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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION
Cement industry is one of the important industries to country development in the
light of the main important basis for construction industry and also the important
indicator showing domestic economic growth. In the past, the domestic demand
of cement used to be up to 36 million tons. But, the severely negative effects
from economic crisis in 199 have caused real estate and construction industry
subdued! the domestic demand of cement has shrun" and been in oversupply
atmosphere.
#ntil $%%1&$%%3, the government has launched many economic actuating
policies. 'his has made real estate and construction industry recovered and the
demand of cement has been increasing gradually from $1 million tons in $%%1 to
$( million tons and $6.)$ million tons in $%%$ and $%%3 respectively! and the
price level is higher in line with increased production cost.
Cement Industry originated in India when the first plant commenced
production in 1914 at Porbandar, Gujarat. 'he industry has since been
growing at a steady pace, but in the initial stage, particularly during the period
before Independence, the growth had been very slow. *ince indigenous
production was not sufficient to meet the entire domestic demand, the
+overnment had to control its price and distribution statutorily. ,arge -uantities
of cement had to be imported for meeting the deficit. 'he industry was partially
decontrolled in 19)$ and this gave impetus to its pace of growth. Installed
capacity increased to more than double from $ million tones in 19)%.)1 to 6$
million tones in 19)9.9%.
$
'he cement industry responded positively to liberali/ation policy and the
+overnment decontrolled the industry fully on 1
st
0arch 19)9. 1rom 1991
onwards cement industry got the status of a priority industry in schedule III of
the industry policy statement, which made it eligible for automatic approval for
foreign investment up to (12 and also for technical collaboration on normal
terms of payment of royalty.
3fter the globali/ation and liberali/ation of Indian economy, the cement industry
has been growing rapidly at an average rate of 9 per cent. 'he country is now the
second largest producer of cement in the world ne4t only to China with a total
capacity of 188.97 million tones. Additionally, in the last two decades, the
industry has undergone rapid technological up gradation and growth, and
now, some of the cement plants in India are comparable to the worlds
best operating plants in all respects.
'ill a few years ago India was importing cement from other countries, as the
production could not meet the demand for the whole country. 5ow the tables
have turned as India has started e4porting large -uantities of cement and clin"er
to Bangladesh, 5epal, *ri ,an"a, 0aldives, 0auritius, 3frica, *eychelles,
Burma, #36, and *ingapore etc.
India is today the second largest producer of cement in world with an
installed capacity of close to 188.97 million tones per year. 9 ! is
consumed domestically and only ! is e"ported. #emand is growing at
more than 1$ ! per annum. %ore than 9$ ! of production comes from
large cement plants. &here are a total of 1'$ large and more than '$
small cement manufacturing units in the country. %ore than 8$! of the
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cement(manufacturing units use modern en)ironment friendly *dry+
process.
&oday total number of cement companies in Indian mar,et are -7,ha)ing
number of cement plants 1'9, the installed capacity of large plants is
188.97 million tones and cement production during .$$7(.$$8 was
1/8.'1 million tones
The forms of cement produced: -
Ordinary Portland Cement ( OPC )
Portland Poolana Cement ( PPC )
Portland !la" Cement ( P!C )
#a$or players in Indian cement sector:-
%CC
&C' Cement
(u$arat %m)u$a Cement
Ultratech Cement
India Cements
Century Cements
*aypee (roup
#adras Cements
&irla Corporation 'imited
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(
IN!"#$CI"N "% &I!'( C"!P"!(I"N '#)
"*er*iew
1ounded in1919 by the visionary industrialist *hri +.8. Birla, at the
outs"irts of the 9ol"ata, Birla :ute manufacturing company ,td. ;as the first
company of the Birla Industrial Conglomerate. #nder the stewardship of his
nephew *hri 0.<. Birla, the company diversified and e4pand its business interest
beyond :ute, to encompass cement <=C coated fabric, <=C floor covering and
auto trims.
3fter the demise of ,ate 0r. 0.<. Birla in 199%, his wife, 0rs.
<riyamvada Birla too" over as chairman of Birla Corporation and continued to
lead the company till her death on 3 >uly $%%7. *he was an entrepreneur of
distinction strong business acumen and, under her leadership, the company
crossed the ?s. 1,3%%.plus turnover mar".
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'he company, renamed Birla Corporation ,imited, to reflect the wide
range of operation, is the flagship company of the 0. <. Birla group. 'he
strategic focus of the company has been on steady growth by developing and
assimilating technologies of tomorrow to manufacturing an ever widening range
of value.added product, while striving for complete customer satisfaction in
India and abroad. Birla Corporation ,imited is proud of safe wor" practice
followed at all its factories and godowns. 3s an enlightened corporate citi/en,
Birla Corporation ,imited is "eenly aware of social responsibilities too, and
provide education and health care facilities for its employees, their families and
the community at large.
Its e4port in $%%7.%( stood at ?s. )(.$)crores. @ver the year, BC,As business
has grown from strength to strength.
1)1 "*er*iew + Cement Industry
'he cement division of Birla Corporation ,imited has seven plants, two
each at *atna B0.<.C & *atna Cement ;or"s D Birla =i"as Cement, Chanderia
B?a:asthanC & Birla Cement ;or"s D Chanderia Cement ;or"s, and 8urgapur
B;.B.C & 8urgapur Cement ;or"s D 8urga ;or"s D 8urga Eitech Cement and
one at ?aebareli B#.<.C the total capacity of these plants is (.)% la"h tones. 'his
plant manufacture varieties of Cement li"e @rdinary <ortland Cement B@<CC,73
D (3 grade, <ortland <o/olanna Cement B<<CC, 1ly 3sh based <<C, ,ow 3l"ali
<ortland Cement, <ortland *lag Cement, ,ow Eeat Cement and *ulphate
resisting <ortland cement.

'he cement is mar"ed under the brand name of Birla Cement


9E3>#?3E@, Birla cement CE6'39, Birla cement and Birla premium
cement, bringing the product under a common brand of Birla cement while
retaining the niche identity of 9ha:uraho Bfor the @<C product of *atnaC, Cheta"
Bfor @<C product of ChanderiaC and *amrat of blended cement, i.e. <<C D <*C,
for all the units.
'he division e4port large -uantity of cement to 5epal and Bangladesh,
under the brand name of 9ha:uraho, *amrat, Camel, ?oyal tiger.
'he special variety of *30?3' cement, begun produced by the company is
ideal for mass concrete. ?CC F pre.stressed & pre.cast structure Bfor reduced
thermal crac"C, increased water tightness of concrete, increase resistance to
*ulphate soils and aggressive water and increased resistance to al"ali aggregate
reaction beside corrosion resistance properties.
*C;, B=C and 8=C have received the I*@ 9%%1.$%%% -uality system
certification, covering the entire range of production and mar"eting. *C; D
B=C have received the I* F I*@ 17%%1 certificate, an international recognition
for GImplementation of 6nvironmental 0anagement *ystemH B=C have got the
GBest productivity of <erformanceH award from 5<C during 19)6.)), 5CCB0
recogni/ed it for Gbest in energy performanceH during 19)6.). It received
G5ational *afety 3wardH for outstanding performance in achieving the longest
accident free.period during 1997. In 1996, it received the runner cup under
scheme &1 of 5ational *afety 3ward, for the lowest average fre-uency rate
accident. B=C has also received G1uller 6nergy Conservation 3wardH as first for
G,owest 'hermal 6nergy ConsumptionH Bfor group BA category plantsC for three
consecutive years i.e. 199.9), 199).99, 1999.$%%%. *C; has been ad:udged by
)
5CCB0 the GBest In 6nergy <erformanceH during 1993.97, 1997.9(, 199(.96,
199.9). It was the second best for GImprovement in 6nergy <erformanceH
during 1996.9. *C; has also got G1uller 6nergy Conservation 3wardH as first
pri/e for G,owest 'hermal 6nergy ConsumptionH Bfor group 3 category plantsC
for three consecutive years i.e. 199.9), 199).99, D 1999.$%%%.
BC; D *C; have received the I*@ 9%%1.$%%% certification for Iuality
0anagement system, covering the entire range of production and mar"eting and
also have received the I* F I*@J 17%%1 certification for BC; D CC; have
bagged various awards from 5CCB0. CC; have received the GBest
<roductivityH award during 19)9.9% D 1993.97. 5CCB0 recogni/ed it for
GBest Improvement in 'hermal 6nergy <erformanceH during 1993.97. It has
won G,al Bahadur *hastri 0emorial 5ational award for G64cellent <ollution
Control ImplementationH for $%%1.%$ by International +reenland *ociety. BC;
was awarded GBest Improvement in 6nergy <erformanceH and GBest
Improvement in 'hermal 6nergy <erformanceH during 199$.93.
'he ?a:asthan +overnment gave GBhama *hah *ammanH it during 1996.
=6C.II' 0adras chose Chanderia unit for e4cellence in GImproving 0achinery
Eealth ConditionH during 199. =6C, Chennai chose Chanderia unit for
sustained implementation of condition monitoring and continued 0achine
Eealth Improvement 3ward during $%%1.%$. 'he Central Board awarded the
G;or"er 6ducation 'rophyH for wor"er education, #daipur 0inistry of ,abor,
+overnment of India for e4cellent contribution and Implementation of wor"ersA
training during 199).99 and again in $%%1.%$. BC; has received e4cellence
award in Cement *ector from the ?a:asthan *tate Council, >aipur, during $%%$.
%3.
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'he 8;C plant has received I* F I*@ 9%%1.$%%% license for Iuality
0anagement system certification Baccredited by road voor accredited
5etherlandsC. 'he capacity of the 6,%%,%%% tons plant increased by another
1%,%%,%%% tons, ma"ing it the largest plant in ;est Bengal. 'he new grinding
unit, 8urga Eitech Cement, has one ball mill of 16( '<E capacities. 'his
environment.friendly pro:ect, commissioned in $%%(.%6, utili/ed thermal power
station fly ash to produce <<C. 8C; recorded 1172 capacity utili/ation in
$%%7.%(, emerging as the highest growing cement unit in the eastern region.
Cement plant were set up in 0< and ?a:asthan and +rinding units in ;est
Bengal and #<.
*atna Cement ;or"s . 19(9
Birla Cement ;or"s . 196
8urgapur Cement ;or"s . 197
Birla Cement ;or"s . 19)$
Chittor Cement ;or"s . 19)6
*C;.Conversion <lant . 19)9
?aebareli #nit . 199)
1%

Late Shri M.P.Birla Late Smt. Priyamvada Birla


#r+ P+!+ #ar,ah
President of !atna Cement %nd &irla -i.ash Cement Plant satna (m+p+)
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Birla Corporation 'imited is a multi. product conglomerate.
It plays significant roles in the Cement, ,ute, P-C floor Co*ering,
(uto rim and .teel casting industries)
he concentric around the triangle represents this *ery multi/
dimensional nature)
he ape0 of the triangle is a *isual representation of the force that
dri*es the entire corporation 1 the unifying force in search of
e0cellence)
he circle represents the inspiration to e0plore new frontiers of
growth)
MANAGEMENT
'he day. to. day management of the company is being loo"ed after by the Chief 64ecutive
@fficer, *hri B.?.5ahar who is assisted by a team of highly -ualified professional persons.
Chairman
0ate 1hri 2.1. 0odha
/D 0 C/O
1$
1hri 3.2.4ahar

&oard of #irectors
*hri 5.9. 9e:riwal

*mt 5andini 5opany
*hri Earsh =. ,odha
*hri <racheta 0a:umdar
*hri =i"ram *warup
*hri 3nand Bordia
*hri B.B. 'andon
*hri 8.5.+hosh
C2I3% %IN(NCI(' "%%IC3!
*hri <.9. Chand
(CING C"4P(N5 .3C!3(!5
*hri +irish sharma
($#I"!.
E.<. 9handelwal D company charted 3ccountants
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(chie*ements
1. *C;, B=C D 8C; have got I*@ 9%%$ -uality certification, covering the entire
range of production D mar"eting.
$. Best 6nergy performance award in 199(.96 D 1997.9(.
3. *econd best improvement in energy performance award in 199(.96.
7. 'op e4port award in 1997.9(.
(. 1irst pri/e in productivity to CC; in 1993.97.
6. *pecial 64port award in 1993.97.
. Best 6nergy performance award to *C; in 1993.97.
). *pecial e4port in 199$.93.
9. 'op e4port award for 199%.91 D 1991.9$.
1%. *econd Best <erformance in 1991.9$.
11. Best <erformance award in 19)9.9%.
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(6(!# 3(!N3# &5 .C6 (N# &-C
.) N") (6(!#. (6(!#3# &5 53(! $NI
1. Best 6nergy <erformance
3ward
5CB, 5ew 8elhi and
0inistry of <ower
+ovt. of India
19)6.)
1993.97
1997.9(
199(.96
1996.9
199.9)
B=C
*C;
*C;
*C;
*C;
*C;
$. 1uller 6nergy Conservation
3ward
0.<. Chamber of
Cement 0anufactures
3ssociation.
199.9)
199).99
1999.%%
$%%1.%$
199.9)
199).99
*C;
*C;
*C;
*C;
B=C
B=C
3. Best <roductivity 3ward 5ational <roductivity
Council, 5ew 8elhi
19).)) B=C
7. 64port 3ward C3<6KI,, 9ol"ata 199%.91
1991.9$
1993.97
1997.9(
1996.9
199.9)
$%%1.%$
B=C
B=C
*C; D B=C
B=C
B=C
B=C
B=C
1(
(. 5ational *afety 3ward 0inistry @f ,abour,
+ovt of India
1997 B=C
6. I*@.9%%1 for -uality
0anagement
?;'#=, +ermany *ince >uly
1997 ?enewed
every year
*C; D B=C
. I* F I*@.17%%1 for
6nvironment 0anagement
BI*, 5ew 8elhi *ince *ept.
1999 ?enewed
every 3 year
*C; D B=C
). *agmania 0ines *afety
3ward
8+0* 199.9)
9. 0ines 6nvironment D 0ineral
conservation @verall
<erformance
I*0, 8hanbad 199.9)
$%%$.%3
1%. Best 6nergy Conservation
Implementation +old 3ward
?a:iv +andhi
0emorial 5ational
3ward
@ct $%%7 *C;
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Product Profile
3t *atna Cement ;or"s D Birla =i"as Cement the dry process of Cement
production followed which is termed as a modern technology. 'he 6ntire
0anufacturing process is controlled through a microprocessor based
programmable logic control system to maintain a constantly uniform -uality of
Cement D high rate of production. 'he entire operation of plant is controlled in a
single control room. *C; plant, which was initially, a plant using a wet
technology for cement production was changed an to a dry one in the year 19)9.
'hese modern plant have also ta"en ade-uate core to prevent the environment
policy D dust nuisance to its surrounding areas. 'hese cement mills have
electrostatic precipitator B6*<C installed to chec" dust emission D to ensure
health ha/ard free atmosphere.
Both the plant uses the global technology for the production of goods D
consistent -uality cement. 'he *tac"er ?eclaimer 'echnology D the al"ali by
pass system along with other sound technology ma"e the manufacturing process
of Birla Cement 9ha:uraho a highly competitive D uni-ue one.
'he various varieties of cement produced at these plants areJ
1C @rdinary <ortland Cement B33, 73, (3 gradeC
$C <ortland <o//olana Cement B<<CC
3C ,ow al"ali Cement.
7C *ulphate resistant Cement.
(C *pecial Cement for Indian ?ailway *leeper BI?*.'.7%C
1
'he benefits of using high -uality cement manufactured by the company are J
1C Ideal for mass concrete structure.
$C ?educe thermal crac"s.
3C Increased water tightness of concrete.
7C Eigher fineness, ideal for plastering.
(C Increased resistance for sulphate attac" D aggressive water.
6C Increased resistance to al"ali aggregate reaction.
C Improved durability.
General !e*iew
'he year $%%(.%6 was the most successful year of the company since its
inception in terms of financial performance. 'he company, maintaining stable
growth, posted 2 increased in turnover to ?s. 1733.77 crores as compared to
?s. 137$.67 crores in the pervious year. 'he interest cost further reduced during
the year ?s. 13.6$ crores as compared to ?s. $1.69 crores in the previous year.
<rofit before ta4 recorded at (72 :ump when up to ?s. 177.%9 crores from ?s.
93.% crores in the previous year. 'he company recorded the highest ever
turnover, cash profit, profit before ta4 and profit after ta4 during the year. 'he
management continued its effort to control and reduce cost across all the
division at all levels. <rofitability of the company improved due to increase in
volumes, sales price reali/ation and better operating efficiencies.
1)
Corporate 4atters
'hermal power plant of $ 0; each for captive use at the companyAs
units at Chanderia and *atna were installed and put to use during the year. 'hese
power plant are e4pected to reduce the power cost significantly and increase the
operational efficiencies.
'he companyAs new unitJ 8urga Eitech Cement, ad:acent to the e4isting
plant at 8urgapur, ;est Bengal was also commissioned for commercial
production on $7 8ecember $%%(.
'he company has ta"en up steps to enhance the capacity of clin"er
production at its plant in phases. 'he pro:ect once e4ecuted, will result in saving
in fi4ed running cost and e4isting infrastructure li"e railway siding and power
plant will also be used optionally.
6ffort to shift *oorah >ute 0illAs to Birlapur from heart of 9ol"ata city for
economic viability, operational efficiencies and environmental issues are
continuing.
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Cement 0anufacturing process
1/4ining+ 'he cement manufacturing process starts from the mining
of lime stone , which is the main raw material for ma"ing cement.
,imestone is e4cavated from open cast mines after drilling and
blasting and loaded on to the dumpers which transport the
material and unloaded into the hoppers of limestone crusher.
7/Crushing .tac8ing 9 !eclaiming of 'imestone+ 'he lFs crusher
crush the ,imestone to minus )%mm si/e and discharge the material
onto a belt conveyer which ta"e it to the stac"er via the bul" material
analyser. 'he material is stac"ed in longitudinal stoc" piles .
,imestone is e4tract transversely from the stoc"piles by the re.
claimers and conveyed to the ?aw 0ill hoppers for grinding of raw
meal.
:/!aw 4eal #rying;Grinding 9 2omogen/i<ation+ ?eclaimed lFs
along with some lat.rite stored in their respective hoppers is fed to the
raw mill for fine grinding. 'he hot gasses coming from the
clin"erisations section are used in raw mill for drying and transport of
the ground raw meal to the electrostatic precipitator FBag house, where
it is collected and then stored and homogeni/ed in the concrete silo.
?aw meal e4tracted from the siloBne called "iln feed C is feed to the
top of the pre.heater for pyro.processing.
7. cooling+ Eot clin"er discharged from the "iln drops on the cooler
and gets cooled.
=/Clin8erisation+ Cement clin"er is made by pyro processing of "iln
feed in the pre.heater and the rotary "iln. 1ine coal is fires as fuel to
provided the necessary heat in the "iln and the pre.calciner located at
the bottom of the (F6 stage pre.heater. Eot clin"er discharged from the
"iln drops on the gate cooler and gets cooled. 'he cooler discharged
the clin"er onto the pan F buc"et conveyer and it is transported to the
$%
Conveyer Belt
$1
0ining
'he ma:or raw material for cement manufacturing is limestone.
,imestone is e4cavated from open cast mines after drilling and
blasting and loaded onto the dumper which is transported the material
and unloaded into hopper of the limestone crusher.
6-uipment #sed in miningJ
1. Compressor drilling machine.
$. *hovelsF64cavators.for lifting material onto dampers.
3. 8umper. for carrying material.
7. Built.do/ers.
(. <ay.loaders.
64plosiveJ
1. 3mmonium nitrateB1uel oilC
$. 5itroglycerine.
3. 3mmonium nitrate and slurry e4plosive.
*teps of 0iningJ
1. 'he first step of mining lFs the lFs has been located.
$. ,imestone mining is to remove the mines.
3. 'he third step is to be ta"en as drilling.
7. 3fter drilling blasting is done.
8rilling and BlastingJ
1. 'he large hole blasting method is not pre.dominated in -uarrying
in open pit.
$. 'he depth of the wholes are more then 1$m and 1%%.1(%mm
dia.
$$
,ime *tone Crusher
,ime stone crusher is the lead role playing e-uipment in this section.
'he raw lime stone is carried out from the mines is introduced to the
lime stone hopper through whole pac" dumper of capacity 3$ tons.
'he feed inside the impact crusher first enters to the crushing chamber
with help of apron feed encounters. 'he impact bars mounted over the
rotor Drevolving with the circum.frencial velocity of 3%.7% mFsec.
0aterial are blown bars and stic" on a impact arm. Eere materials are
initially install to hold these grinding bars. 'he s-uire impact arm is
install :ust behind the impact path and having 1$ liners. ;hen the
material get crushed enough for transportation towards stac"er. 3 bag
house is also installed to control the dust loss and pollution control.
6-uipment #sed in CrushingJ
1. Crusher.
$. 3pron conveyer & for feeding lFs to crusher.
3. Bag filter & for collecting dust.
7. Belt conveyer. for transporting crushed material.
'his section is wor"ed with following e-uipmentJ
1. Impact crusher.
$. 0agnetic separator
3. ,imestone stac"erD re claimer
7. Bag filter
(. 3pron feeder
6. ,imestone hopper D late rite hopper
'he important mode of transportation in this section is
belt conveyer.
0ain component of impact crusherJ
EousingJ housing of impact crusher is of studly steel fabricated
and consists of three parts.
$3
?otorJ 'he rotor in the impact crusher is of s.type construction
secured to the shaft by loc"ing assembly. 'he blow bar placed in
to the rotor from the side and are secured against lateral moment
by a suitable loc"ing device at the e4treme end. 'he rotor is
dynamically arranged to avoid any undesirable stress on the
bearing.
Blow barJ Blow bar is made from high -uality alloys steel.
3fter the certain period in operation the blow bar can be ta"en
out from the rotor and turned to other side or e4change.
;ear platesJ housing is fitted with the resistance wear plates
which are secured in position by special fastners which can be
changed as and re-uired.
Impact 3rmJ 'he impact crusher is fitted with the impact arm.
'he impact arms are each suspended in the housing parts by
means of "noc" out spindle and can be ad:usted the desire gap
setting from out side.
Eydraulic systemJ Impactors are depends on their si/e
normally supplied with a hydraulic arrangement for setting of
gap for grinding path lifting of the rear top housing.
0agnetic *eparatorJ 3 magnetic separator is installed :ust above
belt conveyer between crusher and stac"er. ;hen the magnetic
material are comes along with lime stone .they get se.prated by
magnetic separator. In the magnetic separator a permanent magnet and
a continually moving belt being fin use. 0agnetic materials are
attached by magnet due to cont. rotating of belt , material get se.prated
on removal of magnetic field.
+amma 0atricesJ 3 gamma matrices analy/er being used for
analy/e the chemical composition of lime stone. It is also "nown as
cross belt analy/er. In gamma metric analy/er we are using specially
$7
gamma rays, the gamma rays are fall on material and return bac",
according to absorption rays in to material we can determine the
chemical composition of lime stone .
,I06 *'@56 *'3C96?J.
3 limestone stoc"pile Bclosed stoc" pileC has been proposed at the
plant site with stac"er re.claimer. 'he re.claimer will help in feeding a
homogeni/ed limestone by mi4ing rich -uality ,* with low grade
mineral. By installing a re.claimer in the plant, the plant can achieve
not only -uality raw material input but also the conservation of natural
resources by utili/ing low.grade raw material.
'here are two main methods being used for stac"ing of lime stone in
cement industry. 'hey areLL..
1. Chevron 0ethod
$. ;indrow 0ethod

<ulveri/er J.
$(
,I06 *'@56 ?6C,3I06?
$6
?e.claimer which is used in our industry is bridge type scrapping re.
claimer. 'he bridge on which the rac"ing down device is mounted
accommodates a scraper chain conveyer whose blades shift the
dislodged material along to collecting belt conveyer that e4tent along
one edge of stac" pile. ?e.claimer having harrow assembly. ?e.
claimer moves on a trac" for fast travel a.c. 0otor being used and for
slow traveling d.c. motor being used. Earrow is moves to and fro
motion on rac" car which is driven by a motor. 3 limit sensor is
installed for reverse and forward motion of harrow assembly.
3ccording to pile we can ad:ust the inclination of harrows. ;hen
harrows are moves they are scrap the material of each layer of
stoc"piles and material slides down due to gravity. 3 scraper chain
ta"e out the material and fed to belt conveyor material now get
transported forwards limestone hoppers.
$
?aw millJ
Blending @f ?aw 0ealJ
$)
'he meal from the mill need storage and blending become different
chemical composition of lime stone in different lot. 'hey may vary the
-uality of lime stone.
*iloJ *ilos are huge construction of concrete and iron with aeration
units to stone and blend the fine material such as raw material.
.Continuous 1luidi/e *iloJ 'he raw meal is completely fluidi/ed
by admission of compressed air through the suitable inlets at the
bottom of the silo. 'he air penetrates the mass of raw meal into the
silo and reduces the inter particle friction forces. 3 circulatory motion
is formed and thus homogeni/ation is ta"e place.
@peration of ?aw 0illJ
;hen the ,imestone feed is started with la.trite rollers get down
D the grinding start.'he grinded material is suc"ed up through the
classifier by the help of hot gases .'he re:ect material from the
classifier is sent bac" to the grinding table by the help of re:ect group.
'he remaining fine material is sent to 6*< D 6*< re:ect material to
silos. *o total three types of material is falling on grinding table
during runningJ.
1C.0ill feed
$C.Classifier re:ect
3C.0ill re:ect
$9
*I,@
It is the large storage of ?aw mill which comes from the ?aw 0ill. It
is made of concrete D can store ?aw mill for long time.
<urposeJ.
ItAs main purpose is to homogeni/e the raw mill. @ne
of itAs main purpose is to also store raw mill for long time.
ConstructionJ.
It mainly a large structure made of concrete. It contains
following devicesJ.
1C.3ir Compressor
$C.,arge 3ir 8ucts
3C.<neumatic =alves
7C.64haust 1ans on the top
3%
<reheater
<urposeJ.
'o increase the temperature of rawmill material
through the incoming hot air from "iln D transfer air duct.
;or"ing <rinciple @f <reheater
3s the name e4plains G<re.heater 'owerH is place to use for
preheating the raw material. 'he material which comes from c.f. silo
in other words pre.heater is a device in which heat transfer ta"es place
from hot gases which comes from "iln due to counter current flow of
material and hot gases. 'he raw mill is heated about )(%
o
c before it
enter it the "iln pre.heater with calcined system is most economical
and hence the length of "iln is reduce pre.heater in #nit.1 and five
stage in unit.$ with separator line calciner. 'hese suspension pre.
heaters are wor" in "iln string D pyro string with pre.calciner string
successfully.
0ain part of suspension <re.heaterJ
1. CycloneJ 'he cyclone is use for separation of raw meal from
gas flow. 1or improving the separating efficiency of cyclones of
top most pre.heater stage. ;e have designed as double separator.
$. +as 8uctJ 'he gas ducts is to :oin the individual cyclone
stages to each other. 'he raw meal coming from ne4t higher
stage and in the gas duct underneath. 'he raw meal particles are
entering by the upward flowing gas stream and ta"en to the ne4t
cyclone. 'he heal e4change is achieved by con.current flow. 'he
gas ducts bFw stage 1 and $ consist of the cylindrical suction.
3. 'he 8ouble 1low Bo4J 'hese are used for raw meal pipes
in pre.heater system the flaps are consists in such a manner that a
minimum flow of raw mill is always maintained. 'he full
31
material causes a upward and downward moment of the
pendulum flaps and thus and upward and downward roc"ing
motion of the lever arm with counter weight penetrating the
single flaps. 'he upward and downward forces of flaps is
remains constant.
7. ?aw 0aterial distributorJ It is integral part of raw meal
ducts and spits a downward flowing stream of raw meal in to
raw meal duct. Basically the distributor has a two fold function.

3$
CalcinerJ
'he main purpose of the pre.calciner is to let the calcinations process
ta"e place out side the rotary "iln. It causes in sufficient reduction of
thermal load of the "iln burning as appro4imately 6%2 of total fuel is
burn in to calciner. 'his has made possible to increase the production
in the given si/e to about double compared to a conventional dry
process "iln with suspension pre.heater.
'he calciner consists of a vessel lined with heat resistance bric"s.
Calciner has three inputs and one output.
Input.
1. 1uel as <ulveri/ed coal.
$. <reheated material to appro4 )%%
o
c
3. Eot gases from "ilnFcoolers at )%%
o
c
@utput.
Eot gases including combustion products and co
$
from the
calcinations process and material in form of dust carried with the hot
gases.

,ime *tone 'ablet 0a"er J.
33
?otary "ilnJ
<urposeJ.
37
9iln is cylindrical rotary e-uipment rotating on supporting rollers
at about 3.( ?<0. 8ischarge in its completing calcinations reaction.
1iring is done from "iln outlet with the help of burner pipe.
ConstructionJ 9iln can be divided into J.
a. 9iln inlet Bconsist seal, grease pump, lines, cylinders etcC
b. +irth gearB+ear, pinion, spray systemC
c. 'hrust rollerBEydraulic cylinder, oil lineC
d. *upporting rollerD tyre BConsist of bearing, chair plate, bolts
etcC
e. 9iln outlet sealB*.* shims, crown shell, sealC
f. Burner pipeBconsist of air pipe, coal pipe, diesel pipe etcC
9iln inletJ 9iln inlet is seated by sealing arrangement. +reasing
is done by pneumatic pump seal. It consist of 1%.17 segment so it can
be mounted and disassembled from "iln inside. 3 conical section
forms an e4tension of the inlet ring. 3 bric" retaining ring has been
mounted at the end of conical section.
+irth +earJ 9iln is rotating by +ear & pinion arrangement. +irth
gear is mounted on "iln with the help of spring plates.
'hrust ?ollerJ 'he function of thrust roller is to control a4ial
moment of "iln in both upward D downward.
*upporting ?oller D 'yreJ *upporting roller are for support of
"iln. 'hey are in contact with tyre which are fitted in "iln shell.
9iln @utletJ 'here is a sealing arrangement in "iln outlet.
Burner <ipeJ It is for firing of fine coal into the "iln. 3ir is
controlled by damper and fine coal by solid flow meter.
9iln coolerJ
Clin"er cooler has two main function to perform. 'hey areJ.
1. 'o cool the hot clin"er -uic"ly.
$. 'o provide necessary air for burning of coal in pre.calciner and
"iln.
3(
3fter introducing of red hot clin"er into the
cooler, mechanically driven gates moves it to the rear end of cooler.
'hree pair of gates are installed inside the cooler. 3 single pair consist
of fi4ed gate and movable gate. 'oo and fro moment of movable gate
pressuri/ed which cools it -uic"ly.
Clin"er cools down gradually as it moves, due to the air
blow by the fans which is ta"en from the atmosphere. 3ir falling over
clin"er is highly pressuri/ed which cools it -uic"ly.
Clin"er escaping out of the cooler is fed to a hammer crusher, since
lumpy material re-uires crushing. Crushed material is transported to
clin"er silo through deep buc"et conveyor. 'emperature of clin"er
escaping out of cooler is about $%)
o
c.
+rate Cooler operationJ
'he grate cooler operates with a cross current principle in which the
clin"er is moved across the grate while cooling air blow in from below
through the grate and clin"er layer. 'he hot clin"er falls from "iln and
forms clin"er bed on he grate and transported through the cooler over
alternatively fi4ed and reciprocating grates. 3t the inlet of first great
36
clin"er is -uenched and spread evently across the cooler width by the
increased cooling air. 'he grate is fabricated to be as possible to
obtained a thic" clin"er layer and a uniform distribution of air through
the clin"er bed in the interest of heat recovery.
8uring the clin"er transport from the cooler a part of dust
and small si/e clin"er is falls from the grates and collected into
hoppers under the grates. 'he drag chain and rotary air loc" system
fed these clin"er and dust in clin"er transport system. 3 dust collection
6*< is also installed beside the cooler "nown as cooler 6*<. 64haust
gases from collection is fed to the 6*< for dust collection.
+rate cooler consist ofJ.
Cooling grate <lates
*tandard <lates
Cooling housing
8rive unit
+rate aeration system
Clin"er crusher
Conveying unitB8BCC
Cooling fan
0odel of ,ime *tone Crusher J.
3
Coal 0illJ
3)
'he coal mill wor"s for producing the pulveri/ed coal for burning to
increase the temperature of "iln, pre.heater, raw mill .It wor"s as same
as raw mill for lime.stone D latrite mi4ture M?aw millN grinding, D
the coal mill grind D transfer the coal to the furnace for burning. 'he
raw mill is grounded dried swept away by fan through the
separator to bag filter or 6*<. finally it is stored in to the fine coal bin
hot air for coal mill is supplied by cooler e4haust hot gases or pre.
heater outlet gases before +'C circulation. 'he function of coal
mill is to ground suitable grate coal and for feeding the same in to the
"iln and calciner in fluidi/ed form. Coal from stoc" yard is fed for
stac"ing and reclaiming in to the stac"er and re.claimer. <re.
homogeni/ed raw coal is feed in to the coal mill hopper with the help
of belt conveyer. 'he raw is then fed to the coal mill =?0 via weigh
feeder, drag chain and screw conveyer.
Important <arameters @f CoalJ
39
?esidue on 9% micronO1).$%2
?esidue on $1$micronO%.7.12
0oisture O1.(2
=olatile 0atter O$%.3%2
3sh content O$).3$2
Coal 0illJ.
Coal 0ill is an important integral part of cement plant.
Eere large si/e of appro4 si/e 6%%mm, is ground fine to the si/e of 9%
micron. Coal from coal mill is used to feed "iln and calciner. @utlet
tem of coal from coal mill is different in different seasons. It is %.
(
%
c in dry season and )%.)7
%
c in rainy season.
Coal from mines is initially
crushed at crusher site. Coal is then sent to stac"ing ma"ing mi4ture
homogeni/ed. ?eclaimer pic"s up the coal and coal is fed to the
coal mill hopper through belt conveyer. Coal ta"en out from hopper is
feed inside =?0 with the help of a screw conveyer which is
mounted :ust below the hopper. Coal inside =?0 is grounded between
roller and table.
Eot air from cooler 6*< fan is ta"en inside
=?0 and is used for drying of coal. 1ine coal from =?0
moves to the cyclone, where most of the coal is separated from
air and the coal which does not get collected due to ultra fine si/e is
separated with the help of 6*<.
,= separator is for separating coarse and fine particles.
5ow, coal is fed to screw conveyer through rotary loc", which
transport it to the 19 pumps. 'wo 19 pump delivers material to the
storage bins.
'here are two *torage bins, 'hey areJ.
1. 9iln Bin
$. <re.calciner Bin
7%
1ine Coal is then transported to the "iln and pre.calciner by "iln firing
19 pump and pre.calciner 19 pump respectively.
ClassifierJ
3 classifier is the top most rotary part of the vertical
roller 0ill . Eere classification of materials occurs .1ine particles pass
through classifier and course particles are re:ecter and recycled for
regrinding. 3ccording to the fineness re-uired speed of the classifier
rotor can be ad:usted.
71
Lime Stone Regrinder:-
QUALITY CONTROL IN CEMENT PRODUCTION
7$
Quality Control
Efciency quality control is error preention rat!er t!an error
"etection# Online reaction to special cause o$ ariation %ill lea"
to pro&ressie i'proe'ent in t!e process( per$or'ance an"
cost# )un"a'ental i'proe'ent in quality results $ro' testin&
rational pre"iction a*out special process usin& statistical
'et!o"# T!e e+ectie pursuit o$ quality per'anent co''it'ent
t!rou&! out an or&ani,ation#
Pit$all o$ quality control
Pit$all o$ t!e success$ul i'plantation o$ t!e per'anent quality
i'proe'ent culture are-.
/# Lac0 o$ top 'ana&e'ent support#
1# Lac0 o$ 'i""le 'ana&e'ent support#
2# Co''it'ent to only "epart'ent#
3# 4ap!a,ar" approac! a little o$ t!is an" t!at %it! no
'eanin& c!an&e in t!e syste'#
5# Measure'ent o$ success an" &ui"ance pro&ra' on t!e
*asis o$ s!ort.ter' pro6le#
73
Ce'ent -.
Ce'ent is a %or" &ien to a po%"er 'aterial %!ic! initially !as
plastic 7o% %!en 'i8e" %it! %ater *ut !as t!e property o$
settin& !ar" soli" structure in t!e seeral !ours %it! aryin&
"e&ree o$ stren&t! an" *on"in& properties#
Natural is a 'i8ture o$ *urnt silicate an" li'e# It %as "iscoere"
*y 9osep! Asp"in an En&lis! *ric0 layer in /:13# T!is Ce'ent is
calle" Portlan" Ce'ent an" no% a "ay prepare" arti6cially#
Properties o$ Ce'ent
77
It &ies stren&t! to t!e 'asonry#
It is an e8cellent *in"in& 'aterial#
It is easily %or0a*le#
It !ar"en early#
Types o$ Ce'ent
A# Or"inary Portlan" Ce'ent ;OPC<
It is o$ 2 types
/# 22=
1# 32=
7(
2# 52=
># Po,,olana Portlan" Ce'ent ;PPC<
Uses o$ Ce'ent
At present t!e ce'ent is %i"ely use" in t!e construction
o$ arious en&ineerin& structure# It !as proe" to *e one
o$ t!e lea"in& en&ineerin& 'aterials o$ 'o"ern ti'e
an" !as no rial in pro"uction an" application# )ollo%in&
are possi*le uses o$ ce'ent-.
/# Ce'ent 'ortal $or 'asonry %or0( plaster etc#
1# Concrete $or layerin& 7oor( roo$( construction
lanters( *ea's %eat!er s!e" stairs pillars#
2# Construction o$ i'portant en&ineerin& structure
suc! as *ri"&es( culerts( "a's( tunnels( stora&e
reseroir( li&!t !ouses( "oc0 etc#
3# Construction o$ %ater tan0s( %ell( tennis court(
septic tan0( la'p post( roa"s( telep!one ca*ins
etc #
5# Ma0in& ?oints $or "rain an" pipes#
@# Manu$acturin& o$ present pipes( piles( &ar"en seats(
artistically "esi&n urns( 7o%er pots( "ust*in $encin&
post etc#
A# Preparation o$ $oun"ation( %aterti&!t 7oor(
$ootpat!s etc#
76
7

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