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AFGL-TR-76-0127
rnOP
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ENTM. RESEAROl PAP
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NO. 566
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Rise of Volcanic Eruption Clouds:
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Relationship
Between Cloud Height and
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Eruption Intensity
MARK SETTLE, iLt, USAF
22 June 1976
D D C
APPI V.d hr publi c rs
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sss. d stv1but
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on
TERRESTRIAL SCIENCES DIVISION PROJECT 8607
AIR FORCE GEOPHYSICS LABORATORY
HANSCOM APS,MASSACHUSETTS 01731
AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND, USAF
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This technical report has been reviewed and
is approved for publication
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FOR THE COMMANDER:
( çiAef Scientist
Qualifled requeslors may obtain additional copies from the Defense

Documentation Center. AU others should apply to the Nat ional
Technical Information Service.
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ii CONTROLLI NG OFFI CE NAME AND ADDRESS . t2. REPfl
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//
22 Jun.
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Hanscom AFB ~~
RUMP AGES
Massachusett s 0l7
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4 MONI TORI NG AGENC Y NAME A A ODRESS( I I dIfle,.,, 1 I , , , , , , ConI•oIIl ng Office) 15. SECURI TY CLASS. (
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DECL ASSI FI C A TI ON DOWNG
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w0r.T EMENT (ol fbi. R.porI)
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7. DISTRIBIJ AT EMENT ( •ft
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It. SUPPLEMENTAR Y NOTES
I; I
19. KEY WØR
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5 (Coofr,,
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.. ,,,. ,.,‘.,.. •,d. If n4c
~~
o4fy m.d id.nhiVy by Slosh n nb.f)
Volcanic erupt ions Ther mal plumes
Cloud rise Infrared sources
St rat osphere

Atmospheric dust
20. A BST RACT (Coma,,.. . on ,•o.,00 Ma. If n.c.....y .nd Id.nlif y by SImS n..mb.f)
The rise of eruption clouds is produced b
~
y the upw
~
çd moment um and thermal
buoyancy of volcanic dust and gas , Fli.e
~
e procesáns
~
.p1ay important roles in
other phenomena. The expansion of a turbulent j et in free flow (that is,
uncorifined by lateral boundaries)cis controlled by the rate at which the forward
momentum of the jet is dissipated. Th
~
thermal buoyancy of industrial waste
gases provides a mechanism for moving
~
iich waste Hq
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teria1
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upward through
the atmosphere and ensuring their dispersal over a wide area. The risc of
OD
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473
EDI TI ON OF INOV ES IS OBSOLETE
Unclassified
SECURI TY CLASSI FI CATI ON OP TH I S PAGE (WI,.n 0.1. PsIsrod)
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Unclassified
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20. Abst ract (Continued)- ‘ ‘ 4,
volca nic eruption clouds can be modelled aft er hesea
~
wWana1ogous phenomena .
In this report average ejection velocities
~
at a volcanic vent ranging from
20 rn/ sec to 200 rn/ sec are assumed to represent a wide range of eruption
in t ensi t y, from St r ombolian t o Vulcanian t ypes, ef er up4k
~~
.9 For eruption
velocities vary ing from 20 rn/ sec to 200 rn/ see, cloud heights estimated by the
turbulent jet model range from 1500 m to 6500 m (mi d-l at i t ude eruption) while
cloud hei ghts est i mat ed by the industrial plume models range from 900 m to
10, 000 rn . These estimates are considered to be roughl y comparabl e in view
of the assumptions and extrapolations involved in apply i ng t hese models to
explosive eruption conditions and agree quite well wit h reported heights of
eruption clouds. The fact that comparable estimates of cloud height are pro-
5
duç i
~~
y
~
th
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t wo very di fferent model s suggest s t ha t bot h moment u m and

~

, t hermal buoyancy play an important role throughout the main portion of an
er uption cloudt s t rajectory.e
~
For these eruption conditions (20 rn/ sec
~
w
0 ~
,
-
~~
200 rn/ see) , nei ther moinéntum nor t hermal buoyancy appears to dominate
the process of cloud rise to altitudes of 10 km above an actively erupting
volcanic vent. An order of magnitude variation in eruption velocity from
20 rn/ sec to w
0
= 200 rn/ sec results in a factor of 3 to 4 increase in
avera ge cloud hei ght predicted by the turbulent volcanic j et model and a factor
or 2. 5 i ncrease in median cloud height predi ct ed by a selec t group of i ndust ri a 1
~
plu me models . However , both models also demonst rat e that changes in crossi
wind velocity by factors of 2 to 5 can result in variations in cloud height of sim
ilar magnitude. Therefore, reported hei ghts of eruption clouds without refer-
ence to local crosswind conditions at the t i me of an eruption cannot be directl y
compared to gauge the relative explosiveness of di ffere nt volcanic eruptions .
a
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Uncl assi fi ed
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Preface
The aut hor is gr at ef ul to Torn Webb , Chuck Wood , and John Croni n for cri t i -
call y r evi ewi ng earl i er versi ons of this report , and to Elaine Robson for her effort
arid pat i ence in pr epar i ng t he manus cr i pt.
Boff S.cft
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Contents
1. INTRODUCTION
7
2. PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY
9
3. ERUPTION CLOUD RISE ESTIMATES
10
3. 1 Turbulent Jet Flow in the Atmosphe re 10
3. 2 Rise of Industrial Plumes
15
4. DISCUSSION
22
5. CONC LUSIONS
25
REFER ENCES
27
BIBLIOGRAPHY
31
APPENDIX A: Observed Eruption Cloud Heights 35
Il tustrat ons
1. The Centerline Velocity of a Turbulent Volcanic Jet (heavy lines)
Compared with Averaged Crosswind Velocities (light lines) at
Various Altitudes
14
2. Parameters Employed in the Industrial Plume Formulae Used for
Predicting Plume Rise
17
5
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Bt 2IC
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Tabl es
1. Er uption
(
loud Hei ght Est i mat es 21
Al . Observed Er upt i on
(
loud Height s 36
6
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Ri se of Vol cani c Erupti on Clouds :
Rel ati ons hi p
Bet ween Cloud
Height and Eruption Intensity
I. I\TQtH)( (:TIO\
Explosive volcanic eruptions inject large
quant i t i es of ash and gas into the
earth’ s at mosphere . The length of t i me these
different volcanic products reside
in the at mosphere can vary from several hours
to several years. As a result , an
indi vi dual er upt ion can produce met eorological effects that range in time from
several days to several years and can range in space from a localized region to
the entire planet .
Regional meteorology can be significantl y altered by a major explosive erup-
t ion.
Airborne ash and volcanic gases can effecti vel y insulate the earth’s surface,
modif ying diurnal temperature variations and
producing a short -t erm warming of
F
the region. Rai nwat er from clouds contaminated wi t h volcanic gases can be highly
acidic and may pollute local ground water .
The long t erm atmospheric effects of an eruption are produced by particulate
dust and gases that have much longer atmospheric residence times. Major explo-
sive eruptions can have a significant impact on the chemical budget and radiation
budget of di fferent portions of the atmosphere. Volcanic eruptions appear to be
the dominant source of atmospheric chlorine
1
which plays an important role in
(Received for publication 22 June 1976)
1. Ryan , J . A. , and Mukherjee , N. R. ( 1975) Revs. Geophys. and Space Sci.
13:650-688.
7
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( 1/ I I I I C chemi cal r ez a( - t I I l f l . s i n t he s tr at I . 5pher e .
2
Sulphur diox ide ga s produced by
t o1I
~~
I t ) Z ( a-r up! o , n
~
is ti i-d at i v€- l v I l I nl ar source of at mospher i c sul phur
3
hut can
si gni f i cant ly inc c: - a - 1
~
-
‘I i n-
~
t v of the st r at osp heri c’ aerosol l ayer by gas phase
\ uI: atj of l t I .50l 1)11 1t t’ I : a r t i
~~~
The i nj ect i on of large quant i t i es of si l i cat e
dust part id a - -. . ( j , t 1 ph i t r ga -o- .i nt o t he at mospher e can produce a cooling of the
E’ : a r U s surt : o -a I \ r t - - , -:
~
- OIL’ g l obal al bedo or an i ncr eased greenhouse war mi ng
III Ihe -, ux t a I e due t i ‘ ha - j I ll i t ’ . t hesc vol cani c producL. to i nf r ar ed r adi at i on
a n i t t e d f t a h. I t t I , ‘(j a ,- . Th eor et t eal cal cul at i ons of Pollack et al
7
m d i —
caN- t ha t a-, Ia
~~
I’ - I ) , . 1
~~
r
j I lt- - . t - t t l t ’ out of t he at mos pher e, global cooling
l a—c on es Ut a—
~~~
I - t - - I - t n i . 1 1 ( 1 1
~~.
The it n - , I ’ - x I I f l p: I ( - t of a pai -t o- u l ar er upt i on is largel y det er mi ned by t he
: al t i
~
ttde.s at whi ch , l l - t a i i Iu
~
t I l l ga
~
ent er and are mi xed into the at mosphere .
Preci pi t at i on in t he t r opospher e ef f ect i vel y \Y ashes these mat er i als out of t he l ower
at mosphe re. Tropospheri c weat her s st e ii
~
i also mi x l arge ai r masses over rela-
t i vely short periods of t i me , rapidl y reduci ng t he concent r at i on of volcanic pr oduct s.
The lower boundary of t he t roposphere is t he eart h’ s sur f ace whi ch provides a
var i et y of geological , biological and ant hropogeni c sinks for ai rborne volcanic
product s. Long t er m at mospheri c effect s from i ndi vi dual eruptions are t her ef or e
l i mi t ed to eruptions t hat succeed in penet rat i ng t he upper levels of t he t roposphere
and i nt roduce volcanic dust and gas i nt o t he st r at ospher e.
8, 9
The average height
of the tropopause varies latitudinally from appr oxi mat el y 9 km at the poles to
approxi mat ely 16 km at the equat or .
The rise of an eruption cloud is controlled by the upward moment um of ash and
gas at the mouth of a volcanic vent and by the t her mal buoyancy of the volcanic
gases. The i ni t i al rise of dust and gas in an eruption cloud is largely det ermi ned
by the exit velocity of the mat eri al . At hi gher al t i t udes the i ni t i al moment um of the
volcanic dust and gas has been substantially di ssi pat ed and the subsequent rise of
the eruption cloud is predominantly determined by the rel at i ve buoyancy of the hot
volcanic gases . This t ransi t i on is somet i mes reflected in the morphology of the
2. Rowland, F. S. , and Molina , M. J. (1975) Revs, Geophys. and Space Sd.
13:1—35.
3. Kellogg, W. W. , Cadle, R. D., Allen , E. R., Lazarus, A . L., and Martell
,
E.K. ( 1972) Science 175:587-596.
4. Harker, A .B. (1975) J.Geophys.Res. 24:3399-3401.
5. Lazrus, A.L. , and Gand rud, B. W. (1974) J. Geophys.Res. 79:3424-3431.
6. Dyer, A.J. and Hicks , B,B. (1968) Qua r t. J .Roy . Meteorol. Soc. 94: 545- 5
~
4.
7. Po’
~~
ek, J.B. , Toon , O. B. , Sagan, C. , Summers, A. , Bal dwi n , B. , and
Van Camp, W. (1976) J.Geophys. Res. 81:1071-1083.
8. Lamb, H, 1-1. (1970) Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 266: 425.
9. Cronin , J. F. (1971) Science 172 :847-84fl.
8
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er upt i on cl oud . The l o n er p i t t i o r t of t he cl oud I of l t t i l f l . , a l a r ge r - ( ‘ i ’ r t I
(
~
n t I - at i on of
~
i
~
l i 1 E - ) c- i - t a and can appear much da r ke r t han t he upper - por t i on of t i t i - - I I ,u ’l
-
In
such t t S C S t he l ower por t i on of t he cl oud i,s , , n : c t t t : es r - e f e r x - a - , I t o as t he ash
cl oud
s
whc-r ea. s t he uppe r, light er - —col or -ed port i on is somet i mes h- - t e d t he vapor
cl oud. In other instances eruption clouds have a uni f or m
gr ey appear ance .
Hepor t ed hei ghts of er upt i on clouds genc-ral ly i - el i - i - t o he ma ximum hei g ht h i t he
condensed vapor cloud obser ved a h , v e an t o - t i ve l y er upt i ng vol cani c vent .
~
i gni f —
i r a l t z 1 t : t I u t t 5 of p a r t i c u l a t e dust and gas may act ual l y ri se beyond t he t op of t he
I se r vahl e cl oud.
The ma x i mu m hei ght of an er upt ion cloud is rel at ed to the i nt ens i t y of the
expl osi ve er upt i on. The most i nt ense exp l osi ve er upt i ons ar-c char act er i zed by
ej e ct i o n vel ocit i e
~
on t he order of hundr eds of met er s per second and l arge mass
fl ux r at es. In t he past t he cl as s i f i cat i on of di f f er ent st y les of explosive er upt i on
has been qua l i t a t i ve l y based upon a var i ety of par -amet ers , i ncl udi ng t he vi scosi t y
and chemi cal composi t i on of t he er-upt ed magma , and t he violence of a par t i cul ar
erupt i on measur ed in t er ms of h iss of l i fe or t he ext ent of pr oper t y d c - st r u c t i l h n .
10
Mos t cl assi f i cat i on schemes i ncl ude a general descri pt i on of t he si ze and s t r uct ur e
of t he er upt i on cloud associ at ed wi t h a par t i cul ar- t
~
pe of exp losive er upt i on . Such
des cr i pt i ons suggest t hat t he s i ze of an er upt i on cloud is appr oxi mat el y correl at ed
wi t h er upt i on i nt ensi t y, wi t h smal l clouds , r -i si ng to hei g hts of several hundred
met ers , associ at ed wi t h weakl y- explosive St r ombol i an- st yle erupt i ons , and larger-
cl ouds , ri si ng to hei ghts of several ki l omet ers , associ at ed wi t h vi ol ent l y-explosive
Vulcanian-stvle eruptions. Thus t he height of an eruption cloud can be considered
to he an approximate index of eruption i nt ens i t y . Repor t s of t he hei ght s of er upt i on
clouds observed in remote areas, wher e ground-based observat i ons of act i ve
eruptions are hazardous or- i mpossi bl e, have been used to qual i t at i vel y gauge the
rel at i ve i nt ensi t y of such eruptions .
! - P1 RPO 4 OF This STi U\
The physical processes whi ch are responsible for the rise (I f eruption clouds —
the upward mOmentum and thermal buoyancy of the erupted matori al — play impor-
t af l l -eIc- --
~
in ot her phenomena. The expansion of a t urbul ent j et in free flow (t hat
i s , unconf i ned by lateral boundaries) is controlled by the rat e at whi ch t he f or war d
~~
,
) ; ‘ ( f l t U f l 1 of the j et is di ssi pat ed . The s t r uct ur e of t ur bul ent jets is a classical
10. MacDonal d , G. A. (1972) Volcanoes, Prent i ce-Hal l, Englewood Cl i f f s , N .J. ,
i10 op.
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- r n n i i l h oov a ni - v of r ndu. s t r - i al wash -
~~~~~
p i- -v I d a ’ -,
a n - a - i - h t m l i i i h r i i l ovi ng such n: -
~~
e - mat er i al s upwar ds t hr - ough t l i t
at :l, - i t i s - e :i
~~
1 e ns ur i ng t hi el
,
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~
p - r . s : i 1 over a wi de area. The r el eas e and dis

p a - c - j : i of su ch indus t -i a l e l l ht i c - i t s in t he : mt r n o s p l t c -r e h a v e been descr i bed by a
i t t . a i i ’ t v of t ha n i - t i c n t l and a - c : p t i O a l
~
t u I t i ( - 5 ( s i c , f or - t - x : i i t ple, .su xi I l a v h
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~~~~
12
) 1 } : - r i se of v o l c a n i c , - r u n i j O - h ulL i - t i n t i c - m o d el l ed af t er t hese t n l i
anal - g e u — phenomena. —d o - h i
~~~
h - 1 — t i l l - t I - \ - a - l ’ - ) a - h i n hi s - i t i ’ dv t o investigate (lie
- i - h t ml i11 i
~~
hi p bet ween c-i -opt u i c - I , i i i I - i d t u tu c t-t O condi t i ons at a vol cani c vent .
T h e pu -pose of t hi s st ud i
~
t n I - h - i ’ t :
( I ) to ‘ i c - I I - d - : t I i r I e i f t h e r - m - ,e of er upt i on cl ouds
ed, r n n i n a n t l v cont i - ol l ed l i v (l i e i ni t
,
~
i t n : a - i t u m or t her - nal buoy a nc y of vol-
cani c pr oduc t s ; and ( 2 ) to ‘ I c - t i - t i - i i i - i f t he I c - i g h t - of e r u p t i o n cl ouds are an accu—
- at e r-e fl ect i on of r el at i ve ecu pt i on I i t ei t - i t \
I F
~~
Pl i l J\ 11 ( 11 I) RI$ I — I RI
~
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:1. 1 1 urba, I a-nt ,j . -t F Ia,
~
s in t he-
~
tr11aa
~
p
Ii i ra-
De scr i pt i ons of t he s t r uc t ur e of er-option clouds have been made pri nci pall y
by gr ound- based observers who have r epor t ed t he shape and si ze of such cl ouds.
Hi ghly var - i ahl e
~
- inds , l arge quant i t i es of par t i cul at e ash , and occasi onal el ect r i cal
( i r a -i as s oci at ed wi t h er upt i on clouds make aer i al observat i ons di f fi cul t (see, f or
c - x : c i : : ple,
Thor - am- i n s s on and Vonnegut
13
). As a r -esult , very l i t t l e is known about
t he i nt e r na l s t r - u c t ur e of er upt i on clouds or about var i at i ons in local met eorol ogi cal
c i ’ I i t i ’ ni
( t o r examp le , t emper at ur e gr -achient s , humi di t y, or wind s t r uct ur e) in
the vi ci ni t y of er upt i on cl ouds.
An appr o x i ma t e model of t he i nt er nal st r uct ur e of erupt i on clouds may possibly
he t , i - o v i dc - ’ I by t u dj e
~
of s i mi l ar ly shaped cl oud- f or m s t r uct ur es such as experi-
ment al conver t i v , - pl umes (Benech
14
)
, models of cumul us cloud format i on ( Squi res
and Tur n i - r
1
~~
)
, and exper i ment al l et s ( 1-f i d y and Fr i edl ander
16
; Morris
17
). Ej ect i on
11. Schhi cht i ng, II . ( 1968) Boundary Layer Theory, McGr aw- Hi l l , New York ,
714 pp.
12 . Bri ggs , G. A. (1969) Pl ume Ri se, AEC Cr i t i cal Revi ew Series USAEC, Report
TI D-25075 , Il l pp.
13. Thorari nsson, a. , and Vonnegut , B. ( 1964) Bul l . Am. 1\Ieteorol. Soc. 45:
440-444.
*
— 14 . Benech, B. ( 1976) J . App l. Met eor . 15: 127-137 .
15 . Squires , P. , and Tur ner , J. 5.
( 19 62) Tellus 14 : 4 2 2 - 4 3 4.
i i ; . ru dy, G. M. , and Fr i edl ander, D. K. ( 1P64 ) J. Am. Inst. Chem. Engi’ . 10:
11 5-124.

17 . Mor r i s , D. c.. ( 1h68) Bull . Am . Met eor . Soc.
4( 1
: 1054- 1058 .

10
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v t - b c i t i e ul , er v - ul dur i ng exp l osi ve vol c a ni c erupt i on . s (( houet et al

ti
) a r-c
t
~
- p i i - t u 1l
~
m u c h g r e t mt i - m- t h o u up d r a f t vc- l o ci t i e s produced b - onvec t i ve pr oces s es
i n h i - : at i u i , s p h e r e . Er upt i on velo - i t i e ; cur - r espond l i t or ’ c c l os e l y to exi t condi t i ons
at t he mout h of a c-t t han t o up d r : c t t ve l oc i t i e s at t he base of cumul us cl ouds or-
exper i ment al t her -mal pl umes . In addition , the t empe r a t ur e c on t r a s t bet ween
volcanic ga.-1es and the artibi ent atmosphere is more nearly approximated by some
types of exper i ment al j et s (fo r examp le,
(
al l aghan and Rugger i
19
) than by upr l r af t s
as s oc i at e d wi t h cumul us cloud f or mat i on .
The expansi on of a t ur bul ent j et in free flow ( t h a t is unconf i ned by l at er al
boundari es ) is t h- t ’ - r - r i t i ne d by
the rat e at whi ch t he for war - d moment um of t he j et is
di s s i pat ed.
11, 20
Si mi l ar l y the i ni t i al r i se of an er upt i on cl oud is pr i nci pall y
det er mi ned by t he upwar d moment um of dust and gas ej ect ed f r om a volcanic vent .
The i nt e r na l s t r uc t ur e of a t ur bul ent j et may serve as a si mpl e , f i r- s t - or der model
of the internal structu i-e of an explosive
eruption cloud near the volcanic vent
whe re t h e rise of du st and gas is cont rol l ed by t he i ni t i al upwar d moment um of
these materials . One method of ext imating the atmospheric penetration of a
turbulent volcanic let IS to compare the upwar d vel oci t y of t he j et wi t h cr osswi nd
vel oci t i es above t he vol cani c vent at vari ous al t i t udes . The i ni t i al upwar d momen-
t um of t he vol cani c dust and gas can be consi dered to be ef f ect i vel y ar r est ed at
t h e al t it ude at whi ch t he ve rt ical vel oci ty of t he je t, a , becomes comparabl e to
the local crosswind velocity, u. Experimental studies of t he act ual behavi our of
a t urbul en t j et in a crosswi nd have been reported by Kef f er and Baines
21
and
- 22
Pat r i ck .
The var i at i on of vert i cal vel oci ty w wi t h range from a volcanic vent can be
~
e5cribed by an expressi on for t ur bul ent j et f l ow:
11
w(x , z)
i— ~~~~
2
( 1)
(i+f l
~~)
18. Chouet , B. , Hami sevi cz, N . , and McGet chi n , T.R. (1974) J. Geophys .Res .
79 : 4961-4976 .
19. Callaghan, E. E. , and Rugger i , H. S. (1948) Invest i gat i on of the Penet rat i on
of an Ai r Jet Directed Perp
~~
dicul to an Ai r St ream, Report NACA-
TN- l 6 15, National Advi sor y Commi t t ee for Aer onauti cs.
20. Pai , S. (1954) Fluid Dynamics of Jets , Van Nost r and , New York , 221 pp.
21. Keffer , T. F. , and Baines , W, D. (1963) J. Fluid Mech. 15:481-497 .
22. Pat r i ck , M . A. (1967) Trans. Inst. Chern. Eng. ( London) 45:16-3 1.
11
-—- -
~~~~~~
-
~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
,
~~~~~~
- L
~~
:
~r
n l i t - i - c -
K ( 1. 1)
F 0. 0256 b \i
(I I)
1 3K x
~~
.5
~~~~~~~~
x h i c , r i i o n t a l di -
~
t o n c e meas ur ed f r ont et c c ’nt er lj ne (met er - )
z =
~~
rt i cal di st ance i t i e a s u - a- d f r om t he ni c , ut h of t he vent (met er )
ave-rage exi t ve- l odi t \ at t he vent ( mi t e t i - -
sec)
b hal f wi dt h of t he n i t , t aken here as one- hal f t i n - vent di amet er (me t e r )
Thi s equat i on is app l i cabl e to t he reg ion in whi ch t ur bul ent f l ow is f ul l y developed ,
whi ch nor mal l y occur s at a hu -, i nst r - eant r -ange t , f appr oxi mat el y 10 vent di amet er s .

Al ong t he cent er l i ne of t he j et ,
(t hat is , d i r e c t l y t mh o vc - t he volcanic vent ) x = 0 and
Eq. ( 1) r educes to
3 K
-
w( z)
~~~
— ——— (2 )
Bin
~
z
0
In order to app ly t hi s t ur bul ent j et i ni o d , ’) to -xp los i ve er upt i on condi t i ons , i t
is nece ssar -y to assume an average exi t v
~
- 1oci t v for t he et -upt ed ash and eas .
Quant i t at i ve descr i pt i ons of di f f er ent t
~
pea- of t - x p l o. -
~
i vt ’ i - r u j t i ni s in terms of
ej ect i on vel oci tL- s or mass f l ux rates are l i mi t ed . Qu : i h i t a t i v e l y , er upt i on i nt ens i ty
i .
~
consi dered to he rel at ed to the expl osi veness of di f f e r e nt

vpu- s of er upt i ons .
10
(
houet et a1
18
have obser ved gas exi t ve l oci t i c - s dur i ng i ndi vi dual exp l osi ve bur s t s
of St ronihol i an- t vpe er upt i ons t hat r ange f r om 110 m sec t o 20 m’ -a-c . In the past ,
par oxysmal exp l osi ve er upt i ons have been accompani ed by r -
~
- pe r - t s of repeated
t hunder and t he f i r i ng of shi ps

guns at some di st ance f r om h e : t c t i v - l
~
er upt i ng
-
~
u, 1r ane , suggest i ng t hat gas exit vel oci t y f l uct uat ed around t he s ; u - - I of sound
~~
300 rn se- i - . Such r -eport .s occurred dur i ng the 1883 K r a k : mt t er upt i on s
1
and t he
1 902 eruption of Santa Maria Volcano in Guatemala.
24
Thus
~~~
a
~~~
a
~~
’ exi t vc l c , r i t i c
of appr oxi mat el y 300 itt see may be t ent at i vel y assoc iated wi t h ma s s i ve Pl i ni an—
scale erupt i ons .
23. Symons , G. J. ( 1888) The Erupt i on of Krakat oa and Subs equent Phenomena,
Repor t of t he Krakat oa commi t t ee of the Royal Scci ct v , r e p r i n t e d by
I
-
I el i o
!l s -ioci at es , Inc. , Tucson, Ar i zona , 1974.
24 . R ose , W. I. (1972) Bulletin Volcanologique 36:25- 4 .
12
-~~~
- - -
~~~~~~
-
~~~~~
~-
In this s t u dy t he mml a x i r l m u t i c hei g ht of an e r upt i on cl oud a i l l I s - :c,
~~
u mu i e c I to be
i- el :i t ed to liii- t i m e —a
~
- - r : c g c - c I c r -upt ion vt -b - i t y c c f g:c and f i ne a, }c at the i r t o ut hm of
:i vok-ani c vent . In otiier ac r-ds , f l uct ua t 1(105 in erupt ion ye I cc - i t t - ar -c m a t eons id —
em-cd to be i ml ) oi -t ant in c h - t - m u , i r i i r i g t i me hei ght (i f an er upt i on cl oud . Av e r - a g . - exit
velin- itie-i ranging fr-omit 20 nm / se - c - t o 200 mr m -ec t ire t i s s u t ( - ( h
t o m ( ’pr ’a s ( n t i a mdc -
mt c mi g e i t er upt i on i nt ens its- , f r - om i t St x - mc mi i b ol i an t i c Vok - ani an t yi ce
~
of c- t - upt i on . Much
l a r g a - r et -upt i on v e l c c c i t i e s on t i me e m - c U r (If 600 i i i
/
~
ec h a v e l i ce - t m i nf er -r ed for t i n -
bal l i - I mu - t r - a r m s lation of l ar ge h , l c ,c Ls of e
~
cc t o ar i d f or t i r e f or ni at ion c
~
f (-co n i cl a r\
c - n - o t t - c s comr i n i or r l y i c h u s t - r e a - c I i t ‘h i s t : c r t c e s of s e v - c a l ki l ome t e r - s I m - c c mn vol cani c
v -rt t s .
2
Such vc ’ l c c ( ’ i t i e s are pr - ohab l y riot r epr es ent at ive oh aver-age e xi t c ondi t i ons
dur i ng air e r upt i on but r a t h e r are as s ociat ed wi t h t r ansi ent explosive pulses .
I - i gi mi - e I pr - esent s t he var - i at i on of cent er - l i ne
~
c - t vel oci t y wi t h al t i t ude described
Icy
1 : 1 . ( 2) for :m ci r cul ar - vent wi t h di amet er D 100 m over a range of erupt i on
i nt e ns i t y (t hat is , di f f e r e nt values of er upt i on vel oci t y w
0
). Also shown in Figure 1
is a series of ver-tical wind profiles repmesenting averaged winter crosswind con-
ditions in the Northern Hemisphere. These averaged wind profiles show that zonal
we s t e r l y flow is st r onger at mi d- l at i t udes ( Washi ngt on D. C. and Florida) than at
sub poi ar l at i t udes (Greenl and and the Al eut i ans) .
At a par t i cul ar al t i t ude t he cent erl i ne vel oci t y along the j et represent s the
j
ma xi mum upwar d vel oci t y of any part of the erupt i on cloud. The maxi mum hei ght
t o whi ch vol cani c dust and gas wi l l rise as a result of thei r init ial momentum can
be appr oxi mat el y est i mat ed as t he alt itude at wh ich the j et centerline velocity equals
the local c r osswi nd vel ocit y . Fi gure 1 indicates t hat for an erupt i on velocity of
‘-
~~~~
20 m
-
‘sec (Strombolian-scale eruptions) the height of an erupt i on cloud may
vary
~
r c c n n n
~~
l l 1500 - 2000 m at mid-latitudes to
~
H
~~
3500 - 4000 in at subpolar
l a t i t ude s ; wh i l e for an er upt i on velocity of w = 200 m/ sec (Vulcanian-scale erup-
t i c , mi s ) t i s - bm ei g ht of an er upt i on cloud may vary from iliF! 5000 - 6500 in at m id-
l at i i ude
~
, I c ,
~
I l - 11000 - 17000 m at subpol ar l at i t udes . These are maximum
e,timates of atmospheric penetration based upon t he cent erline veloci ty of the je t ,
not the a ve-r a ge et y el c i ty at a part i cul ar al t i t ude.
These (-l oud height - .stintates indicate that an order-of-magnitude increase in
erupt i on v e - l c c c i t t - shoul d r e- co l t in a fact or of 3 increase in the average height of an
er upt i on cloud produced by a mi d- l at i t ude erupt i on, and a slightly larger fact or of
4 increase in the avera ge height of an eruption cloud produced by an eruption at
subpolar l at i t udes . Thi s met hod c c f est i mat i ng the height of an eruption cloud also
i ndi cat es t he impor t ant i nfl uence t hat crossa-i nds have on cloud hei ght . For a par-
t i cul ar val ue of er uption velocity the average height of an eruption cloud produced
at subpol ar l at i tudes is approxi mat el y t wi ce the average heigh t to which an eruption
cloud woul d ri se in t he st ronger west er l y flow t hat occurs at mi d- l at i t udes .
25 . Fudal i , H. 1- . , and Melson, W. G. ( 1972) Bulletin Volcanologique 33:383-402.
13

- - — -
- --— -—-—.—---———-----—- .--
- - ~~~~~~
0
~~~~~
-
~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
J ET CE NT ERLI N E VELOCITY
I rn/sec
______
10 rn/ sec 100 rn/sec
I
~
r
~
y
r Trv
7_
~
_T_
rI
~
r I
THULE ALEUTI AN
GREENLAND
~~
I SLANDS
FLORIDA
10
- -
9 - -
8 - -
WASHINGTON
. DC
- -
w
a
5 - -
4 - -
3 - -
2
w
0
’ 200rn/ seé
w
0
.IOO rn/ s ec
I
-
w
0
’20 rn/sec w
0
.50 rn/ sec
-
0
m c m l
rn/ sec 10 rn/ sec 100 rn/sec
CROSSWIN D VELOCITY
Figure 1. The Centerline Velocity of a Turbulent Volcanic Jet (heavy lines) Corn-
pared wi t h Averaged Crosswind Velocities (li ght lines) at Various Al t i t udes. Jet
cent erl i ne velocity is calculated by Eq. (2) for di fferent values of w
,
the eruption
velocity at a volcanic vent. Eruption velocities ranging from 20
m/
~
ec to 200
rn/ sec are assumed to represent a wide variation in eruption i nt ensi t y, f rom
Strombolian-scale eruptions to Vul cani an-scal e erupt i ons; a vent di amet er
D = 100 in has been assumed in all cal cul at i ons. Wind profiles are averages for
the win ter season in the Nort hern Hemisphere. [Handbook of Geophys. and Space
Environments (1965), Tables 4-12 through 4-18.
1
14
-----c----
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- ---:--—- ------—-—- .---—---- - --- - —- —
,
———----- - -- —--------- - - — ~
--
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--
~~
:
-
~~~~~
Crosswi nds car t fo r-ce an er -upt i on cloud to bend o c - r and become hor i z ont a l
downrange of t he volcanic vent . Tlìe act ual t r aj ect or y of an er upt i on cloud i t m t he
presence of t he prevai l i ng cr - t c sswi nds sh own in l- ’i gure 1 can be roug hl y ant i ci pat ed
by t he angle formed by t he i nt ersect i on of i ndi vi dual wi nd profiles and j et cent er -
l i ne vel oci t y curves . The a’ 100 n i / sec er upt i on vel oci t y cur-ye shown in
1-i gure 1 converges at a smal l angle wi t h t he wi nd pr - of i l e for Thule , Gi-eenl and at
an al t i t ude of 12 km. A compar i son of these t wc , cur ves i ndi cat es t hat hor i zont al
cr osswi nd vel oci t i es are 70 percent as st r ong as t i me ver t i cal cent er- l i ne vel oci t y
of t he vol cani c et over al t i t udes of 8 t o 12 km . An erupt i on of t hi i i nt ensi t y i nt o
t hi s cx- osswind envi r onment would t hus produce an er -upt n) n cloud t hat bends in a
wi de arc fr -om t he local ve r t i c a l di r ect i on. In cont rast t he - 100 r n/ sec erupt i on
~
- e - l c c i t v curve i nt ersect s the wi nd profi l e for Washi ngt on , D. C. at a much l arger
ang le at an al t i t ude of :isoo rn . In t hi s case, the er upt i on cloud would bend
t hr ough a niuch smal l er arc in nt aki ng the t r ansi t i on front pr edomi nant ly vert i cal
to pr - edomn i nant l y hor i zont al motion .
F i g u r e 1 i ndi cat es t hat t he average at mospher i c penetr - at i on of an eruption
cloud produced by a t ur bul ent volcanic j et should be greater for eruptions occur r i ng
at sub polar l at i t udes , wher e zonal west er l y flow in the mi d- t r oposp here is gener-
al ly aeaker t han at mi ddl e l at i t udes . As nt ent i oned previ ousl y, the average hei ght
of t he t ropopause is l owest near - t he poles
(
~
9 km) so t hat di rect i nt r oduct i on c cf
volcanic dust and gas i nt o t he st r at osphere may, on the average, be more easil y
accompl i shed by explosive erupt i ons at subpolar l at i t udes (for example,
195( 1
Beivmi ann y er upt i on in Kamchat ka; 1912 Kat mai eruption in Al aska). Si mi l arly,
zonal west er l y flow iii subt ropical l at i t udes is weak in comparison wi t h the mid-
l a t i t u d e we t c n - l i e s . However- , t he average hei ght of t he tropopause is great est in
equat or i al regions
(
~
1( 1 km). Thus massive Pli ni an-st yl e eruptions are generally
requi red to di r ect l y i nt roduce volcanic dust and gas into the st rat osphere at sub-
t r op ical l at i t udes (for example , 1883 Kr akat oa erupt i on in Indonesia; 1963 Mt . A gtmng
eruption in Bali).
:i. 2 hi s. of I nclu =1 Ii sI P I urne
~
Was t e gases and fine part i cul at e mat eri al released from industrial smokestacks
fornt plumes t hat are somet i mes clearl y visible. The rat e at which industrial
effl uent s ent er t he at mospher-e
, though wi del y variable, is generally similar to
some f or ms of f umar oli c and weakl y-explosive volcanic activity. The maxi mum gas
di scharge rates of cccm, t mer ci al power plants are on the order of l0
~
m
3
/ sec
(Table 5. 1, Ref 12) in compari son to a peak gas flux of 2 X
~~~
m
3
/ sec obser ved in
t he i ni t i al phases of i ndi vi dual explosive bur st s from a volcanic vent at Stromboli
by Chciuet et al

18
The rat e at whi ch t her mal energy is released by such i ndust ri al
15
- -
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
—--- -
.. —- -
~~
- - ‘
..
~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
~
-
- -
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
-
t a c i h i t i e s is t ypi c a l l y less t han S
y
~~~
cal

sec , whereas the gas phase t r anspor t
c c f t reat away from t he surface of the permanent lava lake at the Nyir -angongo
-
-
- - 8 26
\ c . c l c a r i c c has been est i mat ed to be 10 cal/ sec by Del semme (see also
mi l ( cz u ru
~~~~
.
Er - opt i on cloud hei ght s of several hundred met ers observed for Strombolian-
st y le ct-opt i ons (see A
~~~
endi x A) are comparable to the plume hei ghts reported for
a v a r i e t y of i ndust r i al sources (see, for exampl e Briggs
28
). In the case of major
exp losive er upt i ons ( t hat is , Vul cani an-scal e erupt i ons) exi t conditions at volcanic
ye n/ s di f f e r signi f i cant l y f r om t hose commonl y found at the mout hs of i ndust ri al
s mokes t acks . 1- x i t velocities and mass flux rates associated wi t h major explosive
er upt i ons great l y exceed the rat e at whi ch i ndust ri al effl uent s typicall y ent er the
a t r i os p here. (For example, Thorari nsson and Vonnegu t
13
est i mat e that duri ng the
i ni t i al st ages of t he 19( 13 Surt esy et -upt i oni , t her mal energy was emi t t ed at a rate
- 10
- -
in excess of 10 cal sec . ) As a resul t , erupt i on clouds produced by Vulcanian-
styl e erupt i ons can easi l y dwarf most i ndust r i al plumes . The crosswi nd environ-
ment i nt o whi ch i ndust ri al effl uent s and volcanic dust and gas are emi t t ed may also
be qui t e di f f er ent. Explosive eruptions commonl y occur at the summi t s of large
stratovolcanoes where crosswi nds are likely to be considerably stronger t han
those typically encountered by i ndust r i al effl uent s.
A vari et y of t heoret i cal and empi r i cal expressi ons have been proposed to
est i mat e the maxi rnunt rise hei ghts of in dust r i al plumes . Appl i cat i on of t hese
i ndust ri al ly-based formul ae to exp losive er upt i on conditions involve s an extrapola-
tion of these various expressions beyond the range of exit conditions for whi ch they
were developed. As ment i oned previ ousl y, t here is an approxi mat e correspond-
ence bet ween the hei ght s of plumes produced by large i ndust r i al sources and the
hei ghts of eruption clouds produced by aenkl y- e xp losive St rornbol i an-st yle erup-
tions. At these scales ver t i cal penet r at i on of t he at mosp here by i ndust r i al l)lufli es
and erupt i on clouds is roughl y compar-able. Ext r - apol at i on of i ndus t r i al l y-based
plume rise expressi ons beyond t hi s scale to more explosive eruption condi t i ons ia
employed here as a means of i nvest i gat i ng t he r - el at i onshi p bet ween the hei ght s of
erupt i on clouds and erupt i on i nt ensi t y. The rise of i ndust r i al plumes is predom-
inantl y controlled by the t hermal buoyancy of i ndust r i al ef f l uent s. Es t i mat es of
the hei ght s of erupt i on clouds based upon the behavior of i ndust r i al pl umes can be
compared wi t h reported cloud hei ghts and est i mat es of erupt i on cloud h e i ght based
upon the t urbul ent jet model in order to assess t he rel at i ve i mport ance of t h er t -mt a l
buoyancy in the rise of eruption clouds.
26. Delsemme, A, ( 1960) Centre National de Volcan , Publ . 7: 1199-707 .
27. Shint ozuru , D. ( 1968) Bulletin Volcanologi que 32: 383-394 .
28. Bri ggs , G. A. ( 1971) Nuclear Safet y 12: 15-24.
1( 1
- —- -—-
~
- - — --------
~~
----- - _ - ---
-- -_----- - - _ ----——-
—--— -
~~
--- --
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
—- - —
__ —
~‘
‘ wvc
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.__=
~~~~
-,=_-_--__- _ -
~~
___-_
~
_‘—_—-.-- ,‘.—•—--_
_‘•_____
- --___—-
---
- -----—-—-
.
——-- — -——--
- -a-
~
_
-~~
-
The ri se of i ndus t r i al pl umes emanat i ng from smokest acks has been found to
d epend upon : ( I ) the vel oci t y of the ef f l uent at the mout h of the stack , ( 2) the
t emper at ur e cont rast bet ween the effl uent and the ambi ent at mosphere, (3) the
m c c .ss sectional area of the stack, (4) the average crosswind speed at the height
i t whi ch t he effl uent is released, and ( 5) the t hermal st r uct ur e of the at mosph e r e
( t hat is , the vari at i on of envi r- oninent al t emper at ur e wi t h height). The fol l owi ng
f o rmu l a e employ vari ous combinations of these paramet ers to est i mat e t he maxi-
mum heights of i ndus t r i al plume-s (see also Figure 2) . These formul ae have been

di scussed in gr - eat e i - d et a i l by Briggs .
-
ERUPTI ON CLOUDS THER%
~
AL PLUME MODEL
-
_
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
~~~~~
Fi gure 2. Parameter-s Emp loyed i n the Indust ri al Pl ume Forntul ae Used for Pre-
di ct i ng Pl ume Ri se .
29. Briggs , G. A. (116 8) Moment um and buoyancy effect s , i n Meteorology and
At omi c Ener g
~
, D. Slade ( Ed) , USAEC Report TID 24190.
17
-— —
~~~~-—-- - -----.-—-- _- _--__—- _-- -- -- —--- - - — - ----——- - —.--_-——- -------—“ --- - -- - -
_ _
--- _-------- --.- —_- -
- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~‘
- _----
-
-
-
- - _ - - ;----
1. ! l c i l l a t m h (Oak I t i i . l gc-) I - i c r t i i i i bi

( I t Vc3 )
~~
h h I . - d )
(
~~c c ) 4 . 0
~
o
5
s-!
-!-
(Q
11
is h e a t fl ux in i - al see)
2. f ) a vi nl s o n - Br - ya t mh
_
i i c r n i u l a
1
( I t i S4 )
~~
h I I )
(
~~~
_
~
. 4
(I
.
(
. Bos anquct Fo r - n mu l a
32
f -
Stable conditions, wi nd y (1957)1
0. 6l 5 X
0
1
-
2
i
~
ll A u f
1
+ f
2

2 1 - 2
((;2)
0. 57)
(See Bosanquet
’32
for def i ni t i on of variables A and X ; values of f unct i ons
and 1
9
are given in t abul ar f or mat )
4 . 13o-sanquet Forn-mul a
32
[Stable conditions , calm ( 1957 ) 1
~~i i =
O. 666
( g Q
~~~T\
1 4
( t + t )
3/ 4
-!.
t
3/ 4 0. 2 8 3 ( Q ’
~
’/ 2
-
2
~
T
j
0 2 0 a
~
w
/
(See Bosanquet
12
for defi ni t i on of variables a, t and t
0
; Q is effl uent
di scharge rat e in m
3
/
sec)
5. Stiimke Formula
3
~
(1963 )
= I . SD
(-;
~
--)
+ 65. 0
D
312
( A T)
l / 4
30. Holland , J. Z. ( 1953) USAEC Report ORO-99 , Weat her Bureau, Oak Ri d ge
T cnn.
31. Davidson , W . I - .
( 19 54 ) ‘l r -ans . Conf. m d . Wast es, 14t h Annual
Meeting,
pp. 38-55, I ndus t r i al h ygi ene Foundat i on of Amer i ca.
32 . Bosanquet , C. H. ( 19S 7)
J. I nst. Fuel 30: 322—328.
33. St
~
rnke , H. ( 1963) 1 .S. At omi c Ener gy
Commi ssi on Report ORNL- TR- 0 77
,
Oak Ri dge Nat i onal Labo ”at ory.
18
— ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
~~~
-
~~
- ---- - ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
- - -
~~~~
-d .
-
-
_ _ -
~~~~~~~~~~ ‘
-
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -~~~~~~~~
i r i
~~
us i - c r c i i l a
1
(
~~
ad h c 1 c c c c r i c l m t i c c i c - \% i n ( h y ( l t l I c
~
d ) J
~~
i i L 0 ( ±
~~)
~
7 . l i i g
~
.

I c c i 1 ! l ul a
~
t a h c I c - c a c n c h i t I c c r t
~~
c a l r i m ( l d d i c ! d ) I
1
.
_ I 4
~~
i h

. 0
a h i - c e
~~
1 I pl ume r i se hei ght d cc c vi - vent (m)
I) — vent di amet er ( or )
— vet -t i cal exi t vel oci t y at vc - r r t mout h (nt , see)
u aver age c r c , s- c wi nd speed ( mu ‘sec-)
~
T di f f em- enc e in a b s c c l u t e t emp er at ur -e bet ween anmbi ent air and ef f l uent
gas (°K)
T

-
absol ut e t e mp er - at ur - e of ef f l uent st ack gas ( °
K)
T
a
absol ut e t eni per - at ur e of ambi ent at mospher e ( °K)
buoyancy flux 1- -‘ g
~
41)
w
( D )
2
(nt
4
/ sec
3
)
S = at mosp her i c s t abi l i t y par amet er -
~~~~
-
~~~~~~~
-_
,
(1 ,- s ee
2
)
9 8
°
K
— r F -
~
1000 in
- -- (d .
r envi r onment al l apse rat e = aT ,: dZ (
K ‘ ni t )
4
g gr avi t at i onal accel er at i on (9 . 8 ru see
2
) --
These various formulae ar e based upon bot h l abor at or y exper i ment s and obser-
vat i ons of t he act ual behavi or of i ndust r i al pl umes . Each f or mul a produces reason-
abl y accur at e es t i mat es of pl unt e r i s e when app l i ed to cer t ai n types of meteorolog-
ieal condi t i ons and a speci fi c r -ange of ef f l uent sour - c - c s l r i - ng t hi . No single t echni que
can accur at el y pr edi ct pl ume hei ght in all cases . h - c r examp le , t he Hol l and (Oak
-
-
Hi dge) f or mul a is based upon wi nd t unnel exper i ments and empi r i cal obser vat i ons
at rel at i vel y smal l power pl ant s operat i ng in t he 1950’ s . When app lied to expl osi ve
er -upt i on c o n d i t i c c . t he Hol l and (Oak Ri dge) f or mul a ; c m - e c h i c t s unr e asona bl y l arge
cloud hei ght s . (For val ues of gr eat er t han l 0~~ eal/ se t he h olland f or mul a

a
-- -- - ——-
—~~~~~
-
~~~~~~~
pm -
(
- dh m ( - t s et -upt i on cloud heig hts on t he order of 50 km.
) The remai ni ng equations
p u - e -
~
ent ed abc ,v - produce r eal i s t i c est i mat es of er upt i on cloud height when app lied
t c c expl osi ve erupt i on condi t i ons assun ed in t hi s st ud y. By consi deri ng several
met hods of es t i ma t i ng pl ume height it is possible to make a meani ngf ul est i mat e of
e r upt i on cloud hei ght based upon t he behavi or of i ndust ri al pl umes.
l able I present s t he c-al cul at ed heights of erupt i on clouds above an act i vel y-
er upt i ng v c l r - a n i c vent for the case of a volcanic ga-s (T , = 373 °K) ent eri ng the
ambi ent at mosphere (T
a
S
273 °K) vi a a ci rcul ar vent o’
di amet er U 100 in. It
has been assumed here t hat the erupt ed gases expand rapidl y and cool from the
t emper at ur e at whi ch t he magma is erupt ed to 100
°
C such t hat they effect i vel y exi t
the cr at er at the l at t er t emper at ur e. Small changes in T
a
or T
5
wi l l not greatl y
af f ect cloud height est i mat es in Table 1. These est i mat es have been rounded to the
neares t 100 in in recognition of the large extrapol at i ons involved in applying the
i ndus t r i al pl ume f or mul ae to explosive eruption conditions. Act ual observations
of the hei ghts of er upt i on clouds are commonl y est i mat ed to the nearest ki l omet er
(see Appendix A) . A var i et y of combinations of eruption velocity and crosswi nd
velocity has been chosen to represent an increase in eruption intensity from the
l ef t to ri ght of Table 1. Explosive eruptions typically occur at the summi t s of
large stratovolcanoes where average crosswi nd velocities are on the order of
10 to 30 n i —s e c .
Est imat ed hei ght s of erupt i on clouds vary from 900 - 10
, 000 m for Strombolian-
scal e erupt i ons (w
0
= 20 m/ sec) to 3200 - 8500 m for Vulcanian-scale eruptions
(W
~
200 m/ sec) in Table 1. The Stn
~
imke f or mul a appears to predi ct unreasonably
large cloud heights (
~~
H 10 kin) for r el at i vel y smal l , St romooli an-scal e erupt i ons
F
(w 20 in ‘ see); and t he Briggs and Bosanquet formul ae for calm conditions may
be cons idered to be i nappropri at e for t he upper levels of the atmosphere where
crosswi nd velocities are usually great er than 5 nt/ sec. A more selective range of
est i mat es can he based upon the Davi dson- Br yant, Bosanquet (stable conditions ,
wi nd y) and Bri ggs (st abl e conditions , wi ndy) f ormul ae . Disregarding the Stiimke
f or mul a , est i mat es of cloud hei ght in the presence of a crosswi nd vary from 900 -
4000 in for Strombolian-scale eruptions (w 20 n-c/ s e c ) to 3200 - 8400 in for
Vul cani an-scal e eruptions (w
0
= 200 r n/ see) . Based upon t hese est i mat es, it would
appear t hat an order of magnitude vari at i on in erupt i on vel oci ty wi l l not necessarily
result in a maj or change in erupt i on cloud heigh t . A compari son of the median
value of cloud hei ght selec ted from the range of est i mat es predicted for these t wo
cases of eruption conditions suggests t hat an order of magnitude increase in erup-
Hon intensit y should result in a fact or of 2. 5 increase in median cloud height.
A compari son of the Davi dson-Bryant , Bosanquet (st abl e conditions , wind y) ,
and Briggs (stable conditions , wi ndy) formul ae for an eruption velocity of w
0
= 200
rn/ sec under di fferent crosswi nd condi t i ons i ndi cat es t hat cloud hei ght varies from
20
L
- - ---
_______ -_
-- -
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -‘-- -
-
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
- -
I
-
~~~~~
I
-
o
~~~~~~~~~
-
-
- ,
I
-
~
1
:
~~~
:
! i
~
— C
nfr -
-
~~~~~~~~~~~~
~
ncr
- I o c
~
C C C
-
0 - 0 0 : 0 7 - .
0.. I ‘ C
~
l t- c n- cc , -
~
: -
~~~
0 -
~~
— — -
- -
~ — -
,= — C 1 - e - e -
I-.
- - - , - -
-
,
-
,
,
U Hr
:; I E
o ~~~~~~
0 0 C 0. O~~~ O 0
~~
-
~~
-
- , — 0 1 0 0 0
~~~~~~~~ = ~~~~~~~ ~~~~
— °
I
- _
I ,
~~
I
S~~~E
I
~~~~
e I c l o - o o o
~~~
o ’ - [ o l o e
I
o
l
I o ’ ’ o 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 0 ’ 0
l
0 0 0 -=
- c-, -) C) ‘I ’ - 0 0 C C) ‘ -) f i 4 0
~~
-t I I -

0 cc en
-
cc
~~
- in .f ,
~
~~~~
‘ I — ‘
~~
O -
,
-
I , ~~‘ - ,
I
J
I
~~~~~~~~
-
~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
n . e
-~ ~ ~

-~~~
-
~~
-
- °
~~~~~
L-. i
——.-----
~~
-
~~~~~~~
I
~
-
L
— - ,
~~~~~~~
-
-
-
— -_ -c
-

- —
I —
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
~~ ~~~~~
-
~

-~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- -
~ ~~~~~~~~ 5
~
9
-
~~~ ~~~~~~~~
/
21
___
pP—- - - —_
~
-
~~
_
~
_
~
z—--=— —
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--
- _ “ —
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~
—-
~~
_
~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
- -
-
~~
I I = 3700
— 8400 in t c r c r c
~~
sWj i t d u 10 i t t/ sec to
~~
l 1 = 3200 — 5300 in hei r er os-.-
w ind u 20 m ’
s ec - . Thus var i at i ons in c- r m sswi nd condi t i ons may pot ent i al l y he as
si gni f i cant as var -i at i ons in n er upt i on vel oci ty in det er mi ni ng t he hei ght of an erup-
t i on cl oud. In addi t i on , Table I demonst r at es t hat vari at i ons in t he t her nt al st ruc-
t u u - e of t he at mos pher e (F) can also Itave an i mpor t ant i nf l uence on er upt i on cloud
hei ght .
I. I l l =
~
I
The physi cal mi t echani sms responsible for the rise of an erupt i on cloud are t he
upwa u - d n a c n t e nt u m and t her mal buoyancy of t he vol cani c dust and gas . Each of t he
anal ogous phenomena empl oyed l u e r e to model t he ri se of an erupt i on cloud is pr i n-
ci pal lv dependent on cOO of t hese two physi cal nmec ir a n-ni sms. By compari ng cloud
hei ght e s t i ma t e s pr oduced by t hese t wo very di f f er ent models , it may be possible
- i r e c - r - whi ch c1 t h e t wn mechani s ms pla s a more int i por -t ant role in the rise of
vc, l cani c er upt i on cl ouds.
I - : st i mat es of e r -opt i on cl oud hei ght based upon t he t ur bul ent j et model are a
- l e a sur e of at mospher i c penet r at i on produced by t he upwar d moment um of vol cani c
dust and gas . Cl oud height est i mat es based upon t he i ndust r i al pl ume m odels are
a mt r easur e of atmosp hen - i c penet r at i on produced by tire thermal buoyancy of volcanic
gas . For erupt i on vel oci t i es vary ing fr-or -n 20 t o 200 m

see , cloud hei ght s est i mi t at ed
by t h - - t ur bul ent j et model r ange from 1500 - 6500 rn (ut- rid-latitude eruption in
Figure 1) , whereas cloud hei ght s est i mat ed by t lte i ndust r i al pl unt e models range
f r ont 900 - 8400 m ( pr ef er r ed models neglecting St r i imke Formul a and cal m con-
di t i ons in Table 1). These est i mat es of cloud hei ght ar e consi der-ed to be roughl y
contparable in view of t he assumpt i ons and ext rapol at i ons involved in appl y i ng t he
models to explosive erupt i on conditions . The fact t hat general l y s i mi l ar es t i mat es
of cloud hei ght are produced by two very di f f er ent models suggests t hat bot h mi t o i t i en-
t ur n and t her mal buoyancy play an i mport ant role t hr oughout t he u
~
t ai n port i on of an
eruption cloud’s trajectory. For these eruption conditions (20 iii sec
~
w
~
200
n t - s e c t nei t her moment um nor t her mal buoyancy appears to domi nat e t he ) n a c c ( 5 S
~
f cloud ri se to al t i t udes of 10 km above an act i vel y- er upt i ng volcanic vent .
Bot h t he t ur bul ent j et and t he i ndust r i al pl ume models i ndi cat e t hat for con-
st ant crosswind conditions ‘ire hei ght of an erupt i on cloud should i ncr ease as erup-
t i on i nt ensi t y (t hat is , average eruption vel oci t y w
0
) i ncreases . An order - of rtt ag-
ni t ude var i at i on in erupt i on velocity front w
0
20 n t - sec to = 200 ni t sec r esul t s
in a fact or of 3 to 4 increase in average cloud height predi ct ed by t he t ur bul ent
volcanic j et model ,=nd a fact or of 2. 5 i ncrease in medi an cloud hei ght predi ct ed by
t he select group of i ndust ri al plume models di scussed ear l i er - . h owever - , both
-
) -,
- ~~
- -

~~~~~~~ ——
- ---
~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
n n c , c l e l , n aI . s u c h e n i i c c n i = t r a t ( t ha t c h i L n i g e S in cr 05 . 5 0 m d ‘i . l oci t
~
b ’ f ac t or s c c l 2 t o 5
c ; c nl n - e s t r l t in
~
-a n i a t i c cm1 in cl oud hei ght of imhl ar magni t ude. The model s i ndi cat e
t hat a
~
- c c l c a n i c cl oud pr -oduced by a l a r ge —s c a l e exp l os mv e er upt i on in a st r ong
c t c s - ‘.
~
i nch i n t v i r c c n mt i e n t coul d ri se t o s mi t al l e r hei ght s t han a vol cani c cloud produced
by a
, s hc u - a t c - - s c a l e expl osi ve er upt i on in a i
~~~
ak r r cc s
~~
wmn d envi r onment . Then - c—
t c c t t he a ppa r e nt heights of e r u p t i o n Cl (cud s do not necessar i l y refl ect r el at i ve
i- -
t u h c t i c . c m c i nt ens i t y. Repor t ed hei g
ht s of erupt i on clouds wi t i mout r ef er ence to l ocal
c : rccs s wi nd condi t i ons at t he t i u , c- of erupt i on cannot he d i r e c t l y compared to gauge
t he n-d at i ve exp los i vene.s s of different volcanic eruptions .
The r ange of er upt i on cl oud hei gh ts pr edi ct ed by t he t urbul ent j et and t he
i ndus t r i al pl ume models for average erupt i on vel oci t i es var yi ng f r om 20 to 200
r n/ s e c is gener al l y l ess t i t an 10 km. Thi s agrees qui t e well wi t h t he range of
observed erupt i on cloud hei ght s report ed to the Center f or Short Lived Phenomenon
over t h e period 1970-1974 (see Append i x A) . Such erupt i ons may i nt r oduce large
quant i t i es of par t i cul at e dust and volcanic gas regionall y into the t roposphere hut
do not di r ect ly penet r at e t he t ropopause. Volcanic dust and gas produced by erup-
t i ons of t hi s si ze may never t hel ess ent er t he str at osp here via st rat osphere-t ropo-
sp here exchange proceSSes .
Maxi mum observed erupt i on cloud hei ght -s report ed over the period 1970- 1974
ranged up tcc 1 2 km f or t he February 1973 erupt i on of Fuego Volcano, Guat emal a
and 15 km for t he sur nnt er 1970 erupt i on of hlekIa , Iceland (see Appendix A). Both
of t hese er upt i ons occurred out si de t he 30
0
_60
0
l at i t ude band wher e zonal west erly
flow is best devel oped. The Il ekI a erupt i on should
have injected mat eri al di r ect l y
i nt o t he s t ra t osp here. Wi despread s t r at os pheri c ef f ect s produced by the Fuego
er upt i on t : c ’a- been report ed b
~
- sever al i nvest i gat ors
~~~

36, 37, 38
Even g r e a t e n e r upt i c - n cloud hei ght s r angi ng up to 20 km to 40 km have beer4
i nf e r r e d i c r r p t , I . - ’ c - - j for - a t : c - , t r c c p h i i c Pl i ni a n—s c a l e explosive erupt i ons in the past
( La ni t l c
.
1070 ;
( r c c r i m n c ,
10 7 1) . Er upt i on vel oci t i es great er than 200 r n/ s ec are
r equi r ed by I c c - t i , t he i r c r l u - , t r i a i p l ume models and t he t urbul ent je t model in order
‘I
~
c i c- h i -
- a r c - n cl oud s i g h t s c r - e a t e r t han 20 km under reasonable crosswind
condi
~
t c
~~
(U 5 r i

sc- - ). b’ r - e- = ci - : a h - l y such average eruption velocities must be
mai nt ai ned
~
- - r
-, c c a c- per r d of i - ( i n t he order of several hours ?) to permi t the
er u r u ’ L- - 1 clo ud t o - c ’ - - -
‘ - - i s x i n u r n height. Firs t hand measurements of eruption
- ; , - i oe mt m ( - - ari d cro4
~~
- : - I - c f l d m t u c - r i - c dun - i ng such cat ast rophic explosive eruptions
34. b e r . - n
-
I . . R.
( 10 7 5 ) Hev . Geophvs. and Space Sd. 13:459-474.
i s . Fegl ev , I’ .

and b. l l
~
.,
, II . T.
( 19 7 5 ) Geop hys. Res. Lett. 2: 139-141.
n \ hc
( - r - i c k
~
I. P. , and 1-u l l e r , W. H.
( 1975 ) Appl . Opt . 14 : 4—5 .
17 . 5h- i nc
~
-, .-\ . }L ,
and \1. -un -l , ‘
~
i. p. (1975) Science 188:477-478.
t H . Vcj l i
.
l-
. K. ( 1975) -s-t e nr e l 8 9 : 4 8 —= 0 .
23
:__
- -
-
---- -
~~ - ——
- -
-
~~~~~
-- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~
. -
-
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
R-
-
d : i c l l c h , l \ u - a - c - .
‘ I I c e n e t c u c - i t is d i f f i e
~
n l t to d c t r - r i i j r ie i f
( - , t u I . a t c - - of
c ’ - L c _ei c - r - i c ; c ? l - :l
~~
- l o c mt \ I I t i me c t c k -
~
of I
~
OO nm sc- c — 500 i i ., c - c - m i m i - n - c d b y
a n - i n c c c t C c l
-
- u - uj c t i - c i -l oud I c-I g ht s w i t l u model pred j et i m i n i - , , a r e n - ca -ic, nabl e
cm t I - - .,e a .s s m \ c - Ph i n m i a n —s - t c l c c- r - upt i cj r u s .
1 I i . - i - c c - I such gi gami t h - er - cmpt i on c louds nitay al s o I -c - i nf l uenced I c ’ :
1) At n : -- ,
~~
t i e r j c ’ Ther mal St n - c m c t um- e . Er upt i on cl ouds r i si ng above 10 km n r t l c \
- - c l c c mi : l . e l t h , c o n t r o l l e d h c \ r unaway c o n l v e ( t i or r in an at mos p h e r e - c l i m e t i n - mmc i —
- -
~
c c l i i Il q c - e i a t c - \va. s s l i g h t l y gr eat er t i man t he a c l i a h i a t i mi l apse r a t e ( t hat j
c
~
ni ‘ : -
I - I l i t O c r ! ) . In sucht ar t envi r onni t ent , t he i nt r oduc t i on of vol c - an t i c dus t and
g - c
~
( c i n c h - i - t c c m- - l a r - gc - —s c - a l c c c i t
~~~
c t n o n r .
( )h. —e r - va t i on s of t he behavi or - nd

i n c i i o - , t i - i a l
dl i ! ac I n c i c - mc t u - I l l or uns t abl e c t cI c
~~
j ) h - t - i e condi t i ons are l i mi t ed.
12
~
is d i f f i c ul t
- -
- - d I n d c - - x : c c t l \ l c c , , i mi t uch f ar -t h or an en-opt i on cl oud mi r i ght mi s c- in such adi abat i c
c r s u p e n - : m d i _ c h c t i c - - a c c l i t l c d ! -,
.
I I c - n - r u r a l :i-; - - c l a er. e ar n n - c - s t n - j e t c onvect ive mot i on in the atnt r osp hr t - r - e.
l nr v d- r - . s n c c n m . n I c r - C pr oduced by h e a t i ng of t he ear t h ’ s sur f ace and are t yp i cal ly ec .c ni i i ni e i
to t he l ower - 2 k i n of t h e z c t n mr o s p hi ere. At such al t i t udes t he upwa r d ut i oni ent um of
vol cani c c b s and gas c c- et e d by
an expl osi ve erupt i on should generally be s uf f i ci ent
c
~~
r r
~
an e r u p t ion c- l oud t hr ough an i nver si on l ay e r (see Fi gure 1). Ther ef or e ,

‘ h i m - cn - e , c - nee if n y c - i s b n l ayer - s in t he l ower at mosphere should not usual l y i nfl u-
ence t he u - i s o of exp h c c s i v e er upt i on clouds.
( 2 )
~
\ n nc . , mn a I a cr i - h ’ c (
~
c l nn Upper - Level Wi nds. As discussed above , bot h t he
i n dc ms t r i a l pl ume : n c d e 1
~
and t he t ur bul ent j et mt -model are sensi t i ve to var i ations in
cr - osswi nd s t r e ngt h at t he t i n e of an erupt i on . Unus ual l y calm condi t i on.s al of t
(u <
~
itt see) wi l l per mi t er upt i on clouds produced by erupt i on vel oci t i es les-
t han 200 i t t / s e c t o a t t a i n al t i t udes gr eat er t han
-
~~
15 km accordi ng to bot h t ypes of
n- c. cdels present ed her e. Su -h cal m condit i on-s nt ay occur as t he r esul t of a t c c n - t i
~
i-
t c cu s conf igu n-at i on of t r oposp heri c weat her s ys t e ms at t he t i me of an e r u p t i c -
~~
.
t I ) Sust ai ned Er upt i on Condi t i ons. An i ndi vi dual erupt i on can pass t i ur ough a
seri es of phase
~
a l t e r na t i ng bet ween -St rombol i an and Vul cani an styl es of e i U j I c c i
,
occasionall y cul nt t i nat i ng in a mas s i ve Pl i ni an- scal e erupt i on (w t OO ni r see
~
) .
Duri ng periods of sust ai ned er-upt i on , the eruption cloud pr -oduced by t h e n u t o- I
explosive phases of l c c t i v i t v may est abl i sh a nat ural vert i cal condui t in 1 1 mm- l i t . -
phere . It is possible t hat ga-s and dust released duri ng a shor t- l i ved inc ’e:c., e in
er upt i on i nt e ns i t y may r i se t hr oug h t he pr e- exi st i ng cloud colunt rn to produce a
si gni f i cant i ncrease in t he maxi nt unt hei ght of an er upt i on cloud . The i ncm- c asc - in
cloud hei ght produced by t he t r ansi ent
, more explosive phase may pers ist t hr ough
l at er er upt i ve phases. Thus , t he -
~
served maxi mum hei ght of an erupt i on cloud
may depend to an i niport ant degrec - a the chronological sequence of erupt i ve phases
produced dur i ng a single period of erupt i on , and not necessari ly on tire tinte-
ave raged en - u
I d ion condi t i ons.
24
____ _ _ _ _ _
___________
-i
____ ______ - -
-
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -
-
~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
— - --—--—,-—- —-- —
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
—,- _ . . .
-.
-
- - - - -
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.
~~
. I I
~~
\ I I I — I I I \ —
1 . T u r h c i n l c - r mt n - I a nn - b u mn c h m
~~
I i - n 1 c I r c u s ’ i s c l c - h . c, I i c c l c - l c r n u c e r upt i on ) cl ouds
~~~~
-—
‘ b i c i c c c n c j d l c m : d l c l c - i - u s c - i l c u c ! i d c , ’ c ’ d a ! I c i ! L e of ( - n -
u l dt i o ni c - c . c n m c h u t mc c n m s I c c e 1x l ) l ( c . s i ve
c- r - up t i on - ms c c c c i m i r ’ i r - mg i n I i , - : -
~~
d —l c c I n ! c c - t c - -,
. 1 1 c m I c t i c , - l d l i & - n ’ t e penet r at i on of a t ot ’ —
p t is
~~~~~~~~~~~
(hue to t h m c - m a c i l c c - ! mt u r n m c i t he e l m - c - t e d i l i a t e m - m l d l . —, ; t i ne a t i o c c - , —
pb u e n ’ i c ’
~
m( ’n - met n
~
mt i c c r n of I c n i i o c h m .
~
t n - u c l p l u - i c - i .s c m i i i - i i m a l l v - t u e to 1 1 m m- t l ue r mt - ma l I ! uc c va n uc \
c c i m u m - l u - — I m - i a l ef f l u &- ni t - —
_ ‘h u m ’ S m u t t h
~
i t - ‘ - a c ; c i c h i c - l c tvl l i m - i g h i t e . s t i n i c a t c - .s arc- pr o—
h ue - ct cc t hm
~
- —_ m - t wo \ -( -u ’\ - - h i d - u - c - n i t ma c i d ol s u c c - c - s t .s t i n t both n l c c c n ; i e n m t u u - m m and l c c - i - mna l
I - i i \ c i mc ’\ l cl l m\ an I n n m h mmd n - t l c mm t n - c - I c - ‘ I c i c , ui
~
’ I c - u i t 1 1 c m - : s a i r m por t i on of an er upt i on cl oud s
-
1! c - c - I c - i \ .
2 . Esi i c o m I c - c l l i c - i m. i hi t s of er - up d i - c i t d c c
~~~
t - based upon t cr r hu ) eni t el and indus t r i al
d u a n e c c c c h m- l - : c m e s m - n i - , i t j v c ’ f - as s umed c r o s s - .-. m d condi t i ons . Bot lu l vpe . s of i i c c i k- l . s
i n d i c a t e
(h ;
. mt c-
~
u r i a t i c mns in er i mpt i on i nt ens i t s - and
( -r - us swi nd vel oci t y can u - c - s ui t in
- hmi mnmge s in c-loud hei ght t ha t an-c of s i mi l a r m- nag r ni t ude. R e p o r t s of mc I - s e r v e d cr op—
i c c n ’ cloud hei g h ts r a n - t h y i ncl ude i nf or mat i on about local i uc- t m- c c r o l ogi ca l condi t i ons ,
m mu 1 u m - u i t l v duc- tc . c t he n-c- mot e l ocat i on ( c i many nt - maj or expl osi ve er upt i ons . The
hei ght of a n em- ci pt i on cl ii has i n t i - me past been r egarded as a r el at i ve i ndex of
- - i - o pt ion i nt ens i t
~
-
espee - - ml i v in i -uses cc - h - men - c ground u c h - c e r va t i ons of t he - cc - t u al
er - opt i on ar - c d i f f i c u l t - - c spa r - se . Thi s st u d y i ndi c a t e s t i mat t he hei ght s of m n - opt i on
cl oud. s do c s - I u i c c - m . - s s a ri ly r c-l ’lec t r e l a t i ve E- r - upt i on i nt e ns i ty (nt easur ed her e as
~
cve
~
-
~
c c - exi t - c - l i c e i t v it I l i e v c c h m - l c n i c vent ) . Obs e r va t i ons of e r upt i on cloud he i ght
i n l a y vm
~
f pr oc - i de a n - c
-
-I n t L- c i ndex of er upt i on i nt e ns i ty i f they can be report ed wi t h
n c - i c - n m - n c c to local c r os s wi nd condi t i ons at t he t i me of t he er upt i on. Knowled ge of
t he t he r ma l s t r t u - t u n ’ c - of ‘l i e at nt ’mospher e woul d also be useful in rel at i ng observed
hei ght s of eruption clouds to sum-face eruption conditions .
1 ba ’ t cmr bu l ent m-
~
ar t -
-i mn d u s t r i a l pl ume nt t odei s al s mc i ndi cat e t hat ei t her
t he mccment cm m or t fm e t her mal buoyancy of volcanic dust and gas can car r y an
er upt i on cloud to hei ght s on t he order of 5 to 10 km. Cl ouds r i -si ng to s i mi l ar
hei ght s n c n c
~
hims l i t ’ pr oduced by l ar ge areal sources of hot volcanic ga-s ej ect ed at
s ma l l er upt i on : c- i oi ’ it i e s and s ma l l , vi ol e ntl ”- e xp l osive s ow- c-e s of volcanic gas
and dust el ect ed ct l arge er upt i on vel oci t i es. Ther ef or e , even i f local crosswi nd
condi t i ccns are noted , t i n e appar ent t hei g ht s of er upt i on cl ouds may not a l wa y s provi de
a us e f ul i ndex to r c l ; c f mv e er upt i on i n t e n s i t y .
The t ur bul ent c- f i nr l u, st r i a l pl ume ut -model s can be used to i nf er nt i ni munt
er upt i on v
~~
loe i t i e s 1, cr sc nc s n m’ .
Pi e explosive erupt i ons whi ch have in t he past
produced cl ouds r - i - i r m ci t i c hei ght s of 20 km or more (for exampl e, t h c - 1883 Kr akat oa
er upt i on) . I - o r u - e a . s c c n a t - h - c r os s wi nd condi t i ons (u > 5 r n - s e e ) bot h t yp e s of
models require eruption - - m - I c - - i t i m - s p - u - e a t e r ’ than 200 rn/sec in order- to predict
cloud hei ght s gr eat en - t han 20 km . The f or mat i on of such gi gant i c eri,
npt i on clouds
- - -- n
~~
_-_
~~~~
-—
~~~~~~
—-----_
- —
~~~~=-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ - ~~~-~~-
-
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
~~~~‘ “~~~~~~
“ ‘ -‘————--—--,.-—,---—.———‘—-—-———‘-
~~-— ---—-_ - ‘~ ‘~~~


--- .,
rmi
~
m
~
1115c c d i m - I c c - i c c I i mpo ni : (a) m c m v i n - c ci t
-
c - c c n i : c
o
~~
e u - a i m - -, in t i me upper t r - c , I c c c s h u l ! m- r m -
h m c l i l a v c c n ’ i z mi - g e ——c c - l c l e mc c n mv m ’ c ’ t i ( c n ,
( I - ) : i n u c d i - Oml c ) u s l ’ c c- al r m t m - n - c c s - i - - - m c d m - c m i c h i t u c c n . —
,
i n n t i m e c-upper I n c - 1 c c - c i c h s m - n m ’
_
mc ! ’ I t ) t n r c r m- , i m - i c t u r i c n - c - I c - c - — i n i -r up t ocn i nt ens i t
-
dur i ng
mc i - n o d — , s u s t ; c t n m - --l ex p l c - s n u c - l c d - I n n
’’
,
.
I
-
I nO. 1 i c i f l \ m- t t g l c ’ i c c l t —
_ o/ m \ I d l c , s n - c m- v- P ani c m ’ mc ; - n c m n c - n s -
~
shoul d i ncl ude
c f l c - m : m h , s , - c m ’ n r - - no 1 c - c n t c h m t m c n u _ ,
m i un ’ i n g t h u - - n’ O l ) t i o n t h e r e pccs s i b l e .
v c ’ i c c f l s mc i g r o u n d — I c c ’ e - t r e r - n -
~
shm ccnl r l i n c e l u d e n u i e Lc s u n - e n u i c - n t s of ai r
t t ’ l o I c c r I mt i l r e su s - : - - - -
~
- i c -

~~
u n ’c- -.-. u nd -
1
c m- c -I , arid ‘ I cc- s c un - f a m - - concent r at i on c , f

cic dc ns t : c n u d h c c - , . I ) ; c i I V l m m ’ i i c l \-‘lm t r c c n ms . slr ou l d i n -l ode i c d m- l i S Or e P i e n t of
P m- ht ei -j l i t c l i d h , - ‘ d c ’ r - n a l
~
i t i - u l m - t c c n s- m c f t i re c- l c
~
onl , r adi al t e m per at ur e and pm’e
~~~
u 1-e
vI n ’ i : c t m m, f l 1 -c , u t I b m ’ c - I c u i - I
,
b c-al c - c c _
cs s c i n c h pr of i l es and I a b c
~
c - n - o tt - -u , and vol cani c
gas c u b l u s t e c c f l e e i i t r : ut i or n in
h
i m ’ vi ci ni t y of t he cl oud. Si mul t aneous observat i ons
of t b , i -c nat ur e could he u e d i
~
o m d c l t he s t r u c t u r e of s uc s hm cl ouds in c c n ’ r j e r ’ t o c i
~
- i e r
a: nc- t he n ; c n n n e r ’ m m whi c h l I ce i nt r od oc c vol cani c dust and gas i nt o t Ir e r ’ a n’ t hc
’ s
at mosp here . Such knowl edge would p r ovi de an i mpor t ant point of r ef er ence in
ums s e s i ng t i r e r el at i ve i mpact of ant hropogeni c sources of ef f l uent s whi ch are
epi sodi cal ly i nj ect ed di r ect l y i nt o t he upper levels of the at mos pher e .
2 f l
-
-~~~
__ -
~
—- -——
—--
- -. -
~~~~~~
--
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
__
Ref er en ce $
1. I I ’ -
c . J. -\ .
-
ant i Mukh erj ee , N. ft. ( 1975) Sources of s t n - at os pheni c gasc- ccus
i m c
~~
- , I t t - u -
,
. Gt-c c phys. and Space Sci . l3
~~
; 50— 6O8 .
2. [3 cct l l c n i d l F. 5. ,
and
~
c i m m l i na , ‘cI . J . ( 1975) Chl or of l uor omet hanes in t he e nvi n- mc n —
I c ’ i i ’, I l evs. ( ; c - c c l m h i c s . m d 51 1cm- c Sei . 1:3: 1—35 ,
3. Nc-lbcgg, U . \V . ,
( l d
-
~~
e, 13. 0. , Al I en , E. B. , Lazarus, A. L. , am- md I t l ar t el l,
i -
. K. ( 1972) Thi - sul phur - cy c l e
, Science 175: 587—596 .
4 . l l ar ker , A. B.
~
l 9 7 5 ) Ti me f or ma t i on of sul phat e in the s t r - a t o s p h - r - e t hr ough
gas phase mm xi d ation of sul phur di oxi de , J. Geop itys. Res. 24 : 3- 199- 140 1 .
5. Lazrus , A. L. , and Gandr ud , B. W. ( 1974) St rat ospheric sul f at e aen’ c d s c c l
,
J. Geop hy s . Re s . 79: 3424- 3431.
6.
I)y er-
, A
-
J . and l b eks B. 13. ( 1 !m08 ) Bbobal spread of vol cani c dus t I n - c - i t t l i me
Bal i er -opt i on m c i 1f c f ; 3
, Quar t . 3. Roy, Sl et eccr ol , Scc e.
~
4 : 54 Tc —5 - 5 - b
-
7. I’ol lack , J. 13. , loon, 0. B. , Sagan ,
(‘
.,
Summers, A . , ] l al dwi n -m, B. , and
Van Cant p, W. (1971 1) Vol cani c explosi ons and c l i nt - mat i c cinange : A 11 mm - n e t —
- -
i eal asscssnt t ent , J . Ge op hys. Bes. 81: 1071-1083.
8. Lamb, Il . 11. ( 19 70) Vol cani c dust in the at n osp here: Wi t h a - h mn - mn t
~
- l - -c- c a n t I
assessnt ent of its nt et eorol ogi cal si gni f i cance, Phi l . Tr ’ ar ms . l i mc v . Soc .
London 20 11:425 .
——
9.
(‘roni n , J. F. ( 197 1) Recent vol cani snt antd t he st rat ospl t er -e , Sc i m - n u m - m- 172:
847-849 .
10. S1aeDonal d , G. A. ( 19 72) Volcanoes , Pr e nt i c e —Ha l l ,
i- n p - I e e c c c c i t Cl i i

s
, N . J.
510 i-p.
11. Sc - hmh i c ht i ng, i i . (19( 18) I3oundary Layer Theor y, Mc Hr a w—l i i l l , Nc - cc Yo rk ,
744
PP’
12. J3riggs , G. A. (1969) Pl ume Ri se, AEC Cr i t i cal Revi ew Sc - n - i c- c t
~~
A i - , h i c I d c i d
TI D—2 50 7 5 , 81 PP.
13 . Thor ari ns -s mcn , S. ,
and Vonnegut , 13. (19( 14) Whi r - I wi nmi s pr od c-mced by I h i m - e i u p —
tb on of Surtesy Volcan o, Bull. Ant . Til et eorol . Sac. 4 5: 4 40- 44- I .
27
L
~~~~~~~~ . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ___
-— -
~~
.dc
~
-l---._,, —,-,-‘
~~~~~~—‘----——.~~~,,,-——-—.

- -.—— ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ‘
~
d’ -c_y...- _ ___
~
-__._ .
~~~~~~~~
- —.__ .
~~
_
~
__-___,__
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
- —
1—I .
1 1, - t m - c I n , F. ( 1 9 7 m. 1 I . \ b c e n - u l - i m ’ n i t a l . —I i s - I c of : c c m m u ’ t n i n c r : cl c c r c - _ c d t n t - c -
b m Rme
~
e
i i
~
i ’ I _ c t ’ ’ f I ’ m - nd
~
i u c- c - n - c t i n t , j . A 1 c j c I . \ I m t m - c , m . 1 5 : 1 2 7 —1 17 .
~
‘ ; i i
~~~~
- i’ . , l mn i i 1 mm - n e c , 3. 5. ( 11 - 2 ) A r m m - n t r a i n i m r t g i c - I ‘ i d I c - h I c r c U r n t c l c c —
t c
~
- s - b - m : - u p c l r ’ a c c gI ut . s _ h e l l o s 14: 422—4 -1 ,
I t t , h i d ’ .
(
. \ l . ,
l i t l u - i c - ’ - l l L c n md l c ’ r ’ _
I)
. K. ( l t mm , 4 ) \‘
I c l c om’ m - cc r u - I m- i c . at i c , nt i i i lice i d s u \ mn n p -
/ c - t i e mc f a i c - I
, -
1
~ ~
\ c n . l u s t .
(
I s - u ’ .
[
n p - i . 10:11 5 —1 2 4 .
17 . \ I c c r mi s _ I )
.
( I
. u i t
~~~~
) ! r t i t i n t i c j mu of ( ‘ c c n mv c _
’c ’ t i ’ m ’ cl ods due I c c

, t
~
c t i c i n - u r i c - c - f 1 1 c m-
*c
i u i - u t Tm t i n - s t —t a p e , Bc - n i l ,
~
\ t i . \ I c - i c - c m . 5
~
, c
. 4°
~
l 054 — 10 511 .
I n . CL-
~
. m- ’ , 1
~
,
, h i a n m c ’ v i m-
~
-
, N . , z c nm i \ h c - C m - t e l i n n m 1. 11 . ( 1 1 7 4 ) i t h c - t c c h : c I l u - t r e , of

, - - l u n m r t i c- - s m- n cc - j k
~
I t \ at .St u c - u n i d c - l n , l I nk , J. ( ; c - - c
~
I c h ’ c - - c . h I m- -c . 7 1 : 1 9 0 1 — 1 7 1 ,
.
1’ ’ .
(
~~
c i 1 : mg I n c n m , I c u d Hu l u2gc - ri , II. ‘-
~
.
( 194 11) h i c v c - . s t i c - a l i c t m c i ni ne 1 c - c c - ’ m a t m - - c c
s I - ‘m m r - i - b ) u n - m - c - ’ m - I F c - r p c - - n m t u c o l a r l \ ( c l i n t A m m - s
~
i u - d a mI : ,
, i i e cc i I \ -\ ( A —
1 N — d l -
-
\ , ‘ i c - u i : c I \ i b \ i
~~
c , i
~~
( m c m i m u i u i t k - c - f c c
~~~
\ m n ’ c c n n : c u i i i m
~~~
,
20. P c i ,
H _ ( 10 i m i c - r i d h i \ t u : c ’ -
i m ci i c - I s \‘
~
cm i N c c .

m t m s c n d u t N m - - , .
‘ m c
~~~
l : , 22 1 p-
2j
~~
Kc-- f R - e
~
‘ I . I - ’
.
-
and I ’
~
: j i m -

-
U . I ) .
( j f m ; ;t )
The n - c cc - mr - m ci t u n r i c i n l e n t j et i n a en ’m c — — c. u r u - I
3. l
- l c . : i - \ I c m Im . 15:4 8 1 - 1 7 .
22. ftc n i c k , \ I . _ \ .
( I t m 7) [x pen - i i c c - ’ i m l ul i u u v m ’ — t i p - l c l I mc u c c i i b u m ’ n i x i n i g ann c c - ’ n u e i r ’ ut m
~
cm m
c f I c n - - u n- I t u mn ’ I ni l c - c
~
t j et m u - c - t e n d m- n ’ b u c - u u c t i c - u l a m - l v mmml - - a i n - l c n i s v e m ’ s e s t r —e am ,
1 : , n i - . I t - .
’ -
( I : I , cc
~’
.
( I .c c i d l d c t l 4 c : 1 i t - i t .
2 d . ‘-‘y i n - - n i -
~
, i , 1
~
( j p -
~~~~
)
Il
i um ’ [ u’ mc pt i mc r t m m f l \ m - nl - : at cca and Sob , Se c b u i c- n r t i - ’ h i e n r c mui me na ,
I i c ’ b m d i t d c i t i me 1 \ n ; , u a t c c a m - mn u u u u n t t e e c T t l i m- f l d c v
~~
T 5 ei t ’t v ; r e j mi ’ Thl e d T h T T
~~
io
,- \ - s o c i
~
c t e
~
u , l ou - .
-
Tucson , A r m/ c - n I ,
111 74 .
2 I . i l — c , Pm . 1. ( 1 1- 7 2 ) Not es cia t he 1902 er c-npt i ont of Sani t ii i \ l ar - i a \ olcant o ,
( F i n

c - I t s :cl a , Bu l l e t i n \‘olcanol ogi que :3 6.
.
2 t c _
~
Lc .
2 c . i- o ( hal i , i t . I
-
.
-
ant d \ l el son ,
U’
. 0. ( 1 1 7 2 ) i- :jecta vel oci t i es , c o op -ni na cham’ nber’
p - c - - u s c u m - c- , urn ki net i c.- ener gy associ at ed wi t h t he i P t I B er - opt i on of Ar ent al
Vol c ancc , Bul l e t i n \

ol canol ogi que 33:383 —402 .
2
~
;
. Dels - u : n i e , A. (1911 0) Pr -emi
~~
re cont r ’i but i ont a l’ et ude dc-n debi t d’
~~
nt er g ie du
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i ; f mf c _707
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~
m
c R t e d c n ’ c d I md g \ and
At omi c Energ\ ’ , D. Slade (Ed) , T SPmE( ’ Repor t TID 24 1F
~
.
-
11)
. h ol l an d , J. 1.. ( 19 53) A eteo i c a l isurvey of t he 0
~
ck Ri d ge An - c a
, Fi nt al
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, Wc ’at i men-
Bur eau , Oak Ri dge , Tenn.
31 . Davi dson , W. 1- ’
. ( 1954 ) The di spe r s i on and spr eadi ng of gases and c h i n - u t - c fn - onn
chi mneys , Trans. Conr f.
!
~
d . Wast es , 14t h Annual 1\leeting, pp 3 8 —5 5 ,
l nml ust n - i a l I i ygi ent e Founi
~
atT ? A
~~
m
~~
i’ ica .
12. ] I c cs anqu et , C . 11. ( 1 1 5 7 ) The u - i - ut - of a hot was t e gas pl c - mnt
-
me , 3. I nst . l- crel
30 : 322—32 8 .
3 1 Stii coke, II. (1963) Vorschlag einer- en t-mp i n-isclten Fermel fn:ir die
Schor nst ei ni iber it 5honi g i rut AnschuluB c-nnd eine Uber p nmi f un g l c cakant nt er
For -me in nt t i t zus
~
i t zl i chent t I3eobachtungs — m at er i al , Denm Aussc i mul 3 11 der
VDI —Ko mnt i s si on “l I ei nhalt un
~
der Lof t ” vorgelegt abs wbs s enschaf t l i ches
Gut acht en , I nst i t ut f u r ( ; asst n - dr t t ungent den’ Techni s c i men hl ochs chul e ,
St ut t gar t , West Oer nmany; t r ansl at ed i n 1’
. S. At c c u r i e Eneu- g
~
- (‘
mm l i i fl i iSs ion
Repor t OR NI —T R —! m 7 7
, Oak Ri d ge National I abc - n - l i t c - n v ,
28
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:1- 1. i t e i t e m- , l- . It . ( l OTS ) St r ’ at osp her - i c—t r opo us p he r - i c exchange pn’occ-sses , l t c - i - s .
Gcccph
~~
s. and Space Sr i . l 3 : 4 TmP —4 7 4 .
‘ 35 . h - c - p l m - v , it . ,
and i - J h i - i
, I i . T. ( 1975) Li dar observat i ons of st r at ospher i c dust
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36 . Mc- ( c c r u u s i c k ,
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18 1 : - I F —S O.
29
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____ _____________________
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33
- -‘- --
— .
-‘- - - -
~~~
-
~~~~ —---
1
I
Append ix A
Observed Eruption Cloud Hei ghts
Repor t ed hei ght s of vol cani c erupt i on clouds come from a var i et y of sources .
The f ol l owi ng l i s t i ng of observed er upt i on cloud hei ghts has been compi l ed from a
seri es of An n c mul Repor t s of the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena covering the
period 197 0_ 1 1m74 and supplent ented usi ng other sources wher e noted . (In cases
when-e a v a r i e t y c f cloud hei g hts has been reported for a single period ccf er upt i on
at , mn i ndi vi dual volcano the maxi munt t reported hei ght has been included in t hi s
I i s t mnt g . ) This l i st i ng is not necessar i ly comprehensi ve; r at her it i ndi cat es t he
range of er upt i on cl oud hei ghts t hat are act ual l y observed in nat ur e . It is fre-
quenct lv di f f i c ul t t o det er mi ne if report ed cloud heights have been mea ured wi t h
n i - s p i - - i
~~ s ’a l m ’ ve l t he el evat i on of the erupt i ng vent , or the elevation of the
obs e r v eu - , Repor t s of c-l oud hei ght less than 1000 m usuall y are made by observe r-s
near t he e r u h ) t m n i L volcanic vent and typically refer to height above the vent . Repor ts
of cloud hei ght gr eat er t han 10, 000 m are usuall y made by ground-based or ai r bor ne
obser vers at son - me di s ’ ances f r om t he erupt i ng vent . Aer i al observations t ypi cal l y
r ef er t o height above sea level , wher eas ground-based observations contntonl y
r ef er - to height above t he observer . Tabul at i ons of observed and i nferred erupt i on
8
ii
cloud hei ght s report ed before 1970 have been presented by Lamb and Croni n. ‘

35
_ _
--- -—----
._
~~~~
A
~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
- — -----‘. . -- _
‘~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~,~~~~ - ~
-.
~
—-
~
---,
~
----- - ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~
‘ - . -
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- .
-
Tabl e Al . Obs erved E r - c-mpt i on C loud I lei git t s
- - - -
Repor t ed Hei g ht
Appz - oxi onat e of the Er upt i on
Dat e of t i me Cl oud
-
F, r upt r on ’i Locat i on ( met er s)
_—
25 ( m et 1989 Bezymi anny Volcano , 2000
Kamchat ka Peni nsul a , [‘SSH
~
7 No v l OF t Mt . Lokon, Indonesia 500
27 Dec l t m F t i Cerro Negro , Ni car ag ua 700
I
30 Mar I 70 San Mi guel Volcano, 400
El Salvador (above the
cr at er fl oor)
21 Ap r ’ 1970 SIt . Aso , Japan 150
(above the
cr-ater floor)
S \ 1a
~
- 5 Jul 1970 I l ekl a , Iceland 15, 000
I
11 SIa\ 1970 Kax -i nt s ky Volcano , 8000
Kamchat ka Peni nsul a, USSR
29 SIa\ 1970 Suwanosezi ma Volcano , Japan 2000-3000
25 Aug 1970 Tehi ca Volcano , Ni car agua 500
Sep-Dec 1970 Aki t a - Komagatake Volcano , Japa n 400
20 Sep 1970 Beerenberg Volcano , 5000-6000
Jan Mayen Island , Greenland Sea
16 N c v 1970 Sakurazi ma Volcano, Japan 2100
11 Jan 1971 Sakurazi ma Volcano, Japan 3000
3 Feb 1971 Cer r o Negro Volca no, Ni cara gua 8100
16 Feb 1971 Sakurazi ma Volcano , Japan 1800
10 Apr 1971 Sakura zima Volcano , Japan 2000
Sep 1970-June 1971 Akit a- Komagat ake Volcano, Japan 1100
(above the
cr at er)
19 Jul 1971 Whi t e Island Volcano, Nor t h 2000
Island, New Zealand
18 Aug 1971 Mt . Hudson , Chi le 7000
above eu level
-
~~
5000 n-m eters
above s ummi t )
18-22 Jun 1972 Alaid Volcano, Kuril Island , USS R 4000-8000
21 Jun 1972 Poas Volca no, Cos t a R ica 3000
13-15 Sep 1972 Sakurazi ma Volcano, Japan 3000-4000
6 Oct 1972 Mt . Merapi , Ja va, Indones ia 3000
Dec 1972 Anak Krakat oa , Indonesia 1600
23 Jan-3 Jul 73 Helgafell Volcano , I celand not report ed
36
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~~
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— -
~~~~~~~~
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~~~
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~~
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Fable A 1. Obser ved Erupt i on C loud Heights (C ont inued )
I
Report ed J l ei ght l
A ppr oxi mat e of the Erupt i on
Dat e of t he Cloud
Erupt i on Location (met er s)
22 Feb 1973 I- ’uego \ ‘mm l c a nmc , Guat enmal a 12 , 000
18 Apr 1973 As a n t a \‘ol ca nmc , Japan 4500
1 Sl ay 1973 Long I sl and , New Guinea 150
Jun 1973 Sakur azi nna Volcano, Japan 5000
14 Jul 1973 Tiatia Vol cano , Kur i l e Islands 5500
1 5511
14 Jul 1973 Curacoa Reef Submari ne 5000
Eruption, Tonga Islands
16 Sep 1973 Santiaginito Volcano , Guat emal a 8000
1974 Sakurazi ma Volcano , Japan 2000-3300
23-28 Feb 1974 Revent ador Volcano , Ec’uador 1000 -
14 Oct 1974 Fuego Volcano , Guat emal a 7000
(Bonis ,
197( 1)
i S Oct 1974 Ki yuchevskoy Volcano, 2000-3000
Kamchat ka Peninsula, USSR
_
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
.-