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TE312: Introduction to

Digital Telecommunications

PART II
BASEBAND DIGITAL
TRANSMISSION

Lecture #6
PCM Waveforms

Introduction

Points to be discussed in this lecture

• PCM Waveforms (Line Codes)

• Types of Line Codes

• Characteristics of Line Codes



Introduction

Reading Assignment

Simon Haykin, “Digital Communications”,
J ohn Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1988, Chapter 5,
Sec. 5.1, Sec. 5.3 and Sec. 5.4.

Bernard Sklar, “Digital Communications:
Fundamentals and Applications,” 2
nd
Ed.,
Prentice Hall, 2000, Chapter 2, Sec. 2.8.



Line Codes

A pulse code modulation (PCM) system
converts an analog message signal into a
sequence of binary digits (bits).

For transmission of binary data through a
baseband channel, each bit in the bit
stream is represented with an electrical
pulse.

The resulting baseband binary waveform
is called a PCM waveform or line code.

Line Codes

The following block diagram models a line
coder.

( )
s t
n
a
Line
Coder


The input is a sequence of values which
is a function of the th n data bit
n
a
[ ]
0, 1
n
b ∈ .

The output
( )
s t is a waveform, expressed
as
Line Codes

( ) ( )
n b
n
s t a g t nT

=−∞
= −



( )
where g t is a pulse shape and is the bit
period.
b
T

For a PCM system, n /
b s
T T = with sampling
period
s
T and number of bits per sample . n

Three basic mapping
n
a are unipolar,
polar (antipodal) and bipolar
(pseudoternary).
n
b ⇒

Line Codes

(i) Unipolar Mapping

( )
, for 1 (mark)
0, for 0 space
n
n
n
A b
a
b
=

=

=




(ii) Polar (Antipodal) Mapping

( )
, for 1 (mark)
, for 0 space
n
n
n
A b
a
A b
+ =

=

− =



Line Codes

(iii) Bipolar (Pseudoternary) Mapping

( )
( )
1
1
, for 1 (mark) and
, for 1 mark and
0, for 0 space
n n
n n n
n
A b a A
a A b a A
b



+ = = −

= − = =


=



Three basic pulse shapes
( )
g t are non-
return-to-zero (NRZ), return-to-zero (RZ)
and split-phase are defined as follows.
Line Codes

Pulse shapes are defined assuming that
each bit is centered on an integer multiple
of .
b
T

(i) Non-Return-to-Zero (NZR) pulse
shape

( )
1, /2
0, elsewhere
b
b
t T
t
g t
T
⎧ ≤
⎛ ⎞
= Π =

⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠



1
/2
b
T − /2
b
T
t
( )
g t
Line Codes

(ii) Return-to-Zero (RZ) pulse shape

( )
1, /4
/2
0, elsewhere
b
b
t T
t
g t
T
⎧ ≤
⎛ ⎞
= Π =

⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠





1
/4
b
T − /4
b
T
( )
g t



t


Line Codes

(iii) Split-Phase pulse shape

( )
1, - /2 0
/4 /4
1, 0 /2 /2 /2
b
b b
b b b
T t
t T t T
g t
t T T T
+ ≤ ≤
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎧
+ −
= Π −Π =

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
− ≤ ≤
⎩ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠




t
/2
b
T
/2
b
T −
1
1 −
( )
g t







Types of Line Codes

(i) Unipolar NRZ Line Code: This code
uses the unipolar mapping and the
NRZ pulse shape.








0
0 A 0
0
0 1 0
( )
s t
t
n
b
1 1 1
A
n
a
A A

Types of Line Codes

(ii) Unipolar RZ Line Code: This code
uses the unipolar mapping and the
RZ pulse shape.









1 0 1 0
0 1 1
n
b
n
a
A 0 A A A 0 0
( )
s t
t

Types of Line Codes

(iii) Polar NRZ Line Code: This code uses
the polar (antipodal) mapping and the
NRZ pulse shape.










A A −
A − A A − A
1 0
0 1 0 1
n
b
1
n
a
A
( )
s t
Types of Line Codes

(iv) Polar RZ Line Code: This code uses
the polar (antipodal) mapping and the
RZ pulse shape.











n
b
1 0 1 0
0 1 1
n
a A
A −
A − A − A A A
( )
t
t
s
Types of Line Codes

(v) Bipolar NRZ Line Code: This code
uses the bipolar (pseudoternary)
mapping and the NRZ pulse shape.




n
b







1 0 0 1 0 1 1
n
a
A 0 A − A A −
0 0
( )
s t
t
Types of Line Codes

(vi) Bipolar RZ Line Code: This code
uses the bipolar (pseudoternary,
alternate mark inversion - AMI)
mapping and the RZ pulse shape.










n
b
1 0 0 1 0 1 1
n
a
0 A A − 0 0 A A −
( )
t
t
s
Types of Line Codes

(vii) Manchester Line Code: This code
uses the polar (antipodal) mapping
and the split-phase pulse shape.









t
A − A −
1 0 1 0
0 1 1
n
b
A A − A A A
n
a
( )
s t
Characteristics of Line Codes
Desirable Properties of Line codes

(i) Self-Synchronization
Several line codes provide
information for recovering timing of
the start and the end of each bit.

Manchester codes have the best self-
synchronization capability as they
always have a zero crossing in the
center of each bit.

Characteristics of Line Codes

Polar RZ codes have good self-
synchronization capability.

NRZ codes have poor self-
synchronization capability.

(ii) Noise Immunity

Some line codes perform better than
the others in combating channel
noise and interference with low
probability of bit error.
Characteristics of Line Codes

Polar line codes perform better than
unipolar or bipolar codes i.e. for the
same energy per bit, polar line codes
exhibit less probability of bit error.

(iii) Error Detection

Some line codes provide the receiver
with the ability to detect bit errors
due to channel noise.


Characteristics of Line Codes

(iv) Signal Power Spectral Density

Line codes are desired to occupy
small bandwidth. In some cases, it is
desired for the line codes to have no
dc components, which allows for AC
coupling using transformers.

(v) Cost and Complexity of
Implementation