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You are on page 1of 3

Kirk T. McDonald

Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544

(Jan. 15, 1997; updated October 3, 2013)

1 Problem

If one pitches a penny into a large magnet, eddy currents are induced in the penny, and

their interaction with the magnetic ﬁeld results in a repulsive force, according to Lenz’ law.

Estimate the minimum velocity needed for a penny to enter a long, 1-T solenoid magnet

whose diameter is 0.1 m.

You may suppose that the penny moves so that its axis always coincides with that of

the magnet, and that gravity may be ignored. The speed of the penny is low enough that

the magnetic ﬁeld caused by the eddy currents may be neglected compared to that of the

solenoid. Equivalently, you may assume that the magnetic diﬀusion time is small.

2 Solution

The penny has radius a and thickness ∆z. For the motion as stated in the problem, the

eddy current will ﬂow in concentric rings about the center of the disk. Therefore, we ﬁrst

examine a ring of radius r and radial extent ∆r.

The magnetic ﬂux through the ring at position z is

Φ ≈ πr

2

B

z

(0, z), (1)

whose time rate of change is

˙

Φ = πr

2

˙

B

z

= πr

2

B

z

v, (2)

where ˙ indicates diﬀerentiation with respect to time,

is diﬀerentiation with respect to z,

B

z

stands for B

z

(0, z), and v is the velocity of the center of mass of the ring.

The penny has electrical conductivity σ. Its resistance to currents around the ring is

R =

2πr

σ∆r∆z

, (3)

so the (absolute value of the) induced current is

I =

E

R

=

˙

Φ

R

=

σrB

z

v∆r∆z

2

, (4)

(in MKSA units).

The azimuthal eddy current interacts with the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld to

produce the axial retarding force. Close to the magnetic axis, we estimate the radial ﬁeld in

term of the axial ﬁeld according to

B

r

(r, z) ≈ r

∂B

r

(0, z)

∂r

= −

r

2

∂B

z

(0, z)

∂z

≡ −

rB

z

2

, (5)

1

as can be deduced from the Maxwell equation ∇· B = 0, noting that on the magnetic axis

∂B

r

/∂r = ∂B

x

/∂x = ∂B

y

/∂y. Then, the retarding force on the ring is

∆F

z

= 2πrB

r

I = −πσr

2

B

r

B

z

v∆r∆z ≈ −

πσr

3

(B

z

)

2

v∆r∆z

2

. (6)

Alternatively, we note that the kinetic energy lost by the penny appears as Joule heating.

Hence, for the ring analyzed above,

v∆F

z

=

dU

dt

= −I

2

R = −

πσr

3

(B

z

)

2

v

2

∆r∆z

2

, (7)

using eqs. (3) and (4), which agains leads to eq. (6).

The equation of motion of the ring is

dF

z

= −

πσr

3

(B

z

)

2

v∆r∆z

2

= m˙ v = 2πρr∆r∆z v

v, (8)

where ρ is the mass density of the metal. We integrate this equation with respect to radius

to ﬁnd

−

πσa

4

(B

z

)

2

v∆z

8

= πρa

2

∆z v

v, (9)

After dividing out the common factor πa

2

∆z v, we ﬁnd

v

= −

σa

2

(B

z

)

2

8ρ

. (10)

Since the righthand side is independent of v, the change in speed of the penny is independent

of its initial speed, so the penny can be stopped (but the sign of v cannot be reversed).

For an estimate, we note that the peak gradient of the axial ﬁeld of a solenoid of diameter

D is about B

0

/D, and the gradient is signiﬁcant over a region ∆z ≈ D. Hence, on entering

a solenoid the jet velocity is reduced by

∆v ≈

σa

2

B

2

0

8ρD

. (11)

The penny must have initial velocity v

0

> ∆v to reach the center of the magnet.

Another estimate can be made by approximating the solenoid as semi-inﬁnite. Then,

following the useful result of prob. 5.3 of [2], the axial ﬁeld of a coil at z > 0 is

B

z

(z) =

B

0

2

1 +

z

z

2

+ (D/2)

2

, for which B

z

(z) =

B

0

(D/2)

2

2[z

2

+ (D/2)

2

]

3/2

, (12)

and hence, the change in the speed of the penny before it enters the magnet (at z = 0) is

∆v =

σa

2

8ρ

0

−∞

(B

z

)

2

dz =

σa

2

B

2

0

(D/2)

4

32ρ

0

−∞

dz

[z

2

+ (D/2)

2

]

3

=

3πσa

2

B

2

0

256ρD

≈

σa

2

B

2

0

27ρD

. (13)

Note that the penny cannot reach z = +∞ unless v

0

(z = −∞) > 2∆v.

A copper penny has a ≈ 1 cm = 10

−2

m, density ≈ 10 g/cm

3

= 10

4

kg/m

4

, electrical

resistivity ≈ 10

−6

Ω-cm, and therefore conductivity ≈ 10

8

MKSA units. The minimum

initial velocity to enter (and pass through) a 1-T magnet with diameter D = 0.1 m is then,

v

min

≈

10

8

· (10

−2

)

2

· 1

2

10 · 10

4

· 0.1

≈ 1 m/s. (14)

2

Acknowledgment

The author thanks Ahmed Hassanein, Bob Palmer and Bob Weggel for discussions of this

problem. The case of a sphere rather than a disk has been presented in [1].

References

[1] J. Walker and W.H. Wells, Drag Force on a Conducting Spherical Drop in a Nonuniform

Magnetic Field, ORNL/TN-6976 (Sept. 1979),

http://puhep1.princeton.edu/~mcdonald/examples/fluids/walker_ornl_tm6976_79.pdf

[2] J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1999).

3

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