ELEMENTAR Y CHINESE

San

Tzu

Ching

TRANSLATED AND ANNOTATED

HERBERT
and

A. GILES, M.A., LL.D. (Aberd.)
in tlie

Professor of Chinese

University of Cambridge
at

late II. B.

M. Consul

Ningpo

Shanghai
Messrs.

Kelly & Walsh, Ld.
1

90c

iu


S —<£»

3&-y^ "fa^L^f

ELEMENTARY CHINESE

San

Tzu

Ching

TRANSLATED AND ANNOTATED

HERBERT
and

A. GILES,
in the

MA., LL.D.

(Aberd.)

Professor of Chinese
late

University of Cambridge

H.B.M.

Consul at Ningpo

— ~=3£=3=C3^-M2>«

Shanghai
Messrs.

Kelly & Walsh,
1900

Ld.

Printed by

E. J.

brill, Leyden.

7/4-

S/f7

PREFACE
The San
or
Tzit

Ching, otherwise called the Three- Character- Classic
is

Trimetrical

Classic,

an elementary guide

to

knowledge

for

Chinese children, arranged in 356 alternately rhyming lines of three
characters to each, and containing about 500 different characters in
all.

It

is

the foundation-stone of a Chinese education. Every child

throughout the empire

begins his

or

her studies with this book,

learning to repeat a certain

amount

daily, until the

whole

is

known

by heart.

Its

importance therefore to foreigners who wish to study
of China, and to be able to follow out Chinese

the book-language
trains

of

thought,

can hardly be overestimated. Serious students

would do well to imitate the Chinese schoolboy, and commit the

whole to memory.

So firm a hold has
that both
similar
as

this

primer taken upon the national mind

Roman

Catholic and Protestant missionaries have published

works,

availing

themselves

of the

familiar form
Christianity.

and

title,

a

means of teaching the principles of
rebels,

Even the

T'ai-p'ing

when

striving to establish a

new

dynasty, issued

a San

Tzu Ching of

their

own.

To Wang

Ying-lin,
is

A.D.

1223-1296,

the

authorship

of the
it

San Tzu Ching

by

common

consent attributed, and although

was not printed among

his collected

works as issued in 1813, there

seems to be no valid reason for disputing his claim.

He was

a

voluminous writer on

classical

and educational subjects, and rose

IV

PREFACE

to be

President of the Board of Rites.
success,

As a statesman however he
retired,

was not an unqualified
with
official
life.

and in 1274 he

disgusted

Among

the

countless

editions

of the
six

original

San Tzu Ching
is

which have appeared during the past
one which

hundred years, there

may

be said to give the textus receptus. accompanied by
It is

the very best

commentary which has hitherto been produced.

by a scholar named
1786.
edition

jj/Q

Wang
Ho

Hsiang, and was published in

Another
is

almost

equally
,{§>

well-known and more pretentious
Hsing-ssii. In the preface to this,
friend,
is

by one
usual

^

J§L

written

as

by an enthusiastic

the San

Tzu Ching

is

likened unto "a jewelled sword, which
all."

an object of reverence

to

The writer goes on

to

lament that "boys merely learn to

repeat the bald text, remaining ignorant of the fact that this book
is

positively a pocket edition of 'The Mirror of History.'
is

For although

there
the

a

commentary by

Wang

Hsiang, that scholar did not see
his field of

whole leopard;"— implying that

view was narrow,

like that of a

man

looking through a tube at a leopard, and seeing
its spots.

only one or two of
the best part of
to

This

is

unfair.

Ho

Hsing-ssti appropriated

Wang

Hsiang's commentary, and drew out his

own
little

a

quite

unnecessary length by additions which furnished

that was new.

From
hornbook
disdained

the above
for

it

may

be guessed that the San TzH Ching, a
a text

boys,

contains

upon which
of it
is

scholars have not

to exercise their wits.

Some

indeed quite beyond

the comprehension of a child. It has also proved to be more or less

beyond the comprehension of a host of foreign translators. The prose
translations

of

Bridgman

in 1835 and of Julien in

1864 must be

relegated to the limbo of pioneer work. In 1873 I myself published

a metrical version based on the above, which passed muster at that
time,

but

which

will

not

do

now.

In

1879 Pere

Zottoli,

S.J.,

PREFACE

V

published the San Tzu Ching in Chinese and Latin, with notes, as
part

of
J.

his
Eitel,

Cursus

Litteraturae

Sinicae;

and in 1892

the

Rev.

E.

Inspector
(vol.
all,

of Schools in
p.

Hongkong,

supplied to the

China Review

XX,

35)

a

new English

rendering, without

any notes at
intended
to

the aim of which, according to the author, was
"exclusively
in fact tutorial." to

be

This

last

is

a

very

poor

production,

inferior

any

one

of the

earlier

versions

mentioned
purposes,

above;
it

and

so

far

from being adopted

for

"tutorial"

should be carefully removed from the hands of any

student either English or Chinese.
It is

hoped that the present work

will

prove to be an advance

upon those which have gone

before. In addition to the text of
literal

Wang

Hsiang and a translation with explanatory notes, the
of each character
is

meaning

given, with

its

sound and
its

its

all-important tone

according to the Peking dialect, and with

structural analysis as

found in the gf£
'|fi

"JJ£

Shuo Wen, an etymological dictionary by g^p
died

Hsu Shen, who

about A.D.

120.

There are also some

Appendices, showing passages which have been interpolated by later hands, chiefly in order to bring the historical portion present dynasty.

down

to the

Herbert A. Giles.
Cambridge, 20 March, 1900.

a&m 1
Three

te#

4

ching 1
classic

word

San

(see line 49) is

an ideogram, as

also are

i

one

(line 45),

Hi

erh

two

(line

116), and the archaic SSj ss# four, for which

pt| (line

114) was substituted at an early date. Odd numbers

are regarded as male, even

numbers
and

as female.

Tzu

is

composed of

-^

tzu child

*-**

mien an obsolete character

meaning
radical

shelter, the

former having here the double function of
of sense,

or indicator

and of phonetic or indicator of
to

sound.
a
roof;

The word
later

originally

meant

suckle,— a child beneath

on, to betroth a girl. It

came

to be used in the
(lines 211,

sense of written character under the First

Emperor

212)

according

to

some, and

according to others
fjj

about a century

later in the

famous history by

,|| |||

Ssu-ma CKien. Previous
and

to that date the characters

^

ming

(line 16)

& wen

(line

44)

had been used.

Ching

is

composed of radical

^ mi

five strands of silk

as

spun
form
to

by the silkworm, now generally read
in
line

ssu like the duplicated
It

87,

and an obsolete phonetic.

originally

meant

weave, the warp of a web, and came to be applied to canonical

works or

classics,

thus offering a curious analogy with our

own

word
it

text.

Strictly

speaking the property of the Confucianists,
as a suitable equivalent for

was borrowed by the Buddhists
(= threads)

sutra

or that portion of the

Canon which contains

the actual utterances of Shakyamuni Buddha. It was subsequently

adopted by the Taoists (line

7),

and has

also been

employed by

Roman

Catholic missionaries in their dignified rendering of Bible.

.

A Z
J err
Man
chili


,

1

c/ru 1
beginning,

Men

at their birth

arrive

Jen

is

a picture of the object,
it is

— Shakespeare's
its

forked radish. Like

all

Chinese characters,

the expression of a root idea, humanity,

collectively

and individually; and
its

grammatical functions vary

in accordance with of logic.

position in a sentence

and the exigencies

The

context, lines 3 and 4, here calls for a plural.

Chin

originally

meant

to

issue

forth

as

grass from the ground;

and by extension,
conventionally
subtle
as

to meet, to arrive at. It has

come

to be used

a

sign

of the

possessive

case,

a particle of
also,

influence,

and a demonstrative pronoun;

from

its

shape,

=

zigzag.

Ch U
c

is

composed of

JJ
is

tao knife as radical,

and

^

i

clothes

(^

in

combination), and

said to derive its

meaning from the application

of a knife or scissors to a piece of

new

cloth.

2

tt
Hsing*
Nature
TT
.

*
pen*
root
A
,

.

slian*

7

,
I

are naturally good.

good
hsin heart as radical (^ in combination)

Hsing
and

is

composed of

j(J>

^
is

sheng (line 297) as phonetic. It

means the moral nature,
is

disposition,

temperament, with which

man

endowed

at birth.

Heart

used as being the seat of the moral and intellectual faculties.

Pen

is

composed of

^

mw

a

tree

(line
is

66) as radical, and a

horizontal line to indicate locality. It

much

used in the sense

of fundamental, original, native, etc. See line 68.

The San

Tzti

Ching

3
(line

Shan
"^

was

originally

composed of

^

yang sheep

77)

and

yen words (line 118) doubled. The latter portion has been
is

corrupted, and the character

now

classed under radical

f] tfou

mouth

(line 263).

It is

noteworthy that sheep enters into several
etc.

characters referring to excellence, duty, property,

See line 14.

»•

-ft
Hsing*
Nature

m a
hsiang 1
chin"
\

Their natures are

much

the

same;

mutual

near

Hsing
Hsiang
mu

see line 2.
is

composed of
(line

£=}

mu

eye (line 262) as radical and

^

tree

66),

and originally meant

to peer, to scrutinise.

It is explained in the to see

Canon

of Changes (line 135) as inability
at;

through
the

trees,

hence to look
of lucus

which may be compared
In this sense
it

with
is

derivation

a non
1
,

lucendo.

now
it

read hsiang*. Read hsiang
is

it

means mutual,

reciprocal;

but

often a complementary particle of very elusive value,

signifying direction towards anybody or anything.

Chin

is

composed of
lb.

fy

chin

an axe-head, a Chinese pound weight

(= 1|

av.,

probably adopted from the weight of the axe-head)

as phonetic,

and the contraction of an obsolete word

^_ cho ( ^^
The
latter
is

in composition)
is

meaning

to

go on and stop as

radical.

commonly seen

in characters dealing with
as the

movement, and

popularly

known
TtTj

walking

radical.

J.fct

*^*
l>Ti.
yiian z

]

p|
Hsi 2
Practice

^P
hsiang 1

|

their

habits

become widely

different.
\
)

mutual

far

Hsi

is

composed of

J$

yu feathers

as radical

and £} pai white, and
flight.

seems to have been associated with young birds practising

Hsiang

see line 3.

Yuan

is

composed of the walking

radical

and a common phonetic.

)

4
It is

The San

Tzii

Ching
2,

not an authorised rhyme to shan in line

but

is sufficient

to produce the jingle

which

is

such an important aid to memory.

[Lines 3 and 4 are the ipsissima verba of Confucius, and form
the
chief

dogma

in Confucian ethics. It

was vigorously upheld
(line 172) of
is

by Mencius

(line 9),

and opposed by Hsiin K'uang
held that the nature of
(line

the 3rd cent. B.C.
evil,

who

man

radically

and

also

by Yang Hsiung

172)

who taught

that

it is

neither one nor the other but a mixture of the two.]

5
*

TiJ
Kou
3

^9
pu
1

^£%>
cliiao
k
I

If

foolishly

there

is

teaching,

Wrongly

not

teach
its

I

Kou

is

composed,

under

modern form, of

^
etc.
is

ts'ao

vegetation

("H* in composition) as radical, and
as phonetic. It

ty

chii

crooked (line 110)

commonly means

if,

if only,

Pu

is

supposed to be a picture of a bird which

circling in the

air

and will not come down, the upper line representing the sky.
is

Chiao

composed of

^

hsiao

filial

piety (line 41) as phonetic and
(line 43).

an obsolete radical meaning to tap
[Every translator so
rendering the
It is
elliptical
etc.,

far has

made

the

same
it

serious error of

^J kou

in this line as
for

though

were simply

"if."

however

^j J^ kou

cttieh (line

274) wrongly,

improperly
6

as carefully stated in

Ho

Hsing-ssii's

commentary.]

tt
Hsing^
Nature

7J
nai*

H
move

\
I

the nature will deteriorate.

ctiieii*

then

J

Hsing

see line 2.

Nai was

originally a picture of vapour struggling forth. It

is

now

a conjunctive and disjunctive particle, with other and more unusual
values, demonstrative (line 95)

and

possessive.
(line 3) and a phonetic

Ch'ien

is

composed of the walking radical

which

The San Tzu Ching

5

means
then

to ascend.
to
etc.

The whole
a

character originally
position,

meant

to ascend,

move from

given

a departure from

the

norm,

ar
Chiao*
Teach
chih 1
arrive

The

right

way

in teaching

tao

1

road

Chiao

see line 5.
see line
1.

Chih

[It is

unnecessary here to regard chih as a sign
root idea

of the possessive.

The

may

be developed as follows:
etc."]

"In the matter of teaching, we reach the right method by,

Tao
It

is

composed of the walking radical and

~||*

shou head (line 41).
to be
to be

originally

meant that which passes through, a road

walked upon, and then by extension a road or method
followed, as in philosophy, and even in stealing.

Hence Taoism,
(line 174), in

the Doctrine of the

Way,

as taught

by Lao Tzti

antagonism
tao jen

to the

Way

taught by Confucius (line 121).

^ J^

was a term

for Buddhists

down

to the

end of the 5th

cent. A.D.,

and Mr. T.

W.

Kingsmill has identified tao with the

Buddhist mdrga, the path which leads to Nirvana.

°*

J^
Kuei"
Valuable

J^t
i
z

^y
chuan 1
single

I

is

to

attach

the

utmost

importance to thoroughness.
'

take

Kuei

is

composed of J|

pei\ a picture

under

its

old

form of a pearl-

oyster,

once a circulating medium in China; hence, precious,

honourable, as radical, with a corruption of
as phonetic.

^

k'uei*

a basket

I under

its

old

form was the horary character £^
its

8S %

turned back

to front,

and

original

meaning was
an inch

to use, to take.

Chuan

is

composed of

tH

ts^un

as radical,

and a phonetic

which, with the ts^un added, forms another important phonetic. Its

The San Tzu Ching
original

meaning

is

uncertain; but

among

its

earliest senses is

that of unity, singleness of purpose, special, etc.

[The

structure

of this

line

is

J£[ to

take

^

thoroughness
couplets iu

(^IJ to be, understood) J|| the valuable thing.
the

Few

San Tzu Ching have been
Dr.

so widely misunderstood as the

above.

Bridgman

{Chinese

Repository

for

1836,

p.

107,

reproduced by Williams in The Middle Kingdom, 1883):
of education,
is

"A

course

made valuable by
C. Malan, 1856:
is

close attention."

The Rev.

S.

"But

in the

way

of education,

the principal- thing

undivided attention."

Stanislas Julien, 1864: "Teaching takes all its value

frOm an

entire application of

mind of

the

master"

Rev. Pere Zottoli,

1879: "Educationis ratio exigitur ex toto

animo."

The Rev. E.

J.

Eitel {China Review for 1892, vol.
is

XX,
is

p. 35):

"Education's rationale
on application."

such that the highest value

placed

The

flaws

in

all

the above renderings, of which the last
will

is

decidedly the

worst,

be made plain by a reference to the

commentary. Education, in the Chinese acceptation of the term,
should begin even before birth.

The prospective mother should

watch carefully over her own uprisings and downsittings. She

must
not

see

no

evil

sights

and hear no harsh sounds. She must
language, nor taste of out-of-the-way
filial

indulge

in

strong

dishes; but she should herself cultivate loyalty,
feelings,

piety, friendly

and upright

principles,

with a view to transmit the
is

same

to her child

about to be. This

the

first

stage of education.

The second

consists in teaching her little

one to eat with the

right hand, to speak in a subdued tone, to

know

the four points

of the compass
selfishness.

(see
last

line

64),

to

be deferential, and to avoid
in

The

stage begins

the schoolroom, at about

The San Tzu Ching
eight
refer

7

years
to

of age.
pupil,

Julien

rightly

saw that chuan could not
its

the

but he wrongly limited

function to the

schoolmaster.]

Of old, the mother of Mencius

The San Tzu Ching

[The story runs that when
lived with her little

first left

a

widow Mencius' mother

boy near a cemetery, the result being that

the latter was always playing at funerals.

Removing

to a house

near the market-place, she found that the boy now began to
play
at

buying and

selling;

and fearing the

ill

effect

of these

sordid associations, she next sought shelter near a college. There

the
in

young philosopher began

to imitate the ceremonial observances to

which the students were instructed,
of his mother. In
to

the great joy

and
is

satisfaction

modern China, more attention
neighbourhood,

paid

to

neighbours than

every householder

being held responsible for the doings of those on each side of him.]

»

*
Tzu z
Child
its

T>
pu l
not

and when her child would
hsueh 2
learn
\

not learn,

Tzu, under

original form,
it

was a rude picture of a

child.

Except
term

in special cases
of respect,
sir,

refers to males. It
is

came

to be used as a

philosopher, and

now

colloquially

employed as

an

enclitic.

Pu

see line 5.
is

Hsueh

a corruption of

^

chiao to teach (line 5), the radical

on the right being omitted and the left-hand portion modified
by the addition of an obsolete word *—* mi
to cover, imparting

the idea of ignorance. It originally meant to

awake

to a sense

of one's position.

12.

I^jy
Tuan*
Break

;J^|
chi
1

7|vJ»
chu*
shuttle
'

8he

broke the shuttle from
the loom.

machine

Tuan
is

has for

its

radical jj* chin to cut wood,

an axe

(line 3),

with

a phonetic which was the old form of a

word

^

chileh to break,

and

said to express pictorially the idea of dividing into halves.

The San Tzu Ching

9

Chi

is

composed of

^C wm wood
and
is

as radical (line 66), with ±S| chi
is

how many?
the machine

as phonetic,
itself,

rather the motive power than

which

an extended sense.
as
radical,

Chu

is

composed of yfc
is

mu wood

with ~f* yu

I

as

phonetic, and
(see title).

the shuttle for holding the thread of the woof

What

Mencius' mother did was to exemplify to her
effect

son the disastrous

of

want of continuity

in learning

by

snapping the thread of the woof. Eitel translates, "She
his presence)

tore (in

loom and
it

shuttle.''''

Pere Zottoli has "fregit textorium
shuttle,

radium." But

was the thread which she broke, not the
its

the latter being put by synecdoche for

contents.

13-

S
Tow
4

Sb
yen
k

|1|
shan
hill

Tou

swallow

Tou

is

composed of *^J hsueh a hole as

radical,

with Jlf (see line

134), here an abbreviation for yj| tu a ditch, as phonetic. It was

the surname of
cent.

f ^ ^J Tou
the

Yu-chun, a scholar of the 10th
a part of modern Chihli

A.D.
fell

He

lived in |^|

$1 Yu-chou,

which

under the jurisdiction of Yen; hence he received the
of

sobriquet

Yen-shan,

name

of

the

j|||

^

Shun-t'ien

Prefecture under the

^ Sung

dynasty, A.D.

960-1260.
the two halves
(line

Yen was under its old form a picture of a flying swallow,
of

^

pei north (line 61), between which

P k ou mouth
l

263)

is

inserted, representing the wings,

and

*fo

huo

fire (line 65),

under
tail.

which radical

it is

now

classed, giving a

good idea of the forked

Shan

was originally a picture of mountain peaks.
14

^M 4
I

§1 ****
i
4

~fj S4
fang
!

)

had the right
. I

me thod.

Yu

3

1

Have

duty

method

Yu

is

composed of

^

yixeli

moon

as radical,

below

J^ yu

a

hand

10
(line

The San Tzu Ching
18)
as

phonetic.

The

latter portion is said to

have been

the original character,

moon being added

as a differentia

when

the written language began to grow.

Yu

is

the root idea of being

and possession,

q.d.

to

exist,

to have,

which senses have been
eclipsed.

fancifully derived
it

from the moon present, not

Read yu*,

means

plus.

I

is

composed of

^L

yang sheep

(line

77) above

^ wo

I (line 147)

=

my

sheep, and points towards a great obligation in primitive

ages. It can be best rendered in philosophy

by duty towards one's

neighbour (line 69). Thus

it

came

to

mean something provided

from a sense of duty, as a burying-ground for the poor, troops
to

defend the people's liberties (line 240),

etc.

It also signifies

meaning, purport.

Fang

originally

meant, and

is

supposed to be a picture
it

of,

two

boats joined together.

Then
it

came

to

mean

square,

and by

extension a place. Here

stands for the colloquial ~jj

^

fang

fa a means of doing. For an adverbial

sense, see line 30.

"•

:-»
Chiao*
Teach

q£ -fwu*
five

He

taught

five sons,

tzu 3
son

Chiao

see line 5.
for short

Wu

was originally written X, and

X. It is

now

classed

under radical 2-1 erh two

(line 116), representing

heaven above

and earth below, the cross

lines

shewing the interaction of the

male and female principles of Chinese cosmogony.

Tzti

see line 11.

=g

1

each

of

whom

raised

the

The San
as
radical.

Tzii

Ching

\\

It

is

explained thus:
see,

"In the evening
necessary for a

it

is

dark

and one cannot
out his name."

so that

it

is

man

to call

The word ming

(see title) is
is

now mostly

used

of a man's personal name, which

taboo except to parents and

to the sovereign. Tou's five sons all rose to

high

office.

Chu

is

composed of

J^

jen

man

as radical, with

JL

chu (line 84)

as phonetic.

Yang is composed of -^* shou hand as radical, with a common phonetic
which must be distinguished from
Eitel are both
Jj^j
i

(line 126). [Zottoli

and

wroug

in

making ming

refer to the sons.]

17.

*
Yang
Feed
3

To
chiao*
teach

feed without teaching

pu 1
not

Yang

is

composed of

^

yang sheep as phonetic and
feed.

shih eat
it

as radical,

and means to bear children, to

Read yang*,

means

to

minister to, to attend upon, especially one's parents.

Pu

see line 5.

Chiao

see line 5.

18

3Z

is

the father's fault.

Fu

was originally an ideogram, being composed of

^
^f

yu again,

which anciently meant a hand with three fingers stretched out
and was the original form of the more modern
hand, and a ferule.
chia yen (lines 19,
is

yu right

A common
tz'u

name

for

a

father

is

^

Jj|

192) the family severe one, while a mother
the family gentle one. In the
tieh

called §j£

^&

chia

mouth

of the

child

fu becomes -0£

daddy

(line 9).

Fu sometimes

= male

(line 210).

12

The San Tzu Ching
see line 1.
is

Chih

KUO
It

composed of the walking radical and a common phonetic.
to pass by or over; hence, to transgress,
is

means
It

an

error, a

fault.
lai

used colloquially to form the past tense, thus: j|£
jjfi|

come,

^

came. See line 162.

19

Wc s^>
Chiao*
Teach

7
pu
1

Ml
~^s%
2
I

rp

Q teach, without severity

yen

not

severe

/

Chiao

see line 5.
line 5.

Pu see Yen is

composed of two

p
l

k ou mouths which formed the ancient

l

radical

(now

a single k ou) and a phonetic. It originally

meant

a sharp order, hence severe; see line 18.

20.

m

is

the teacher's laziness.

)

44

The San TzU Ching

fa
Lao
Old
3

^
wei*

what

will

he be when old?

ho

2

what

be

Lao

was originally composed of
character

^
to

jen man,

^ mao
the
1*]*

hair,

and an

obsolete

meaning

change;

q.d.

hair turning

white, seventy years of age. See lines 41, 174.

Ho

is

composed of

^

jen
is

man
a

as radical,

with

Ko

possibility,

can, as phonetic. It

common

interrogative particle.
radical,

Wei
It

is

composed of J|V chao claws as

over the alleged

picture of a female monkey, which

is said to

be fond of scratching.
it

came

to

mean

to be, to do.

Read wei\

means on

behalf,

in place of; hence to

pawn.

25


Yu
k

7
pu 1
not

*
cho 2
polish

[

If jade is not polished,

Jade

Yli was

originally

composed of three equidistant horizontal
is

lines

joined by a vertical stroke. It
is

now

written with a dot, which
it

omitted in composition, to distinguish
is

from

^£ wang

(line

190). It

the
is

gem par
held to

excellence of China, a species of nephrite

or jade,

and

possess five virtues. It
is

is

used for

all

kinds of ornaments, and
to preserve

also

put into the mouths of corpses

them from decay.

Pu
Cho

see line 5.
is

composed of

3E yu jade

as radical,

and a phonetic which

is

^C

shih pig (line 78) with its feet tied together. It

means

to prepare jade.

26.

***
Pu
1

flMd
ch'eng*

"mm
ctii
k

(

^

cannot

become
of use.

a

thing

i

Not

become

utensil

Pu

see line 5.
is

Ch'eng

composed of jjj mou or wu flourishing, and what under

The San
the old form
etc.

Tztt

Ching

15

was

~y

ting a cyclical character, a

man, a

nail,

It

means

to accomplish, to complete.

CM

is

composed

of four

P

k'ou

mouths with -j^ ctiuan dog

(Hue 78) in the middle.
etc.,

It originally

meant

receptacles for food

the mouths of which are represented as guarded by a dog.

It also

means anything which can be put
-f*

to

some

definite use.

Confucius said 3§*
is

^ $$

chun

tzib

pu chH

the superior
is

man
not

not a thing,

i.e.

of restricted use; mathematically, he

a function of one variable but of many.

27.

A *
Jen %

16

The San Tzu Ching
is

Jen

in the possessive case by position and by logical requirements.

Tzu

see line 11. [Jen tzu is the

same

as

J\^

^ -^

jen chih

tzti^

which has been adopted by the translators of the Bible
"the Son of

as rendering

Man"

(Matt. VIII. 20

etc.).

But these terms point

rather to sons of

men

in general,

and require the insertion of

a demonstrative particle.]

30

~M
Fang
Just
1

^
shao
k

B#
shih
2

i
I

when he

is

young

young
14.
It
is

time

J

Fang
Shao

see

line

here used adverbially and signifies just

now, then, when, a moment ago.
is

composed of /J> hsiao small

(line

113) as opposed to

^

ta great (lines
left. It

113, 127), and a sweeping stroke from right to

has come by extension to

mean young, and when preceding

a man's

name

is

used in the sense of the Younger So-and-So,
(line

as opposed to

^
z
.

24) the Elder. Its original meaning was
to

few as opposed to ££

many

(line 302), in

which sense

it is

now

read shao

Shih

has

Q

jih the sun (line 52) as radical, pointing towards the
latter is

meaning, and ^jp ssu a temple as phonetic. The

composed

of vj" ts'un inch as radical, which seems to refer to regulations,

below an abbreviation of

^

chih

(line

1) as phonetic,

and

is

used in several important characters (line 135).

'

4VU
Ch
l

HmJ
shih
1

>^v
yu 3
friend

[

should attach himself to his
teachers and friends.

in

l

\
'

Intimate

teacher

Ch'in
is

is

composed of
in

^

chien to see (line 42)

and a phonetic.

It

defined
earliest

the Shuo

Wen by 3g

chih (line 94),

and one of
it

its

meanings was

to love, close

attachment to; hence

comes to mean parents,

relatives (line 35).

The San Tzu Ching

17

Shih

see line 20.

Yu

is

composed of two

^

yu hands

(line 18)

entwined: hence

its

meaning.
line

It is defined

as "of the

same

class or kind."

See also

102.

32.

if
Hsi 1
Practise
li
3

fl

n

and practise ceremonial usages.

ceremonies

usages

Hsi
Li

see line 4.

is

composed of 7JC shih divine manifestation,

to proclaim, etc.,

as radical, with a phonetic (line
vessel.

150) which meant a sacrificial
of

It

is

defined

as

worship

the

gods

which

brings

happiness; hence, ritual. It bears also the varying meanings of
etiquette,

politeness,

and propriety.
system

It

was coupled with music
as
(line

in

the

ancient
in

educational

of China

an important
7)

factor

the

art

of government.

Lao

Tzii

explained

ceremonies as "the outward expression of inward feelings," while
admitting in another utterance that they are but "the veneer of
loyalty and good faith."

For the Book of

Rites, see

Hue 136.

I

is

simply

i

duty towards one's neighbour (line 28) as phonetic,

with

J^

jen

man

as

radical. It originally

meant a

limit; then

usages, observances, etc.

33.

H %
Hsiang 1
Hsiang
chiu
3

Hsiang, at nine years of age,
ling
2

nine

year

Hsiang
sweet.

is

a

corruption

of

^

shu

millet

(line

74) over

"^

kan

It

means

scented, fragrant, as in

Hongkong (Cantonese

pronunciation), the second syllable being
is

f^

chiang a lagoon. It

here the personal

name

of a

man surnamed

]pf

Huang
filial

(line

180), of the

2nd

cent. A.D.,

famous as a model of

piety

18

The San Tzu Ching
is

Chiu

supposed to represent the weakening of the male numbers
title),

(see

which
before

reached

their

climacteric
is

at ~\^ c ^' ?

seven

(line 84),

their individuality
(line

lost in the

completeness
a

of

-J-*

shih

ten

45).

j^

^

nine

nines

is

term for

arithmetic.

Ling
a

is

composed of
as

"j§|

cttih

teeth as radical, with

^ ^
or
is

ling

command

phonetic. It

means the front

teeth,

from which
probably
r

the sense of year, only found in the book-language,
derived.

«nl
Neng
Abie
2

&
wen
1

could
hsi
2

warm

(his parents') bed.

warm
meant a
possible

mat
bear,

Neng

originally
It
is

now written

j|^

and pronounced

hsiung.

that

the strength of the bear

may have
is

imparted the meaning of power to the character, which
classed under radical
|^J

now

jou

flesh.

Wen

is

composed of ^[C shui water

(y

in composition, see line 65)
is

as radical,

and a phonetic, the value of which
yiin.

sometimes wen

and sometimes

^

^fC wen shui

is

colloquial for
ffj

warm
chin

water.

Hsi

is

composed of
radical.
It

JjfcF

shu

many

(contracted) and

napkin

as
sat,

refers

to the

mats on which the "many" guests

and although chairs and tables were used in very early ages,

the term

mat

is

still

applied to a banquet. It here refers to the

plaited grass mats laid

on

beds, fine ones for coolness in

summer,

coarse ones for

warmth

in winter.

35.
Filial
1'

piety towards parents

Hsiao

see lines 5, 41.

Yli was

originally the

same

as

^p

yiX

(lines

130, 233) which

was

The San Tzu Ching
developed
defined

19

from

~T*

yu

a

picture

of

vapour extending.
to

It is

by

^

chu to be stationary,

££ wang
all

move towards,

and

^

tai in place of. It is
at,

commonly
etc.,

used with such prepositional
of which

values as in, on,
to

to,

from,

may

be traced

one or other of the root-ideas.
see line 31.

Ch'in

m
So What
3

BJ
tang
1

^C
chih*

I

is

tnat to

which we should
fast.

I

hold

ought

hold

J

So

see line 22.
is

Tang

composed of
(line

|J}

tien cultivated fields as radical, with
it

^
in

sharig
its

270) above

as phonetic. It

is

said to

have derived

meaning of right or proper from the rectangular form
fields
of,

which
in

are properly laid out.
to

Read tang

4
,

it

means

to stand

place

pawn. In the

latter sense it is often seen, of

gigantic dimensions, on the blank walls of houses, and corresponds
to the

well-known sign of three
composed of an ancient

balls in this country.

Chill

is

radical,

also its phonetic,

on the

left,

and

~fa

wan

Da ^ s on the "ght, the latter portion being a

corruption of
to

^*

shou hand and a stroke to the right. It means
to
seize,

arrest

prisoners,

and

is

now

classed under radical

i ?u
37

earth (line 66).

fii
1

Bi
ssu*
1

I

Jung,

at four years of age,

Jung
Jung

1

suih

I

four
j§§
li

year

]

Jung

is

composed of

a

cauldron and

ffj

ch'ung (short for

Jn|) insect, reptile, as radical, and originally meant steam rising,
its

radical being associated in the Chinese

mind with vaporous

manifestations.

The character now means

clear, bright, intelligent,

and

is

here the personal

name

of

^L $& K'ung

Jung, died

20

The San Tzu Ching

A.D. 208, a descendant of Confucius in the 20th generation.
Ssti
is
is

supposed to be a picture of quartering (see

title).

Sui

composed of

& pu
i.e.

to step, to walk,

and

^

hsu a horary
Using

character as phonetic. It originally meant yj^ J|l
star
(lines

mu

woodto the

66, 52),

the planet Jupiter,
its

also

known

Chinese

as

the

year-star from

revolution
It is

in twelve years

which was reckoned as one great year.
used
as

now

colloquially
is

a

year of one's

life

or

age (line 33), and

classed
r

under radical

chili

to stop.

38.

ft%
could yield the (bigger) pears.

Neng*
Able

Jang*
yield

U1
pear

Neng
Jang

see line 34.
is

composed of ~=f yen words and

Jg

hsiang

which

is

an

important phonetic (see line 82).

Li

is

composed of

yfc

mu wood

(line

QQ)

as

radical

and ^|J

li

sharp as phonetic.

[The story runs that when K'ung Jung at

four years of age was asked

why he

chose

all

the small pears

and
"I

left

the bigger ones for the rest of the family he replied,

am

a small boy, so I take the small pears." Eitel wrongly

translates

"was

able to yield

up

his pears (to his brothers)."]

39.

m k
4
'i

To
chang*
I

behave

as

a

younger

yu"
towards

brother towards elders,

Fraternal

grow
is

T'i

to-

behave as a younger brother

a

verbal

sense developed

from the original sound and signification of the character read
ti*

- younger
is

brother

(line

100).

For convenience' sake the
j(J>

former

sometimes written '|^, with

hsin heart as radical.

Yti

see line 35.

Chang

means

to

grow, one grown, an

elder.

The

original

word

The San Tzu Ching

21

was ch'ang 1 composed of
,

j£ wu

lofty, far,
l

A&

hua (the old form

of

^

,

to be distinguished

from -J^ ch
(line

i

seven, line 84) to melt,

to change,

and "j^ wang to perish
this
last
is

159) turned upside down,

showing that
is

to be taken in as

an opposite sense.
will

It

consequently

explained

that

which

go far without

change, lasting, long.

*>

a %
I1
Ought
hsien 1
before

ft
chih 1

is

one of the

first

things to

know.

know

I

see line 22.
is

Hsien

composed of /{ jen
placed
at

man

(under the form in which
of a
character)
as

it

appears

when

the bottom
!)• I*

radical,

and a

corrupted

^

(^ ne

usec^ as a comparative adverb of time.

Chih

see line 28.

41

"f
Shou z
Head
originally

# ^
hsiao*
filial
l

Begin with

filial

piety and

t

i*
j
)

fraternal love,

fraternal

Shou

was

written with three

wavy

strokes at the top,

said to represent hair, the lower portion being
for head.

an obsolete word

Hsiao

is

composed of
and

yg
tztt

lao old (line 24), as seen in combination,

as phonetic,

^r

child underneath as radical, thus picturing

the idea of the

young taking

care of the old.
it

T'i see line 39. The logic shows

cannot be

ti.

42.

3K
7V#
4

&
chien*
see

and then see and hear.
wen 1
hear

Second

Tz'li

is

composed of

Hi

erh

two and

fc

cJtien

as

radical.

The

latter

now means

to owe, but

was originally a picture of vapour

22
issuing from

The San Tzu Ching
a

man's head, hence to yawn.

Tz%

is

explained

as not in the front

rank or of the best kind.

Cllien
jen

is

composed of

Q

mu

eye (line 262) as radical, and

J^

man

(line 40). It originally

meant

to look at,

and has come

to signify sense perception of

any kind.
(line 22)

Wen
and

is

composed of f^ men the two leaves of a door
erh ear, and

Jf

means

to hear, to smell. Seeing

and hearing

stand for the acquisition of knowledge in general.

43.

& $
Chih 1

Learn
shu*

to count,

mou z
certain

Know

numbers

Chih

see line 28.
is

Mou

composed of

^C mu wood

as radical,

and

"^

kan sweet.

It originally

meant sour plums, explained
old dictionary says,

exactly as lucus a non

lucendo.

An

"Things of which the names are
jen a certain

not
is

known

are mou."

The term Jjl J^ mou

man,

used in reading as a substitute for the personal names of

Confucius and Mencius, which

may

not be uttered.

Shu

is

composed of j^£ p'u
5) to

to

tap

(in

composition J£, see chiao
It

line

as

radical,

with an important phonetic.

originally

meant
it

count,

probably based upon tapping, in which sense
.

is

now

read shu 3

«.

_
4
t

m *
mou"
certain

and learn

to read.

Know

characters

Shih

is

composed of

"^

yen words and an important phonetic. It
savoir.

answers more to connaitre than to

Mou

see line 43.

Wen

originally
tiger,

meant

cross lines,

any markings or

veins, streaks
it

on a

etc.;

hence the written character, in which sense

Tlie

San Tzu Ching
of

23

was

used

until

the

introduction

^

tzu
line

(see

title),

and and

literature,

and by extension

civilian (see

189).

[Eitel
lines.

Pere Zottoli have both missed the point of these two
the
latter

For

Eitel

has "and understand the several appellatives"
P. Zottoli has "scias aliquot notiones,"

whatever that

may mean.

the scias following an ut erroneously inserted as a conjunction

between lines 42 and 43.]
45.


7
1

rfii
erh
1

+
silic-

Units and tens,

one

and

ten

I stands

for Unity, the cosmogonical abstraction

which was ultimately

subdivided into two forces, the resultant being the visible material
universe. It
is

the

number

of heaven; see
It is

title

and line 49.

Erh
Shih

originally

meant whiskers.

now

used as a conjunction,

sometimes disjunctive, and also as the pronoun you.
is

composed of one line pointing east and west and another pointing
;

north and south

it

therefore represents the

hub of the

universe,

also numerical completeness, the Chinese system being decimal.

«
Shih

+
Shih}

B5
erh
1

U
pai 3 or p6
hundred

tens and hundreds,

Ten
see line 45.

and

Erh
Pai

see line 45.
(or

po)

was

composed,

according

to

the

Shuo

Wen, of a

contraction of

^

tztf,

nose (line 93) as radical, and
it is

%

unity.

In K'ang Hsi's dictionary, however,
of

regarded as composed
i

i

one and

J^J

pai or p6 white as radical, though

would

be an intelligible radical and pai would be a perfect phonetic.

The functions

of radical
is

and phonetic are often thus
used by synecdoche for
all,

arbitrarily
e.g.

interchanged. Pai

much

every;

^

24

The San Tzu Ching


no

p6 hsing the hundred surnames,

i.e.

all

the surnames, of which

less

than 4657 have been recorded; hence the people of China.

47.

75"
^"^

ffi
erh 1


}

hundreds and thousands,

Pai 3
Hundred

ch'ien

1

and

thousand

Pai

see line 46.

Erh

see line 45.
is

Ch'ien

composed of -f^ shih ten
of
is

(line

45) as
sui

radical,

and a

corruption
(line

^

jen

man.

£p

J||

cKien

a thousand years

37)

a title of a prince.

48.

~ | =f-

m
(jjj
erh}

-3a
wan*
ten-thousand

(

thousands and tens of
thousands.

Ctiien 1

Thousand

and

/

Ch'ien

see line 47.

Erh

see line 45.

Wan
all.

was originally classed under radical
its

pfcj

jou the track of an

animal, and meant insects; hence
It
is

primary meanings, myriad,
ts^ao

now

classed

under radical iM*

vegetation. It

is

often written Jj
is

for short;

sometimes the Indian fU sauvastiha
thousand years (see line 37)
is

employed.
title

^
1

J||

wan

sui ten

a

of the Emperor.

49.

= *
,

The Three Forces

San

ts'ai

2

che*

Three

force

ones

San

see

title.

The three

lines of

which

this character is

composed

have been said to stand for heaven, earth, and man.

Ts'ai was originally written as a
horizontals,
force,

vertical line dividing
It

two

parallel

and meant vegetation sprouting.
is

came

to

mean

power, talent, and

now

classed under radical

^

shou hand.

The San Tzu Ching

25

Che

is

composed of £|

tzti

(=

g

see line 46) as radical,

and a

contraction of

^

J^

lu a

body of 500 men (not a contraction of

lao old as in line 41). It is impossible to say

what was
is

its

original meaning;
particle

perhaps a leader of 500 men. It

now

a

imparting various

forces, substantival (as here), adjectival,
is

adverbial, etc, to

words and phrases, and
its

classed under radical

pfe

lao old.

For

phonetic value, based probably upon some

older sound, see lines 149, 176, 230, 238.

50

%
Tien 1
Heaven

*tfc
ti*

A)
j

are Heaven, Earth, and

Man.

jen 2

earth

man
t

)

T'ien

is

composed

of

one,

its

original

radical,

and

y^

ta

great, its present radical. Originally
is

meaning the

top, that

which

above, the physical sky,

it

soon came to mean the invisible
old

Power beyond, God; popularly, the
See line 79.

man

in

blue clothes.

Ti

is

composed of

Jl

*'

w earth,

soil,

as radical,

and

fy

yeh female,

heaven being regarded as male. See line 79.

Jen

see line 1.

[When

chaos resolved

itself into

the universe, the

lighter gas rose

and formed the sky, while the heavier congealed

and formed the earth. From the interaction of these two, "the
bridal of the earth

and sky,"

all

things were produced^ of which
reason.]

the chief

was man, endowed with

51

= * ^
San 1
Three

The Three Luminaries

huang 1
bright

che

z

ones

San

see

title. is

Kuang
Che

composed of

fc

huo

fire

above

A

J en

man

( line

40 )'

The former used
see line 49.

to be, the latter is

now,

its

radical.

26

The

San Tzu Ching

"*'

Jj
Jih*

J~\
yueh*

£fp
hsing 1
star

I

are the sun, the

moon, and

I

the stars.

Sun

moon

J

Jih was

originally a circle containing

an irregular

line,

and may

be regarded as a picture character. It came to be used also in
the sense of day.
*

Yueh

was originqiOTTK, picture
its

of the crescent

moon, which may

be faintly traced even in
for lunar

modern form.

It

came

to be used

month, twelve of which go to the year, the difference
the

between

lunar and solar years being made up by seven
years.

intercalary

months in nineteen

Hsing

was originally ^J£ sheng to produce as phonetic, with three
then trident-like form. Under a later

circles at the points of its

form these

circles

became three
of the
It
is

Q

jih suns,

which combination

was then the
one,
its

radical

character. These were reduced to

modern

radical.

explained
rises

as

the pure, ethereal

portion

of the universe,

which

to

heaven and manifests

itself as stars.

53.

''

'-*
"

**
)

r
\

San 1
Three

kang
bond

1

che

3

one

San

see
is

title.

Kang

composed of

^

ssit

silk as radical,

with pj kang a mountain
rope, together, and

ridge as phonetic. It originally

meant a

must

be carefully distinguished from

^ wang
1

a net.

Che

see line 49.

are (1) the obligation between

Chun*
Prince

ch'en eft en

1

i

\

sovereign and subject,

Minister Minist*

duty
to
rule,

Chun

is

composed of jP* yin

with

P

k ou mouth as

k

The San
radical;

Tzu Ching

27

hence one whose commands are respected, a ruler.
is

j^ff

^

chun tzu

the superior or perfect
its

man

of Confucian ethics.
is

Ch'en under

original form, with curved outline,

supposed to

represent a Minister bending before his Prince,

As lofty lords before an Eastern throne Bend the whole body, not the head alone.

The term
subject,

has
is

been
the

extended

to

include

any

one

ruled,

a

which

meaning

here.

I see

line 14.

[The Rev. E.

J. Eitel,

evidently translating from an
gives the following most forlorn
regulators

inaccurate text and reading

^

t,

rendering

:

— "As

to

the three social
Consists

or rather that-

which-constitutes

them

of (the following relationships:
officials

There

is

first

that of) the prince with his

indeed."]

55.

SL

28

The San Tzu Ching
smoothly down the stream. [Eitel wrongly makes the bond onesided,

"And

finally,

there

are

husband and

wife,

the latter in

submission."]

pZ|
Yueh*
Speak

'Q*
ch'un
1

,$P
hsia*

f

We

speak

of

spring

and

summer,
/

spring

summer

Ytieh under

its

old

form was supposed to represent breath issuing
q.d.

from the mouth,

speech.

Ch'un

is

composed of
l

(J jih

sun as radical, and a contraction in
is also

which

ijjljj

ts

ao vegetation was once conspicuous. It

used

figuratively in the sense of joyous, pleasant.

Hsia

is

a contraction of j|| yeh head, an obsolete word for hands,
is

and an obsolete radical which
It

here said to refer to the feet.
of

originally

meant

an

inhabitant

the

Middle

Kingdom,

probably from the

name

of a dynasty which ruled China from

B.C. 2205 to B.C. 1818.

|—-1
Yueh*
Speak

*x/V
ctiiu
1

^
tung 1
winter
\
/

we

speak

of

autumn

and

winter.

autumn

Ytieh
Ch'iu

see line 57.
is

composed of

^

ho

grain,

as

radical,

and *k huo

fire,

suggesting the sense of harvest-time.

Tung

is

composed of ) ping an old word
and a contraction of
ice

for ice,
sc.

now

used as a

radical,

$$

ehung end,

the end of the
ice
is
^|<.

year

when

comes.

The modern word

for

ping,

formed by the simple addition of water

(line 65).

«
Tz'ti
is

lit TzW
This

K
ssii*

B|
These four seasons
shih 2

four

time
chih

composed of

to

stop,

under which radical

it

is

The San Tzu Ching

29

now

classed,

and

|^

pi a spoon. It originally meant to stop;
of arrestation
it is

and from
the

this

sense

an easy transition to

modern demonstrative value of the
title.

character. See line 273.

Ssu
Shih

see

see line

30

60.

revolve without ceasing.

I'

Ylin

is

composed of the walking radical with j§[

chiln military as

phonetic.

The

latter is a corruption of ]|l

cli'e

or

cliil

a chariot,

and

'J pao

to enclose (under the old

form

it

completely surrounds

the chariot), suggesting a military

encampment. Yun was originally

pronoimced wen, as

still

in the Canton dialect, and

meant
it

to

change

one's abode, to transport. Later on, from change
luck, fortune.

came

to

mean

Pu

see line 5.
is

Ch'iung

composed of

}SjJ hsileh

a cave as radical, over J|^ hung

body as phonetic.

It originally

meant extreme,

limit;

and

later,

without resource, poor.

61

it
Yueh
k

it
pei 3

We

speak of north and south,

nan

1

Speak

south

north

Yiieh

see line 57.

Nan

is

composed of an old word meaning abundant vegetation

(q.d.

the south), with
classed

^

yang sheep inserted as phonetic.

It is
is

now
the

under radical

+

shih

ten

(line 45).

The south

standard point, as the north with us, of the mariner's compass,

which has been known

to the Chinese since the 12th cent. A.D.,

and

is

said

to

have been developed from a legendary "south-

pointing chariot" given to tribute-bearing envoys from Tongking

30

The San Tzu Ching

more than a thousand years B.C. Chinese houses are
possible duly oriented, facing the south. See line 230.

as far as

Pei was
to

originally

composed of two men, back
is

to back.

How

it

came

mean north
pi a spoon.

not clear.

It

is

now

classed

under radical

k

we speak

of east and west.

Hsi was

originally

composed of a bird roosting on a
to

tree,

which

was thought
the sun
a
is

sufficient

suggest the time for roosting

when
on

in the western sky; hence, by an aphetic process
is

gigantic scale, the west. It

now

classed under radical

W\

hsia to cover.

Tung

is

explained
(lines

as
|

J

jik the

sun among the yjc
the place

mu

trees as

radical
JjjC

52,
cliia is

66).

The

east is

of honour,

and

^

tung

the master of a house (line 192).

The phrase

jjl |5§ tung hsi east- west
that a

means a thing, and

it is

an insult to say

man

is

not a thing, implying that he

is

only raw material.

The San
of JU| ying a falcon
call for services,
etc.

Tzii

Ching

31

as phonetic. It

means

to respond, as to a

Read ying
hsi
It

1

it

means ought, proper.
particle,

Hu

is

composed
as
is

of

^

an
is

emphatic
defined
as

with

J

pHeh

(obsolete)

radical.

"language surplus" or

expletive,

an

interrogative

particle,

and

has

also

several

prepositional values.

Chung
[

is

an obvious ideogram, classed under the obsolete radical
it

kun to pass through. Read chung*

means

to middle,

i.e.

to

hit the middle, to attain.

[The above two lines have met with severe treatment at the
hands of translators. Bridgman (1836) gave, "These are four
points,

which tend towards the centre;" Julien (1864), "These
of the world correspond to the centre of the earth'"
"Istae

four

sides

Zottoli
finally

(1879),
Eitel

quatuor
"These

orae respondent
the

cum

centro;"

(1892),

are

four regions in mutual
1

correspondence

with

regard to the
is

centre.'

The

idea

however,
is

according to the commentary,
centre

simply

this.

The earth

the

of

the

universe;

the

four

points of the compass are

associated with the four seasons, and, so to speak, supply these
as required. belief

At the same time
the
real

it

is

difficult to

escape from the

that

meaning

of

this

line
i.e.

is

"occupy

fixed

positions as regards

any given centre,"

"fix the orientation

around any given origin."]

65.

* X
Yueh*
Speak
shui
z

We

speak of water,

fire,

huo 3
fire

water

Yiieh

see line 57.

Shui

originally

meant
north,

level.

It
is

is

a picture of flowing water;

it

influences

the

and

the

name

assigned

to the planet
left.

Mercury. It usually appears in composition as y on the

)

32

The San Tzu Ching
is

Huo

a picture of flames;
to

it

influences the south, and
at

is

the

name
in

assigned

Mars.
it

When

the

bottom

of

a

character,
77).

combination,

is

expressed by four dots (lines 13,

66

-

^c
Mu*
Wood
originally
it

^r
chin
1

±
/

wood, metal, aud earth.

l

t

uz

l

metal

earth

/

Mil was
at

written with the horizontal line bent upwards

each end;
in

was thus a picture of branches in the
east,

air

and

roots

the

ground. It influences the

and

is

the

name

assigned to the planet Jupiter.

Chin

is

composed of

Jl

tfu

earth,

with two lumps inserted to

represent ore, and

^

chin

now, present, which gives the sound.

It is specially the yellow metal,

which knows no defilement and
q.d. gold.

may

be melted again and again without losing weight,

It is also

commonly used

to

mean

silver, as in

money

calculations

in which gold does not appear. It influences the west, aud is the

name

assigned to the planet Venus.
soil.

T'U

is

supposed to be a picture of plants springing from the

It is the

name

assigned to the planet Saturn.

67.

Itfc
Tz
l

3L
wu
3

ft
hsi?ig
2

These

five

elements

3
tt

This

five

operate

Tz'u

see line 59. see line 15.
is

Wu

Hsing
left

supposed to represent two steps, the three strokes on the
left foot,

being a step with the
(line 273),

known

as the

double-man

radical
foot.

and those on the right a step with the right

It

means

to walk, to act, to operate.

Read

hsing*

it is

means
taken

conduct; and

read hang 2

,

a row, a series, from which

the word hong, a place of business.

The San Tzu Ching

33

68.

* 4
Pen 3
Root

have their origin in number.
shu*

hu 2
in

number

Pen

see line 2. see line 64.

Hu
Shu

see line 43.

[For

the

above

two

lines

Pere Zottoli has,

"Ista quinque

elementa fundamentum sunt pro numeratione rerum," with the
following gloss, "Siquidem omnia ex his conflantur, et
stituitur numerabilis
sic

con-

individuorum

series."

In other words he makes

number spring from the elements
number. But what becomes of
value,
as

instead of the elements from

^

,

which has clearly a prepositional
"These are the five mutable-

in

line

64?

Eitel

has,

elements, radically related

with regard to the numerical proportions
for

(of the

cosmos)," which would seem to be less available,

tutorial purposes,
is

than the original

text.

The meaning however
(lines

that in the beginning there
itself into

was One
forces,

45,
as

50).

This

divided

Two, and these
negative,

known

male and
light

female,

positive

and

heaven

and

earth,
all

and

darkness, produced the five elements which inform

creation.

Heaven

is

said

to

have

begun

by

producing

water,

Earth

followed with
lastly

fire,

Heaven with wood, Earth with
(soil).
fire

metal, and
to produce

Heaven produced earth
fire,

Then water began

wood, wood to produce
(soil)

to produce earth (ashes), earth

to

produce metal, metal to produce water, and so on.
time

All

this

water

was destroying

fire,

fire

was destroying

metal,

metal was destroying wood, wood was destroying earth,

and earth was destroying water, in an endless chain.]

34

The San Tzu Ching

69.

C3
Yueh k
Speak

Jt*"*

^^>
# **^*
j

We
I

speak of charity of heart

and of duty towards one's
neighbour,

jen 1
charity

i*

duty

1

Ytieh

see line 57.

Jen

is

composed of

^

jen

man and Zl

erh two,

and

is

defined
to

as love. This

was explained in the tenth century A.D.

mean
is is

love for one's two neighbours (line 10). Its ethical sense

an
the

inward and spiritual love for
outward and

all

mankind, of which §g|

i

visible manifestation. Charity, in the theological sense,

seems to be the best rendering; love, which has been substituted
for

charity
for

in the

Revised Version of the

New

Testament,

is

wanted

more general purposes.

Zottoli has "pietas."

I see

lines 14, 240.
~"

ftff
/

^itrt

/ *

\

'

'MS
Li 3
Propriety

fc3
chih*

Jpj
hsin*
truth

of propriety, of wisdom, and
I
I

of truth.

wisdom

/

Li

see line 32.
is

Chill

composed of ^JJ

chih to

know

(line 28) as phonetic,

above

Q
an

jih the sun as radical, being a corruption or contraction of
earlier

and more complicated form which

is

explained as

knowledge of language.
Hsill was originally composed of
J\JJ>

"^y

yen words as radical, with

hsin heart

on the

right, giving a

more
is

satisfactory

ideogram

of truth than the

modern form, which

classed under radical

J^jen man.

"•

ft
7V# 3
This

£
wu 3
five

ft
These
ch a?ig 2
constant
/

five

virtues

l

Tz«u

see line 59. see line 15.

Wu

a

The San Tzu Ching

35
(line

Ch'ang, which
as phonetic,

is

also read shang, is
fjj

composed of shang

270)

and

chin a cloth, a towel, as radical. It
is

means

constant, long-enduring, something which

always present even
is

though

obscured

by

neglect.

The term

virtue

our nearest

equivalent to the extended sense.

**

^ ^
Pu
1

admit of no compromise.
wen*
tangle

Jung

1

Not

contain

Pu

see line 5.
is

Jung

composed of radical

|J~*

mien meaning a covered place,

a room,

and

^t

ku a valley. It means to hold, to contain,—

property both of rooms and valleys, says a native philologer,—

and by extension to

tolerate.

Wen

is

composed of

y^

wen streaks

(line 44)

as

phonetic, with

^
of

ssti,

silk as radical.

It signifies confusion
is

such as that of a

tangled skein, but something more
sense,

required to bring out the
to shirk the practice

which
five

is

that

no one can be allowed
in

the

virtues

however

trifling

a degree.

Julien has,

"These cardinal virtues must not be confounded (disturbed in
their

order);"

Pere

Zottoli,

"ista

quinque

officia

non patiuntur

perturbari;"
morality,

and

Eitel,

"These are the Jive constant factors of

which

do

not

admit

of

any

confusion."

All three

renderings are obviously inadequate.

73.

® s m
Tao k
Rice

Rice, spiked millet, pulse,

Hang 2
spiked-millet

shu*
pulse

Tao

is

composed of

-^

ho grain and a

common
is

phonetic.

It

was

anciently applied to glutinous rice, but

now used

of common rice.

Liang

is

composed of ^jt mi
(line

rice as radical,
is

below a contraction of

®

Hang

228) as phonetic. It

the millet of north China,

36
"distinguished from

The San Tzu Ching
the

panicled

millet

by

its

long and dense

compound

spikes." Bretschneider.
tyty

Shu

is

composed of

ts^ao

vegetation, with ffi shu, originally to
is

gather,

now

a father's younger brother, as phonetic. It
for

u

a

collective

name

leguminous plants and their seeds." Bretschneider.

74

>5F
Mai
Wheat
11 *

>^V
shu z

*fffK

j

wheat, glutinous
millet,

and common
millet.

chP
common-millet

glutinous-millet

Mai

is

composed of ^jj

lai to
is

come, over an obsolete radical

^

sui to

walk slowly, and
ta

now

itself a radical.

It is subdivided

into

"^

mai

barley,

and /\\ hsiao mai wheat.

Shu

is

composed of
It
is

-^

ho grain, with a contraction of \$$yu rain as

phonetic.
to

specially

mentioned as being sticky, and
it

is

said

have been called shu because
shu great heat. It
is

was planted during the

"^

^||* ta

now

a radical.

Chi

is

composed of ^JC ho grain and a phonetic associated with
its

husbandry, as might be inferred from
the chief of the five grains.

composition. It

is

called

[Shu and

chi are said

by the Chinese to be

varieties, the

former

having glutinous seeds, of the

common

millet.

However Dr. Hance

and other competent botanists "were not able to make out any
botanical difference between the two." Bretschneider.]

75.

tt
TzV
This

* m
Uu*
six

These

six grains

hi*
grain

Tz'u

see line 59.

Liu

is

composed of /\.pa eight

(line 88)

below the old pictorial form of

f~.

shang above, which was anciently represented by a line above
is

a line (line 192). It

the

number of change, the female numbers

The San Tzu Ching

37

(see title) strengthening at six to reach their climacteric at eight?
\

and
is

is

now

classed

under radical

i

one.

Ku

composed of

7^

ho grain as radical, and a phonetic. It stands

for cereals in general,

and comes to have such meanings as

alive,

happy, which are apparently based upon the possession of grain.

76

A
Jen 2 Man

#f
so*

ft
sJiih
2

are those which

men

eat.

what

eat

Jen
So

see line 1.

see line 22.
is

Shih, the composition of which meant a grain of
food.
rice. It is

disputed, seems to have originally

now

a radical, and read ssm^
six grains
fall

it

means

[The commentary points out that the
to include all the varieties

mentioned

must be held
77.

which

under each head.]

,g§ Ma
3

^
niu
ox
2

3*
yang*
sheep

The

horse, the ox, the sheep,

Horse

Ma

is

one of the stock pictures in the Chinese written language.
dots, elsewhere used for

The four
course

fc

liuo

fire

(line 65),

are of

the legs.

They

also

do duty for the legs and wings of

JL

niao

a bird, and for the fins of

J| yu

a

fish.

It is

now

a radical.

Niu

was

also

a

picture

character under

its

old form, which

may

be produced by removing the dash at the left-hand top corner

and turning up the ends of the upper horizontal so
horns. See line 340.

as to resemble

Yang

stands in the north for sheep; in the south

it is

more widely

applied to the goat, also
sheep.

known

as

|_|J

^p

shan yang mountain

Confucius declared that niu and yang were both words

formed after the likeness of the object intended. See line 14.

38

The San Tzu Ching

78.

I[i|
Chi
1

a m
cKuan %
dog
shih*
pig

the fowl, the dog, the pig.

Fowl

Chi

is

composed of

JL
is

niao bird as radical, with
,

^

hsi

how? why?

as phonetic. It

also written |f|£
(line 334).

and

is

described as the bird

which knows the time

Ch'tLan seems

to

have greatly impressed Confucius.

He

said

it

was

a perfect picture of the animal,

meaning of course the
likewise
feet,

old form.
to

Stall

is

another

picture,

which

leaves
tail

much

the

imagination,

although

bristles,

and

are said to stand

out distinctly.

79

llfc
Tz u
This
l

^ ^
liu*
six

These six animals

3

ch u*
keep

l

Tz*ti see line 59.

Liu

see line 75.
is

Ch'U

composed of

v£T hsilan

black, dark, mysterious (line 94),

an epithet often applied
fields,
i.e.

to

^

tHen the sky, and |JJ tien cultivated

the black fields which nourish us. [Cf. Eurip. Bacchae,
plain;

l&eXxv
etc.

w&ov the black

Homer

II. pee

V ottpxTi

yotloc (jlsXocivk,

In connection with the Greek

[fiihxg,

comparison may also

be made with the Chinese

^

ch ing (lines 84, 180), both being

l

applied to the sky, water, etc.] It

means

to feed, to nourish, to

keep as animals; heuce, brute beasts.

80.

a m n
Jen 2

The San Tzu Ching
Ssti
is

39

composed of
to

J^

shih

to

eat

(line 76) as radical,

and

ffj

ssu

manage

as

phonetic (line 334). [For eight extra lines
/.]

which in some editions are inserted here, see Appendix
81.

1 &
**
Yiieh k
hsi

We
I

speak of joy, of anger,

nu*
anger

Speak

joy

Yiieh

see line 57.

Hsi

is

composed of pj k'ou mouth as

radical

and an obsolete word
radical.

associated with joy. It appears in the

Shuo Wen as a
and
t|j£

Nu

is

composed of j(£ hsin heart

as

radical

nu slave as

phonetic.

82.

h &
Yueh*
Speak
ai
1

m
chu k
fear

we speak

of pity, of fear,

pity

Ylieh

see line 57.

Ai

is

composed of

^
jQ

i

clothes
is

with pj k'ou mouth inserted in
a

the middle as radical. This

common arrangement

(lines 38,

161). Eitel wrongly renders by "grief."

Chti

is

composed of

hsin heart as radical, with a phonetic

made

up of two
phonetic

^

mu

eyes over ^f: chui a short- tailed bird.

The

originally
it

meant the glance of a

kite,

which would

excite fear; hence

came
its

to

mean

timid,

and was probably used

in

early
|=|

times without

present radical.
hsin
heart.

One

old

form was
editions

two

mu

eyes

over
lo;

j(£>

Some cheap

erroneously read

^

hence Eitel's rendering "pleasure."

83.

V
Ai*
Love

of love, of hate, and of desire.

wu*
hate

yu k
desire

Ai was

originally

composed of

^

sui

to

walk slowly as

radical,

40

The San Tzu Ching

with a phonetic made up of

Jq

above j(£

,

which phonetic was
to love.
It
is

an independent and

still

earlier
j(J>

word meaning
heart,

now

classed

under radical

hsin

and answers

to

the

French aimer, being used either in the sense of

to love or to like.

Wu

was originally written ]JJ (now ya ugly, two men bending

etc.),

which

is

said
It

to be a picture of

their backs in disgust.
4

has several other readings, the most important being o
loathsome.
Yti.
is

wicked,

composed of j£i ku a valley
deficient, to

as phonetic,

and

fc

cUien to

yawn,

owe.

»<•

-t
ChH 1
Seven

is
citing*
feelings

Md
*
chii*
all
1 1

These are the seven passions.

Ch'i

is

composed of

i

one and Pp chung middle (corrupted),
Principle coming up in the

q.d.

a slight trace of the Female

middle and vitiating the Male Principle, seven being the numeral
at

which the male numbers

(see title) reach perfection (line 75).

It is

now
is

classed under radical

i

one.

Ch'ing

composed of j(£ hsin heart and an important phonetic

^
Chti
is

ctiing,

which means the colour of nature in
its

all
is

its

varying

hues (line 180). One of
or facts of a case.

common

significations

circumstances

composed of J| pei the pearl-oyster in a contracted form,
folded.
It

and an obsolete word meaning the hands
important senses,
^fi
is

has two
latter,

viz.

to prepare,

and

all,

every.

For the

now

substituted (line 16).

85


Fao
2

i
*V
earth
l
'

The gourd, earthenware,
ko 2
skin

skin,

Gourd

P'aO

is

composed of ~fe k ua extravagant

as phonetic, with

^Q pao

The San Tzu Ching
to enclose as radical.

44

The

latter,

which was originally a picture
been taken

of the

foetus,

is

no longer a

radical. Its place has

by

^J

pao,

which was the picture of a

man bending

forward

as if enfolding something. JJj^ kua

melon

is

sometimes substituted

for

^

and takes the place of
to enclose.

radical, the phonetic being in that

case

-Q pao

T'U

see line 66.

Ko

means hides or skins without the hair on, parchment. The
form
three,
is

old

said to be
is

composed of

^

-J

53

san *Mh san thirty-

which

the

number

of years in a generation and the

time required for a complete change of skin.

86

>fc
Mil*

5 _
shih k
stone

[

wood, stone, metal,

chin 1

Wood

metal

Mu

see line 66.
is

Shih

regarded as the picture of an overhanging
it.

cliff,

apparently

with a boulder beneath

It is

used as a liquid and dry measure,
3).

representing in the latter a weight of 120 catties (line J-p

Chin

see line 66.

«m n
Ssii
1

tti.
)

silk,

and bamboo,

yu

3

chu 2

Silk.

and

bamboo

/

Ssu

is

a duplicated

form of jfe mi or

«*#,

and originally meant
title).

ten strands of silk as spun by the silkworm (see

Yii

is

composed of

J^ yu

to raise

and

_t}

yu

to give,

and originally

meant

several; hence, together, with, and, etc. It also

means

to

give, to bestow,

and

is

now

classed

under £j chiu a mortar as

radical (line 215).

Chu

is

described as a grass which grows in winter, and under
is

its

old form

regarded as a picture of the object intended.

42

The San

Tzii

Ching

ss

7$
JVai

A
pa
1

it
ym
sounds

yield the eight musical sounds.

Then

eight

Nai

see line 6.
is

Pa

explained as to separate, to divide, being a picture of two

persons separating, turned back to back (line 162). It

may

well

have been adopted as the symbol for 8 in reference to the obvious

and easy
themselves

divisibility
less

of that unit; the Chinese however occupy
its

with

origin

as

a numeral than with

its

fanciful position, a climacteric of the female

numbers

(line 75).

Yin

is

a corruption

of

^y

yen words (line
noise,
i.e.

118) with a stroke

inserted,

and means regulated
under
eight

musical sounds. These
furnishes

are

arranged
as

heads.

The gourd
earth the

such

instruments

the mouth-organ,

ocarina,

skin the

drum, wood the Castanet, stone the hanging musical-stone, metal
the gong, silk the guitar, and

bamboo the

flute.

[Eitel

wrongly

renders this line
the scala."]

"By

these then

we produce

the eight tones of

\V*\

Ej
tseng
1

/IIEL
tsu
3

f

Great great grandfather, great
grandfather, grandfather,

Kao

1

I

High

add

ancestor

/

Kao
is

is

used of height in both material and immaterial senses. It

supposed to present to the eye the semblance of looking up
is

from a terrace or belvidere, and
tsu ancestor understood.

here an adjective qualifying

See line 215.
to

Tseng

is

composed of

/\ pa

divide

(line 88) above,

and
is

yileh to

speak (line 57) below, a middle portion which
is

said to

be the phonetic. It

defined

as

a
its

stretcher-out of language,

from

which
as

we can understand
applied to time,

sense

of past,

finished,

especially

thus imparting a tense- value to

\
t

The San Tzu Ching
verbs.
tseng
tsu,
is
1

43
ts'eng*,

With
as

this
it

meaning
means
is

it

is

now read

while read

above

to add to,

and here

qualifies
(line

another

understood.
classed

It

also a

common surname
yueh.
is

128),

and

now
is

under radical
shih,

TSU

composed of tj^
sent
set

which

supposed to represent divine
clfieh,

commands
meant
line

down from heaven, and J^
forth

which originally

to

in

sacrifice,

q.d.

worship of ancestors (see
add-ancestor,

274).

[The

line

runs,
is

High-ancestor,
here narrowed

and

ancestor, the last of

which

down

to grandfather,

in colloquial

jjf[

^

tsu fu.

90.

^

44
the meaning

The San

Tzii

Ching

may

be obtained. It was originally classed under
is

the latter as radical, but

now under

the former, and

is also

a

common surname.

3?
Tzu*
tzii*

from son and grandson
sun 1
grandson
it
is
still

From

son

Tzu

was originally a picture of the human nose, and

found in the ordinary word

S

pi a nose.

Its

earliest

known

sense seems to have been to follow; hence, from. Its later sense

of self
self in

may have grown up by

attraction,
self)

i.e.

attraction of the
chi to the tzu, the

^

ti

tzu chi (=

from

from the

former being gradually dropped.

Tzu

see line 11.
see line 92.

Sun

94

*

i^ —-*
1

'

J\j
yuan 2
original

Ȥ

*

"f^t"

J

£j
tseng 1

I

on to great grandson and great
great grandson.

Chih*
Arrive

I

add

'

Chin

under

its

old

form was supposed
earth.

to
It

resemble birds flying
is

downwards and reaching the
superlative

often

used

as

a

=

very, extreme.
is
is

Yuan

(line

254 E)

here used for

^

hsiian black (line

79), a

character which

taboo under the present dynasty, having been

part of the personal

name

of the

Emperor K'ang

Hsi,

A.D.

1662
for

— 1723. It means great great grandson, preceding tseng merely
The son
of this descendant
is

the jingle's sake.

called ^Sf

y^
Tseng

erh sun ear grandson, being one

who can only have heard

of his ancestor, not seen him.
see line 89.

The San Tzu Ching

45

}

lnese are the nine agnates,

Nai*
Then

chiu 3
nine

tsn

2
I

agnates

/

Nai

see line 6.

Chiu

see line 33.
is

Tsu

composed of an obsolete word meaning

to bend, to wave,

and

y^

shih

an arrow, but

is

now

classed under radical

~fy fang

square (line 14). It seems to have originally meant a bundle of

arrow-heads, from
clan, family. It

which

it

is

easy to reach such meanings as

came

to be used in the sense of agnatic relatives,

especially of these nine degrees, as early as the

U j^ Shu

Ching

Canon of History

(lines 135,

146).

A Z
Jen1
Man
chih 1
arrive

itflj

I

constituting the kinships

lun 2
relationship
/

of man.

Jen

see line 1.

Chih

see line 1.
is

Here obviously of possessive

influence.

Lun

composed of jen

man

as radical,

and an important phonetic

(see line 115)

made up of an
and
to
jjjjfc

old radical ,A.,
k

now

used for

^

chi

collected

together,

ts e

(see

line

116),

which phonetic
of lun

means

to

think,

arrange.
it

The primary
to

sense

was

constant, invariable; then
(see line 105),

came

mean

classes, relationships

obligations, etc. [Eitel strangely renders this line
order.'"']

by "which constitute mankind's determined

97.

^

46

The San Tzu Ching
is

En

composed of j(^
It

hsin

heart as radical and jjj yin cause as
of the father and the

phonetic.

here

covers the kindness
it

dutifulness of the child. Eitel renders

by "kindliness," which

leaves out the obligation of the child.

98.

* m &
Fu
1

harmony

between

husband

fu*
wife

tfung*

and

wife,

Man

harmony

Fu Fu

see line 56.
see line 56.

Ts'ung was
to;

originally
its

j^

two men

side

by
to

side. It

meant
to

to listen

hence

modern

significations

follow,

agree with.
l

[Eitel

again

makes the blunder of applying the word

ts

ung

only to the wife's

— "the conduct,
latter

relationship of husband and wife
all

demanding of the

obedience"— leaving
line 56.]

obligation of the

husband out of the question. See
99.

y\j
Hsiung 1

>vj
tse
2

^v
yu*
friend

I

friendliness

on the part of

I

elder brothers,

Elder-brother

rule

I

HsiUDg
Tse

is

composed

of pj k'ou

mouth over J^ jen man, and

originally
is

meant

to

grow.

composed of

j=| pei the pearl-oyster

and

J]

tao knife

(}J

in

combination). It originally meant to classify, a sense said to be
derived from the shells which were used as

money

in early days.

Thence came the meaning of

rule,

method, to which must be
etc.

added the conjunctional senses of then, in that case,

Yu

see line 31.

100

% M p
TV
4

respectfulness on the part of

tse

2

kung

1

younger brothers,

Younger-brother rule

respect
ti

Ti has been

regarded as an altered form of Jft

order, series,

from

The San Tzu Ching

47
It is

which the sense of younger brother has been developed.
also said

to

be the picture of a thong encircling a faggot.

In

colloquial,
ti

JJ

ffo hsiung
brothers.

ti

means younger
2'i

brother, and J^J

^
with

hsiung
is

means

Read

4
,

see line 39.

Kung
jQ

composed of

it

kung

all,

collectively, as phonetic,

hsin heart as radical.

101,

#?
Chang 3 Grow
yu*

^
hsu*
series
)

precedence

between

elders

and youngers,

young

Chang

see line 39.

Yu

see line 23.
is

Hsu

composed of y

yen a shelter, a house, as radical, with
as

give, to yield, ~f* yu to

phonetic.

It originally

meant the

eastern

and western walls in a house, which separated the inner
It

from the outer portions.

then came to mean a school or

asylum, and also the preface to a book.

as between friend

and

friend,

Yu 3
Friend

yu 3
with

p'eng 2
friend

Yu Yu

see line 31.

see line 87.
is

P*eng

composed of two j^ yueh moons, and

is

explained as
(line

"those

who have

the same principles in

conduct"

31).

According to the Shuo

Wen

it is

said to
is

have been a form of
all

Jl, feng phoenix, because the latter
birds follow.
It is defined as

the leader which

other

"of the same bent," recalling the

"idem

velle

atque idem nolle" of Cicero. The p'eng,

who

is

here

regarded as the elder, should be kindly, and the yu should be
trustful.

The

colloquial

for friend

is

JJJJ

fe

p'eng yu. [For the
tse
2

above two lines Eitel gives

^

j|||

3g

,

fy] %\\ Hpj chang*

48
hui i 1 yu*
tse
2

The San Tzu Ching

skn 4

,

kindliness on the part of elders, submissiveness

on the part of youngers, which words he rightly says are omitted
in ordinary editions.

But he himself omits the

lines here given,

which
and

will be

found in the textus receptus of

^E

>J0

Wang Hsiang

also in that of

^
tse
2

Jfe

JS Ho

Hsing-ssu.]

103.

# m m
ching*
respect
\

respect

on the part of the
sovereign,

Prince

then

Chun
Tse

see line 54.

see line 99.

Ching is

composed of the obsolete radical j^p'u

to tap,
is

and an obsolete
really distinct.
is

character which looks like
It

Sj

kou (line 5) but

means reverent; hence, the

respectful attention which

due

from a Prince

to the representations of his Ministers

and to the

wishes of his subjects.

104.

££
1

HIJ
tse
2

gJ
;

loyalty
1
l

on the part of the
subject.

Ctien

chung
loyal

Minister

then

)

Ch'en

see line 54.

The scope

of this character need not be restricted

here, as

by

Eitel, to officials.

Tse

see line 99.
is

Chung

composed of Pp

(line 64) as phonetic

and j(£ hsin heart

as radical,

from which an idea of the sense

may

be deduced.

105

tit TzV
This

+
shih
ten
2

j|) ^^
i*

These ten obligations

duty

)

Tz'u

see line 59. see line 45.
i

Shih
I

see line 14. Pere Zottoli here translates

by "relationes," which

)

The San Tzu Ching

49

word he had already used
is

for -f^f lun in line 96.

[The

difficulty

to

make out

the

ten.

Wang

Hsiang

in

his

commentary

enumerates them as follows:
1

—2
as

in line 97,
1

2 in 98, 1 in 99,

in 100, 2 in

101, 102, 1 in 103,
are

in

104, which taken in

groups

of

two

known
is

the

3l

'fjfl}

wu

^

un ^ ve mora l
101, 102,
is fatal.

relationships of

man. That

to say, he blends lines

and extracts two obligations therefrom. Any other course

Pere Zottoli assigns one obligation to elders and youngers (line 101)

and one

to friends (line 102).

But "friends"
all

is

one of the wu

lun,

and requires two obligations

to itself.

Eitel has only eight

obligations to show, including the two spurious ones mentioned

under

line

102.]

106

A
Jen Man
2

#f
so
3

I^J
l

]
l

are

common

to all

men.

t

ung

2
I

what

together

Jen
So

see line 1.

see line 22.
is

T'ung

composed of

|HJ

k'ou

mouth, now

its

radical, It

and an

obsolete

word

which formerly played that

part.

originally

meant

to

come together; hence,

with, same, identical, etc.

107.

H,
Van
All
2

f
ZL

il

In the education of the young,

hsiin^

meng 2
dull

teach

Pan
to

is

composed of

erh two, a pair, and an old form of

^
may

chi

reach, to arrive. It originally

meant
etc.;

to

embrace
it
is

fully,

hence
classed

all,

mankind,

the

world,

earthly,

and

now

under radical J\j

chi a table or bench. Its literal
its

sense

be

allowed to vanish here, though of course

influence remains.

Hsun
(

is

composed of

^

yen words as radical, and )\\ cli'uan streams

|5J jl|

ssu ctiuan the province of that

name) as phonetic.
4

50

The San Tzu Ching
is

Meng
It

composed of <M»

ts'ao vegetation

and an important phonetic.
nil

was

originally defined as
for wistaria,

Jj£ -J%

Wang

prince's daughter,
dull, stupid,

a

name

and came to mean in the dark,

the young, and then to teach. [Pere Zottoli wrongly renders by

"Quicumque
1

instruit rudes."

For
lACt

Eitel,

see line 110.]

0R

xlrl

r£=rH

s£\
1

Ufft
chiang 3
explain

^Li
chiu k
investigate

I

^ nere

should be explanation

Hsu
Must

I

and elucidation,

/

Hsu

is

composed

of

]i|

yeh

head as radical and ^/ shan hair,

feathers. It

was formerly a radical and a picture of whiskers or
its

beard,
hsii

which was

original

meaning; hence the modern |j|

a

beard. It appears to have been phonetically borrowed to
hsii

express a word
its

to want, need, etc.,

and has now given up

sense

of hair on the face to the

more complicated modern
.

character. Is often incorrectly written tJ|

Chiang

is

composed of

a larger group of characters pronounced like itself kou.

Chiu

is

composed of

^ ^

yen words with a phonetic which governs

hsiieh

a cave as radical with

^

chiu nine

as phonetic. It is also used in the sense of judicial examination.

[The phrase chiang chiu further means to analyse; to
coarse and take the fine; to be particular about, etc.]

reject the

iuy.

H^ p-p
Minute

d£|||
pjJJJ
hsiln *
1

^_L
gjL|
ku*
research
) J

care fu i teaching of the inter-

Hsiang*

I

pretations of commentators,

teach

J

Hsiang

is

composed of =y yen words

as radical

and

^ yang

sheep

as phonetic. It

means

to

go into small

details,

to describe.

Hsun

see line 107.

Ku

is

composed of ^J yen words as radical and ~ff ku ancient

(see line 261) as phonetic. It

means

to trace out original sources;
etc.

hence, to adduce evidence in support of an interpretation,

The San

Tzit

Ching

51

jJ\

""V
chu*

Pj^
ton*
sentence

I

an(^

due attention to para-

Ming %
Clear

I

graphs and sentences.

paragraph

J

Ming

is

an ideogram formed by juxtaposition of
radical,

y
Jj-

jih the sun, its

modern

and

^

yiXeh the

moon
l

(line 52),

and means bright.
cldu to connect
chit

Chti was

originally

composed of pj k ou mouth and
It

as phonetic,
for the latter

and meant crooked.

was pronounced
later on,

and kou,

sound ^J being substituted
is

with diverging
85).

meanings. It

now

classed under radical S~J
tu
2

(line

Tou

is

more commonly
off

to

read, to study. See line 134.

[To

mark

the proper paragraphs

and sentences
all

is

one of the

functions of a teacher in China,

punctuation being usually

omitted
strange

from

classical

works such as the Canon. Eitel has a
lines.

rendering of the above four

"Now

in all cases,

when

instruction is given to the ignorant, Although it is well to

explain

characters

orally

and

exhaustively,

Yet, detailed moral

instruction in the sayings of the ancients is just as necessary as

precision regarding syntactic punctuation"]

in.
Wei 1
Be

m
hsueh 1
learn

Those who are learners
che 3

one

Wei
Che

see line 24. see line 11.

Hsiieh

see line 49.

112.

jjfc
Pi*
Must

^f
yu
3

3f#
c/i'w
1

must have a beginning.

have

beginning
to

Pi

is

composed of
i

/\ pa

divide (line 88),

its

old radical,

and

a sharpened stake, to shoot with a bow, as phonetic. It

Ch'U

see line 1.

The San Tzu Ching

53

SiLU was originally composed of

=|£ lu or

yu a stylus

(line 124),

with ^H* die (line 49) as phonetic, and meant to make known.
This was subsequently contracted to the modern character and
classed under
yiieh to

speak as radical. [The Four Books form

the

first
all

portion of the Confucian

Canon and
do

are learnt by heart
at

by

candidates

who hope

to

anything

the

public

examinations. They are enumerated in lines 115
line

— 130.

See also

135.]

115

PIHJ
Lu?i*
Discuss

PO
/

There

is

the

Lun

Yii,

yu z
speech

die

one

Lun
Yti

is

composed of

^f

yen words and an important phonetic (lines

96, 116).
is

composed of ^y yen words as
and
l

radical,

and

^ wu

I

(

y. wu

five

jlj

k ou mouth) as phonetic, and means talk.
49.

Che

see

line

[The Lun Yu, Discourses or Analects, contains

practically

all
is

we

really

know

of the

sayings

and doings of

Confucius. It
of the Sage.]

ascribed by the Chinese to the immediate disciples

116.

J^
Erh*

-J-*
[

in

twenty sections.

shih
ten

2

L

p

ien

1

Two

tablet

Erh

is

the
to

number

of earth, though in jJl

wu

fi

ye 0i ne 15)

it is

made

do duty for heaven and earth.

It is the first of the

female numbers,
title

and represents the mating of

i

one. See

and

line 45.

Shih
P'ien

see line 45.
is

composed of
flat

Yf

chu

b am ^oo (line 87) as radical, with
It

^j§ pien

as

phonetic.

means the

flat

bamboo

tablet

on

which books were written with a stylus

(line

124) before the

54

The San Tzu Ching
invention of the hair brush, and
is

now

used either of a section
is

or of a single leaf of a book. [Pien- flat

composed of

)=5

hu

the leaf of a door (line 22), and ffi

l

ts e

the tablets of authority
five verticals,

granted to the feudal nobles, formerly written with
here regarded
as
tablets

bearing inscriptions such as are seen

at the entrance to a public office. It originally
office,

meant a public
tablets

which idea can be readily deduced from gate and

as above.
flat

Of course

there

must have been a sound pien meaning
office;

long before there was a character meaning
gate-and-tablets

so that

the

must have

been

called

pien

because

of

flatness,

rather than that pien could have extended its
tablets to

meaning

from gates and
117.

anything

flat.]

f
CKun
Flock
1

In

this, the

various disciples

ti*

tzu

3

younger-brother child

Ch'un

is

composed of

i^

yang sheep
is

as

radical,

with j§* chun
for a flock

prince (line 54) as phonetic. It

the

common term

of sheep, a crowd of people, etc.

Ti

see line 100.
see
line
11.

Tzu

Ti tzu

is

a

compound term meaning

disciples.

[Eitel strangely translates,
disciples

"Wherein, however, the whole of the

and philosophers.
all),

11

But

ch iin

l

cannot be pressed to mean

whole (=

and

tzti

has here nothing to do with philosophers.

Pere Zottoli too has
118.

u

omnes

discipuli."]

IB
Chi*
Record

"j=t"

"Fj
yen 1
words

I

have recorded the wise
sayings of Confucius.

shan*
virtuous

I

J

Chi

is

composed of ~^f yen words

as

radical

with

Q

i

already

(line

328) as phonetic. It originally meant to
to record, to

state,

and now

means

remember.

The San Tzu Ching

55

Shan

see line 2.
is

Yon

a

common

radical,

attached to characters connected in any
its

way with
issue

speech.
l

Under

old form, the upper lines seem to
is

from

fZf

k ou mouth. [Confucius

of course understood.]

n9.

5Er tnt
Ming*

56

The San Tzu Ching
is

Te

composed of the double-man radical (Hue 67), with a phonetic.
seems to have originally meant a dry measure holding about

It

a pint. It

was used

for

^

te

to get, to attain;

and

it

is
it

just

possible that from the sense of attainment, achievement,
to

came
is

mean

the exemplification of virtue in good works. [Its phonetic
jj|[ chili

a corruption of

upright and j(£ hsin heart, and

is

explained

by "the external

is

obtained from others, the internal from oneself."]

'

f2/(j

4|—

m
ifjjj

/

and expound charity and duty
towards one's neighbour.

Shuo

1

jen

2

&
duty

I

Expound

charity

)

Shuo

is

composed of

^

yen words as radical, and

^
the

tui

which

originally
Its

meant

to speak,

and now means
to

to weigh, as phonetic.
it
is

earliest

meaning was

expound; now

common

colloquial

word

for speak. Also read shui*

and yueh;

see line 206.

Jen

see line 69.

I see line 14.
123.

ft
Tso 4

#
chung 1
middle

The Chung Tung was written
yung
1

Make

course

Tso

is

composed

of

^
to

jen
stop,

man
and

as

radical,

and

^

cha which
etc.

originally

meant

now means

suddenly,

It

covers
(lines

all

kinds of doing and making, even to writing a book
fails to

153, 326). [The Peking dialect, here as elsewhere,

exhibit the true phonetic.

Cha should be

tsa.']

Chung

see line 64.
is

Yung

composed of Jp? keng
use, as radical,

to

change, as phonetic, with
|^

^
pu

yung to

which in turn was composed of

to divine

and

PJ^

chung the middle. "Get your middle," says one

luminary of the 1st cent. A.D., a not unworthy prototype of the

famous Mrs. Glasse, "and then vou can use

it."

It originally

The San Tzu Ching

57

meant

to use; hence the
is

method

to be used or followed, a course.

[The Chung Yung

a short philosophical treatise in one section
title

of thirty-three chapters. Its

has been rendered by Legge as
as L* Invariable MilieuJ]

The Doctrine of

the

Mean, by Julien

by the pen of Tzti-ssn;

Tzu 3
Tzti
ssii

brush

Tzti see line 11.

Ssu

is

composed

of j(£ hsin

heart,

the

seat

of intelligence,

as

radical,

below an old word (not
head,
1

|JJ

tHen fields) for the

crown

of the

the fontanelle,

and originally meant
sai
1

perspicacity.

Read

sstt

it

means thoughts; read

the jowl. [Tzii-ssu was

the style of

^L

i2&

K'ung

Chi, grandson of Confucius.]
its

Pi

is

composed of
yit

^

chu bamboo,

modern

radical,

and

^

lit

or

a stylus, the old radical, the latter being used to scratch

characters

on bamboo

tablets

until the invention of the brush
cent. B.C. [In

which has been assigned to the 3rd

some

editions

this line reads J*j ^\j ffi, nai k'ung chi,

with the same meaning.]

125

Cw
Chung 1
Middle

"yK
pu l
not

YES
pHen 1
deflected

Gfafmg (the middle) being
I

that which does not lean

towards any

side,

Chung
P'ien
is

see line 64.
5.

Ptl see line

composed of

J^

jen

man

as radical, with

^

pien flat as

phonetic. See line 116.

'

Jf&
Yung
1

^\^
pu 1
not

^2/3
i*

\

Yung

(the course) being that

\

which cannot be changed.

Course

change

'

Yung

see line 123.

58

The San Tzu Ching
see line 5.

Pu
I
is

composed of

Q jih
flag

sun as radical and

ty

wu, which originally

meant a kind of

with three streamers for signalling, and so

came
to

to signify a negative, not, do not. Its

primary sense seems

have been a chameleon, the creature of change, of which the
is

character

thought by some to be a picture; hence

its

meaning

as above, derived

however by others from the radical sun, which
changes
of day

brings

about

the

and night. Here again the

question discussed in line

116

arises.
i

Was

the word

i

change

developed from the idea suggested by

a chameleon, or was the
i

animal so called from a pre-existing word

to

change?

It

would

seem that the spoken word change must have preceded chameleon,

and that the written character may well have been applied
to the

first

animal and then to the

idea.

See also line 135. [The aim

of the

Chung Yung

is

to

trace

the ruling motives of

human

conduct from their psychological source. It originally formed § 31
of the

Booh of

Rites (line 136), being taken thence to form one

of the Four Books by

Chu Hsi

(line

113).]

127

-

F ft
I

J\
ta*

±
old
great,

£p?
hsiieh?
I

He who

wrote The Great

Tso 4

Learning

Make

great

learn

/

Tso

see line 123.

Ta

under one of
of a
is is

its

forms looked very like the rude picture

man. This gave
earth
is

rise to the following

explanation:— Heaven
great; therefore great

great,

and

man

too

is

a picture of man.
see line 11. [The
title

Hsueh
the
to

Great Learning

is

Legge's translation of

of a short treatise which teaches us "to illustrate virtue,

renovate the people, and to rest in the highest excellence."

It is

now

the recognised rendering (Pere Zottoli

"magna

scientia,"

The San Tzu Ching
Eitel "Great Learning"), although the term really
for Adults," in

59

means "Learning

which sense
(line

it

was understood by the author of

The

Little

Learning

113).]

128.

^

60

The San Tzu Ching

2J£ "T*
Chih*
.
.

%%

/A* 7a
chih*

**
I

& oes on
one's
.„.

g° vernmen t of
State and
.

own
..

p

l

ing

2

J

\
J

__

.

Arrive

U1 balance

govern

tranquilhsation of the Empire. ^ *

Chih
P'ing

see line 94.
is

composed of -J1 yu (used
(line 88).
It
l

for ffi line 35)
etc.,

and

/V pa
it

to
is

divide

means even, smooth,
hsia beneath the
is

and with

understood

^

~J\

t

ien

canopy of heaven, the

empire. The order ofpHng and chih

transposed for the jingle's sake.
radical,

Chih
I,

is

composed of -fa shui water as

and j^

i

to speak,

to

give (also read tax exalted) as phonetic, the latter being

originally

composed of

J£j[

(line 8) over

p

k ou mouth.

l

How

it

comes to mean to govern,
it

to cure, is

somewhat obscure. With

is

understood
it

[§!

kuo a State (line 155), in reference to which
in question

term

must be remembered that the work
the

was

written during

Feudal

Age

of China,

when

the

country

was

split

up into

vassal States

owning a nominal

allegiance to

a suzerain State. See also line 257.

isi.

# m m
Hsiao*
Filial

When
\

the Classic of Filial
is

ching 1
classic

tfung

1

Piety

mastered,

pierce

Hsiao

see line 41.

Ching
T'ung

see
is

title.

This work

is

ascribed to

Tseng Ts'an

(lin§

128).

composed of the walking radical and j^ yung bursting

vegetation as phonetic. It means to go through, free, not obstructed,
to understand, etc.

and the Four Books are

known by

heart,

The San Tzu Ching

61

Shu

is

composed of

jg/t

shu, as phonetic, with

»J^

huo

fire

under-

neath as radical. This phonetic shu was the original character
for cooked, ripe;

but inasmuch as

it

was

also used for another

sound shu meaning who? what? the two senses were separated
as

time

went on by the insertion of the radical
it

fire

whenever

shu meant cooked or ripe, to distinguish

from shu who? what?
called into

Thus

it

was that the growing exigencies of the language

existence

new

characters to divide the burden of meanings. [The

commentary puts the study of the Four Books before that of the
Filial Piety Classic,

an order which

is still

observed. See line 113.]

133

#H
Ju 1
Follow
liu*
six

ching 1

I

Classics,

canon

J

Ju

is

composed of ~J£ nu
is

woman
woman

as radical, and

P

k'ou mouth.

It

explaiued as

a

following the injunctions of her
to arrive.
if,

father

and husband; hence, to go towards,
it

In later

times
in

came

to be used in the senses of like, as,
to," etc.

and

also

an introductory sense "with regard

Liu

see line 75.

Ching

see title.

134.

*S
Shih
3

W M
k o3
l

which may now be studied.

tu

2

Begin

can

read

Shih

is

composed of
is

^

nu

woman

as radical, with

^

t

(line

130)

as phonetic. It

defined as "the beginning or birth of

woman,"

and

is

the opposite of

^

chung (line 113). See also lines 200,

212, 293.

K'O

is

composed of

P

k ou

l

mouth
to

as radical,
itself.

and an obsolete word

meaning vapour
be willing.

striving

free

It originally

meant

to

62

The San
is

Tzii

Ching

Tu

composed of
its

^f

yen words as radical, and a phonetic which
is

under
really

modern form
corruption

identical with jj| mai* to

sell,

but
yii.

is

the
to

of

an obsolete word pronounced

It

means

hum
it

over books, to study; with another reading tou A
of a sentence, in which sense

(Hue 110)
it is

means the completion

said to be used for ^B. iou* to stop.
l

Mai

to sell

was originally
pei valuables

composed of
(line 8),

jj{

c7i

u to dispose of (line 210) and

J|

and pei
ii.

J| map to buy was composed of p*| wang a net valuables = to get valuables into one's net; see Mencius
while

~J\

,

X,

6,

7.

[These two lines are rendered by Eitel, "Then
the so-called

perchance,

as

to

Six Classics, a beginning can be
is

made

to read

them." But there

no authority for translating

ju by "perchance." Pere Zottoli has "Quoad sex canonicos, tunc
poterunt praelegi." But prwlegi makes gj| tu the act of the teacher
instead
teacher,
line

of the
to
et

pupil, pralegere

meaning

to read to others as a

show how a thing should be
seqq.~]

read, to lecture. See

283

135.

H Pg
Shih
1

H
Til
s7iu
l

^7J
ft

I

^he Books of

Poetry, of

i

History, and of Changes,

Poetry

book

change

)

Shih
to

is

composed of =y yen words and

^
;

ssu (line 30). It seems
its

have originally meant purpose, will
is

but

only

known

sense

in the earliest records
collected

poetry.

Here
j|§£

it

stands for the 311 ballads
title) is

and edited by Confucius.
line.

Ching (see

understood

with each word in this

Shu

see line 114. It here stands for a
is

fragmentary historical work

which
period

said to have been edited by Confucius

and embraces a

extending from the middle of the 24th cent, to the 8th

cent. B.C.

I

see line 126. It

is

here the famous work (line 141), said to have

The San Tzu Ching

63

been composed B.C. 1150, which contains a fanciful system of
philosophy deduced from the combinations of the Eight Diagrams
or eight sets of lines (line 179).

136.

ifjffl

~F£*
chtun 1
spring

T>J^
>

the Rites of'the Chou Dynasty,

the

Li 5
Rites

Book of

Rites,

and the
Annals,

chHu 1

I

autumn

1

SPrin 9 and Autumn

Li

see line 32. It here stands for

two separate works,

as given in

the translation; otherwise

it

would be impossible

to account for

the Six Classics in line 137. Eitel solves the difficulty by splitting
the

Annals into two, thus "the Spring and Autumn Annals"!
sets

The two
and

of Rites

may be

regarded roughly as the

official

social codes of ancient China.

Ch'un

see line 57. This of the

and the next character form the

title

of

the annals

native State of Confucius between B.C. 722
said to

and 484. These annals are
himself. Their

have been written by Confucius

name

is

derived from the custom of prefixing the

season

to

each

entry,

spring including summer, and autumn

winter (line 160).

Ch'iu

see line 58.

137.

rf$r

^*
liu*
six

&w
J

are called the Six Classics,

Hao* Name

citing

1

classic

Hao

(read hao 2 ) was originally composed of -77 hao a cry of pain

and

^k
it

a

tiger,

and meant

to

call

out, to wail, in

which

senses

is

frequently seen. It came to
is

mean

a designation or

mark, as above, and

now

classed under radical fig hu a tiger.

Liu

see line 75.

Ching

see title.

64

The San Tzu Ching

100

*££>


gfif
chiang*
explain

vfe
chHu
seek

0}
Tang
1

T%
1

]

which should be carefully
1

explained and analysed.

Ought

J

Tang
Ch'ill

see line 36,

Chiang
is

see line 108.
classed

under

radical

^
i.e.

shut

water.

With

it

is

here
shih
(line

understood the word #ff yen to grind (note the radical
stone).

^

[The Six Classics are enumerated by Chuang Tzu
five

174) as the

given above,

without dividing the Rites,

and a Book of Music. Unfortunately the passage in question
(ch.

XIV,

ad

fin.)

is

undoubtedly

an interpolation, and

this

classification

must therefore be referred

to a later date. It has
(line 251),
p.
7,

been customary since the Sung dynasty
dynasty (line 239) as Wylie says, op.

not the T'ang

cit.

to speak of the

complete
Thirteen

Canon
Classics.

as

consisting

of
as

-\* «5£

^

shih

san

ching

Such

works

the Classic of Filial Piety
of classical

(line 131), the ||J jj||

Erh Ya, an ancient vocabulary

and other words and phrases, sometimes spoken of as the Literary
Expositor, and the two less

known commentaries on

the Spring

and Autumn Annals
there
is

(lines

164, 166), have been included; but
list,

actually

no fixed

various editions of the Thirteen

Classics

having

been published with varying contents. Mayers,

in his Reader's Manual, p. 352, reaches the full tale of thirteen

only

by

counting
(line

two of them twice

over.

The Rites

of the

Chou Dynasty
(line
five;

136) was set aside under the Ming dynasty
to

254 K), and the number of so-called Classics reduced
hence we now speak of the Four Books
(line

114) and the

Five Classics.]

The San Tzu Ching

65

139.

# m
Yu z
Have
lien
1

iu
shan 1
hills

There

is

the Lien shan system,

connected

Yu

see line 14.
is

Lien

composed of ljl
possibly derive

ch e a cart

l

and the walking

radical,

and

may

its

meaning from
is

a string of carts. of a system of philosophy

Shan

see line 13. [Lien shan
(line

the

name
to

of permutations

135) said

have been invented by the
the

Emperor ffi ||| Fu
Diagram
140
for hills.]

Hsi, B.C.

2953-2838, who began with

m
Yu 3
Have

Mi
kuei
x

there
tsang*
storehouse

is

the Kuei tsang,

return

Yu

see line 14.
is

Kuei

composed of a contraction of

^ fu

wife (line 56),

chih

to stop (line 120) as radical, as

and an old form of

i^

tui a

heap

phonetic.

It
it

originally
will be

meant the marriage of a woman, in

which sense

found in the Odes.
tsang which
is

Tsang was

originally

^^

composed of

[jjf

ch en

l

(line 54) as radical inserted in
is

^
for

ctiiang a spear,

and which
KJHp ts'ao

now

reserved for such meanings as good, right.

The

vegetation was added later in order to

mark the sense

to conceal.

In modern days
read ts'ang 1
,

it

means a place
means

keeping things, a treasury;

the character

to conceal, to store up. [Kuei
jjj|jj

tsang was the system of the

Emperor
the

Jj|

Shen Nung, B.C.
for

2838—2698,

who began

with

Diagram
p.

earth. Eitel,

borrowing from Wylie (Notes on Ch. Lit.

2), translates this

term by Reverting Deposit; and further, again from Wylie, he

makes the system in

force

under the

f§}

Shang dynasty

(line 188),

and that of line 139 in force under the JS Hsia dynasty

(line 187).]

66

The San Tzu Ching

141

m M

The San Tzu Ching

67

mark

of respect
i.e.

upon

chi a stand,

which was formerly

its

radical;

records of ancient sovereigns to serve as lessons or

examples to posterity.
rules,

Hence

it

came

to

mean

statutes, laws,

and

later,

to hypothecate, to mortgage. It is

now

classed

under radical
the
five

/V pa

eight (line 88), and here refers, as also do
titles,

following

to

certain

chapters in

the

Book

of

History (line 135).

Mo

is

composed of

^

yen words as radical, with

^ mo

not, do

not, as phonetic.

[The Regulations

refer to the sayings
(line 183),

and doings

of wise Emperors, such as

Yao and Shun
all

which have

become a rule of

life

for

ages;

the Counsels to advice of
(line

wise Ministers, such as the Great

Yu

187).]

iu

w m m
Yu 3
Have
hsun*
teach

the Instructions, the

kao*
announce

Announcements,

Yu
Kao

see line 14. see line 107.

Hsun
is

composed of =y yen words
Instructions

as radical,

and

^

Jcao

to

tell.

[The

were addresses of an admonitory character,
to his Prince,

delivered

by some wise Minister
latter's

on the occasion

of

the

accession

to

the

throne.

The Announcements
for various political

were proclamations issued by the sovereign
purposes.]

145.

*r
}

the Oaths, the Charges;

Yu
'U see line 14.

s

shitf

ming*
order

Have

oath

Ihih

is

composed of

(from

^

^
to

yen words as radical, below ^fp she to break

shou

hand

and
bind,

ff

chin

an

axe)

as

phonetic,

and

originally

meant

hence an oath. [She to break was

68

The San Tzu Ching
originally written with
ijuji

ts^ao grass,

arranged vertically, on

the left as radical, instead of the

modern

^

shou hand (^ in

combination); the archaic form of the latter would be thus closely
imitated.]

Ming

is

an ideogram composed of pj h\ou mouth as
271) an order. It means to cause to
destiny.

radical,

with

^
also

ling (line
later,

act, to

employ;

divine commands,
officials,

[The Oaths consisted of

addresses to

calling for assistance

and usually promising

rewards and threatening punishment. The Charges were what the

name

implies, delivered to officials at important junctures.]

146.

these are the profundities of

Shu

1

chih 1
's

ao 4
mystery

the

Book

of History.

Book

Shu
Chih

see line 114.
see line 1. shelter as radical, with

Ao

was originally composed of *** mien a

^

pien

to

distinguish

and ^f- hung

folded

hands below.
lares

It

originally

meant the south-west

corner,

where the

were

placed.

Hence perhaps the modern meanings,

retired, mysterious,

obscure.

147.

n m &
Wo
I
3

Our Duke

of

Chou

chou 1

hung 1
duke
as radical,

Chou

Wo

is

composed of ^$0 ko a spear
is

and a character on

the left which
to
kill.

regarded by some as an old form of

^

sha

Chou

see line 141.
is

Kung
on

said to be

composed of

/V pa

the back turned (line 88)
just, public-

J^

ssu private interests;

hence to divide evenly,

spirited,

which would be the correct attitude

for the ruler of a

The San Tzu Ching
State.

69

[The Duke of Chou was younger brother of "ft
the
first

J^ King
whose
is

Wen,
empire

sovereign of the
to

Chou dynasty

(line 141),

he

helped

consolidate.

The mariner's

compass

attributed to

him by the Chinese. Died B.C. 1105.]

148.

Yf:
Tso*

Jfft
chou 1
chou

jjjg
z

drew up the Ritual of the
I

li

Chou dynasty,

Make

ceremonial

/

Tso

see line 123.

Chou
Li

see line

141.
is

see line 136. [This
It deals

the

official set

of Rites (see lines 136, 138).

with the ranks and duties of government servants, and
six

was originally divided under
which was found

heads (line 149), the last of
the 1st cent. A.D.]

to be missing early in

"*fc|

^^
liu*
six
l

jEj
kuan 1
official

I

in which he set forth the duties

Chu k
Manifest

\

of the six classes of officials,

/

Chu
Liu

is

composed of

tyty

ts

ao grass as radical and 5§" che (line 49).
the sense of to

It is

commonly used in

make

or write a book.

see line 75.
is

Kuan
now

composed of radical

**"*

mien

shelter,

under which
It is

it

is

classed,

and an old word

for heap,

many.

defined as

officials

serving their prince, the lower portion of the character

giving the idea of plurality. [Pere Zottoli's rendering "exhibuitque
sex praefectos"
is

unnecessarily hard and

fast.

The

six divisions

under which the Duke of Chou ranged
l

all officials

were

^5

^
hsia

t

ien

kuan State Counsellors, jfy

ti

kuan Ministers of Finance,

5j|^

^

ctiun kuan Ministers of Sacrificial Worship,

JJ f£

kuan Ministers of War,

^ If

^^

ch'iu

kuan Ministers of Justice,

tung kuan Ministers of Public Works. These were to some

extent prototypes of the modern Six Boards. See lines 50, 57, 58.]

70

The San Tzu Ching

I

J

/ JU
cfo'A
4

f§S
tH z
body
I
J

anc*

^ us S ave
to the

a sealed form

2Vt*w 2

government.

Keep

govern

Ts'un was
<«'at

originally

composed of
to

^p
ask

fc# child as radical and

JP

(line 49),

and meant

compassionately

after.

It is

now

used in the sense of to preserve, to put on record.

Chih
T'i
is

see line 130.

composed of

*p§*

hi bones (line 162) as radical, and a

common

phonetic (line 32). It means the body, to embody, form, shape,
style,
etc.

[Eitel is

wide of the mark with, "And preserved the

rules
l

of controlling personal conduct," thus

making

chih

govern

t i.

The

idea

of course

is

that the promulgation of a definite
fixity of procedure.]

system put an end to anomalies by securing

151.

ys^
Ta k
Great

yj>
hsiao*
small

J|£
tax"
tai
I

The Elder and the Younger
Tai

Ta

see line 127.
see line 113.

Hsiao

Tai was

originally
ts'ai,

composed

of jS-

l

strange,

with a phonetic

pronounced
It

and meant to increase things by dividing them.

now means

to uphold, to

wear on the head, and
is

is

classed

under radical

^

ho a spear, but

here a surname. [The two

Tai were cousins, and both of them distinguished scholars of the

2nd and

1st centuries B.C.]

152

rf
C/m 4
Annotate

II
li
3

IB
chi*

wrote commentaries on the

Book of

Rites.

ceremonies
"^y yen

record

Chu

is

composed of

words with :£ chu master as phonetic.

The

latter character originally

meant the wick of a

candle,

now

The San Tzu Ching
written

71

with

fire jjg£.

Preceded by heaven,

^

:jr

tHen chu,

it

forms the term used by the

Roman

Catholics for God.

Li

see line 32.

Chi

see line 118.

[These last two characters form the

title

of the

work, by the Younger Tai, included

among

the Five Classics of

modern times
(see
title)

(lines 136, 138). It is called Chi
it

and not

J^

Ching

because
old,

was not the actual work of any of the

great

Sages of

but merely a compilation based upon their

utterances.]

153.

JTJC
Shu*
Publish

|§^
sheng*
holy

^
yen 2
words
I
'

They published the holy
words,

Shu

is

composed of the walking radical and a phonetic

said to

have formerly meant a kind of
follow,

millet. It originally signified to

and in

its

later

sense

was expressly distinguished by

Confucius from jft (line 123), the former being simply the act
of transmitting the sayings of others.

Sheng

is

composed of ^Sf erh ear as

radical

and

^

cheng level,

to offer to a superior, a

common
and
is

phonetic. It originally meant

keen

of

apprehension,

now almost

the

equivalent of

inspired,

being applied only to Confucius, Mencius, the great
is

Sages of antiquity, and the Emperor. It

also

employed by

missionaries in Christian terminology. See line 269.

Yen

see line 118.

154#

/|(a
Li*

"^fC
*

(JfJJ

and Ceremonies and Music
I

y
music

pel*

were

set in order.

Ceremony

prepare

'

Li

see line 32.

Yo

or yueh was originally the picture of drums on a stand (note

the -fc

mu wood)

as used at

an ancient orchestral performance.

72
It
is

The San Tzu Ching
defined
as

a

general

name

for

the combinations of the

5 notes of the ancient scale and the 8 musical sounds (line 88).

Read

lo

4
,

it

means pleasure,
written
it

joy, content.
its

Pei was

originally

without

present radical at the

left,

under which form
of

has been explained as an ideogram composed

^j

kou

if

(abbreviated, see line 5) over

^ yung

to use

=

if

wanted

for use, suggesting ready, prepared.

155.

BBS.
YueW
Speak

We

speak of the

Kuo

feng,

kuo 1
State

ftng wind

1

Yiieh

see line 57.

Kuo
Feng

is

composed of g£ huo some one, perhaps,

as phonetic, in an

obsolete
is

word meaning enclosure,

as radical.

composed of
all

jjj ch'ung insects, abbreviated

from J«|, and

j^L

fan

(line

107)

as

phonetic.

It

is

formed with insect

because

when
It

the wind blows in spring, insects are called into

existence.

was one of the 540 Radicals of the Shuo
the 214 Radicals of

Wen
and

retained
is

among

K'ang

Hsi's dictionary,

here elliptical for

^

-f§.

feng su wind

common = manners
States,

and customs. [Kuo feng, the manners and customs of the
is

the
is

title

of the

first

section of the
it

Book

of Poetry (line 135).

It

so called because

was customary

for the various rulers

of the Feudal States to forward to their suzerain,
tzu

^^

l

t

ien

the

Son of Heaven, such

ballads as were

commonly sung

by the people under
to

their jurisdiction. These

were then submitted

the Imperial Musicians,
of the manners

who were

able to judge from their

nature
States,

and customs prevailing in the various
was
thus
enlightened
as to

and

the

suzerain

the

administration of his vassal Princes.]

)

74

The San Tzu Ching
has

Yung

^ yung
being

everlasting (line 254 P) as phonetic, the latter

character
strokes

remarkable
writing.
It

as
is

containing
pretty

all

the elementary

used in

much

the same as feng,

the two characters signifying that peculiar method of crooning or

humming

over verses to oneself, almost universal in China.

See line 263.

159

f#
Shih
1

it
chi
k

trl
wang 1
disappear
J I

When odes ceased to be made,

Poetry

when

Shih

see line 135.
is

Chi

composed of

5f

chi to

hiccough as phonetic, with an obsolete

radical said to

mean

the fragrance of grain. It originally
is

meant

a small meal, rations, but
already, etc.

now

a particle of finality, = since,

Wang
etc.

is

composed of

y\

ju to enter and

|__

an

°^

f° rm °f

$||

yin to conceal. It

means

to escape as a fugitive, to perish, lost,
failed to seize the point

Read wu =
to

not.
wit,

[The Rev. Eitel

of this line,
it

"(As to the Spring and Autumn Annals)
lost,

was when the Book of Odes was already
is

that etc." But
lost,

there

no suspicion that the Odes ever were

the true

explanation being that with the decline of the suzerain's power over
the Feudal States, the construction of

Ya

odes

fell

into desuetude.

See Mencius, Book IV, Pt.
provide a

II,

ch.

21. Neither does Pere Zottoli

very

lucid

rendering in "Carmen

cum

cessaverit,"
liber."]

especially as elsewhere he speaks of the

"carminum

'

''IzP

'lSv
ctiiu
1

1 f
tso
4

I

the Spring and

Autumn

Ch'un 1

(

Annals were produced.

/

Spring see line 136. see line 136.

autumn

make

]

Ch'un
Ch'iu

The San Tzu Ching

75

Tso

see line 123. [Pere Zottoli here adopts a singular idiom,
liber exurgit." If

namely

"chronicorum

he employs "exurgit" (exsurgit

for preference) to avoid the

use of a passive, he misses a good

chance of illustrating the powers of Chinese words, which readily
lend themselves to any voice, mood, or tense, as required. For

two interpolated

lines see

Appendix //.]

l-tjj

JgJS
pao 1
praise
|J~i

H^
pien 3

I

These Annals contain praise

Yu*
Dwell

\

and blame,

blame

/

Ytl

is

composed of

mien shelter as radical, with a

common
and

phonetic. It originally

meant

to sojourn, to be present in,
is

comes by extension to mean allegory, but Eitel
in

quite

wrong

giving

it

here such an extended meaning as "Which, being
11

metaphorically suggestive of either praise or censure.

Pao

is

now composed
i

of

^

pao

to guarantee as phonetic, with

3^

clothes

as

radical

(line

82).

K'ang Hsi gives a
but the Shuo

different

combination

as

the

classical

form,

Wen

gives

another; in fact there are several ways of writing this character,
of

which the one adopted
robes,
to

is

the most

common.

It

originally

meant long
have come

and

these,

conferred by the sovereign,

may

embody the

idea of praise.
valuables, as radical, with
jj.

Pien

has

J|

pei

pearl-oyster,

fa

exhausted (said to be
round) as phonetic.

JE

cheng upright turned the

wrong way

It originally

meant

to injure. [This is the

famous

"praise-and-blame"

theory,

based

upon

the following

words of Mencius, "Confucius completed the Spring and Autumn
Annals,

and
it

rebellious to

Ministers and bad

sons stood aghast."

Hence

came

be said that "one word of such praise was
robe,

more honourable than an embroidered
such censure sharper than an axe."]

and one word of

76

The San Tzu Ching

162

//J

9||
2

^^
~£qf
sAarc
4

JnS>
o
4


bad

) I

and distinguish the good from
the bad.

P^
Pieh
is

Separate

good

)

composed of

JJ

tao knife (in

combination) on the right
to scrape or cut

as radical,

and an obsolete word which meant
flesh

a

man's

from

his

bones.
l

The

latter
is

is

the phonetic of

jgi kuo (line 18) less
P5J

fj k ou mouth, and
flesh; it

*^* ku bones less

(J3 now
88),

in

combination) jou
as

has nothing to do with

-£J
it

ling separate,
is

might be inferred from the way in which

written.

[An

old

form

of
is

pieh

was

two

/\ pa
official

(line

and the modern
.]

/V pa

eight

now

written in

documents ^|J

Shan

see line 2.

O

see line 83.

'

'

ysf
chuan*
record

^hT
che
3

^e ^ nree commentaries upon
I
I

San 1
Three

the above

one

J

San

see title.
is

Chuan

composed of

^

jen

man

as radical,

and

Jf|L

chuan (line 8)
line 269.

as phonetic,

and means a chronicle, a biography. See
,

Read ch'nan 2
(line 213).

it

means

to transmit, to deliver as orders, to

summon

Che

see line 49.

164.

^f
Yu
3

^
kung
1

^L
I

include that of Kung-yang,

yang

2
I

Have

kung

yang

)

Yu

see line 14. see line 147.
see

Kung Yang

line

77.

[Kung-yang

is

here a double surname, being

The San Tzu Ching
that

77

of the

author of one of the three commentaries on the

Spring and Autumn Annals, who flourished in the 5th cent. B.C.

Like that of Ku-liang (Hue 166)

it is

much

inferior to the great

work of Tso
two former,

(line
it

165); indeed, from striking similarities in the
is

has been suspected either that one

a copy of

the other or that both

may

be from the same hand.]

165.

W £
Yu
3

R.
shih
family

that of Tso,

tso
tso

3

Have

Yu
Tso

see line 14.
is

composed of the old form for
hung labour,
its

-^

shou hand as radical, over

T

modern

radical,

and means the

left

hand,

calling to

mind the

discredited position of the left
left
is

hand among
the place

Hindus and other eastern nations. The

now

of honour in China, but in ancient times the right; hence left
is

found in literature with such senses as wrong, heterodox,
it

etc.

Here
the

stands

for

the surname of

^
is

£|$ BJJ Tso-ch'iu Ming,

most important of the three commentators and a reputed

disciple of Confucius. His

commentary

of infinitely
text,

more
is

value,

from every point of view, than the original

and

popularly

known

as the
said
to

Tso Chuan.
be
is

Shih

is

the

picture

of a landslip, with an obsolete

phonetic added. It
clan,
it

now

a radical

meaning family name,

family,

and

is

often tacked

on

to surnames. In the case of a

woman,

then means her maiden name.

166.

7t=?
and that of Ku-liang.

The San Tzu Ching

Liang

see

line

73.

[The

last

two

characters

are

the

double

surname of the third commentator, who
B.C.]

lived in the 5th cent.

16 7

'

WL
Ching 1
Classic
title.

pz/C
chi*

*yj
ming 1
clear
I

When
]

the Classics are

understood,

when
It

Ching
is

see

may

here be noted that the term

Classics

not applied only to the works mentioned in lines 135, 136,
includes
also

but

the

Four

Books
the

(line

115

et

seq.).

Eitel

wrongly

inserts

"six,"

although

commentary

particularly
S sit

repudiates any such limitation: J3J
liu
all

=J -^

^ -^ ^ fy

shu

ching

chieh

ching

yeh the Four Books and Six Classics are

Classics.

Chi

see line 159.
see line 110.

Ming

168.

=£5
Fang
Then
1

"7*J

then the writings of the
various philosophers should

tu

1

tzit

3

read

philosopher

be read.

Fang

see lines 14, 30.

Tu
Tzu

see lines

110/ 134.

see line 11. [This injunction includes

^

-^p chu

tztt

(line

176)

philosophers generally, orthodox and otherwise, line 169 guiding
the student towards his right goal, the ultimate glorification of

Confucianism. Eitel wrongly restricts

it

to "the ten philosophers,"

meaning the
five

five

philosophers mentioned in lines

171—174, with

other lesser lights, the works attributed to some of

whom
-^p
Tztt,

are

now

recognised to be spurious,

viz.

J?\]

~Jr Lieh Tzii,

^

Kuan

Tztt,

and -II

^ -^ Ho Kuan

^ ^ ^ Han

Fei Tzii,

#£ ^J

^ Huai-nan

Tztt.]

The San

Tzti

Ching

79

169

T*v>

Hfc J\
c/i'z
2

'^4*
yao 4
need

(

^ c^

0l^

^ e m P or tant
i

2Vo 4
Choose

l

points in each,

the

'

Ts'O

is

composed of

^

shou hand as radical, and

jj|r

tsui to collect

(line 202) as phonetic.

Ch'i appears

to

have been written

(see line 143) in early ages,

meaning a stand
for

for exhibiting things. It is defined as a

word

pointing at things,

a

demonstrative,

and

is

now

classified

under radical

/V pa

(line 88). It is
article,

sometimes a demonstrative,

and sometimes merely the

definite or indefinite.

Yao

is

composed of an obsolete character representing the two
radical,

hands as

and

^

chiao to interlace, originally a picture

of crossed legs,

as phonetic.

The whole

is

a picture of a

man

standing with his arms akimbo, and meant waist,
JJH with
|^j

now

written

jou

flesh as radical:
it

hence necessary, important,

to need, etc.

Read yao 1
etc.

means

to meet, to intercept, to

make an

agreement,

170.

IB
CM*
Record

£
ch
l

and take a note of
shih*
affair

all facts.

P

the

Chi

see line 118. It is not
rote,

meant that such

facts should be learnt

by

but rather noted for use.

Ch'i

see line 169.
is

Shih

composed of

shih

historian (line 176), its old radical,

with a contraction of

^

chih (line 1) as phonetic,
is

and originally under radical

meant
|

duties of office, to serve. It

now

classed

(obsolete),

and means business,

affairs,

but here points towards

facts,

as opposed to theories,

which

facts

heterodox writers

may

have simply misinterpreted.

.

80

The San Tzu Ching

171.

£
Wu
d

-ftzii
2

%
che
1

The

five

chief philosophers

Five

philosopher

one

Wu
Tzu Che

see line 15. Chief is implied.

see line 11.
see line 49.

172

^ %
Yu 3
Have
hsiin
hsiin
2

f#
are Hsiin,

Yang,

yang 2
yang

Yu

see line 14.
is

Hsiin

composed of

tyty

ts'ao

vegetation as radical, with
It is the

^}J

hsiin

a period of ten days, a decade, as phonetic.

name

of

a plant, not identified, and here the surname of

Sf

fifa

Hsiin

K'uaug

(line 4).
is

Yang

see line 16. It

here the surname of

^

ife

Yang Hsiung

(line 4).

173


Wen
Wen
2

Fj}
chung*
chung

-^
*
tzii*
tzii
)

Wen Chung

Tzii,

I

]

Wen
Tzu

see line 44.
see line 64.
LI.

Chung

Sometimes wrongly written

^fj*

see line

These three characters form the posthumous

title

conferred upon

^

:J||

Wang

T'ung, a philosopher

who

flourished

A.D. 583-616.

174.

» £ £
Chi 2
Reach
lao*
lao
its

Lao
1

Tzti,

and Chuang TztL

chuang
chuang

Chi

is

composed, under

old form, of JJC

V u nanc 0* ne 18) as
*

The San Tzu Ching
radical,

81

and

\

jen man, and

is

explained as to seize the

man

ahead, hence to

come up

to.

Here = and.

Lao

see line 24.
is

Chuang

composed of

l)j))i

ts'ao

vegetation as radical, and
latter,

Jji

chuang strong as phonetic. (The
soldier as its old radical,

composed of Jt

s

^

1

a

with

-£J

chHang or cttuang a bedstead
It is here the

as phonetic,

was the original character.)

surname

of a philosopher of the 4th cent. B.C.,

who wrote on

the teachings

of

Lao Tzu.

175.

$g
Ching
1

* M
tzu*
philosopher
t

When

the Classics and the

ung 1

Philosophers are mastered,

Classic

pierce

Ching

see title
line

and

line

167.

Tzti see

11.

T'ung

see line 131.

the various histories should

Tu 1
Read

chu 1
all

shih

3

be read,

historian

Tu see Chu is

line 134.

composed of

^

yen words and
it

die (line 49).

It is not
it is

necessary

always to translate

rigorously;

sometimes

a

mere sign of the
such as
at,

plural. It also has various prepositional values,

on, in, to, etc.
its

Shih was composed, under
grasping
defined
as
tfj

old form, of

7
sc.

yu hand

(line 18)
is

chung the middle (line 64),

impartiality. It

one who records events, and was applied in early

ages to the Grand Astrologer of the Court.

82

The San Tzu Ching

111

#
K'ao*
Examine
phonetic.

tit
shih*
generation

sf\
/m 4
connect

ana
"

tt*e

genealogical con-

f

I

nections should be examined,

/

K'ao

is

composed of

7^
It

lao

old

(line

24)

abbreviated,
old;

and an

obsolete

originally

meant

then

it

came

to

signify a dead father;

now

it is

the
shih

common term

for examination.

Shih

is

composed of three

-4*

tens, thirty years being the
It is

Chinese estimate of the length of a generation of men.
also used in the sense of

mankind, the world.
tie,

Hsi

is

^

ssu silk,

with a dash at the top, and means to

to

bind. [Eitel translates this line by "Searching their chapters on

genealogy and their family records."
as "records."]

But

hsi

has no such meaning

178

iP(l
Chih 1

$&L
-

"h£$
shih*

so ^ na
] [

^ neen ^°f one dynasty
may
be known.

and the beginning of the
next

chung 1
end
70.

1

Know

beginning]

Chih

see lines 28, see line
line

Chung
Shih

113.

see

134. [Eitel continues "So as to

know both the end

and the beginning of history."]

179

El
Tzu k From

l|!
hsi
1

H "^
nung
till
2,

From Fu Hsi and Shen Nung
I )

vapour

Tzu
Hsi

see line 93.
is

composed of *fy

hsi separation

of vapour, later a particle
i

of emphasis (an old radical), with
It

f||

(line

14) as phonetic.
for

originally

meant vapour, but here stands

the

name

of

the legendary

Emperor ffi Fu
is

(or /{§ P'ao)

^

Hsi,

who

reigned

B.C.

2953 — 2838, and

said to

have developed the Diagrams

The San Tzu Ching
(line

83
is

135) from the marks on the back of a tortoise. It

now

classed under radical

yang a sheep.

Nung

appears under a dozen different forms, the original composition
is

of which
bodies,
light of
J|j|p

obscure. It

is

now

classed

under radical J^ ch en heavenly

l

and seems to have been originally associated with the dim
dawn, but here stands for the name of the legendary Emperor

J=| Shen

Nung,
is

the Divine

Husbandman, who reigned B.C.

2838 — 2698, and
180.

said to have first taught the art of agriculture.

*
Chih*
Arrive

on
J

to the

Yellow Emperor,

huang

2

ti*

yellow

ruler

Chill

see line 94.
is

Huang

composed of
It is

f£J

tien fields and 3fe kuang (line 51) under
five colours
(

an old form.
green,
black),

one of the

prj

chHng blue and

jj^ huang yellow,

^

ch ih red,
is

l

|^J

pai white,

^L

hex

and

is

assigned to earth. It

now

the Imperial colour,

which under the Chou dynasty

(line
fjj

141) was red.

Ti

is

now
it

classed

under radical

chin a napkin, but in early

ages
as

was

classed under
It

Jq

whang above, with Jj£ tz% a thorn
to

phonetic.
of the

originally

meant

investigate judicially,

the

ruler

world, and so
deified

came
spirits

to

mean

the

Supreme Being,
ancestors.

God, and also the
have traced
old
it

of Imperial

Some

to the eight-pointed star of Babylon, but in the

form given in the Shuo Wen dictionary there are but seven

points.

[The Yellow Emperor reigned B.C. 2698—2598, and

is

the reputed inventor of clothes.]

181
'

^L
Hao* Name

^H
san 1
three

HI
huang*
ruler
(
)

tliese

are called the Three

Rulers,

Hao

see line 137.

84

The San Tzu Ching
see title.

San

Huang
It
is

was originally composed
(as

of
roi)

[§|

tzu from, with

^

wang

prince

though de par
under radical

le

as radical,

and means great.

classed

Q

pai white (hence a suggested
is

connection with the White Tsar), and
*ffi

part of the term j||

huang

ti

Emperor. [Mr. Demetrius Boulger made an amusing
vol. I, p. 6, note,

blunder in his History of China,

by confounding

Huang
of
line

ti

Emperor,

as above, with

Huang
the
for

ti

the Yellow

Emperor
it

180:— "Hoangti means
became
a usual
title

Yellow
the
first

Emperor; but
ruler

henceforth

of a

new

dynasty to take."]

182.

±
Chu}
Abide

ffi,
J

who

lived in the early ages.

shang*
top

shih*
generation

Chu
It

is

composed of f*

shih a corpse as radical, to

and

"jjj

hu ancient.

originally

meant
l

squat on the heels, and

is

now

classed

under radical

|ZJ

k ou mouth.

Shang
Shih

see line 75.

see line 177.

183.

M
T ang
l

T'ang and Yu-yu
yil
yii
2

2

yu z
yu

T'ang

T'ang

is

composed of pj tfou mouth as
It

radical,

with Jj^ king to
to

change as phonetic.
boast.
It

originally
for

meant big words; hence,

here stands

tbe

famous Emperor, better known

\
Yu

from

his canonisation

as

^

Yao, who reigned B.C. 2357 — 2258

and had previously been Marquis of T'ang.
see line
is

14.

Yti

composed of fig hu
phonetic,

tiger as radical, with

J^ wu

(line
It

223)

as

and originally meant a fabulous animal.

now

The San Tzu Ching

85

means
=

to reckon, to be anxious,

etc.,

and here stands, with yu

occupier, for the place of birth of the famous Emperor, better
his

known from
2255—2205.

canonisation as

^

Shun, who reigned B.C.
to

[Eitel translates,

"Next comes Tang having Yu

follow him." Pere Zottoli says in a note

"Yeou yu

vero dicitur

Choen ^Ep imperator, item a feudi nomine," which would appear
to be incorrect.]

184

M

are called the

Two

Emperors.

86
to

The San Tzu Ching

have meant to pick up with the

J|^

chao claws, fingers. It

originally signified to weigh, hence to estimate, to entitle.
ch'eng*
it

Read

is

a weighing-machine.
Jjjj£

Slieng

is

composed of
JflJ,

ctieng (line 26) as phonetic,

and an obsolete

radical

min

dishes.

Read

ch'eng

2

it

means

to hold, to contain.

Sllih see line 177. [Pere Zottoli seems to have pressed the hsiang
too
closely,

"mutuique honoris observantia, nuncupatur

floren-

tissima aetas." Eitel misses the

meaning of both
resigned,

lines,

"who

in

mutual

deference

successively

Though they were by
has evidently read
yj=J

reputation
for

most prosperous

rulers."

He


187.

with "Chan Yo-han."]

M
Hsia*
Hsia

M
yu 3
yu

The Hsia dynasty had

Yii;

yu

z

have

Hsia

see line 57.
14.

Yu Yu

see line

originally

meant

insects,

and

jjj ch

l

ung insects might well have

been chosen as

its radical. It is

however classed under an obsolete

word
for

[Xj

jou the footprints of certain animals, and here stands
wise
Minister,

the

afterwards
as

first

Emperor of

the

Hsia

dynasty, popularly

known

-fc

^

ta

yu the Great Yu, who
for

reigned B.C.
the

2205—2197. He

is chiefly

famous

having drained

empire of a vast body of water, which some have tried to

identify with Noah's flood.

188

Sf
Shang
Shang
1

^f
/m
yu 3
[
l

the
t

Shang dynasty hadT'ang;

ang

]

jTunre
j^J

fang
with

Shang
it,

is

composed of

nei inside,

p| k'ou mouth inside
tj|l

the two forming an old radical, with
is

chang a document,
fZf

abbreviated, as phonetic. It

now

classed

under radical

tfou

The San Tzu Ching

y
87

mouth, and

is

the

name

of a dynasty which lasted from B.C.

1766-1122.

Yu

see line 14.
is

T'ang

composed of jfc shui water as
(lines

radical,

with a

common
It

phonetic

16,

126),
first

and originally meant hot water.

here stands for the

Emperor
and
is

of the

Shang dynasty, who

reigned
ch eng
l

B.C.

1766

— 1753

popularly
(line 26).

known

as

^^
Wen

tang T'ang the Completer

189.

/ttj

yi
1

j^
wu
z
j

the

Chou dynasty had
and

Chou
Chou

we?i

2

Wu; —

wen

wu

J

ChOU

see line 141. see line 44.

Wen

Wu

is

composed of

chili

to stop, as radical,

and

^

ko spear,

weapons; stoppage of
This etymology
B.C. 595.
is

hostilities

being the ultimate object of war.

dated back in the Tso Chuan (line 165) to

these are called the Three

Clieng 1
Entitle

san

1

wang
king

2

Kings.

three

Ch'eng

see line 186.

San

see title.
is

Wang
to

composed of three horizontals which stand
and

for heaven,

earth,

man
than

in the middle,
to

the line for

man

being nearer

heaven

earth,

in

token of his divine obligations.
line

These are united by a vertical
of the sovereign.

which

typifies the influence

The character was

originally a radical, but is
11

now
in

classed under

V™

jade.

Read wang

=

to rule.

[The two

line

189,

King

Wen

and King

Wu, who

were father and

son,

count only as one.

For although King

Wu

was the

first

88
sovereign of the
as its

The San Tzu Ching

Chou dynasty
and
is

(line 141),

King

Wen

is

regarded

virtual founder,

thus allowed to share posthumously

in the honours of his son.

Wen

and

Wu

are the

names under

which they were severally cauonised.]
191.

53
Hsia*
Hsia

//til

SSL
tstt
3

1

Under the Hsia dynasty the
throne was transmitted from
father to SOn
'

[

ch'uan 2
transmit

\

child

!

Hsia

see line 57.

Ch'uan

see line 163.
11.

Tzu

see line

[Up

to the time of the Great Yii,

some virtuous

man had

always been chosen as successor to the reigning monarch,

a system, which Yii himself strove to carry on. After his death,

however, his nominee was set aside and his own son was appointed.]

192

$a
Chia 1
Family
*

% %
t'ien
1

making a family
[

possession

hsia k

of the empire.

heaven

below

Chia

is

composed of

J"4

mien shelter as radical, and
is

^

chia a boar,

abbreviated, as phonetic. It

the equivalent of our word home,

a pig under a roof forming an ideogram which should be especially

suggestive to our neighbours in the sister

isle.

T'ien

see line 50.
is

Hsia

composed under

its

old

form of a

line

below a

line,

thus

forming an ideogram

(line

75). It is
all

now

classed under radical


is

t

one.

[Under heaven,

beneath the canopy of the sky,

the

common term

for the empire, as being

commensurate with

the world. For the above two lines Eitel has, "(As to the time

occupied by each Dynasty,) as the founder of the Hsia delivered
the throne to his son (B.C. 2197), his family possessed
all

the

country to Heaven subject."]

The San Tzu Ching
193

89

E B M
Ssu* Four

\

After four hundred years,

pai 3
hundred

tsai

3
\

year

)

Ssu
Pai

see title.

see line 46.
is

Tsai 4

composed of IpL

ctii

cart

as

radical,

and an obsolete
contain, to load,

phonetic (line 151), and originally meant to
full,

complete,

etc.

Read

tsai

3

it

means a

year,

which sense seems

to

have been derived from

full,

complete.

There are however
is

other and more fanciful explanations. [Four hundred

a round

number. The Hsia dynasty lasted from B.C. 2205—1766. Eitel
says to 1818, but this was the date of the accession of the last

Emperor.]

3d=£
Ctiien
1

^J^,
hsia*
Hsia

JJLC
she*
sacrifice

I

the Imperial sacrifice passed

\
'

from the House of Hsia.

Move

Ch'ien

see line 6.

Hsia

see line 57.
is

She

composed of
t'u earth,

7J\

shih divine manifestation as radical,
spirit of the

and

-f*

and originally meant lord or

earth;

hence, sacrifices to such spirits, the sacrificial

communion

of the
[Eitel
11

Emperor, the Son of Heaven, with the Supreme Being.
has,

"When
is

at last

Heaven removed Hias

tutelary altar.
l

But

there

no need to supply Heaven as a subject
is

to ch ien; the

root idea

sufficient.]

195.

a
T ang
l

T'ang the Completer
hsia*
hsia
\

l

fa

1

destroyed the Hsia dynasty

T'ang

fell

T'aDg

see line 188.

90

The San Tzu Ching
is

Pa

composed of

J^

jen

man and

^

ko a spear, and

means

to

cut down, to destroy. See line 249.

Hsia

see line 57. [Gradually the sovereigns of this dynasty,
brilliant auspices (line 187),

which

had been founded under such
to degenerate, the climax

began
i^fe

being reached under the reign of
to

%fe Chieh Kuei,

who came

the throne in B.C. 1818 and for

many

years indulged in cruel brutality and lust almost unparalleled

in history.]

196.
/!y|j
Jfffl
[

and the dynastic

title

became

Kuo 2
State

hao i

shang 4
shang

"

I

Shang.

name

Kuo Hao

see line 155.

see line 137.
see line 188.

Shang

[Shang was further changed

to

j|§

Yin in

B.C. 1401.]

,/*>

w
Pj
pai*

zfgd
tsai*

I

The

line lasted for six

ZiV
Six

hundred years,
\

hundred

year

Liu
Pai
Tsai

see line

75.

see line 46.
see line 193.

198.
Chih*
Arrive

m
chou*
chou

ending with Chou Hsin.

wang 1
disappear

Chih

see line 94.
is

Chou
be

composed of
l

jfe ssu silk as radical,
is

and what appears

to

tJ

t8

un an inch but

really

an abbreviation of

f$

chou

elbow, as phonetic. It originally meant crupper, but here stands
for

ffi ^=t

Chou Hsin, who was under

this

Yin or Shang dynasty

The San Tzu Ching
precisely

91

what Chieh Kuei

(line 195)
its

had been under the Hsia

dynasty, the immediate cause of

downfall.

Wang

see line 159.

199.

m n i
Chou
1

92

The San Tzu Ching
see
line

Tsai

193.

[The Chou dynasty lasted from B.C.

1122-

B.C. 255.]

202.

*

the longest dynasty of

all.

The San Tzu Ching

93

204.

7PIWJ

l*2>
chui*
sink

I

the feudal bond was

Wang*
Prince

kang 1
bond

\

slackened

Wang
Kang
Chui
is

see line

190.
.

see line 53.

composed of

J^

*'

M eartn as radical, with ffi
is

tui*

a group,

a regiment, as phonetic. [The idea
vassal States to the

that the allegiance of the

^ wang
seems

suzerain began to
to

grow weak, which
disciplina
is

Pere

Zottoli

hardly

reach

with "Regura

corruit," as

though wang referred to the feudal nobles. Eitel

nearer with "The sovereign's authority began to totter."]

5c£
Ctteng 3
Violent

I

J
1

^\A
ko
1

I

the arbitrament of spears and
shields prevailed;

lean

(

shield

spear

J

Ch'eng

is

composed of the walking

radical,

and

Jjjl

ctieng,

which

now means
to

to proffer or tender, as phonetic. It originally

meant

go through, to move with speed, and then as here, to act
it

with violence at slight provocation. [Eitel translates

"raised."]

Kan

is

composed, under

its

old

form, of

down, and

y\

ju to enter, upside

i

one. It originally

meant

to oppose,

and must

be distinguished from ^t* (line 47).

Ko

is

supposed to be a picture, under
It is

its

old form, of the particular
%

kind of spear intended.

and —

composed of ~^J

a sharpened stake

*

i

one.

206.

ft
Shang
1

mi
"

and peripatetic politicians
\

yu 1

shui*
counsel

were held in high esteem.

Esteem

travel

Shang
and

is

composed of

/V pa
to

(line 88)

and

|fij

hsiang towards,
adverbial

originally

meant

add

to;

hence

its

value

94
still,

The San Tzu Ching
notwithstanding.
small.
It
is

now

classed

under

radical

/Jn

lisiao

Yu

is

composed

of

the

walking

radical

and a phonetic which
It is used

originally

meant a streamer or pennant.

with |J^,

which

is

now

a distinct character but which appears to have

been once only another form.

Shui

(see line 122)

means

to

stop, to halt, to counsel,

and here
State to

refers

to

a class

of adventurers
for

who wandered from
etc.

State,

offering
is

plans

vengeance

on

rival

rulers.

This
in.

character

also

sometimes read yueh*, for '|^ to take pleasure

207,

# m ®
Shih
3

This period began with the
Spring, and
/

ctiun

1

c/i'zV

Autumn

epoch,

Begin

spring

autumn

Shih

see line 134.
see line 57.

Ch'un
Ch'iu

see line 58.

[With the transfer of the Court
later

(see line 203)

the period

known

on as the Spring and Autumn may be

roughly said to have begun, although the work of Confucius

which gave

its

name

to the

epoch

starts only
last

from B.C. 722.
for the book,

Pere Zottoli strangely mistakes the

two words

and translates by "Initio apparuit Chronicorum
could
scarcely

liber."

The book
it

have appeared at the beginning of the period

describes.]

208.

^>
Chung
End
1

|g^
chan*
fight

||||

and ended with that of the
(

kuo 2
state

Warring

States.

]

Chung see line 113. Chan is composed of
phonetic.

^

ko

spear

as radical, with tan single as

Kuo

see line 155. [The Spring

and Autumn period,

as chronicled

The San Tzu Ching

95

by Confucius, ended in B.C. 484, after which the States quarrelled

among themselves
or

for

two hundred years, the greater coercing

absorbing the less powerful, until the event related in lines
212.
l

211,

There

is

an

historical

work, the

|ȣ

§§

^j|

Chan

kuo

ts e,

which records the troubles of these times, covering the

period B.C.

362-255.]

209.

-9*

H#
pa*
chief

T!R
ch'iang
strong
2
1

Next, the Five Chieftains
domineered,

Wu
Five

3

J

Wu
Pa
is

see line 15.

composed of

J=J

yueh moon,

its old

radical,

and an obsolete
It is

phonetic,
classed

and originally referred to the new moon.
j|f

now

under radical

yu

rain.

[The Five Chieftains were

Dukes J^S Huan,

^C Wen, j|

Hsiang,

^

Mu, and Prince jj£

Chuang. They were the rulers of various States under the Spring
and

Autumn
is

period.]
jjj ch
l

Ch'iang
the

composed of

wig insect as

radical,

with ij£ hung
fierce

clang of a
fly.

bow

as phonetic,
classed

and originally meant a

kind of
is

It is

now

under radical

^

Jcung a

bow, and

also written

Jjjj.

210.

^
CfcS*

jjflg£

pj
ch'u
1

I

an d the Seven Martial States

hsiung*

i
'

came

to the front.

Seven

male

come-forth

Ch'i

see line 84.
is

Hsiung
the

composed of
as phonetic,

^
and

chui birds as radical, with
is

^

Jcung

arm

defined as

J^ $£

niao fu the male

of birds (line 18).

[The States alluded to as flourishing during

the second epoch were

^

Ch'in, $fe Ch'u, |5£ Ch'i, job Yen,

gg Han, J| Chao, and || Ch'u was originally a picture

Wei.]
of luxuriant vegetation,

and meant

96
to
Its

The San Tzu Ching

go

in,

a sense which
radical is |_J
,

is

still,

though

rarely,

attached to

it.

modern

an obsolete word meaning
line

to contain.

[Pere
sunt,"

Zottoli

translates

this

by "septem potentes exorti
not to States, since he

by which he

refers to
latter

men and

always translates the

by "regna."

He

does not however

mention in his notes the names of the seven heroes to
he alludes.
Princes
the

whom
as the

Ho

Hsing-ssti gives
first

them

in his

commentary

of the

six States given above,

with the Prince of
is

|^

Liang State as the seventh. The translation adopted

based on

Wang

Hsiang's commentary.]

911 l
'

Ml
Ying*
Ying

£?3

Xs.* *

5R*
chHn 2
ch'in

P\

m^k
shitf

J

Then
\

the

House of Ch'in,

descended from the Ying clan,

family

/

Ying

is

composed of ~J£
left out,

nil

woman, and

j|||

lei

thin with

i&

yang

sheep
It

the latter being given in the Shuo

Wen

as phonetic.

was the family name of the Emperor
is

Ap

^

Shao Hao, B.C.
like jjj£ hsing

2958, and

classed like other old clan names,

and

surname (= woman-born, from
produce), under

^

nil

woman and

to /J£ sheng

^

as radical. See line 350.

Ch'in
of

is

composed of
cli'un

-^

ho grain as radical, and a contraction

^
see

spring (line 57) as phonetic. It was the

name

of a

fief

bestowed

upon

the

descendants of a

Minister under the

Emperor Shun

(line 183)

and adapted for growing grain.

Shin

line

165.

[Pere Zottoli has

"Yng

e Ts'in familia,"

and

shows by

his note that

he means "familia" to belong to "Yng."

Eitel has "a

man

of the Ying clan, being the sovereign of the

TsHn family." The translation however must be based on the
following facts.

Ying was

the

name
the

of an old family or clan,
fief

one

member

of which

received

of Ch'in for services

rendered to a sovereign

of the

Chou dynasty;

^

1|J |§;

J^

The San Tzu Ching

97

hence the House of Ch'in and the First Emperor (see line 212).]

212,

$R
Shih
3

frit
chien
1

TT
ping*
unite
(
)

finall

7 united

a11

the States

under one sway.

Begin

together

Shih

see line 134. [Eitel translates with fatal inaccuracy

"Commenced

to absorb

and to unite

etc."]

Chien

is

composed of a hand

(old form) grasping
it

two (-

plurality)

ears of grain,

under which radical
(^ ne 88).

was originally

classed,

now

under

/V V a

Ping

is

composed of
as

J^

ts'ung to follow, its old radical, with
It

^f"

chHen level

phonetic.

originally

meant

to follow; hence,

two together, united,

etc.
Jean

It is also explained as
shields, q.d. united.

two J\^ jen

men

grasping two ~jp

[The above union

was accomplished in B.C. 221 by the then ruler of the Ch'in
State.

After

vanquishing

and absorbing the other
1

States,

he

succeeded in proclaiming himself
First

jffi

|f|

'jjj

Shih

Huang

Ti the

Emperor of a united China. He

died B.C. 210.]

21B

*

|^
CVuan 1
Transmit

-*

JU
shih*
shih
)

The throne was transmitted
to

erh*
erh

Erh

Shih,

Ch'uan

see line 163.
title.

Erh
Shih

see
see

line

177.
is

[Erh Shih, or Second Generation,

is

the

title

under which

known

in history the youngest son of the First

Emperor, the

latter

having declared that the line he founded
His elder brother

should endure for ten thousand generations.

was

murdered

to

clear

the

way, a fate he himself shared in
title,

B.C. 207. Eitel wrongly translates the
result,

with the following
only to the second

"the throne of which

was

delivered

generation."]

98

The San Tzu Ching

214.

upon which followed the
struggle between the Ch'u

CA'm 3
Ch'u

han*
han

cheng 1
contend

and the Han

States.

Ch'u
is

is

composed of

^

lin

a forest (line 66), one half of which
it
is

the radical under which
bale)

now

classed,

and yj£ (now p

k

i

3

a piece or
chief

an old form of Jj^

tsu foot, as phonetic.

Its

meanings are

to punish, clear, perspicuous;

but

it

is

here

only the

name

of a State (line 210).
as radical,

Han
of
is

is

composed of ^JC shui water
nan
difficult

and a contraction

Jj||

as phonetic. It originally

meant waves, and

the

name

of a famous river. It has also been applied to the
is

Milky Way, and

here the
J|\,

name

of a State.
its

Cheng

is

composed of

chao claws,

modern

radical,

which

is

the picture of a hand with the back uppermost, jj^ yu a hand
(line

18),

and an obsolete character meaning to drag,

i.e.

two

hands tugging.

215

-*=*

I?*!

III

Then Kao Tsu
tsu
tsu
3

arose,

Kao
Kao

1

hsing 1
rise

Kao
TSU

see line 89.

see

line

89.

[Kao

tsu
first

is

a

"temple name," often bestowed
(line 239).

after death

upon the
in

Emperor of a dynasty
was ^|J
ffi

The

Emperor here
beadle,

question

Liu Pang? a quondam

who

in B.C. 202, after a successful revolution,
first

mounted

the throne as

Emperor

of the

Han

dynasty.]
|ij

Hsing

is

composed of £j chiu a mortar with
the

t'ung (line 106)

inserted,

lower

portion being originally
(c/.

a pair of hands
to

holding up the mortar

line 87). It

means by extension

prosper. [Eitel wrongly translates

"Kao

Tsu, being victorious. "]

The San Tzu Ching

99

216.

m m
Han*
Han
yeh*
cliien*
\

and the House of Han was
established.

patrimony establish .Wish)

Han Yeh

see line 214.

was originally composed of

ffj

chin a napkin below

an obsolete

radical

meaning luxuriant

vegetation, and
classed

meant a toothed board

for a stand of bells. It is

now

under radical

^ mu wood,
=fe
(line 114),

and means property,

trade, calling, etc.

Chien is composed

of

J_ yin

to progress as radical,
liX

and

here a contraction of
the laws of a State.

^

statutes. It originally

meant

to fix

217.

jg
Chili*

2p
hsiao"
hsiao

When we come
\

to the reign

p'ing*
p'ing

of Hsiao P'ing,

Arrive

Chih
Hsiao
P'ing

see line 94. see line 35.
see line

130. [Hsiao P'ing

is

here the dynastic

title

of the

Emperor who came
218.

to the throne in

A.D.

1.]

T
Wang* Wang

^
"tHr

^§5»
ts'uan*
I

Wang Mang

usurped the

mang 3
mang

throne.

usurp

J

Wang
Mang
it

see line 190.
is

composed of
l

^

ctiuan

a

dog

(line

78)

lying

down

in

the middle of *Mi
is

ts

ao vegetation, doubled, under which radical

now

classed. It

means jungle, and

also rude, coarse, but is

here merely part of the
the throne between A.D.

name

of a famous usurper

who

occupied

9—23.
suan to calculate as phonetic, and

Ts'lian
ssu

is

composed of

^

J^

an obsolete word meaning

private, selfish, as radical. It is

100
defined
as
to

The San Tzu Ching
rebel

and

seize,

which sense

is

fairly

deducible

from the component

parts.

219

"Ml
Kuang
Kuang
1

iS *^
wu wu
3

ffc

^*
rise

1

Then Kuang

Wu

arose,

hsing

1

l

/

Kuang

see line 51.

Wu
of

see line 189.
see line 215.
(line

Hsing

[Kuang

Wu

is

the dynastic

title

of a descendant

Kao Tsu

215) in the ninth degree,

who

destroyed

Wang
25.

Mang

the Usurper and placed himself
Eitel

upon the throne in A.D.
victorious.]

Here again

wrongly renders hsing by

lm
Wei
2

Jrl
twig
east
1

1

and founded the Eastern Han
dynasty.

han*
han

I

Make

]

Wei
Tung

see line 24. see line 62.
see line 214.

Han

[Under the former dynasty, now known as

jflj

fit hsi han the

Western Han or
was at
to

as the

]|jj

jra|

ch ien han Earlier
It

l

Han, the

capital

-^

75^

Ch'ang-an in Shensi.
in

was

moved eastward

j^f

|j|?

Lo-yang

Honan by Kuang Wu;
is

hence the term Eastern. This dynasty
hou han the Later

also

known

as

^

4||

Han, a name subsequently bestowed upon

one of the Five Dynasties mentioned in lines 247
221.
lasted four

— 250.]

hundred years,

Ssu*

pai 3
hundred

men
year

1

Four

Ssu
Pai

see

title.

see line 46.

Nien

was originally written with

^

ho grain

as radical above

The San Tzu Ching

1(J1

^

ch ien a thousand as phonetic,
it

l

and meant ripe grain, from
is

which
radical

is

not a very far cry to year. It
(line 205).

now

classed

under

^p

222.

m n
Chung 1 End

and ended with the Emperor
hsien*
\

yu 2
with

Hsien.

hsien

Chung
Yil

see line 113.

see line 35.
is

Hsien

composed of

-^

cttuan dog as radical, with an obsolete

word meaning tripod

as phonetic. It

was

originally a term applied

to fat dogs offered in sacrifice at the ancestral temple. It

means
of the

to
last

present to

a

superior,

but

is

here the dynastic

title

Emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty, whose reign ended

A.D. 221.
223.

% %
Wei* Wei
shu z
shu

Wei, Shu, and

Wu,

wu 1 wu

Wei

is

composed of

^

wei to depute as phonetic, with

J^

kuei

disembodied spirit as radical. It here stands for portions of modern
Shansi and Honan, over which a son of the great
Ts'ao ruled as
first
||J

^

Ts'ao

Emperor.
its

Shu

is

composed, under
[=}

old form, of

^

ch ung insect as radical,

l

below

mu

eye as formerly written,
caterpillar

with a curved

line.

It

originally

meant

or looper, the curved line being a

picture

of the loop formed by

the insect

when moving.
'f|J

It is

here a
a

name

for

modern

Sstich'uan, over

which ^|J

Liu Pei,

quondam
is
l

artisan, ruled as first
is

Emperor.

Wu

a

common surname, and
iou

popularly

known
of tiou

as

p

^ ^.
t'zen,

k ou

t'ien

the

wu which
It

is

made up

and

in

allusion

to

its

structure.

here stands for that part of the

10£

The San Tzu Ching
empire

known
first

as

modern Kiangsu, over which

-^

|||

Sun

Ch'iian

ruled as

Emperor.

224.

# m $
Cheng 1
Contend

fought for the sovereignty of
\

han*
han

ting*
tripod

the Hans.

)

Cheng

see line 214.

Han
Ting

see line 214.
is

a picture of a bronze vessel with three legs and
is

two handles,

used for burning incense. It

here figuratively employed, just

as throne is often used in English.

225.

The San Tzu Ching
It

403
to

was originally the twenty-fourth part of an ounce, equal

the weight of 100 grains of millet, but

now = TV

of a

fr

(line 3)

and

is

classed under radical
originally
c hih

A ju
Q

to enter.

Chin was
of

composed of

jih

sun beneath a contraction
to
all

3S

arrive,

duplicated,

and meant

go

in.

It

was

explained thus:
It

"When

the sun comes out,

things go in."

here stands for the Western Chin dynasty, A.D. 265 — 317,
called because their

and the Eastern Chin, A.D. 317—420, so
capitals

were at

{^

||r

Lo-yang

in

Honan and

|j| }j(

Nanking

in Kiangsu, respectively.

227.

*
Sung*
Sung
ch
l

Then followed
2
i

the

Sung and

chi*

\

the Ch'i dynasties,

ch'i

connect

Sung

is

composed of

i-1-*

mien shelter as radical and
It is

^ mu
a
its

wood,

and originally meant a hut, a dwelling.

now

common

surname, and here stands for a dynasty, A.D. 420—479, generally

known

as the

0|J

^

Liu Sung, from the surname of
(line

founder,

to distinguish it

from the great Sung dynasty

251).

Ch'i under
up
is

its

old

form was a picture of ears of grain growing
It

level,

and was intended to express the idea of evenness.

here the
is

name

of a dynasty,

A.D. 479—502.

Chi

composed of

^

sstt

silk

and an old word which meant
its

broken turned round as though mended; hence
splice,

meanings, to

to continue a line.

2-28.

y)v"
Liang 2
Liang

|yjv
ch'en
ch'en
2

/IjjS
cfreng*
receive]

I

and

after

them the Liang and

Ch'en dynasties.
J

Liang

is

composed of ^C ™** wood
j||J

as radical, with ^JC shui water,
line 242) as phonetic. It

and ^J» ch'uang to wound (=

means

104
a bridge, a beam, and

The San Tzu Ching
is

here the

name

of a dynasty, A.D. 502

— 557.

See lines 73, 245.

Ch'en

is

composed of J|L /w 4 or fou* a mound,
left

|{

in combination,

always on the

(line 230),

as radical, ~fc

mu

wood, and

^
is

shen to report as phonetic, and has apparently no connection with

j|^ tung east (line 62). It means to set forth, to state, and

here the

name

of a dynasty, A.D.

557—589.

Ch'eng

is

composed of
official seal

^

shou hand as radical, with

p

chieh the

half of an

or tally, and an obsolete character

meaning

the hands reverently folded. It signifies to receive from a superior.

229

"^9

Ff3
nan
2

^&J
cVao
2

I

These are the southern
dynasties,

Wei
Be

2

(

south

court

]

Wei Nan

see line 24.
see line 61. Referring to the four dynasties in lines 227, 228,

to each of

which the word nan southern
jjjA

is

often prefixed.

Ch'ao

is

composed of

ban dawn (into the composition of which

enters

J^

tan the sun appearing above the horizon, dawn),

an

old radical, and

-^

chou boat as phonetic. It was originally read
(line 265).

chao

1
,

and meant early morning

Read

ch ao

l

2

it

means

the

Court,

audiences being held at dawn, and so by extension
its

a dynasty. In consequence of

change of form

it is

now

classed

under radical
230.

JjJ

yiceh the

moon.

& m
TV
Capital

with their capital at Nanking.

chin 1
chin

ling
ling

1

Tu

is

composed of

^

(line 49)

and

^

i

a

town or hamlet,
all,

[J

in

combination, always on the right (line 228). It also means

every.

Chin
Ling

see line 66.
is

composed of J|l fou a mound

(line

228) as radical, with

The San Tzu Ching
a

105
especially of a tomb.
capital,

common
is

phonetic. It

means a tumulus,

Chin-ling

here an old

name

for

Nanking, the southern

which had also been the capital under the Eastern Chin dynasty
(line 226).

231.

-\y
Pei s
North

-pr+
yuan*
yuan

ijSm
wei k
wei

j

The northern dynasties are
the

Wei

dynasty of the
fami1

I

Y *an

)

^

Pei

see line 61.

Yuan see line 94. Wei see line 223.

Here a surname.
[The Northern Wei dynasty was founded in
jfft

A.D. 386 by a Tartar of the

ffi
to

Toba family, which name

was changed by a
translates

later

Emperor

jQ Yuan.

Eitel

wrongly

"The northern (Toba, subsequently

called) Yuen, family
is

established the

Wei dynasty." The construction however

peculiar,

there being a pause at pei, the influence of which extends
to line 234.]

down

232.

<yj

jp[
tung 1
east

g|j
hsi'

which

split into

Eastern and

Fen 1
Divide

Western Wei,

west
^° divide (line 88), its old radical,
radical.

Pen

is

composed of

/V V a

and

7J

tao a knife, its

modern

Read /e«

4

it

means

share,

portion.

Tung
Hsi

see line 62.

see line 62. [In A.D.
its

534 the Northern Wei came

to

an end,

and from

ruins

arose the short-lived Eastern and

Western

branches which were displaced by the Ch'i and Chou (see lines
233, 234) dynasties, respectively.]

The San Tzu Ching
meat, and was pronounced
J|L fou a

107

*V
and

(line 20). It is
is

now

classed

under

mound

(line 228),

the

name

of a dynasty founded

A.D. 589.
236.

- ± ¥
I
1
l

the empire was united under
I

t

u

3

yii

3

one

ruler.

One

earth

sky

I see line 45.

T'U

see line Q6.
see

Yu

line

233.

[Eitel

says

the Sui dynasty "united in one the
is

central lands as well as the borders." There
this

no authority
territory,

for
i.e.

violence done to

tu

yii,

which simply means

empire.]

The throne was not
transmitted twice,

Pu

see line 5.
is

Tsai
is

composed of

i

one, and a contraction of

^

kou which

said

to be a picture of mutually

handing over in exchange,
etc.,

out of which some idea of two, second,
It is

has been "chiselled."
\~]

now

classed

under an obsolete radical

meaning waste

land on the very outskirts of the
that the dynasty ended with
its

known

world. [The line means

second Emperor.]

L'uan see

line

163.

)

408

The San Tzu Ching
is

T'ung
fill,

composed of
fulfil,

^

sstt

silk as radical

and

^

ch ung to
all,

l

to

as

phonetic.

It

means

to

gather together,

collectively,

etc.

Hsu

is

composed of
and

^
is

ssn silk as radical,

and

che (line 49)

as phonetic,

defined as one end of a skein of silk, giving
it

the idea of continuity. In this sense
nien

enters into the 4fs

|jj|

hao year-title of the reigning Emperor,
as
-*fc

who

is

popularly

known
239.

/$$

Kuang Hsu Glory Continued.

fc
Tang 2
T'ang

A
tsu
3
[

The

first

Emperor of the

kao 1
high

T'ang dynasty

ancestor

T'ang

see line 183. [This dynasty flourished
brilliant

A.D. 618

— 907,

and

formed a

epoch in Chinese history.]

Kao
Tsu

see line 89.
see line 89.

[The founder's name was

^5

jj^ Li Yuan.]

240

4e
ChH
3

H
P
duty

6ilJ
J

raised volunteer troops.

shih 1
soldier
/

Raise

Ch'i

is

composed of

j^

tsou to
to

walk as
rise,

radical,

and tl
etc.

i

finished

as phonetic. It also

means

to begin,

I see

lines

14, 69. [Eitel here translates
is,

"by raising
is

loyal

armies"

loyal,

that

to

a rebel, which in Chinese

a contradiction

in terms.

The word here rendered by volunteer has already been
under line 14. Similarly, fg|
|_Jj
I

explained
school,

^

i

hsueh
i.e.

is

a free

§g|

shan a free burying-ground,
for

schools and

cemeteries provided
so

the public

from a sense of duty, and

on.

Pere Zottoli's translation "eduxit legitimum exercitum"

seems to be equally reprehensible.]

Shih

see line 20.

The San Tzu Ching

109

241

K£* W>
Ch u
l

Kg |»pj
sui
sui
2

SI
{-g^
luan 4
confusion

]

(

„ He

put an end to the

2

l

disorder of the

House of Sui,

Remove

J

Ch'U

is

composed of

^

yii I,

myself, as phonetic, with J|L (line 228)
steps to a hall, and then to

as radical. It originally

meant the

take away, to subtract, as in modern Chinese.

Sui

see line 235.
is

Luan

composed of

jjL i

a cyclical character, said to have once

meant

to govern, as radical, with a phonetic

which

also

meant

to govern. It seems to have originally signified to put confusion in order, but

now means

sedition, rebellion, etc.

242.

!l]

and established the
kuo 2
nation
chi
1
\

CKuang k
Establish

foundations of his line.

foundations

Ch'uang
ts'ang

is

now composed

of

JJ

tao knife as radical,

with

^

a

granary as phonetic. It appears to have been a form
(line 228)
is

of

yj>
it

and meant to wound, to cut
l
.

into, in
4

which

sense

read ch ua?ig s

The

later reading ch'uang

to begin,

to lay the foundations of, etc., has probably

been developed from

the idea of cutting into.

Kuo

see line

155. [Eitel deals with this line in evident ignorance
is

of the fact that kuo
e.g. fil§

often used in the sense of family, line;
tzu kuo ch'u having

-^

[||

^ wu
S

no son

his house

came

to

an end.

He

translates

by "And created the modern Chinese

empire's foundation." Pere Zottoli too errs, but not so glaringly,

with "jecit regni fundamenta."]

Chi

is

composed of

(line

169) as phonetic, with jfc

l

t

u earth

as radical,

and means the beginning of a wall.

The San Tzu Ching
246.

111

75
nai°

afe
to'
3

and the dynastic
changed.

title

was

Nation

then

change

KUO
Nai

see lines 155, 242.
see line 6.
is

Kai

composed of
to

^p

l

u 3 to rap, and

PJ

-

chi self,

and

is

explained

as

rap or remind oneself of one's faults, q.d. to change, to

reform. [The

name

of the

new dynasty was Liang,

so called after

the State of the founder, as above. Eitel has a serious mistake
in

"and the Empire thereby underwent a change.
u

1
'

Pere Zottoli

too has

regnumque tunc immutatum

est,"

which puts the student

equally off the track.]

247.

m
Liang 2
Liang
t

The Liang, the T'ang,
11

ang*

chin

the Chin,

t'ang

chin

Liang
T'ang

see line 228. A.D.
see line 183. see line 226.

907—923.

A.D. 923-936.

Chin

A.D. 937—947.

248.

n.
Chi k
Reach

M
han*
han
chou 1
chou

the

Han, and the Chou,

Chi

is

composed of
jen
is

^

f

a hand (see line 18) as radical, and

A
here

man,

i.e.

holding on to the

man

ahead. Its

meaning

simply and.

Han
Chou

see line 214.

A.D. 947-951.

see line 141. A.D.
earlier

951—960.

[All the above are distinguished

from

dynasties of the same

name by

the prefix of

^

hou = Later.]

412

The San Tzu Ching

249.

ffi
CVeng*
Entitle

3L
wu 3
five

ft
tap
dynasty

are called the Five Dynasties,

&

.

The San

Tzti

Ching

113
especial element.

the guiding influence of fire as
Zottoli's

its

own

Hence
to

rendering,

"Ignea Sung," gives no clue whatever
is

the real signification, while Eitel's "glorious Sung"

altogether

wrong.

lung

see line 227. see line 215.

Hsing

252.

m
Shou*
Receive
ihou^

jf
she

and received the resignation
of the House of Chou.

chou

resignation

Shou

is

composed of Jj^ chao claws above, and
18)

^

yu hand

(see

line

beneath,
-f^f

a hooked line which

is

here said to be a

contraction of

chou a boat, and plays the part of phonetic,

while the two

first

mentioned make up the ancient
be the recipient
of,

radical.

It

commonly means

to

to suffer,

and

is

now

classed under radical yu.

ChOU
the

see
last

line

141.

[The reference

is

to

the six-year-old son of
in

Emperor of the Later Chou dynasty, who resigned

A.D. 960 in favour of the founder of the Sung dynasty.]

Shan

is

composed of

jf%

shih divine manifestation as radical, with
It

S3 tan single as phonetic.

means

sacrificial

worship of Earth,
also,

which

is

part
it

of the Imperial

prerogative;
in

to

abdicate.

Read

ch'au*,

means

to

sit

contemplation,

as

Buddhist

priests do.

253.

+ A
Shih 1

pa

1

114

The San Tzu Ching

InnJ

HU
pei
z

rtt
liun^

I

and then the north and the
south were reunited.

Nan

2

I

South

north

blend

1

Nan
Pei

see line 61. see line 61.
is

Hun

composed of ^JC

s hui

water as radical, and j^ k un together,

l

an elder brother,
etc.

as phonetic. It

means

to

mix; hence confused,

[The Sung dynasty was interrupted in A.D. 1127 by the

-^

Chin Tartars, who had been
Liao Tartars,

called in to exterminate the

^
the

carrying off the Emperor and his heir and

occupying the northern portion of the empire. Another son of
unfortunate monarch succeeded
for

in re-establishing the line,
his

and

greater security

transferred
first

capital

southwards to

modern Hangchow. Hence the

period was called the Northern,
it
is

the latter the Southern, Sung; and

to the final reunion of

the two under the Mongol

Emperor Kublai Khan

in A.D.

1260

that this line refers, although the last representative of the Sungs
lived

on

until 1279. Eitel

makes a grave mistake in regard

to
off

hun, as follows:— "Though a southern

Sung dynasty branched

from the northern (A.D. 1127) when the disorders commenced."]

255

+
Shih 2

-b
chH 1
seven

$i
shih 3
history
|

The Seventeen Dynastic
Histories

Ten

Shih
Ch'i

see line 45.
see line 84. see
line

Shih

176.
to

[The above number includes

all

the dynastic

histories

down

and inclusive of the History of the Five Dynasties.

See Appendices III, IV, V, and VI, where the numbers of the
dynasties are 22, 21, 21, and 19, respectively.]

The San Tzu Ching
256

115

dfc
Ch'uan
All
2

?E
are
tsai*
tzti
1

all

embraced in the above.

are

here

Ch'uan

is

composed of
dot,

^\

ju to enter as radical, and
perfect.
radical,

3E yu

j

& de,

minus the

and means complete,

Tsai

is

composed of

J^

*'

w earth as

and yj*

(lines 49,

254 D) as phonetic, and means to
Tzti
is

be, to exist, to remain.

composed of

l

*)#}*

ts

ao vegetation as radical, with
this, here,

^

yao

1

tender, duplicated. It

means

now,

etc. [Eitel

erroneously

supplies "events" as a subject for tsai.]

/A
f
Tsai*
Contain

CJ

pQ|j
luan*
confusion

I

They contain examples of
good and bad government,

chih*

\

government

/

Tsai

see line 193.

Chih

see line 130. It especially

means

to

govern a country according

to eternal principles,
(sic)

and
if

also to cure a disease. Eitel has

"good

government" as
it
is.

good was not part of the actual word,

which of course

Luan

is

composed of

£u

i

a cyclical character, as radical, with

luan to govern as phonetic, and originally
well,

meant

to

govern

but

is

now

used in the senses of rebellion, anarchy, con-

fusion, etc.

258,

-fX\
Chih 1

HQ&.
hsinq 1
.

-£=!*

whence may be learnt the
principles of prosperity
[

shuai 1
decay
,

\

Know

and decay.
/

,

,

rise

Chih
Hsing
Shuai

see

line 28.

[^

ho harmony, here = with,

is

found as a

variant.]
see line 215.
is

composed of

^

i

clothes

as radical, with a corruption

116
of
so

The San Tzu Ching

what was once a picture of grass or

coir,

and was pronounced

= a

rain-coat,

for
it

which

^

is

now

used.

Read shuai and
is

coupled with hsing

means the decadence which
all

supposed to

follow and precede with unerring regularity

periods of national

or private prosperity. [The lessons rather than the facts of history

are here emphasised.]

259.

p||
Tu*
Read

& ^
shih 3
history

Ye who

read history

che*

one

Tu
Che

see line 110. see line 176. see line 49.

Shih

260.
%

must study the State
K'ao*
Examine
shih
lu*
[

Annals,

true

record

K'ad

is

composed of

yg

lao old in its contracted

form as

radical,

and

^

ch'iao
Its

an obsolete word meaning vapour struggling

to

escape.
to its

original

meaning was

old (= lao), and, in addition

common

signification, it has also that of a deceased father.
lr
*
T

Shih

is

composed of

*

mien a roof with

j||

kuan strings of money,
it

valuables,

beneath
full,

it,

and originally meant wealthy; hence
fruit,

came
Lll
is

to

mean

solid,

etc.

.

composed of

^

chin metal as radical,

and a common phonetic.

It is defined as the colour of

metal or gold, and comes to mean
official

to

copy out. [The shih lu are the
is

annals of each monarch,

which he
the close
life

not allowed to see and which are published only after

of the dynasty. Orders are occasionally given for the
to be included in these annals.

of

some eminent statesman
two
lines

Eitel translates these

by "Reading

historical

works or

rather that-which-constitutes-it, consists in searching out the essential

The San Tzu Ching
points of records "\ Zottoli
is

417
historiis scrutare

weak with "Studeus

veridica scripta," as he gives

no note to say what "veridica scripta"

are intended.]

261

ffi

118

The San
(line 64).

Tzti

Chmg

119
birth, but is here

It

means the second in order of

joined with ni as the style or literary name of Confucius.

Ni

is

composed of f* shih corpse as

radical,

and

|^

pi 3 an obsolete
hill

word meaning spoon,

as phonetic. It

was the name of a

at

which the mother of Confucius prayed before her son was born.
268
'

PW
Shih 1
Teacher

^jl
hsiang*
hsiang

p|I
tfo
t'o
1
1
/

took Hsiang T'o for his
teacher.

Shih

see line 20.
is

Hsiang

composed of
It

]=( yeh

head as radical, and

JC

kung labour
kind, a

as phonetic.

means the back of the head,
is

sort,

sum
is

of money, but
said to

here the surname of a precocious lad

who

have been qualified at the age of seven to be the instructor

of Confucius.

T'O means a
above.
It

sack,
is

but

is

here the personal
written
§pL.

name

of

Hsiang as

commonly

[Eitel

has "took for his

model a young scholar called Hiang T'o," and even Pere Zottoli
has "imitabatur Hiang t'ouo," though in his note he has "septennis

jam docebat Confucium."]
*ttr

269.

Pi
z

BW
fflB
sheng*
holy

H& WK
hsien
wise
2

I

\

*

e lns P ire(l

men an d

sages

Ku

\

of old

Ancient

Ku

see line 261. see line 153.
is

Sheng
Hsien

composed of

radical, J=| pei pearl-oyster as

and an obsolete
applied to sages
are wise

word

as phonetic. It
level

means much

talent,
is,

and
to

is

on a lower

than the sheng, that

men who
title)

but not actually inspired. Thus the $££ ching (see

canonical

books are regarded as the work of sheng holy men, whereas the
/

&

chuan (line 163) were the work of hsien wise men.

120

The San Tzu Ching
pickled fish as phonetic, and

121

meant
in

stupid talk, dull, obtuse. It

was the name of the State
so

which Confucius was born, and

came

to be used in the exactly opposite sense of intellectual
is

cultivation. It

not however in that sense, as Eitel and Zottoli
State's Discourses"
is

wrongly suppose ("kept reading the Lu

and

"studebat regni Lou sententiis"), that the word
to

here applied
Yil

Lun. By

it

is

meant that particular copy of the Lun

(line 115)

which was recovered under the Han dynasty from

the

Lu

State and became finally the standard text, as distinguished

from the

^
3

Ch'i copy, recovered from the State of that name.

Lun

see line 115.

Here

elliptical.

»•

$
Pi
He
1

Wt
chi*

it
shih*
official

He, when already an

official,

already

Pi

is

composed of ^ a step with the
}£.

left

foot (line 67) as radical,

and

p*

skiu as phonetic. It means that, objective, as opposed

to j|£ tz'u this, subjective.

Chi
Shih

see line 159.
is

composed of

^
1

jen

man

as radical,
all

and J;
begin

shih

(which
i

originally

meant

affairs,

because

affairs

with —

one

and end with

-J-

shih ten) soldier, scholar, as phonetic. It is
office.

used in the sense of to hold

Sp
Hsueh 1
Learn

H.
ctiieh?

Hi)!/

studied,
f

and moreover with
diligence.

chHiFX
diligent
/

moreover
11.

Hsiieh
Ch'ieh

see line
is

composed of

/L

chi a stool

standing upon

i

one,

which here does duty
It originally

for the ground, with

two horizontal

lines.

meant

to set forth as a sacrifice.

Ch'in

see line 270.

122

The San

Tzti,

Ching

V%+
P'i
1

fro
pu
k

*W$
pien
k
\
)

^ ne opened
plaited

out rushes and

%

them together;

Open

rush

plait

P'i

is

composed of

^
tyty

shou hand as radical, with

|£ p

l

i

skin as
side.

phonetic (line 273), and originally meant to grasp from the
It

now means

to spread out, etc.
ts^ao

P'U

is

composed of

vegetation as radical, and

yf|f

p'u a

reach of a river as phonetic.

Pien

is

composed of

jfe

ssti

silk

as radical

and

^g

pien (line 116)

as phonetic. It

means

to arrange in order, to compile, etc. [This

line refers to jj*§

^ ^ Lu
who

Wen-shu, a shepherd under the Han

dynasty (line 214),

copied out on a sheet of plaited reeds,

being too poor to buy the costly books of the period, portions
of the

Book of

History.]

276.

M
Hsiao 1
Scrape

ft
chu 1
chien 3
tablet
I

another scraped tablets
of bamboo.

bamboo

Hsiao

is

composed of

J]

iao

knife

as

radical,

with a

common

phonetic (line 271).

Chu

see line 87.
is

Chien

composed of
as phonetic.

^
It

chu
also

bamboo
means

as radical, with
to

50

chien

a

space

abridge, terse, to choose,
tji

negligent, etc. [This line refers to
died B.C.

^ J&
at
office.

Kung-sun Hung,
fifty

121,

a swineherd

who

the age of

borrowed

the Spring and
tablets,

Autumn Annals and

copied

it

out on bamboo

subsequently rising to high
of these

Eitel entirely misses

the

meaning

two

lines.

He
slips,

translates,

"Men

like

Lu

Wen-shu

split reeds

and bamboo

or polished bamboo tablets

to write on."]

The San Tzu Ching

123

277

$.
Pi 3
They

ft!
wu 1
not

These men had no books,
shu 1
book

Pi

see line 273.

Wu

was

originally

composed of "£^ wang to perish
)

as radical, with

jj wu
fire,

abundant (now a synonym of ffi
y^J

as phonetic. It is the

negation of

yu

(line 14),

and

is

classed under radical

fc

huo

as seen in combination at the

bottom of a character.

Shu

see line 114.

-

FL
Yet

/VH
chih 1

/(Hi
mien 3
effort

\

DU * they

knew how
an
effort.

to

make

Ctiieh?

I

know

J

Ch'ieh

see line 274.

Chih

see line 28.
is

Mien

composed of ^J

li

strength as radical, and
stiff,

^

mien to

avoid as phonetic. It originally meant strong,

hard, etc.

97Q

H5 &R
T'ou 2
Head

J&5 ?&K
hsuan 2
hang

$EA

)

y^C
Hang*
l

One

tied his

head to the

beam above him;

beam

'

T'OU

is

composed of

1||

yeh head,

leaf,

as radical,

and Ig tou a

sacrificial

vessel, beans,

as phonetic.
hsin heart as radical,

Hsuan

is

composed of j(£

and

^
now

hsien,

which

was the original form of

this character but is

reserved for

the sense of magistracy, magistrate, as phonetic, the radical heart

being a late addition, to prevent confusion.

Liang

see line 228. [This line refers to $fc

^ Sun

Ching, a scholar

of the

2nd

cent.

A.D.

He

thus prevented himself from nodding

over his books.]

124

The San

Tzii

Ching

S£f£
Chui 1

/J\IJ

Jj5£
ku 3
thigh

I

another pricked his thigh

tzW
prick

i

with an awl.

Awl

I

Chui

is

composed of <$£ chin metal as

radical,

and

^
tz
l

chui birds

as phonetic.

Tz'u

is

composed of J]

tao knife as radical,

and j|J

it

a thorn

(not jJJ shu to bind as in line 283) as phonetic. It has various

extended meanings, such as to blame, to

criticise.

Ku

is

composed of

|^jj

jou

flesh as radical

and

^

shu an obsolete

word

as phonetic. [This line refers to a

famous statesman named

^

fjf;

Su Ch'in, who

died B.C. 317. It

was thus that

in his

youth he kept himself awake for study.]

281.

m *
Pi 3
They

They were not taught,
chiao*
teach

pu

1

not

Pi

see line 273.
see line 5. see line 5. [This line well illustrates the absurdity of attempting

Pu

Chiao

to deduce fixed rules of

grammar from Chinese texts,— an attempt

by the way which the Chinese themselves have never been guilty
of making.

To

a European eye, the line can only

mean "they

did not teach," but to a

Chinaman

these three characters present
is

three root ideas, the connected sense of which

determined by

the

logic

of the occasion.

Cf. lines

5,

17.

Similar instances

abound;

e.g.

^

-^r >f»

^
as

fu

mu pu

hsiao,

which taken gram-

matically can only
filial,"

mean "If a man's

father and mother are not

but which really means "If a

man

is

not

filial

towards

his

father

and mother,"

proved by the context "what will

worship of the gods avail?"]

The San Tzu Ching

125

282

©
Tzu*
Self

id
ch'in
1

^
Vu 3
bitter
\

but toiled hard of their

own

accord.

diligent

Tzti see line 93.

Ch'in

see line 270.

K'U

is

composed of

ijtfj*

ts^ao
is

vegetation as radical, with
said to

"jjjjf

ku

ancient
liquorice

(line 261),

and

have originally meant the
is

plant.

Its

modern sense

bitter

and

by extension

toilsome,

poverty-stricken;

hence the imported word coolie has
1j k u
l

been written in Chinese
283.

^

ft,

poverty and strength.

ijtt ^|H

H§ j£&
nang 2
bag

^fV

M,
ying 2

)

i Then we have one who put
rp,
.

.

I

Ju 2
Follow

(

fireflies

in a bag,

firefly

)

Ju

see line 133.
Zottoli is also

[Eitel again strangely translates

by "perchance."
line

wrong with
to

"sicut." His

"quoad" under
is

133

was

much more

the point.

The word

here used in an

introductory sense.]

Nang
as

has a portion of
part
of the
old

^

shu to bind (lines 280, 268) appearing

radical,

and also a portion of
classed under radical

j|

hsiang

(line 38) as phonetic. It is

now

P

fcou mouth.

Ying

is

composed of

|tj

ctiung insect as radical, with a
is

common

phonetic. [The reference

to IpL ij|

Ch'e Yin of the 4th cent.

A.D.,

who was

too poor to pay for a candle and adopted the

above expedient. Eitel wrongly reads Kii Yin, ]|l being always
cfte as a

surname. Zottoli has

y£ yun

instead of ij| yin. Both

occur, but the latter seems to be correct.]

284.

#h
Ju 2
Follow

Bft
ying*
bright
hsiieh
3

and again another who used
the white glare from snow.

snow

Ju

see line 133.

126

The San Tzu Ching
is

Ying

composed of

|jj

jih sun as radical, with

-^J-

yang middle

as phonetic.

Hsueh
of

is

composed of
hui

p|f

yu rain

as radical,

and a contraction
is

|e|:

a broom as phonetic. [The reference
cent.

to

Jjj^

Jt£

Sun K'ang of the 4th
by the light
reflected

A.D.,

who used

to study in winter

from snow.]

285.
1

Although their families
sui

pHn

1
I

were poor,

Family

although

poor

Chia
Sui
is

see line 192.

composed of

||j ch

k

ung insect,

its

old radical, with

P^

wei to
like a

utter a cry as phonetic. Its original

meaning was a creature

chameleon, but larger.

Now

classed under radical

^

chui birds.

P'in

is

composed of J|

pei pearl-oyster, wealth, as radical, with

ft

fen to divide, diminish, as phonetic. [Eitel has "For their

families were indeed poor."]

'

these

men studied unceasingly.

Hsueh 2

The San Tzu Ching

127
pel pearl-oyster, wealth,

somewhat
as

like its archaic form, over
q.d.

J|

radical;

that

which

man

relies

upon, hence to rely

upon, and later to bear on the back, to turn the back, to be
ungrateful.

Hsia

is

composed of *Wl
as phonetic. It

l

ts

ao vegetation as radical, with ffi hsin
is to

new
ffi

means firewood. [The reference
died B.C. 116.

Jfi

j|

Chu Mai-ch'en who

He

carried

on

his studies

while engaged in work as a woodcutter.]

JlH
Ju*
Follow

>H
kua*

jQ
chio*

an(* anotner
I I

wno

usec* horns

as pegs.

hang

horn

)

Ju

see lines 133, 283.
is

Kua
to

composed of

^

shou hand as radical, with ^|\ kua diagram
it

(line

135) as phonetic. Its original form was jf£, and
to draw, a picture.

was

said

mean
is

Chio

supposed to be a picture of an animal's horn. It further
corner,

means angle,
reference
is

and
Li

is

also read chueh

2

and chiao 3

.

[The

to fj5

^

Mi

of the 3rd cent. A.D.,

who when
others

riding his buffalo afield, read from one book and

hung the

on the
289.

buffalo's horns.]

% m %
Shen 1
Body
sui
2

Although they
\

toiled

with

lao

2

their bodies,

although

toil

Shen
Ui

see line 90.

see line 285.
is

Again

Eitel has "indeed."
li

ao
of

composed of j}

strength as radical, and a contraction
(line 283). It is explained

^

jnng or ying blazing as phonetic
put out a
fire,

as using strength to

toilsome, laborious.

128

The San Tzu Ching

290.

they were nevertheless

TV
Still

remarkable for their
jfeV
bitter

cho 1
surpass

application.

Yu

is

composed of

y^

ch'uan dog as radical, with

^Sf chia chief

as phonetic. It originally

meant a

gorilla,

and now has a host

of meanings, such as yet, even, as, like, equal to, etc.

K'U

see line 282.
is

Cho

composed of

|^ pi

spoon and JjL

tsao early, but is

now

classed

under radical -J- sJdh ten. [Eitel translates "They moreover took
pains in studying at the same time," evidently reading *^t hsiieh for
cho as above, a variant which does not occur in any good edition.]

291

J % fittC

»!*#

-*

.

fuVP
aSw
1

"5f£*

/lU
lao
lao
z

Jn£

7Jv
eft uan
1

|

\

Su Lao-cn uan,

Su

ch'iian

Su

is

composed of jWl

te'ao

vegetation as radical, with

jj|]t

SM to

gather as phonetic. It means a species of thyme, to revive, to

come
of the

to

life

again,

etc.,

but

is

here the surname of a scholar
yfjj

11th cent. A.D. whose personal name was

Hsiin.

Lao-ch'uan was his fancy name.

Lao

see line 24.

Ch'uan was

originally a picture of water issuing forth and

becoming

a stream. It was itself a radical, and not, as now, resolvable into

£} pai white, with
292.

^

shui water as radical.

- +
Erh*

-fc

The San Tzu Ching

129

7*PJ
Shih 3
Begin

§3<
fa
1

LPl
fen*
energy

[

a^

length began to show
his

energy

emit

)

Shih

see line 134.

The use

of shih implies that there
its

was a

delay.

Pa

is

composed of
is

^

hung bow,

old radical, and an obsolete

phonetic. It

now

classed under radical

V^ po
l

back to back.
is

Fen

is

composed of j(£

hsin heart as radical,

and what

now

a

common

phonetic for words read fen or

p

en.

The
It

latter

however

was originally read pi and meant ornamentation.

was composed of

3|

pei pearl-oyster as radical, with

^
/
I
)

hui vegetation as phonetic.

Pf^
Tu
1

"|jy
shu
1

tHe*
chi*

and devote himself to the
study of books.

Read

book

record

Tu
Shu
Chi

see line 110.

see line 114.
is

composed of ^fy chu bamboo as

radical,

and a phonetic said
borrowing bamboo

to be a corruption of

^

chieh to

borrow;

q.d.

in the sense of tablets to write upon, and so documents, records,
register of the people, census, one's native place, etc.

395.

^

130

The San Tzu Ching
is

Hui

composed of

j(J>

hsin heart as radical,

and

^

mei each,

every, as phonetic.

Ch*ih

is

composed of the walking radical and /j| and means to walk slowly,

hsi a rhinoceros

as phonetic,
it

like a rhinoceros.

Hence

has come to

mean

late in arriving. [Eitel

and Pere Zottoli
that

both miss the point here. The former has
already old,

"And

man, being

Yet repented of his dilatoriness." But the word lao
life

here means late in

only as compared with the usual age for

beginning, and yet

fails to

make
still

sense, implying as

it

does surprise

that being old he should

repent.

The

latter

has "ilium jam

senescentem adhuc pcenituit tarditatis." But even the Chinese

who age
adhuc
is

early,

do not begin to grow old at twenty-seven, and

as inaccurate as "yet."
especially,

The only
in

difficulty is

with yu,

which here means

as

the
I,

Book
p. 222,

of History; see

Legge's Chinese Classics, vol. Ill, Pt.

note 3.]

297.

*

-*—
]

You

little

boys

Erh
You

3

hsiao*
small

sheng 1
born

Erh

was originally composed of
it,

^

yao crosswise,

its

modern

radical,

duplicated and read

its

old radical, with \~] chiung border lands,

and

£
it

erh a particle as phonetic. Its
also used for
jfjj

modern sense

is as

given,

and

is

(line 45).

Hsiao

see line 113.

Sheng

was supposed under

its old

form to be a picture of vegetation
birth,

springing
production,

from the earth. Presenting the root idea of
it

means equally

well to be born and to give birth to.

298

fi
I2
Ought

^
tsao
3

ffil
'

should take thought betimes.

S8u l
think

early

I

see line 22.

The San Tzu Ching

431

Tsao

is

composed of

jih sun as radical, over a contraction of

EJ3 chia

one of the cyclical characters, which refers to sprouting

vegetation; hence the beginning of day, early.

Ssu

see line 124.

299.
I

Ah/*
hao' hao

Then

there

was Liang Hao,

Jo'
Then

Hang
liang

2

Jo

see line 262. It has here the

same value

as

$p

ju in line 283.
is

[Pere Zottoli

is

right this time with quoad, but Eitel

wrong

again with "If a

man

like

Liang

Hao"

and an apodosis which

begins at line 305!]

Liang

see line 228.

Here a surname.
as radical, often omitted,

Hao

is

composed of ^[C water
J=r*

with

j=|

yeh head and

ching

bright,

white. It

is

here the personal

name

of a scholar

who was born A.D. 913
when

but only succeeded
already seventy-two,

in gaining the highest degree in 985
after

which he lived for twenty years. The author of the San

Tzn Ching has added the extra ten years.
300.

A + =
Pa
1

132
It

'

The San Tzu Ching
to

meant

answer questions, a

test

first

applied to candidates

for the highest degree

by the fourth Emperor of the Han dynasty,

B.C. 179
of

— 156.

His Majesty however objected to the appearance
character,

"mouth" in the

on the ground that

replies should

not be too long-winded, and he accordingly substituted
scholar,

j^

shih

with

which

the

word

has been
in

written

ever since.
the
line

[Pere

Zottoli

makes a grave mistake

translating

"coram augusta aula." He has apparently been misled by the
later senses of tui,

namely opposite

to,

in the presence of.]

Ta

see line 127.
is

T'ing

the

audience-chamber, the Court, the hall in which the

final

examination was held.

302

BteL
K^uei
First
1

-^P
to
1

3Z

1

-

I

and came out

first

among

shih*
scholar

\

many

scholars.

many

K'uei

is

composed of £l* tou a

ladle or dipper as radical,

with

J^

kuei

disembodied spirits as phonetic. It originally meant a

\y
To

soup-ladle.
to say,
is

How

it

came

to

mean

chief,

eminent,

etc., is difficult

composed of A?

hsi

evening duplicated, and means reiterated,
is

one upon another. Evening

said to

have been chosen because

eveuings come one after another in succession; hence many.

Shih

see line 273.

303.

tt
Pi*

4&
wan*
late

,

Jft'l
ch'eng
2
\

wh -

thus late he had
succeeded,

He

complete

Pi

see line 273.
is

Wan

composed of
fflfc

Q

(line 52) as radical,

with

^

(line

278)

as phonetic,

(line

159)

is

another reading.

Ch'eng

see line 26.

134

The San Tzu Ching

fk'K
Jung, at eight years of age,

Jung 1
Jung

pa

1

sui*

eight

year
as radical, wtth a

Jung

is

composed of

yu j a ^ e

common

phonetic

(lines 283,

289), and

means

bright, lustrous. It

was the personal
youth

name
who

of

jjff^

^
.

Tsu Jung, 6th
(J*

cent. A.D., a precocious

at the age of eight

^jj |^p

^

neng

l

t

ung shih shu had

mastered not only the Odes but also the Book of History (line 135). Also read ying 1

Pa
Sui

see line 88.
see line 37.

308

m
Neng 2
Able

#•> I
yung\
[recite

could compose poetry.

shih
poetry
j

Neng

see line 34.
is

Yung
Shih

another form of

^<

in line 158.

see line 135. [It is very

tempting to render

this line

by "could

recite

Odes"
is

as

has

been done by Bridgman and others; but

yung shih
is

specially used as translated above,

and

this

meaning

adopted in the commentary of
is

Ho

Hsing-ssii.
all

The "humming
poets in China.

over" of lines of verse
Eitel has

moreover common to

"Was

able to

make rhymes and

recite

poetry" which

cannot under any circumstances be right.]

309.

jftftl

Pi,

at seven years of age,

Pi 4
Pi

chH 1
seven
;((£

sui

4

year

Pi

is

composed of

shui

water as radical,
it,

with

Jj£\

pi must
*° divide

(not f(Q hsin heart with a dash across

but

/V V a

and Hj;

i

a stake) as phonetic. It

is

here the personal

name

of

The San Tzu Ching

435

^
Ch'i

gft Li Pi, A.D.

722-789,

a famous scholar and bibliophile.

see line 84.
see line 37.

Sui


Neng 2
Able

t11J\

/{Jv
ch
l

(

could

make an epigram on
wei-ch'i.

fu*
epigram

i

2
l

chequers

/

Neng

see line 34.

Fu

is

composed of J|
as

pel pearl-oyster

as

radical,

with

jj£

wu

martial (line 189)

phonetic.

It

originally
out,

meant

to collect,

and then came to mean to spread

and

is

also the

name

of

an irregular kind of metrical composition.
short

It

here refers to a

epigram

composed impromptu, at the command of the
[||

Emperor, on the characteristics of the game of
in which his Majesty

^

wei-ctti

was indulging.
shih stone as radical, with

Ch'i

is

composed of J£j

S

ch

l

i

that

(line

169) as phonetic, and stands for wei chH or the

game of

war.

[Pere Zottoli renders fu by "explanare," which would be
note. Eitel has

unsatisfactory but for his accompanying
able to present

"Was

an essay written on the spot when beholding a
11

game
based
pips
alive,

of chess,

What

he presented was a four-line epigram,
of the

upon the squareness of the board, the roundness
with

which the game

is

played,

their

movements when

their quiescence

when

dead.]

811,

i$£
Pi 3
They

^Jt
ying z
sharp

th
wu*
perceive
I
/

These y ouths were ^ uick of
apprehension,

Pi

see line 273.
is

Ying

composed of
a land

^

h° grain as radical, with kj| chHng the
acres, just
tip of

head awry,

measure of about 15

now,

etc.,

as phonetic. It originally

meant the sharp

an ear of grain.

430

The San Tzu Ching
It is often written |jj|

and

is

classed

under radical

j=| yeh head.

Wu

is

composed of

j\j)

hsin heart as radical, with

^

ww

I

as

phonetic (line 115).

312.

A M

The San Tzu Ching

137

Wen
Chi
is

see line 44.

composed of j£f

nil

woman

as radical
£jf

and an obsolete character
cWen
(line 54). It
(line

which must not be confounded with
the

was

name

of a river where the Yellow

Emperor

180) was
is

born, and was adopted by

him

as his

surname. [Wen-chi

the

personal

name

of

^

J|^ Ts'ai Yen, daughter of a famous states-

man, 2nd and 3rd
81 6

cent. A.D.]

"

Hb
Neng 1
Able

$f
pien*
judge

^P
chH?i
lute
2
(
J

was able

to judge from the
lute.

sound of a

Neng
Pien

see line 34.
is

composed of two

^

hsin acrid,

which formed an old radical

read pien,

meaning two

guilty persons incriminating one another,

with a dot and a line between, and originally meant to decide,

hence to discriminate.

Ch'in

is

composed of two
and

35

V™

jade, with the dots left out, as

radical,

^

chin

present, now, as phonetic!

At

first

the ch in

l

had only

five

strings, afterwards seven.

[This young lady,

who
when

was a

skilled musician,

was listening

to her father playing,

a cat in the room caught a mouse. Instantly she detected a timbre
of slaughter in the tones of the instrument, and foretold disaster
to her father,

which shortly came
able

to pass. Eitel misses the point

with

"Who was

to distinguish the tone. of each string

on

the lute."]

317.

it
Hsieh 4
Hsieh
tao"
tao

flflOL, Si

Hsieh Tao-yiin
'

yun^
yun
yen words as radical and
It
J|»j*

Hsieh

is

composed of
as

^

she to shoot

with a bow
a surname.

phonetic.

means

to thank, etc., but is here

138

The San Tzu Ching
see line 7.

Tao

Yun is

composed of

^

wei hides, leather, as radical, and a

common

phonetic of yiXn or wen value. [Hsieh Tao-yiin was the niece of
a famous statesman of the 4th cent. A.D., and a clever poetess.]

318.

as

The San Tzu Ching
phonetic composed of
a
f(j* hsin

.

139

heart or

mind below a picture of

window and
is

signifying fluttered, hurried.

Min

composed of

j£ p

l

u to tap as radical and

^

mei which
each, every.

originally

meant luxuriant vegetation and now means

321,

M
Erh
You
z

You boys
tzu s
child

nan 1
male

Erh

see line 297.
is

Nan
he

composed of

l

[JJ

t

ien

fields

as radical

and

li

strength; q.d.

who

uses strength in the

fields,

a

man.

Tzti see line 11. [This line has obvious reference to line 319, and
the -¥• tzu has the same value in each.]

S"
Tang
1

H
tzii*

W
ching*

ought to rouse yourselves.

Ought

self

warn

Tang
Ching

see line 36.

Tzti see line 93.
is

composed of

"^

yen words as radical, with
also written

$jfc

ching to

respect as phonetic. It
lines

is

^

.

[Eitel translates these

by

"How much more

then

ye,

male children, ought ye, whilst

young, to accomplish."
are found in

No

such words as "young" or "accomplish"

any good

edition.]

323.

^
T^ang
T'ang
1

|g!j
liu
liu
2

g
yen*
yen

3SC

Liu Yen of the T'ang dynasty,

T'ang

see line 183. to slay, but is here a surname. It does not occur in the
it

Liu means

Shuo Wen, though another form of
radical

has been suspected under

^

chin metal. It is

now

classed

under radical ~J) tao knife.

140

The San Tzu Ching
is

Yen

composed of

Q

jih

sun as radical and
is

7^

an peace as

phonetic. It

means

a bright sky, late, but

here the personal
it

name

of a famous statesman. [Eitel wrongly reads

"Ngan."]

324

-ft
Fang
Just
1

^
ch'i
1

when only seven years of age,
sui k

seven

year

Fang
Ch'i

see line 14.

see line 84. see line 37.

Sui

[Liu

Yen was

a famous scholar and statesman the notice of the
is

who

died A.D.

780.

He

attracted

Emperor Ming

Huang

of the T'ang dynasty, and

said to

have been actually

advanced as below.]

325.

* m
Chu*
Raise

was ranked
l

as

an "inspired

thin*
spiritual

t

ung 2
boy

\

child,"

Chli

is

composed of JH.

yil

(line 87)

and
is

^

feng elegant.

It is

now

usually written as above, and

classed

under radical £j

chiu a mortar.

Shen

is

composed of tj^ shih divine manifestation as

radical, witl

^

shen to extend, to state, as phonetic. It has been adoptee

by certain denominations of Protestant missionaries in China
an equivalent for "God," in opposition to the term
Ti (line 180)
of other
(line

J^

4

jfjj

Shane

Protestants,

and

to

^^

Tien Chi

Heaven's Ruler

152) of the
is

Roman

Catholics.
li

T'ung
but

is
is

composed of what
really

apparently jj£

to stand as radical,
guill

a

corruption of an obsolete word meaning

with a corruption of
phonetic. It originally

2

chung heavy (not
slave.

Jji

li

a village)

meant a male

142

330.

The San Tzu Ching

143
radical,

Shou

is

composed of *** mien shelter as
it.

with tJ" ts'un an
rule, regulation;

inch, below

The

latter is said to

have meant

but

it

is

not clear

how
ty

this helps to the
hsi

common
with

sense.

Yeh

is

composed of

evening as

radical,

^

j

also

(line

332) as phonetic. It originally meant to relax, and the
all

time when
of

the

world relaxes

is

night,

the vvtcTog apotyu

Homer.
334
-

ii
Chi 1
Cock

^
ssu
1

M
cften 1

,

\

the cock proclaims the dawn.

rule

dawn

Chi
Ssu

see line 78.
is

said

to

be

j^
is

hou a ruler, a prince, turned to face the
explained as conduct of affairs beyond the

other

way, and

precincts of the Court.
official,

Hence

it

has come to

mean

administration,

etc.

Ch'en

is

composed of

Q

jzh sun as radical, with

jjp|
'

cften

heavenly

bodies, etc., as phonetic. It is also read shen 2 .

335.

15
Kou
If
s

*
pu 1
not

If foolishly

you do not study,

hsueh 2
learn

Kou see line 5. Pu see line 5. Hsueh see line
here by
study,
11

11.

[The mistake alluded
Eitel

to in line 5 is repeated will

all

translators.

has "But you, if you
si

not

and Pere

Zottoli has

"Tu

non

addiscis," thus omitting

altogether the peculiar force of kou.

Once more the commentary

clenches the point with

Jjj
etc.,

^
if

^1}

£L

)$l

B5

etc - j°

•&*

kou

chHeh
etc.]

tu

jih

erh,

you

foolishly

pass your time

and

144

The San Tzu Ching

336.

% M A
Ho' How
wei*

how can you become men?

jen<

become
yileh

man
to

Ho

is

composed of

speak and an obsolete phonetic

meaning vapour.

Wei
Jen
as

see line 24.

see line

1.

[Pere Zottoli has for this line "qui diceris homo,"

though he had mistaken

^

for gj|

.]

337.


Ts an*
Silkworm
vomit
l l

ft
silk

The silkworm produces

silk,

Ts'an

is

composed of

}jj

ch u?ig insect, doubled, with a

common

phonetic.

T'u

is

composed of pf k ou mouth, with ^fc

l

l

t

u earth as phonetic.

Ssu

see line 87.

338.
the bee makes honey.

Feng
Bee

1

niang*
ferment

mi
honey

Feng

is

composed of

||j ch'ung insect as radical, with a
is

commoi

phonetic (line 325). It
etc.

a generic term for wasps, bees, hornet
for a bee is
||j

[The colloquial term
is

^
is

mi feng;

j$fe

feng mi

honey.]

Niang

is

composed of

|J yu which
moon when

originally

meant

to

make
and

spirii

or wine in the 8th

the millet

ripe,

is oftei

used as radical in characters connected with wine, with a commoi
phonetic (line 38).

Mi

is

composed of

^

cftung insect as radical, with a

commoi

phonetic (line 309).

The San Tzu Ching

145

339.

A *
Jen 2 Man

If a

man

does not learn,

pu

1

hsueh 2
learn

not

Jen

see line 1. see line 5. see line 11.

Pu

Hsueh

340.

7
Pu
1

te
;»*
like

%
thing

he

is

not equal to the brutes.

Not

Pu
Ju

see line 5.

see line 133.
is

Wu

composed of

^

niu an ox (line 77) as radical, and ^7j

wu not
than

(line 126), as phonetic. It

means anything

alive or dead other

man. [The Shuo Wen says that ox appears in the composition
of thing because the ox
is is

a very big thing; but the association
chattel

obviously

that

of ox with

in

English. It

is

worth

noting that ox also appears in
This
is

^

chien the

numerative of things.

is

explained by the Shuo

Wen

as to divide, because

an ox

a big thing which can be divided (precisely the

same analysis

being given of

^p

pan

half),

by the aid of which we can faintly

discern the sense of distribution, distributive, etc.]

341.

%})

jftj

IV

146

The San Tzu Ching

342


Chuang*
Strong

m
erP
and

ft
hsing*
act

and when grown up apply

what you have learnt;

Chuang is composed of J~
which
is

shih scholar (line 302) as radical, with
l

-£J

,

really a contraction of

ffi ch uang a bedstead, as phonetic.

Erh

see line 45.

Hsing
Eitel

see line 67. [This very obvious sense

is

entirely missed by

who

translates,

"One, youthful and studious as well, Will
active as well."]

become grown-up and
343.

influencing the sovereign

Shang*
Above

chih

4

"

chiln

1

above;

cause

ruler

Shang
Chih

see line 182.

see line 330.

Chun

see line 54.

344.

T
tse*

benefiting the people below.

min*
people

Below

fertilise

Hsia
Tse
I

see line 192.

is

composed of ^JC shui water as

radical, with a phonetic reac

which appears however in a small group of characters read
(line 10). It
is

tse

means

moist, a marsh, fat, to enrich, etc.
its

Min

supposed to have been a picture, under
It is

old form, of a

crowd.

now

classed

under radical

J^

shih (line 165).

345.

W
Yang*

^T*

,

The San Tzu Ching

147

Sheng

is

composed of

^
It

erh ear as radical, with
still

what was the
minus the

original character for sheng as phonetic,
as

used,

^

a shorthand form.

means regulated sound
and
is

as opposed to

noise, music, accent, tone, etc.,

here part of a combination

which means fame.
346.

SL
Hsien
3

Display

Hsien

is

composed of

j|(

yeh head as radical, with what was the

original

character for hsien as phonetic, the latter explained as
the
sun. It
is

looking at silk in

defined as the head brightly
illustrious, to

ornamented; hence to bring into notice, to make
appear,
etc.

Pu

see line 18.
see line 9.

Mu

448

The San
see
is

Tzii

Ching

Yil

Hue

35.
to step

Hou

composed of ^

with the

left

foot (line 67),
is

and

combination of two obsolete radicals which
the sense of tied on behind. It
is

supposed to yield

used either of time or place.

349.

j^
Jen Man
2

£m
i

jy.
tzu
3
(

Men bequeath

to their

2

children

bequeath

child

]

Jen
I
is

see line 1.

composed of the walking radical and
It

y^

kuei (line 8) as phonetic.

means

to lose, to leave behind, etc.
11.

Tzti see line

[Eitel

translates,
tzii

"Whilst men

leave

behind them

their 50725"!
is

Of course

is

a dative, and ying in the next line

the accusative after

i.]

350.

4r
Chin 1
Metal

coffers of gold;

man 3
full

ying 2
coffer

Chin

see line 66.
is

Man
Ying

composed of ^JC shut water

as radical, with a phonetic.

is

composed of jfy chu bamboo, with a phonetic which appears
;

coupled with various radicals according to the sense

here with

3|

pet pearl-oyster, and in line 211 with

^

nit

woman.

a"-

38

I teach

you children

The San Tzu Ching

149

352.

m Wei 2
Only
i
l

i
ching 1
classic

only this one book.

one

Wei
I see

see line 264.
line 45.

Ching

see
is

title.

[Lines

349—352

are formed

upon an

old proverb

which

given in the biography of j|[
1st

JJ Wei

Hsien, a statesman

and scholar of the
ching,

cent.

B.C. Hence the use of the word

which would otherwise seem presumptuous.]

353.
Cttin
1

m $
yu 3
have

Diligence has

its

reward;

kung 1
merit

Diligent

Ch'in

see line 270.

Yu

see line 14.
is

Kung

composed of J)

**

strength as radical, with

X

kung

labour as phonetic and part contributor to the sense, which was
originally effort for the benefit of a State.

354

J8
Hsi*
Play

$R
wu
2

^) "•
i

play has no advantages.

4
I

not
"jj<£

add

]

Hsi

is

composed of

ko

a

spear as radical,
vessel.

with a phonetic

meaning an earthen
word
is

sacrificial

The

original sense of the
is

doubtful. It

now means

play of a trifling kind, and

also applied to stage-plays.

Wu
I
is

see line 277.

composed of JUL

»»•* dishes as radical,

and a corruption of

^

shui water,

which taken together are supposed

to yield the idea

of fulness, abundance, the original sense of this character.

150

355.

;

APPENDIX
[The following eight

I.

lines are inserted in

some

editions.]

80a

if
Wei
2

41

iji

yang 2
sheep

Especially of the ox and dog

Think

Wei
Niu

see line 264. see line 77. see line 77.

Yang

80b

^
Kung
Merit
1

is

the merit most

tsui*

chu*
manifest

conspicuous

very

Kung
Tsui

see line 353.

see line 202.
see line 149.

Chu

80c

fg
Neng 2
Can
heng
1

ffl

fien*
field

(

one can pl° u g a the

fields,

plough

Neng Keng
yf^

see line 34.
is

composed of

7^
JEJ^

lei

a plough-handle (itself composed of

mu wood and

chieh

rank weeds) as

radical,

with

^

ching a well as phonetic. It has been alleged that the latter is
really

a corruption

of

|JJ

,

in

which case the whole character

would be an ideogram.

T'ien

is

an obvious picture of

fields laid

out.

152

Appendix I

80d

gg
Ning*
Can

tf
shou*
guard

p
/m 4
door

J

the other can guard the
houge>

J

Neng
Shou

see line 34. see line 333.

Hu

is

a

picture of a leaf of the

f^ men double door

in use

all

over China. See line 22.

80e

tffc

tW
Dark
heaven

%

K
Hang*
good

It is to obscure
J

your natural

goodness

f disposition,

Mei

is

composed of JJ

jih sun as radical, with

^
as

wei negation

as phonetic.

Or the character may be regarded

an ideogram,—

the negation of light.

T'ien

see line 50.
is

Here natural,

as opposed to

artificial. J\^ jen

Liang
full,

composed of a corruption of an obsolete word "g fu
old radical, with

its

"f wang
J^

(line

159) as phonetic. It

is

now

classed under radical

ken a limit.

TV
Kill

shih*

ssu*

them

for sale.

market
sliih

shop

T'u

is

composed of f*

corpse as radical, with

^

die (or chu)

as phonetic.

Shih

is

composed, under

its

old

form,

of

\~]

chiung boundary,

enclosure, as radical, with ~fe chi to arrive (q.d. goods arriving
at

an enclosed space), with
is

^

cliih

(line
|jj

1)

abbreviated

as

phonetic. It

now

classed under radical

chin a towel.

Ssti see line 254q.

80a

^
Chieh*

%l
wu*
not

M
*M>
eat

Beware

Chieh

see line 355.

Appendix I

153

Wu
Shih

is

a picture of a signal staff with three streamers; hence the

idea of a
is

warning not
of

to

do something.
to bring

composed

two obsolete characters meaning

together the fragrance of grain.

son

%
Mien"
Avoid

n 'ft
tsui*
guilt

I

ch u*

l

and so avoid being punished.
]

punishment

Mien

is

not given in the Shuo

Wen, and

is

supposed to be a

contraction of an obsolete word with the same meaning.

Tsui was

originally

composed of

^

hsin acrid

and

g

tzu self. It

has been suggested that the chauge was brought about by taboo,
as in

many

other characters.

Ch'U

see line 10.

APPENDIX

II.

[These two lines occur in some editions.]

160a

J" 11

*W*

I

It

discusses hidden springs

yuan'
abyss

yuan"
\

of

source

^^
with an obsolete

Tao

see line 7.
is

Yuan

composed of ^JC skui water as
said

radical,

word

to

be a picture of water eddying along the banks

of a river.

Yuan

is

composed of water as

radical,

with

j^ yuan

origin as

phonetic.

160b

f
j£s p
Practise

J
ft*

H
n
duty
\

and deals with ceremonial

and man's duty to
neighbour.

his

ceremonial

Hsi
Li

see line 4.

see line 32.
line 14.

I see

APPENDIX
[The following eighteen
;||}

III.

lines

are given in the edition of

3E

Wang

Hsiang, and were probably written by himself, in order

to bring the history section

down

to the beginning of the present

dynasty.

They have not been
254a

translated

by either Pere

Zottoli or Eitel.]

>g

St
chh%X
chin

I

Under the Liao and the
Chin dynasties,

]

Liao
It

is

composed of the walking radical and a common phonetic.
distant,

means
jr\-

and

is

also the dynastic

name adopted by

the

^
Yli

Kitan Tartars who shared in the empire of China from
to

A.D. 907

about half-way through the 12th century.

see line 87.

Chin

see line 66.

Here the dynastic name adopted by the jjf

ip|

Nii-chen Tartars

who

shared in the empire of China from A.D.

1115 to 1234.

156

Appendix

HI
ti

names of these Tartar monarchs. But the term

hao

may
title,

well

be the equivalent of T|l §j| tsun hao the Imperial
confusion being caused by

the

two

sets of

Emperors, either Sung

and Liao or Sung and Chin, reigning at the same time.]
254c

*g
Tap
Reach

$
mielP
destroy
Xiao
1

when
Liao

the Liao dynasty was
destroyed,

Tai

see line 235.

Mieh
Liao

see line 245.
see line 254a.

254d

%
Sung*
Sung

m
yu 1
still

ft
ts^wn}

the

Sung dynasty
remained.

still

keep

Sung

see line 227.

Yu

see line 290.
is

Ts'un
as
It

composed of

^

tzii

son as radical, and yj"

ts'ai (line

49)

phonetic,

and originally meant

to enquire compassionately.

now means

to keep, to preserve, to be alive, etc.

[The Sungs,

after

the destruction of the Liaos (line 254), found themselves
hostility

on even worse terms of
had taken the Imperial

with the Chins, whose rulers

title.]

254e

jg

7C
yuan'
yuan
hsing 1
arise

When

the

Yuan dynasty

ChW
Arrive

arose,

Chill

see line 94.
is

Yuan

com

of

t

one,
it

and

j£ wu

which originally
origin.
It

meant high and

level.

Hence

means beginning,

here stands for the Mongol dynasty, the foundations of which

were

laid

by

Genghis Khan, the

first

actual

Emperor being
classed under

Kublai Khan, A.D. 1260

— 1295.

It

was formerly

Appendix
radical

111

157
it

i

one, but in

K'ang Hsi's dictionary

was stupidly

placed under J\^ jen man. See also line 94.

Hsing

see line 215.
i

254f

^T
Chin 1
Chin

ft
hsu*
clue

§ft
hsieh
1
\

the line of the Chin Tartars
-,

\

came

to an end,

cease
]

Chin
Hsti

see lines 66, 254a.

see line 238.
is

Hsieh
to

composed of
radical,

fo

cWien

to

yawn (hence
It

to be deficient,

owe) as
leave

and a common phonetic.

means

to stop,

to

off,

to

rest,

which senses are partially indicated by

the radical.

254g

^f

IV

158

Appendix III

Appendix III

459

he had been a novice in a Buddhist temple.

He

is

generally

known by

the

title

of his reign as

$t
I

j£(;

Hung Wu.]

S+
Chiu
3

W
cVin
1

pmJ
shih
1

was for a l on g time engaged

in warfare.
J

-

Long

personal

soldier

Chiu
Ch'in

see line 202.
see line 31. see line 20.

Shih

[He was fighting

for

some twenty years before

he mounted the throne.]
rer

aW
Transmit

eW
chien

%*
„*,» wen

|

He had

transmitted the

th^e
]

toChien

Wen

Ch'uan
Chien

see line 163.

see line 216. see
line

Wen
first

44.

[Chien

Wen
Ming

was the
dynasty,

title

of the reign of the of the

second Emperor of the

who was grandson
A.D. 1399.]

and who came

to the throne in

254* jj

n
sstf
four

m.
\

Fang 1
Only

esU

4

onl y four 7 ears '

year

Pang

see line 14.
title.

Ssti see

Ssti means to

sacrifice ;
it

hence, probably in reference to the great
to

annual
second

sacrifices,

comes

mean

a year. [That

is to say,

the
his

Emperor

sat

on the throne only four years with

capital at Nanking.]

254o

m
1

1t
pei
z

M
ching
1

when

the capital was trans-

Ch'ien

ferred to Peking,

Remove
L'ien see line 6.

north

capital

Pei

see line 61.

160

Appendix
is

111

Ching
line,

composed of a contraction of
is

"^

kao high and a vertical

and

supposed to picture a high
radical,
is

mound

{cf.

capitolium).

It

was formerly a

but

is

now

classed under
capital is Jj(

"^
fijjj

l

t

ou,

the meaning of which
shih,

unknown. [The
as

ching

transliterated

by

Marco Polo
(line

Quinsai or Kinsay, in

reference to

Hangchow

254) which was the capital from

A.D. 1129 to 1280.]

254p

m
Yung 3
Yung

m
Zo
lo
4

&
ssu^

and Yung Lo succeeded
the latter.

connect

Yung

is

a picture
eternal

of water

flowing away, and means long, for

ever,

= dum

defluat

amnis.

It

is

now

classed

under

radical shui water. See line 158.

Lo

see

line

154.

[Yung Lo

is

the

title

of the reign of the third
the fourth son of the

Emperor

of the

Ming

dynasty.

He was

founder (line 254k).

He

deposed his nephew (line 254m) in 1403,
to Peking.]

and removed the capital from Nanking

Ssu

is

composed of a bundle of tokens of authority given by the
to
his
vassals,

suzerain

with

P

fcou

mouth above

as radical,

and

fjj

ssU official as phonetic (line 80). It is

commonly used

in the senses of heir, to inherit.

254Q

^
Taft

#
ch'ung
2

it
cheng 1
cheng

At length Ch'ung Cheng

Reach

ch'ung

Tai

see line 235.
is

Ch'ung

composed of

|Jj

shan

hills as radical,

and

^

tsung

ancestral as phonetic. It

means high.
shih divine manifestation as radical

Cheng

is

composed of

TJ^f

and

chin chaste as phonetic. It J=i cheng or

means lucky, but here

stands, with Ch'ung, for the title of the reign of the last

Emperor

of the

Ming

dynasty,

who came

to the throne in

A.D. 1628.

Appendix

HI

164

254r.

$
Mei 2
Coal

shari
hill

shih

died on the Coal Hill.

Mei

is

composed of

«/£

/mo

fire
is

as radical

and

^

(line 43)

as

phonetic. It

means

soot,

and

also nsed for charcoal.

Shan
Shih.
as

see line 13.
is

composed of the walking radical with

~ffi

she (line 145)

phonetic, and

means

to

go, to pass away.

[Ch'uug Cheng,

after
hill

the

capture

of Peking by rebels, committed suicide on a

said to be of coal

which stands within the precincts of the

Imperial palace, A.D. 1644. The rebels were driven out by the

Manchus, and the present dynasty was established.]

APPENDIX
[The following 24
possibly written, by
lines

IV.

form the continuation sanctioned,

am

J|L JB>

Ho

Hsing-ssti.]

254a

^
Liao 1
Liao

The Liao Tartars and
yd*
with
chin 1

the

Chin Tartars

Chin

Liao

see line 254a.

Yu

see line 87.
see line 66.

Chin

254b

H
Chieh 1
All

m
ch eng
style
l
]

#
;4
>

all

took the Imperial

title.

ruler

Chieh
Ch'eng
Ti

see line 250. see line 186.

see line 180.

254c

7t

f&
2

The Yuans (Mongols)
chin 1
chin

Ymn
Yuan

mieh*
extinguish

destroyed the Chin Tartars,

Yuan
Mien
Chin

see lines 94, see line 245. see line 66.

254e.

254d

jg
2

m
sung^
shih*
|

and put an end
generation
silk

to the

Chiieh

House of Sung.

End

sung

Chiieh

is

composed of

^

sstt

as radical,

with

J]

tao knife

Appendix IV
over an obsolete

163
Its

word

for

half a tally.

original
is

meaning

was to cut
of

silk in two.

[The radical

^

se

colour

a corruption

J^

jen

man

over the half tally.]

Sung
Shih

see line 227.
see line 177.

464

Appendix
is

IV

Tsu
Pei

composed of
(line

7J\

shih divine manifestation as radical, with

^
is

123) as phonetic.
radical
J~"~*

composed of the obsolete
293) as phonetic.
254i

yen a shelter, with |§|
falling house.

(line

It originally

meant a


2"<u*

jjft

£
hsing 1

tsu 3

Then T
\

'

ai

Tsu arose

<

Extreme

Appendix IV

165

Chin
Ling

see line 66.

see line 230.

254m

^
Tait
ch'eng 2
tsu'

At
complete
ancestor

length, under the

Emperor Ch'eng Tsu,

Reach

Tai

see line 235.
see line 26.
line

Ch'eng

Tsu

see

89.

[Reigned A.D.

1399—1424, and
Lo.]

better

known

by

his year-title |fc

^ Yung
yen 1

254n

aw
Move

a
ching 1
capital

move was made

to the

Swallow City (Peking).

swallow

Ch'ien

see line 6.

Yen
to

see line 13. see line

Ching

2540. [The capital was transferred from Nanking

Peking in 1421.]

254o

+
Shih
1

There were seventeen reigns
ctti
1

shih*
generation

in

all,

Ten

seven

Shih
Ch'i

see line 45.
see line 84.
see line 177.

Shih

254p

^
ChiW
Reach

Mk
ch'ung
2

si
cheng
1

down

to

and including

Ch'ung Cheng.

eminent auspicious

Chih

see line 94. see line 254q. see line 254q.

Ch'ung

Cheng

166

;

Appendix IV

167

name taken by

the rebel

^5

||j

J|J£

Li Tzu-ch'eng, to whose
due.

sedition the fall of the

Ming dynasty was mostly


£AeV
Divine

W
cA't
4

^
/eV J
burn

I

and the Imperial regalia
were destroyed.
,

,

utensil

\

Shen
Ch'i

see line 325.

see line 26.
is

Pen

composed
254r)

of
as

^

huo

fire

as

radical

below jfa

lin

a

forest (see

phonetic.

[This line refers to the looting
held

of the palace

when Li Ch'uang captured and temporarily

Peking.]

254u

m
asv
Pure

w
extreme

Jffl.
|

The founder of the Ch'ing
or Pure dynasty

*- 3
ancestor
|

Ch'ing

is

composed of -fa shui water as

radical, with

^jfj

citing

the colour of nature as phonetic. See line 84.

T'ai see

line 254k.

Tsu

see line 89.

[The T'ai Tsu in

this line is the

Manchu

chieftain

Nurhacbu, A.D. 1559—1626, who was the

real founder of the

present dynasty, though he never mounted the throne.]

JS
Ying*

%
ching
3

ffe

responded to the glorious

ming*
order

summons

Respond

glorious

Ying
Ching

see line 64.
is

composed of

£J

jih sun as radical, with

Jj^

ching city

as phonetic; q.d. the sun shining

on a
its

city.

Ming
a

is

composed of fj tiou mouth,
(see 271) as phonetic.

old radical, with

^

ling

command

It is also

commonly used
or will of God.

in

the sense of destiny, as being the

command

168

Appendix

IV

254w i||
Ching*
Quiet

|jg

he tranquillised the four

ssu*
four

fang 1
square

corners (N.S.E. and W.),

254*

%

APPENDIX
[Another version of the interpolated
254«

V.

lines.

Author unknown.]

7C
Liao 2

254tf

jg

Appendix

V

171

25% /\ Pa

+
shih*

A
pa
1

the dynasty lasting eightyeight years,

1

Eight

ten

eight

Pa

see line 88.
see line 45.

Shih

Pa

see line 88.

See line 254g

254A

^t
Kung
3

%
chiu*
nine
rulers

with nine Emperors in

all.

Together

Kung
jy
Chiu
Ti

is

composed of ~tp ju or nien two tens joined together, with
It

kung 3 the hands folded in salutation.
is

was a

radical in the
eight.

Shuo Wen, but
see line 33.

now

classed under radical

/V pa

see line 180.

254*

jj
CVun
Flock

hsiung 2
martial

ch

l

i*

A crowd of combatants arose,

rise

Ch'un

see line 117. see line 210.

Hsiung
Ch'i

see line 240.

of

whom

T'ai

Tsu remained

T
T'ai

l

ai*

tsu

6

cheng 1
vanquish

the conqueror.

Extreme
see line 254k.

ancestor

Tsu

see line 89. See 254j.
is

Cheng
with

composed of radical ^ ch

l

ih to step

with the

left

foot,


254*

cheng (line 326) as phonetic.

H
Kuo 1
State

%
hao*
style

^
?nwg
ming
J

The dynasty was
the Ming,

called

Kuo

see line 155.

172

Appendix

V

Hao see line 137. Ming see line 110.
254/

See 254j.

Tt
Yuan 2
Yuan

m
shun*
shun

and the Mongol Emperor
pen
1

Shun

fled.

fled

Yuan
Shun

see lines 94, 254e.
is

composed of

jfl

yeh head as radical, with

)\\

ch'uan streams

as phonetic. It originally

meant

eternal principles, right, and has

now come
to,
etc.,

to signify flowing with, in accordance with, obedient
is

but

here the
last

name given by
of the

the conquering Mings to

Tohan Timur, the

Emperor

Yuan

or

Mongol dynasty.

Pen

was originally composed of
It is

^

yao calamity as radical, with jt^
classed under radical
-J-*

pen or fen as phonetic.

now

shih ten.

Ch

l

eng 2

tsu

3

chi*

When Ch'eng Tsu succeeded,

Complete

ancestor

connect

Ch'eng

see line 26.

Tsu
Chi

see line 89. See

254m.

see line 227.

254 w

i;

Appendix

V
oil

173

Chu
*

was originally the picture of an

lamp or

candlestick, with

chu a flame, radical and phonetic, appearing above. It then
to signify lord, master, etc.

came

25

v

it
Chih 3
Stop

m
cK~ung %
ch'ung

474

Appendix

V
is

hands. It originally meant a weapon, and
radical

now

classed under

/V V a

eight.

Chih

see line 94.

254*

jft
Tsei 1
Rebels
sui
A

and the rebels were
mieli

forthwith extinguished.

follow

extinguish

Tsei

see line 254^.
is

Sui

said to be the original

form of

| sui (see 235).

Mieh

see line 245.

254 M jig

m
chih*
chih
establish

Shun Chih mounted
throne,

the

Sh
Shun

Shun
Chih
Li

see line 254Z.
see line 257.

[Shun Chih was the

year-title of the first

Manchu-

Tartar

who

actually reigned over China, A.D.

1644 — 1661.]

see line 306.

254,

H
Hao"
Style

and
chHtig
great
1

his dynasty

was

called

the

Ta

Ch'ing.

pure

Hao see line 137. Ta see line 127.
Ch'ing
see line 254u.

254m;

gf

aw
Minister

g
mm*
people

Officials

and people
his sway,

A

2

acknowledged

submit

Ch'en

see line 54.

Min

see line 344.

Fu

was

originally

composed of

^fj-

chou boat as radical, with an

obsolete word pronounced /w, and

meaning

to govern, as phonetic.

Appendix
It

V
classed

175

then meant to use, and

is

now

under radical J^

yueh moon.

254*

%
and the empire was at peace.

APPENDIX

VI.

[These eight lines were inserted by some
the

unknown

writer of

Ming

dynasty.]

254*

7C

Then
sheng*
prosperous

the bearded Yiians

Hu 2
Beard

yuan*
yuan

waxed powerful,

Hu

is

composed of

|^j

jou flesh as radical and

"jjj

ku ancient

(line

261) as phonetic. It originally meant dewlap, and having
the

the same sound as

common word

for

beard,

was applied

contemptuously to the large beards of the Mongols.

Yuan
Sheng

see lines 94, 254e.
see line 186.

and destroyed the Liao and
Chin dynasties.

Appendix VI 2545

177

+
SW*>
Ten

#
„&'
four
eAfln'

fourteen rulera in
I

all.

prince
]

Shih

see line 45.
see
title.

Ssu

Chun

see line 54.

[This

list

of fourteen Emperors includes Genghis

Khan who never
Achakpa.]
254 5

actually

mounted the throne, and excludes

-^

478

Appendix VI
character

which meant flowers of plants and
signify

trees.

Hence

it

came

to

the glory of flowers, and
applied
to

now means
is

flowery,

variegated,

especially

China,

which

often spoken

of as the Flowery Land.

I

is

composed of

-^

ta

great

as

radical,

and tj hung a bow.

It
its

originally

meant
applied

level,

and then barbarians, in which sense
subjects

usage

as

to

British
1

was forbidden under the

Treaty of Nanking in

842.

may

it

endure for ever and

5

By

the

same Author

:

A

Chinese- English Dictionary, ryl 4*0, pp. xlvi and

141

Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio, 2

vols. cr. 8vo.

Gems of
Chuang

Chinese Literature

Historic China
Tzti,

and

other Sketches
,

Mystic, Moralist

and Social Reformer

Chinese Sketches

Chinese without a Teacher,

5 th

edition

Record of the Buddhistic Kingdoms Glossary of Reference on the Far East

,

3

rd

edition

Remains of Lao Tzu
Synoptical Studies in Chinese Character

Handbook of the Swatow Dialect From Swatow to Canton Overland
Dictionary of Colloquial Idioms

A

Chinese Biographical Dictionary, pp. XII, 1022

Catalogue of the

Wade Library, Cambridge
Verse

Chinese Poetry in English

Printed by

k.

J.

r.un.T.,

Leyden.

M

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