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# Coral Springs Charter

SUMMER REVIEW PACKET
For students in entering CALCULUS AP
Name: __________________________________________________________
1. This packet is to be handed in to your Calculus teacher on the first day of the school year.
. All !ork must be sho!n in the packet "# on separate paper attached to the packet.
\$. Completion of this packet is !orth one%half of a ma&or test grade and !ill be counted in your first
1
Summer Review Packet for Students Entering Calculus (all levels)
Complex Fractions
Simplif each of the follo!ing"
1.

'
a
− a
'+ a
.

(
x +
'+
1)
x +
\$.

( −
1
x − \$
'+
1'
x − \$
(.

x
x +1

1
x
x
x +1
+
1
x
'.

1−
x
\$x − (
x +
\$
\$x − (
F#nctions
\$et

f *x+ · x +1 and g*x+ · x

−1" Fin% each"
,.

f *+ ·
____________ -.

g*−\$+ ·
_____________ ..

f *t +1+ ·
__________
/.

f g*−+
¸
1
]
·
__________ 1).

g f *m+ +
¸
1
]
·
___________ 11.

f *x + h+ − f *x+
h
· ______
\$et
f (x) · sin x
Fin% each exactl"
1.
f
π
2
¸
¸

_
,

·
___________ 1\$.
f

3
¸
¸

_
,

·
______________

\$et

f *x+ · x

0 g*x+ · x + '0 and h*x+ · x

−1" Fin% each"
1(.

h f *−+
¸
1
]
· _______
1'.

f g*x −1+
¸
1
]
· _______
1,.

g h*x
\$
+

¸
1
]
· _______
Fin%

f *x + h+ − f *x+
h
for the gi&en f#nction f.
1-.

f *x+ · /x + \$
1..

f *x+ · '− x
Intercepts an% Points of Intersection
To find the 1%intercepts0 let y 2 ) in your e3uation and sol4e.
To find the y%intercepts0 let 1 2 ) in your e3uation and sol4e
Fin% the x an% intercepts for each"
1/.
y · 2x − 5
). y · x
2
+ x − 2
1.
y · x 16 − x
2
. y
2
· x
3
− 4x
\$
Use s#'stit#tion or elimination metho% to sol&e the sstem of e(#ations"
Fin% the point)s* of intersection of the graphs for the gi&en e(#ations"
\$.
x + y · 8
4x − y · 7
(.
x
2
+ y · 6
x + y · 4
'.
x
2
− 4y
2
− 20x − 64y −172 · 0
16x
2
+ 4y
2
− 320x + 64y +1600 · 0
Inter&al +otation
,. Complete the table !ith the appropriate notation or graph.
Sol#tion Inter&al +otation ,raph
−2 < x ≤ 4
−1, 7)
¸

-
5ol4e each e3uation. 5tate your ans!er in 6"T7 inter4al notation and graphically.
-. 2x −1 ≥ 0 .. −4 ≤ 2x − 3 < 4 /.
x
2

x
3
> 5
.omain an% Range
Fin% the %omain an% range of each f#nction" Write o#r ans!er in I+TERVA\$ notation"
\$). f (x) · x
2
− 5 \$1. f (x) · − x + 3 \$.
f (x) · 3sin x
\$\$. f (x) ·
2
x −1
(
In&erses
Fin% the in&erse for each f#nction"
/0"
f (x) · 2x +1
/1" f (x) ·
x
2
3
Also0 recall that to P#"89 one function is an in4erse of another function0 you need to sho! that:
f (g(x)) · g( f (x)) · x
Example2
If2 f (x) ·
x − 9
4
and g(x) · 4x + 9 sho! f(x) and g(x) are in&erses of each other"
f (g(x)) · 4
x − 9
4
¸
¸

_
,

+ 9 g( f (x)) ·
4x + 9 ( )− 9
4
· x − 9 + 9 ·
4x + 9 − 9
4
· x ·
4x
4
· x
f (g(x)) · g( f (x)) · x therefore they are inverses
of each other.
Pro&e f and g are in&erses of each other"
/3" f (x) ·
x
3
2
g(x) · 2x
3
/4" f (x) · 9 − x
2
, x ≥ 0 g(x) · 9 − x
'
E(#ation of a line
Slope intercept form2
y · mx + b
Vertical line2 1 2 c *slope is undefined+
Point5slope form2
y − y
1
· m(x − x
1
)
6ori7ontal line2 y 2 c *slope is )+
\$.. :se slope%intercept form to find the e3uation of the line ha4ing a slope of \$ and a y%intercept of '.
\$/. ;etermine the e3uation of a line passing through the point *'0 %\$+ !ith an undefined slope.
(). ;etermine the e3uation of a line passing through the point *%(0 + !ith a slope of ).
(1. :se point%slope form to find the e3uation of the line passing through the point *)0 '+ !ith a slope of <\$.
(. Find the e3uation of a line passing through the point *0 .+ and parallel to the line y ·
5
6
x −1.
(\$. Find the e3uation of a line perpendicular to the y% a1is passing through the point *(0 -+.
((. Find the e3uation of a line passing through the points *%\$0 ,+ and *10 +.
('. Find the e3uation of a line !ith an 1%intercept *0 )+ and a y%intercept *)0 \$+.
,
2
-2
(-1,0)
(0,-1)
(0,1)
(1,0)
Ra%ian an% .egree Meas#re
(,. Con4ert to degrees: a.

6
b.

5

45
o
b.

−17
o
c. \$-

o
Unit Circle
(..

a.) sin180
o

b.) cos270
o

c.) sin(−90
o
) d.) sinπ

e.) cos 360
o
f .) cos(−π)
,raphing Trig F#nctions
,raph t!o complete perio%s of the f#nction"
(/.
f (x) · 5sin x
').
f (x) · cos x − 3
Trigonometric E(#ations2
5ol4e each of the e3uations for 0 ≤ x < 2π . =solate the 4ariable0 sketch a reference triangle0 find all the
solutions !ithin the gi4en domain0 0 ≤ x < 2π . #emember to double the domain !hen sol4ing for a double
angle. :se trig identities0 if needed0 to re!rite the trig functions. *5ee formula sheet at the end of the packet.+
'1. sin x · −
1
2
'.
2cos x · 3
'\$.
cos2x ·
1
2
'(. sin
2
x ·
1
2
-
Minor Axis
Major Axis
a
b
c FOCUS (h + c, k) FOCUS (h - c, k)
CENTER (h, k)
(x − h)
2
a
2
+
(y − k)
2
b
2
· 1
''. sin2x · −
3
2
',.
2cos
2
x −1− cos x · 0
'-.
4cos
2
x − 3 · 0
'..
sin
2
x + cos2x − cos x · 0
In&erse Trigonometric F#nctions2
For each of the follo!ing8 express the &al#e for 9: in ra%ians"
'/.

y · arcsin
− \$

,).

y · arccos −1
( ) ,1.

y · arctan*−1+
For each of the follo!ing gi&e the &al#e !itho#t a calc#lator"
,.

tan arccos

\$
¸
¸

_
,

,\$.

sec sin
−1
1
1\$
¸
¸

_
,

,(.

sin arctan
1
'
¸
¸

_
,

,'.

sin sin
−1
-
.
¸
¸

_
,

Circles an% Ellipses
r
2
· (x −h)
2
+(y − k)
2
.
4
2
-2
-4
-5 5
4
2
-2
-4
-5 5
4
2
-2
-4
-5 5
4
2
-2
-4
-5 5
For a circle centered at the origin0 the e3uation is x
2
+ y
2
· r
2
0 !here r is the radius of the circle.
For an ellipse centered at the origin0 the e3uation is
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
· 10 !here a is the distance from the center to the
ellipse along the 1%a1is and ' is the distance from the center to the ellipse along the y%a1is. =f the larger
number is under the y
2
term0 the ellipse is elongated along the y%a1is. For our purposes in Calculus0 you !ill not
need to locate the foci.
,raph the circles an% ellipses 'elo!2
,,. x
2
+ y
2
· 16 ,-. x
2
+ y
2
· 5
,..
x
2
1
+
y
2
9
· 1 ,/.
x
2
16
+
y
2
4
· 1
-)%./ *#epresented by ne1t set of problems+
/
Vertical Asmptotes
;etermine the 4ertical asymptotes for the function. 5et the denominator e3ual to >ero to find the 1%4alue for
!hich the function is undefined. That !ill be the 4ertical asymptote.
/). f (x) ·
1
x
2
/1. f (x) ·
x
2
x
2
− 4
/.
f (x) ·
2 + x
x
2
(1− x)
6ori7ontal Asmptotes
;etermine the hori>ontal asymptotes using the three cases belo!.
Case I. ;egree of the numerator is less than the degree of the denominator. The asymptote is y 2 ).
Case II" ;egree of the numerator is the same as the degree of the denominator. The asymptote is the ratio of
Case III. ;egree of the numerator is greater than the degree of the denominator. There is no hori>ontal
asymptote. The function increases !ithout bound. *=f the degree of the numerator is e1actly 1 more than the
degree of the denominator0 then there e1ists a slant asymptote0 !hich is determined by long di4ision.+
.etermine all 6ori7ontal Asmptotes"
/\$.
f (x) ·
x
2
− 2x +1
x
3
+ x − 7
/(. f (x) ·
5x
3
− 2x
2
+ 8
4x − 3x
3
+ 5
/'. f (x) ·
4x
5
x
2
− 7
?iscellaneous @no!ledge
/,. #ationali>e the denominator: *a+ *b+ *c+
1)
/-. 5ol4e for x *do not use a calculator+:
*a+ '
*x A 1+
2 ' *b+ *c+ logx 2 \$ *d+ log\$ x

2 log\$( % ( log\$'
/.. 5implify: *a+ log' A log*x

% 1+ % log*x % 1+ *b+ log(/ % log\$
//. Factor completely: *a+ x
,
% 1,x
(
*b+ (x
\$
% .x

% 'x A ') *c+ .x
\$
A - *d+ x
(
%1
1)). Find all real solutions to: *a+ x
,
% 1,x
(
2 ) *b+ (x
\$
% .x

% 'x A ') 2 ) *c+ .x
\$
A - 2 )
1)1. Find the remainders on di4ision of
*a+ x
'
% (x
(
A x
\$
% -x A 1 by x A *b+ x
'
% x
(
A x
\$
A x

% x A ( by x
\$
A 1
1). Find the domain of the function
1)\$. Find the domain and range of the functions:
11
cos 2x · cos
2
x − sin
2
x
· 1− 2sin
2
x
· 2cos
2
x −1
Form#la Sheet
#eciprocal =dentities: csc x ·
1
sin x
sec x ·
1
cos x
cot x ·
1
tan x
Buotient =dentities: tan x ·
sin x
cos x
cot x ·
cos x
sin x
Pythagorean =dentities:
sin
2
x + cos
2
x · 1 tan
2
x +1 · sec
2
x 1+ cot
2
x · csc
2
x
;ouble Angle =dentities: sin2x · 2sin x cos x
tan2x ·
2tan x
1− tan
2
x
Cogarithms:
y · log
a
x
is e3ui4alent to
x · a
y
Product property:
log
b
mn · log
b
m + log
b
n
Buotient property: log
b
m
n
· log
b
m − log
b
n
Po!er property: log
b
m
p
· plog
b
m
Property of e3uality: =f
log
b
m · log
b
n
0 then m 2 n
Change of base formula:
log
a
n ·
log
b
n
log
b
a
5lope%intercept form:
y · mx + b
Point%slope form:
y − y
1
· m(x − x
1
)
5tandard form: A1 A 6y A C 2 )
1