIL- -SPEC CONCENTRATES SPEC CONCENTRATES
• • CONCENTRATES SHOULD BE MIXED AND STORED ONLY CONCENTRATES SHOULD BE MIXED AND STORED ONLY
WITH CONCENTRATES APPEARING ON THE Q.P.L. (Qualified WITH CONCENTRATES APPEARING ON THE Q.P.L. (Qualified
Products List) Products List)
• • THE SPEC CALLS FOR A BLUE PAIL (Many THE SPEC CALLS FOR A BLUE PAIL (Many Mfgrs Mfgrs. take exception . take exception
to the blue pail) to the blue pail)
• • COVERS ONLY 3% AND 6% AFFF CONCENTRATES COVERS ONLY 3% AND 6% AFFF CONCENTRATES
AER -O- WATER
6%
EM
© National Foam Inc.. 1994
TRAINING FOAM
TRAINING FOAM
$
$
Low Cost
Low Cost
=
=
Environmentally Safe
Environmentally Safe
·
·
Biodegradable in 48 hours
Biodegradable in 48 hours
:
:
Can be Proportioned at 3% or 6%
Can be Proportioned at 3% or 6%
+
+
Great for Line
Great for Line
Eductor
Eductor
Training Scenarios
Training Scenarios
´
´
Uses the Same Foaming Agents Found in
Uses the Same Foaming Agents Found in
National Foam’s AFFF Concentrates
National Foam’s AFFF Concentrates
STORAGE
AND COMPATIBILITY
STORAGE
AND COMPATIBILITY
FOAM COMPATIBILITY
FOAM COMPATIBILITY


IN STORAGE
IN STORAGE
E
E
Do Not
Do Not
Mix Concentrates of Different Types.
Mix Concentrates of Different Types.
(i.e. AFFF, Protein, FFFP)
(i.e. AFFF, Protein, FFFP)
E
E
Similar Types of Concentrates May be Mixed for
Similar Types of Concentrates May be Mixed for
Immediate Use On Fire (i.e. AFFF to
Immediate Use On Fire (i.e. AFFF to
AFFF,
AFFF,
Protein to Protein)
Protein to Protein)
E
E
Follow Manufacturers’ Recommendations for
Follow Manufacturers’ Recommendations for
Mixing
Mixing
Concentrates for Long Term Storage
Concentrates for Long Term Storage


FOR FIREFIGHTING
FOR FIREFIGHTING
E
E
Dissimilar Concentrates May be Applied to a
Dissimilar Concentrates May be Applied to a
Fire,
Fire,
AFFF and Proteins etc;
AFFF and Proteins etc;
COLD WATER FOAM
COLD WATER FOAM


FORMULATED FOR USE WHEN
FORMULATED FOR USE WHEN
WATER
WATER
TEMPERATURES ARE EXTREMELY LOW
TEMPERATURES ARE EXTREMELY LOW
COLD WATER
FOAM
COLD FOAM
COLD FOAM
• • FORMULATED FOR USE IN COLD TEMPERATURES FORMULATED FOR USE IN COLD TEMPERATURES
NON FREEZE PROTECTED NON FREEZE PROTECTED
FREEZE PROTECTED FREEZE PROTECTED
- -50 50º º
- -40 40º º
- -30 30º º
- -20 20º º
0 0º º
- -10 10º º
20 20º º
10 10º º 30 30º º
40 40º º 60 60º º
70 70º º 50 50º º
80 80º º 100 100º º
90 90º º 110 110º º
120 120º º
0 0º º
TYPICAL STORAGE AND USE
TYPICAL STORAGE AND USE
FREEZE
POINT
FREEZE
POINT
°F
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTIONFOR USE WITH PROTEIN BASED FOAM
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTIONFOR USE WITH PROTEIN BASED FOAM


Mild (Carbon) Steel
Mild (Carbon) Steel (piping and storage) (piping and storage)


High Density Cross Linked Polyethylene
High Density Cross Linked Polyethylene (storage tanks) (storage tanks)


High Density Polyethylene
High Density Polyethylene (piping) (piping)


PVC
PVC (piping) (piping)


Fiberglass with
Fiberglass with
Isophthalic
Isophthalic
Based Polyester
Based Polyester (piping/storage) (piping/storage)


Brass or Bronze
Brass or Bronze (valves/piping) (valves/piping)


Buna N or Teflon Seals, “O” Rings, Etc.
Buna N or Teflon Seals, “O” Rings, Etc.


Note:
Note:
Stainless and galvanized storage tanks or piping
Stainless and galvanized storage tanks or piping
should
should
not be used to contain protein foam concentrates.
not be used to contain protein foam concentrates.
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTIONFOR USE WITH SYNTHETIC BASED
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTIONFOR USE WITH SYNTHETIC BASED


Stainless Steel
Stainless Steel
-
-
304L or 316
304L or 316 (piping and storage) (piping and storage)


High Density Cross Linked Polyethylene
High Density Cross Linked Polyethylene (storage tanks) (storage tanks)


High Density Polyethylene
High Density Polyethylene (piping) (piping)


PVC
PVC (piping) (piping)


Fiberglass with
Fiberglass with
Isophthalic
Isophthalic
Based Polyester
Based Polyester (piping/storage) (piping/storage)


Brass or Bronze
Brass or Bronze (valves/piping) (valves/piping)


Buna N or Teflon Seals, “O” Rings, Etc.
Buna N or Teflon Seals, “O” Rings, Etc.
Note: Note: Mild steel or galvanized storage tanks or piping should Mild steel or galvanized storage tanks or piping should
not be used to contain synthetic foam concentrates. not be used to contain synthetic foam concentrates.
APPARATUS FOAM TANKS
APPARATUS FOAM TANKS
PRESSURE VACUUM VENT PRESSURE VACUUM VENT
AIR TIGHT COVER WITH AIR TIGHT COVER WITH
GASKET AND LATCH GASKET AND LATCH
SPLASH BAFFLE SPLASH BAFFLE
MINIMAL AIR TO MINIMAL AIR TO
CONCENTRATE INTERFACE CONCENTRATE INTERFACE
CONCENTRATE
CONCENTRATE
TANK
TANK
PROTECTIVE SCREEN PROTECTIVE SCREEN
CONCENTRATE
CONCENTRATE
TANK
TANK
INCORRECT CONSTRUCTION OF
AN APPARATUS FOAM TANK
INCORRECT CONSTRUCTION OF
AN APPARATUS FOAM TANK
LOOSE AND UNSEALED COVER LOOSE AND UNSEALED COVER
Same as leaving a
Same as leaving a
paint can open
paint can open
Latex Latex
Paint Paint
FOAM STORAGE
FOAM STORAGE
CONSIDERATIONS
CONSIDERATIONS
-
-
LOCATION
LOCATION
-
-
TEMPERATURES
TEMPERATURES
-
-
CONTAINER MATERIAL
CONTAINER MATERIAL
-
-
FACILITY
FACILITY
-
-
RAPID TRANSPORTATION
RAPID TRANSPORTATION
SHELF LIFE
SHELF LIFE
×
×
CONTAMINATION
CONTAMINATION
×
×
EVAPORATION
EVAPORATION
×
×
DILUTION
DILUTION
×
×
STORAGE MATERIALS
STORAGE MATERIALS
×
×
EXTREME TEMPERATURES
EXTREME TEMPERATURES
AFFECTED BY
ENVIRONMENTAL
ISSUES
ENVIRONMENTAL
ISSUES
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
• BOD
–THE AMOUNT OF OXYGEN
CONSUMED BY THE DECAY OF
ORGANIC MATERIAL
– The Larger the BOD Number the Higher the
Organic Content


BOD
BOD


THE AMOUNT OF OXYGEN
THE AMOUNT OF OXYGEN
CONSUMED BY THE DECAY OF
CONSUMED BY THE DECAY OF
ORGANIC MATERIAL
ORGANIC MATERIAL


The Larger the BOD Number the Higher the
The Larger the BOD Number the Higher the
Organic Content
Organic Content
© National Foam Inc.. 1996
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
• COD
–DISSOLVED OXYGEN
REQUIRED TO EFFECT
COMPLETE OXIDATION
OF A CHEMICAL


COD
COD


DISSOLVED OXYGEN
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
REQUIRED TO EFFECT
REQUIRED TO EFFECT
COMPLETE OXIDATION
COMPLETE OXIDATION
OF A CHEMICAL
OF A CHEMICAL
BOD
20
TO COD RATIO INDICATES THE DEGRADABILITY
Ratios Greater than 0.5 Generally Considered Acceptable
BOD
BOD
20 20
TO COD RATIO INDICATES THE DEGRADABILITY
TO COD RATIO INDICATES THE DEGRADABILITY
Ratios Greater than 0.5 Generally Considered Acceptable
Ratios Greater than 0.5 Generally Considered Acceptable
© National Foam Inc. 1996
EXAMPLE OF BOD
20
/ COD RATIO
EXAMPLE OF BOD
20
/ COD RATIO
× UNIVERSAL GOLD BOD
20
is 215,000 mg/kg
× COD is 276,000 mg/kg
× 215,000
BOD 20
/ 276,000
COD
= 0.78
× The Ratio For Universal GOLD is 0.78
Indicating Favorable Degradability
× ×
UNIVERSAL GOLD BOD
UNIVERSAL GOLD BOD
20 20
is 215,000 mg/kg
is 215,000 mg/kg
× ×
COD is 276,000 mg/kg
COD is 276,000 mg/kg
× ×
215,000
215,000
BOD 20 BOD 20
/ 276,000
/ 276,000
COD COD
= 0.78
= 0.78
× ×
The Ratio For Universal GOLD is 0.78
The Ratio For Universal GOLD is 0.78
Indicating Favorable Degradability
Indicating Favorable Degradability
© National Foam Inc. 1996
FOAM TREATABILITY
FOAM TREATABILITY
× FOAMING IS COMMON IN THE
WASTE TREATMENT PROCESS
× FOAMING CAN BE REDUCED
BY
GENTLE WATER APPLICATION
OR USE OF A DE-FOAMER
× ×
FOAMING IS COMMON IN THE
FOAMING IS COMMON IN THE
WASTE TREATMENT PROCESS
WASTE TREATMENT PROCESS
× ×
FOAMING CAN BE REDUCED
FOAMING CAN BE REDUCED
BY
BY
GENTLE WATER APPLICATION
GENTLE WATER APPLICATION
OR USE OF A DE
OR USE OF A DE
-
-
FOAMER
FOAMER
© National Foam Inc. 1996
WETTING AGENTS
WETTING AGENTS
WHAT IS A WETTING AGENT?
WHAT IS A WETTING AGENT?
Per NFPA-18 Standard for Wetting Agents
A chemical compound which, when added to
water in proper quantities, materially reduces
surface tension, increases its penetrating and
spreading abilities, and may also provide
emulsification and foaming characteristics
THERE IS A DIFFERENCE
THERE IS A DIFFERENCE
• 10 GPM Rate of Application
• No Extinguishing Time Limit
No Sealability Test
No Burnback Test
No Foam Quality Testing
UL UL CLASS B CLASS B FOAM TEST FOAM TEST UL UL WETTING AGENT WETTING AGENT TEST TEST
2 GPM Rate of Application
Extinguishing Time Limit
Sealability Test
Burnback Resistance Test
Foam Quality (expansion & drainage)
FOAM & WETTING AGENTS ARE FOAM & WETTING AGENTS ARE NOT NOT THE SAME THE SAME
SEPARATE STANDARDS WITHIN THE SAME TECHNICAL COMMITTEE SEPARATE STANDARDS WITHIN THE SAME TECHNICAL COMMITTEE
C
H
I
E
F
SECURING METHOD
EXTINGUISHING METHOD
UL Criteria UL Criteria Notes Notes
Wetting Wetting
Agents Agents
Foam Foam
Concentrate Concentrate
Fire Test
Fuel
Heptane
55 gallons
Heptane
55 gallons
Flow Rate 2 GPM 10 GPM
5 Times Higher Flow
Rate for Same Test
Extinguishing
Time
3 Minutes or Less for
Full Extinguishment
None
Wetting Agents are Allowed Unlimited
Dilution as Long as Test Pan
Does Not Overflow
Sealability None
Two Tests During a 9
Minute Waiting Period
Critical for Post Fire Security
Burnback
Resistance
None
Required After Foam
Blanket Rests for 9 Minutes
Critical for Post Fire Security
None
Oxygenated Gasoline Additives are
Polar Solvents, and May Require
Alcohol Resistant Foam
Alcohol
Resistance
AR-AFFF is Tested by U.L.
for Use on Alcohol and Other
Polar Solvent Fuels
UL FIRE TEST COMPARISON
FOAM / WETTING AGENTS
UL FIRE TEST COMPARISON
FOAM / WETTING AGENTS
WILDFIRE FOAM
WILDFIRE FOAM
WILDFIRE FOAM
WILDFIRE FOAM
URBAN INTERFACE AND WILDLAND APPLICATION
URBAN INTERFACE AND WILDLAND APPLICATION
T
T
ERRA
ERRA
F
F
OAM
OAM
THE DURABLE PROTEIN WILDFIRE FOAM
THE DURABLE PROTEIN WILDFIRE FOAM
TERRAFOAM
TERRAFOAM
-
-
NATURAL PROTEIN BASE
NATURAL PROTEIN BASE
-
-
12 TO 96 hr. DURABILITY
12 TO 96 hr. DURABILITY
-
-
ADHERES TO VERTICAL SURFACES
ADHERES TO VERTICAL SURFACES
-
-
EXCELLENT WETTING AGENT
EXCELLENT WETTING AGENT
-
-
RAISES MOISTURE CONTENT IN CLASS “A” FUELS
RAISES MOISTURE CONTENT IN CLASS “A” FUELS
-
-
ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY
ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY
TERRAFOAM
TERRAFOAM
PROPORTIONING TECHNIQUES
PROPORTIONING TECHNIQUES
C
C
Batch Mixing
Batch Mixing
C
C
In
In
-
-
Line
Line
Proportioner
Proportioner
C
C
Around
Around
-
-
The
The
-
-
Pump Proportioning
Pump Proportioning
C
C
Bladder Tank Proportioning
Bladder Tank Proportioning
C
C
Direct Injection
Direct Injection
TERRAFOAM
TERRAFOAM
APPLICATION TECHNIQUES
APPLICATION TECHNIQUES


Aspirating Nozzle / Attachment
Aspirating Nozzle / Attachment


CAFS
CAFS
(Compressed Air Foam System)
(Compressed Air Foam System)
THE
THE
NATIONAL
NATIONAL
FOAM
FOAM
CLASS “A”
CLASS “A”
FOAM
FOAM
TRAINING
TRAINING
PROGRAM
PROGRAM
STRUCTURAL
STRUCTURAL
WILDLAND FIRES
WILDLAND FIRES
CLASS “A” FUELS
CLASS “A” FUELS
CLOTH
CLOTH
WOOD
WOOD
TIRES
TIRES
PAPER
PAPER
BRUSH
BRUSH
PLASTIC
PLASTIC
TERMINOLOGY
FOAM CONCENTRATE
As Purchased from Manufacturer
+ Water =
FOAM SOLUTION
Concentrate Proportioned with Water
+ Air =
FINISHED FOAM
Air Aspirated Foam Solution
FOAM CONCENTRATE
FOAM CONCENTRATE
As Purchased from Manufacturer
As Purchased from Manufacturer
+ Water =
FOAM SOLUTION
FOAM SOLUTION
Concentrate Proportioned with Water
Concentrate Proportioned with Water
+
+
Air
Air
=
=
FINISHED FOAM
FINISHED FOAM
Air Aspirated Foam Solution
Air Aspirated Foam Solution
A BURNING PROCESS
OXYGEN
OXYGEN
FUEL
FUEL
HEAT
HEAT
CHEMICAL CHEMICAL
CHAIN CHAIN
REACTION REACTION
EXTINGUISHING PROCESS
EXTINGUISHING PROCESS


ISOLATE THE FUEL
ISOLATE THE FUEL


TEMPERATURE REDUCTION
TEMPERATURE REDUCTION


SEPARATE THE SUPPLY OF OXYGEN
SEPARATE THE SUPPLY OF OXYGEN


CHEMICALLY INTERRUPT OR TERMINATE
CHEMICALLY INTERRUPT OR TERMINATE
THE CHAIN REACTION
THE CHAIN REACTION
WHAT IS CLASS “A” FOAM?


A Detergent Based Synthetic Foam Concentrate
A Detergent Based Synthetic Foam Concentrate


Contains Hydrocarbon Surfactants, Foaming Agents
Contains Hydrocarbon Surfactants, Foaming Agents
and Stabilizers
and Stabilizers


Lowers Surface Tension of Water
Lowers Surface Tension of Water


Most Concentrates are Non
Most Concentrates are Non
-
-
Hazardous, Non
Hazardous, Non
-
-
Corrosive
Corrosive
and Non
and Non
-
-
Flammable extinguishing agents
Flammable extinguishing agents
SURFACE TENSION
WATER Vs CLASS “A” FOAM
SURFACE TENSION
WATER Vs CLASS “A” FOAM
LOWER SURFACE TENSION ALLOWS
LOWER SURFACE TENSION ALLOWS
WATER TO PENETRATE CLASS “A” FUELS
WATER TO PENETRATE CLASS “A” FUELS
HOW DOES CLASS “A” WORK?
HOW CLASS “A” WORKS
HOW CLASS “A” WORKS
SPREADS WATER OVER THE FUEL
SPREADS WATER OVER THE FUEL
SLOWLY RELEASES ITS WATER
SLOWLY RELEASES ITS WATER
ADHERES TO ITSELF
ADHERES TO ITSELF
PENETRATES THE FUEL
PENETRATES THE FUEL
CLASS “A” FOAM AS A FIRE BARRIER
CLASS “A” FOAM AS A FIRE BARRIER
CLASS “A” PROPORTIONING
WETTING AND PENETRATING
WETTING AND PENETRATING
0.1% to 0.3%
Brush, Trash, Etc.
STRUCTURAL ATTACK
STRUCTURAL ATTACK
0.3% to 0.5%
STRUCTURAL OVERHAUL
STRUCTURAL OVERHAUL
0.5 to 0.7%
EXPOSURE PROTECTION
EXPOSURE PROTECTION
0.7% to 1%
ADVANTAGES OF CLASS “A” FOAM
-
-
Increases effectiveness of water
Increases effectiveness of water
-
-
Reduces suppression and mop
Reduces suppression and mop
-
-
up time
up time
-
-
Relatively easy to pre
Relatively easy to pre
-
-
mix
mix
-
-
Effective on all types of class “A” fires
Effective on all types of class “A” fires
-
-
Can provide a short term fire barrier
Can provide a short term fire barrier
-
-
Proportioning and application rates are
Proportioning and application rates are
Not Critical
Not Critical
as
as
with class “B” foams
with class “B” foams
-
-
Raises moisture content in material by 50%
Raises moisture content in material by 50%
-
-
Absorbs 3 times more heat than plain water
Absorbs 3 times more heat than plain water
CLASS “A” CONCERNS


As with most detergents or soaps,
As with most detergents or soaps,
it may be irritating to the skin or eyes.
it may be irritating to the skin or eyes.


By stripping the natural oils, it can reduce life
By stripping the natural oils, it can reduce life
expectancy of leather goods such as footwear and
expectancy of leather goods such as footwear and
gloves.
gloves.


The contents by nature are degreasers which strip
The contents by nature are degreasers which strip
lubrication from hardware & devices. Frequent
lubrication from hardware & devices. Frequent
lubrication is necessary after using Class “A”
lubrication is necessary after using Class “A”
foam.
foam.
© National Foam Inc. 1994
TESTING GUIDE LINES
TESTING GUIDE LINES
•NFPA 298
Foam Chemicals for Wildland Fire Control
•UL Wetting Agent Test
•USDA Forest Service
“Interim Requirements for Wildland Fire Foam”
•Rochna-Schlobohm BLM
Foam Insulation Test


NFPA 298
NFPA 298
Foam Chemicals for
Foam Chemicals for
Wildland
Wildland
Fire Control
Fire Control


UL Wetting Agent Test
UL Wetting Agent Test


USDA Forest Service
USDA Forest Service
“Interim Requirements for
“Interim Requirements for
Wildland
Wildland
Fire Foam”
Fire Foam”


Rochna
Rochna
-
-
Schlobohm
Schlobohm
BLM
BLM
Foam Insulation Test
Foam Insulation Test
CLASS “A” PROPORTIONING
CLASS “A” PROPORTIONING
C
C
Batch Mixing
Batch Mixing
C
C
In
In
-
-
Line
Line
Proportioner
Proportioner
C
C
Around
Around
-
-
The
The
-
-
Pump Proportioning
Pump Proportioning
C
C
Bladder Tank Proportioning
Bladder Tank Proportioning
C
C
Direct Injection
Direct Injection
© National Foam Inc.. 1994
© National Foam Inc.. 1994
CLASS “A” NOZZLES
CLASS “A” NOZZLES


Conventional Water Fog Nozzle
Conventional Water Fog Nozzle


Aspirating Nozzle / Attachment
Aspirating Nozzle / Attachment


CAFS
CAFS
(Compressed Air Foam System)
(Compressed Air Foam System)