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Escalators in a Copenhagen Metro station, Denmark, 2007.
An escalator is a moving staircase – a conveyor transport device for carrying people
et!een floors of a "ilding. #he device consists of a motor$driven chain of individ"al,
linked steps that move "p or do!n on tracks, allo!ing the step treads to remain
Escalators are "sed aro"nd the !orld to move pedestrian traffic in places !here elevators
!o"ld e impractical. &rincipal areas of "sage incl"de department stores, shopping malls,
airports, transit systems, convention centers, hotels, and p"lic "ildings.
#he enefits of escalators are many. #hey have the capacity to move large n"mers of
people, and they can e placed in the same physical space as one might install a staircase.
#hey have no !aiting interval 'e(cept d"ring very heavy traffic), they can e "sed to
g"ide people to!ard main e(its or special e(hiits, and they may e !eatherproofed for
o"tdoor "se.
*n 200+, it !as estimated that the ,nited -tates had .0,000 escalators, and that people
"sed escalators /0 illion times each year.
Design, components, and operation
[edit] Operation and layout
Escalators, like moving !alk!ays, are po!ered y constant$speed alternating c"rrent
motors and move at appro(imately 1–2 feet '0..0–0.31 m) per second. #he ma(im"m
angle of inclination of an escalator to the hori%ontal floor level is .0 degrees !ith a
standard rise "p to ao"t 30 feet '14 m). Modern escalators have single piece al"min"m
or steel steps that move on a system of tracks in a contin"o"s loop.
5Crisscross5 layo"t
5Multiple parallel5 layo"t
5Parallel5 layo"t
Escalators have three typical config"ration options6 parallel '"p and do!n escalators
5side y side or separated y a distance5, seen often in metro stations and m"ltilevel
motion pict"re theatres), crisscross 'minimi%es str"ct"ral space re7"irements y
5stacking5 escalators that go in one direction, fre7"ently "sed in department stores or
shopping centers), and multiple parallel 't!o or more escalators together that travel in
one direction ne(t to one or t!o escalators in the same ank that travel in the other
Escalators are re7"ired to have moving handrails that keep pace !ith the movement of
the steps. #he direction of movement '"p or do!n) can e permanently the same, or e
controlled y personnel according to the time of day, or a"tomatically e controlled y
!hoever arrives first, !hether at the ottom or at the top 'the system is programmed so
that the direction is not reversed !hile a passenger is on the escalator).
[edit] Design and layout considerations
5,p5 escalators in 8rance ne(t to a staircase
A n"mer of factors affect escalator design, incl"ding physical re7"irements, location,
traffic patterns, safety considerations, and aesthetic preferences. 8oremost, physical
factors like the vertical and hori%ontal distance to e spanned m"st e considered. #hese
factors !ill determine the pitch of the escalator and its act"al length. #he aility of the
"ilding infrastr"ct"re to s"pport the heavy components is also a critical physical
concern. 9ocation is important eca"se escalators sho"ld e sit"ated !here they can e
easily seen y the general p"lic. *n department stores, c"stomers sho"ld e ale to vie!
the merchandise easily. 8"rthermore, "p and do!n escalator traffic sho"ld e physically
separated and sho"ld not lead into confined spaces.
#raffic patterns m"st also e anticipated in escalator design. *n some "ildings, the
o:ective is simply to move people from one floor to another, "t in others there may e a
more specific re7"irement, s"ch as f"nneling visitors to!ards a main e(it or e(hiit. #he
n"mer of passengers is important eca"se escalators are designed to carry a certain
ma(im"m n"mer of people. 8or e(ample, a single$!idth escalator traveling at ao"t
1.; feet '0.+3 m) per second can move an estimated 170 persons per five min"te period.
#he carrying capacity of an escalator system m"st match the e(pected peak traffic
demand, pres"ming that passengers ride single file. #his is cr"cial for applications in
!hich there are s"dden increases in the n"mer of riders. 8or e(ample, escalators at
stations m"st e designed to cater for the peak traffic flo! discharged from a train,
!itho"t ca"sing e(cessive "nching at the escalator entrance.
*n this regard, escalators help in controlling traffic flo! of people. 8or e(ample, an
escalator to an e(it effectively disco"rages most people from "sing it as an entrance, and
may red"ce sec"rity concerns. -imilarly, escalators often are "sed as the e(it of airport
sec"rity checkpoints. -"ch an egress point !o"ld generally e staffed to prevent its "se as
an entrance, as !ell.
*t is preferred that staircases e located ad:acent to the escalator if the escalator is the
primary means of transport et!een floors. *t may also e necessary to provide an
elevator lift ad:acent to an escalator for !heelchairs and disaled persons. 8inally,
consideration sho"ld e given to the aesthetics of the escalator. #he architects and
designers can choose from a !ide range of styles and colors for the handrails and
[edit] Model sizes and other specifications
Escalator step widths Energy usage
idth !"etween
mm in & hp
+00 mm
<ne passenger,
!ith feet together
A rare historic design,
especially in older
department stores
..7 k= ; hp
Small 300 mm
<ne passenger
9o!$vol"me sites,
"ppermost levels of
department stores, !hen
space is limited
..7 k= ; hp
Medium 400 mm
<ne passenger >
one package or
one piece of
-hopping malls,
department stores,
smaller airports
7.; k=
(arge 1000 mm
#!o passengers
? one may !alk
past another
Mainstay of metro
systems, larger airports,
train stations, some retail
7.; k=
[edit] Components
An escalator eing repaired at #o!n @all -tation in -ydney, A"stralia.
A 5freestanding5 escalator reveals its inner components thro"gh the transparent tr"ss.
Escalator tr"ss connects to the landing platform 'lo!er left). Also visile6 e(posed drive
gears 'center) for steps and handrail drive 'left).
E(posed escalator track, !ith steps removed.
Aie! of escalator steps on contin"o"s chain.
An escalator e7"ipped !ith a 5ello!s5 handrail. #he racelets are colored grey, !ith
occasional strings of lack ones to appear as moving spacers.
9anding platforms
#hese t!o platforms ho"se the c"rved sections of the tracks, as !ell as the gears
and motors that drive the stairs. #he top platform contains the motor assemly and
the main drive gear, !hile the ottom holds the step ret"rn idler sprockets. #hese
sections also anchor the ends of the escalator tr"ss. *n addition, the platforms
contain a floor plate and a complate. #he floor plate provides a place for the
passengers to stand efore they step onto the moving stairs. #his plate is fl"sh
!ith the finished floor and is either hinged or removale to allo! easy access to
the machinery elo!. #he complate is the piece et!een the stationary floor
plate and the moving step. *t is so named eca"se its edge has a series of cleats
that resemle the teeth of a com. #hese teeth mesh !ith matching cleats on the
edges of the steps. #his design is necessary to minimi%e the gap et!een the stair
and the landing, !hich helps prevent o:ects from getting ca"ght in the gap.
#he tr"ss is a hollo! metal str"ct"re that ridges the lo!er and "pper landings. *t
is composed of t!o side sections :oined together !ith cross races across the
ottom and :"st elo! the top. #he ends of the tr"ss are attached to the top and
ottom landing platforms via steel or concrete s"pports. #he tr"ss carries all the
straight track sections connecting the "pper and lo!er sections.
#he track system is "ilt into the tr"ss to g"ide the step chain, !hich contin"o"sly
p"lls the steps from the ottom platform and ack to the top in an endless loop.
#here are act"ally t!o tracks6 one for the front !heels of the steps 'called the
step$!heel track) and one for the ack !heels of the steps 'called the trailer$!heel
track). #he relative positions of these tracks ca"se the steps to form a staircase as
they move o"t from "nder the complate. Along the straight section of the tr"ss
the tracks are at their ma(im"m distance apart. #his config"ration forces the ack
of one step to e at a /0$degree angle relative to the step ehind it. #his right
angle ends the steps into a shape resemling a staircase. At the top and ottom of
the escalator, the t!o tracks converge so that the front and ack !heels of the
steps are almost in a straight line. #his ca"ses the stairs to lay in a flat sheetlike
arrangement, one after another, so they can easily travel aro"nd the end in the
c"rved section of track. #he tracks carry the steps do!n along the "nderside of the
tr"ss "ntil they reach the ottom landing, !here they pass thro"gh another c"rved
section of track efore e(iting the ottom landing. At this point the tracks separate
and the steps once again ass"me a staircase config"ration. #his cycle is repeated
contin"ally as the steps are p"lled from ottom to top and ack to the ottom
#he steps themselves are solid, one piece, die$cast al"min"m or steel. Bello!
demarcation lines may e added to clearly indicate their edges. *n most escalator
models man"fact"red after 1/;0, oth the riser and the tread of each step is
cleated 'given a ried appearance) !ith comlike protr"sions that mesh !ith the
complates on the top and ottom platforms and the s"cceeding steps in the chain.
-eeerger$ or 5step$type5 escalators 'see elo!) feat"red flat treads and smooth
risersC other escalator models have cleated treads and smooth risers. #he steps are
linked y a contin"o"s metal chain that forms a closed loop. #he front and ack
edges of the steps are each connected to t!o !heels. #he rear !heels are set
f"rther apart to fit into the ack track and the front !heels have shorter a(les to fit
into the narro!er front track. As descried aove, the position of the tracks
controls the orientation of the steps.
#he handrail provides a convenient handhold for passengers !hile they are riding
the escalator. *n an escalator, the handrail is p"lled along its track y a chain that
is connected to the main drive gear y a series of p"lleys. *t is constr"cted of fo"r
distinct sections. At the center of the handrail is a 5slider5, also kno!n as a 5glider
ply5, !hich is a layer of a cotton or synthetic te(tile. #he p"rpose of the slider
layer is to allo! the handrail to move smoothly along its track. #he ne(t layer,
kno!n as the 5tension memer5, consists of either steel cale or flat steel tape,
and provides the handrail !ith tensile strength and fle(iility. <n top of tension
memer are the inner constr"ction components, !hich are made of chemically
treated r"er designed to prevent the layers from separating. 8inally, the o"ter
layer?the only part that passengers act"ally see?is the cover, !hich is a lend
of synthetic polymers and r"er. #his cover is designed to resist degradation
from environmental conditions, mechanical !ear and tear, and h"man vandalism.
*n the factory, handrails are constr"cted y feeding r"er thro"gh a comp"ter$
controlled e(tr"sion machine to prod"ce layers of the re7"ired si%e and type in
order to match specific orders. #he component layers of faric, r"er, and steel
are shaped y skilled !orkers efore eing fed into the presses, !here they are
f"sed together.
*n the mid$t!entieth cent"ry, some handrail designs consisted of a r"er ello!s,
!ith rings of smooth metal cladding called 5racelets5 placed et!een each coil.
#his gave the handrail a rigid yet fle(ile feel. Additionally, each ello!s section
!as no more than a fe! feet long, so if part of the handrail !as damaged, only the
ad segment needed to e replaced. #hese forms of handrail have largely een
replaced !ith conventional faric$and$r"er railings.
[edit] Safety
-afety is also ma:or concern in escalator design. 8ire protection of an escalator floor
opening may e provided y adding a"tomatic sprinklers or fireproof sh"tters to the
opening, or y installing the escalator in an enclosed fire$protected hall. #o limit the
danger of overheating, ventilation for the spaces that contain the motors and gears m"st
e provided.
[edit] %ccidents and litigation
[edit] %ccidents
#here have een reports of people falling off a moving escalator or getting their shoe
st"ck in part of the escalatorC shoe laces are a ha%ard !hen loose. -ome accidents are
ca"sed y improper or "nsafe "se s"ch as riding the hand rails 'see "llet points elo!)
or y escalator spinning. A fe! fatal accidents are6

Eight people died and .0 more !ere in:"red on 8er"ary 17, 1/42, !hen an
escalator collapsed on the Mosco! Metro. =rongly set "p service rakes !ere
later lamed for the accident.

.1 people died after a fire, eg"n in the "ndercarriage of an M@$type <tis
escalator, e(ploded into the ticketing hall at DingEs Cross -t. &ancras station in

<n Decemer 1., 1///, 4$year$old Fyotsna Fethani !as killed at Ge! DelhiEs
international airport. Fethani fell into a gaping hole that res"lted from improper

<n F"ne 1;, 2002, Andrea Alright, a 2+$year$old F.C. &enney employee in
Col"mia, Maryland, !as critically in:"red !hile riding the storeEs escalator from
the first to the second level. -he someho! got her head ca"ght et!een the
escalator rail and a lo! ceiling. *n 200;, her parents s"ed the property manager,
t!o design firms, and the escalator company for H; million.

<n Ge! Bears Eve, 200+, escalators at the #aipei City @all -tation kept moving
comm"ters onto the overcro!ded island platform. A !oman !hose hair got
ca"ght in the escalator received 20 stitches to the scalp.

8rancisco &ortillo, a -alvadoran s"shi chef, died after eing strangled !hen his
s!eatshirt ca"ght in a Ioston s"!ay escalator on 8er"ary 21, 200; at &orter
-7"are. @e !as allegedly dr"nk at the time.

<n -eptemer 1., 2004, an 11$year old oy died after falling off an escalator in
9yngdal, Gor!ay
. <n April 20, 200/, a teenage oy died after getting very
serio"s sk"ll in:"ries after falling off an escalator in 8al"n, -!eden
. <n F"ne
23, 200/, a man died after falling off an escalator in @elsingorg, -!eden
. All
three !ere riding the handrail.
[edit] (essons of the )ing*s Cross fire
#he DingEs Cross fire ill"strated the demanding nat"re of escalator "pkeep and the
devicesJ propensity to collect Kfl"ffL !hen not properly maintained.
-ince the station !as part of a p"lic instit"tion 'the 9ondon ,ndergro"nd) and there !as
a s"stantial cas"alty rate, the incident yielded vocifero"s p"lic o"tcry as riders and
victimsJ families demanded the removal of all !ooden escalators system!ide. *n the
official in7"iry that follo!ed, the 8ennell Meport, it !as determined that the fire started
slo!ly, smoldered virt"ally "ndetected for a time, then e(ploded into the ticketing hall
aove in a phenomenon kno!n as the Ktrench effect.L #his slo!$"rning fire, 8ennell
fo"nd, !as allegedly kindled y a discarded "ne(ting"ished cigarette, !hich !as sho!n
in laoratory tests to e a more po!erf"l ignition so"rce than a lit match.
*n the
escalatorsJ "ndercarriage, appro(imately 4,400 kilograms '1/,000 l) of acc"m"lated
detrit"s acted as a !ick to a neglected "ild"p of interior l"ricantsC !ood veneers, paper
and plastic advertisements, solvent$ased paint, ply!ood in the ticket hall, and melamine
com"stion added to the impact of the calamity.
#aking this partic"lar sit"ation as an
e(ample, one co"ld easily spec"late that any accretion of flammale f"els, cloth, or
scraps 'the Kfl"ffL denoted y 8ennell) co"ld like!ise lead to a devastating fire.
Conse7"entially, older !ooden escalators !ere removed from service in the 9ondon
,ndergro"nd, tho"gh at least one set remains in operation, at Nreenford -tation.
Additionally, sections of the 9ondon ,ndergro"nd that !ere act"ally elo!gro"nd !ere
made nonsmokingC event"ally the !hole system ecame a smoke$free %one.
[edit] (itigation
*n the 1/.0s, at least one s"it !as filed against a department store, alleging that its
escalators posed an attractive n"isance, responsile for a childJs in:"ry.
#hese cases
!ere almost al!ays dismissed. Moreover, contin"al "pdating of escalator safety codes
facilitated increased levels of cons"mer safety as !ell as a red"ction in co"rt cases.
[edit] (egislation and escalators
[edit] +nited States
Despite their considerale scope, t!o Congressional Acts, the Mehailitation Act of 1/7.
and the Americans !ith Disailities Act of 1//0 'ADA), did not directly affect escalators
or their p"lic installations. -ince -ection ;0+ of the Mehailitation Act incl"ded p"lic
transportation systems, for a fe! years, the ,nited -tates Department of #ransportation
considered designs to retrofit e(isting escalators for !heelchair access. Gonetheless,
8oster$Miller AssociatesJ 1/40 plan, Escalator Modification for the Handicapped !as
"ltimately ignored in favor of increased elevator installations in s"!ay systems.
9ike!ise, the ADA provided more accessiility options, "t e(pressly e(cl"ded
escalators as Kaccessile means of egress,L advocating neither their removal nor retention
in p"lic str"ct"res.
[edit] Codes and regulation
*n the ,nited -tates and Canada, ne! escalators m"st aide y A-ME A17.1 standards,
and oldOhistoric escalators m"st conform to the safety g"idelines of A-ME A17... *n
E"rope, the escalator safety code is EG11;.
[edit] )ey safety features de,eloped o,er time
Gotice on escalators in -pain.
#o enhance passenger safety, ne!er models of escalators are e7"ipped !ith one or more
of the follo!ing safety implementations, as per A-ME A17.1 code6
• Antislide devices6 Maised circ"lar o:ects that often st"d the escalator al"strade.
-ometimes informally called 5hockey p"cks5 d"e to their appearance, their
p"rpose is to prevent o:ects 'and people) from precipito"sly sliding do!n the
other!ise smooth metallic s"rface.
• Complate impact s!itches6 -top the escalator if a foreign o:ect gets ca"ght
et!een the steps and the complate on either end.
• Deflector r"sh6 A long contin"o"s r"sh made of stiff ristles r"nning "p the
sides of the escalator :"st aove the step level. #his helps deflect garments, shoes,
and other items a!ay from the gap et!een the moving steps and the skirt oard.
• Emergency stop "tton6 At each end of the escalator 'in some models, also on the
al"strade), a large red "tton can e pressed to stop the device in the event of an
emergency. #ypically, an alarmed transparent plastic g"ardplate covers the "ttonC
restarting re7"ires t"rning a key.
• E(tended al"strades6 Allo!s riders to grasp the handrail efore setting foot on an
escalator, to ease c"stomer comfort and stailityOe7"iliri"m. '#he effect is
similar to the flat steps descried elo!.)
• 8lat steps6 9ike a moving !alk!ay, the first t!o or three steps at either end of the
escalator are flat. #his gives the passenger e(tra time to orient himOherself !hen
oarding, and more time to maintain alance !hen e(iting. 9onger escalators
often have fo"r or more flat steps.
• @andrail inlet s!itches6 . -ensors located at the ottom and top of the "nit that
g"ard the handrail termini. *f something gets ca"ght in these locations, a hard
fa"lt is generated in the controller, and the escalator sh"ts do!n a"tomatically.
• @andrail speed sensors6 #hese sensors are "s"ally optical, and monitor ho! fast
the handrail moves. *f the sensor notices a speed difference et!een the handrail
and the steps, it so"nds an alarm, pa"ses, and then a"tomatically stops the
escalator. *n these sit"ations, the escalator m"st e serviced y a"thori%ed
personnel efore ret"rning to an operale state.
• Missing step detectors6 Depending on the man"fact"rer and model, this sensor is
either optical or physical. =hen a missing step is detected, the escalator
a"tomatically sh"ts do!n.
• Maised step edges6 *n some models, a difference in tread height is "tili%ed to keep
passengersE feet from the skirt oard.
• -afety instr"ctions6 A sign, typically posted on oth escalator ne!els at the
entrance landing platform. *n some sit"ations, safety preca"tions are posted on
!alls near the escalator, incl"ded on freestanding signs, or?as in some models?
printed on the riser s"rface itself.
• -ensor s!itch6 *n a"tomatic$startOstop escalators, this sensor a"tomatically
engages the escalator motion !hen a rider is detected on the first step of the
entrance landing platform, and stops the escalator !hen there are no riders on the
• -tep demarcation lights6 Either fl"orescent or 9ED lights 'traditionally green in
color) located inside the tr"ss. #he ill"mination et!een the steps improves the
passengersE a!areness of the step divisions.
• -tep demarcation lines6 *n order to clearly delineate the edges of each individ"al
step, man"fact"rers offer steps trimmed in yello!, either painted or !ith plastic
[edit] Safe riding- official safety foundation guidelines
=hile some escalator accidents are ca"sed y a mechanical fail"re, most can e avoided
y follo!ing some simple safety preca"tions. #he Elevator Escalator -afety 8o"ndation
is a ma:or advocate for safe riding in the ,nited -tates and Canada, sponsors Gational
Elevator Escalator -afety =eek each year, and p"lishes its o!n s"ggestions for safe
[edit] .istory
[edit] /n,entors and manufacturers
[edit] 0athan %mes
*ll"stration from ,.-. &atent P2;,0736 Mevolving -tairs. *ss"ed A"g"st /, 14;/ to Gathan
Gathan Ames, a patent solicitor from -a"g"s, Massach"setts, is credited !ith patenting
the first 5escalator5 in 14;/, despite the fact that no !orking model of his design !as ever
"ilt. @is invention, the 5revolving stairs5, is largely spec"lative and the patent
specifications indicate that he had no preference for materials or potential "se 'he noted
that steps co"ld e "pholstered or made of !ood, and s"ggested that the "nits might
enefit the infirm !ithin a ho"sehold "se), tho"gh the mechani%ation !as s"ggested to
r"n either y man"al or hydra"lic po!er.
[edit] (eamon Souder
*n 144/, 9eamon -o"der s"ccessf"lly patented the 5stair!ay5, an escalator$type device
that feat"red a 5series of steps and links :ointed to each other5. Go model !as ever "ilt.
#his !as the first of at least fo"r escalator$style patents iss"ed to -o"der, incl"ding
t!o for spiral designs ',. -. &atent Gos. 72.,.2; and 7/2,32.).
[edit] 1esse ilford 2eno, 3eorge %4 heeler, and Charles See"erger
*n 14/2, Fesse =. Meno patented the 5Endless Conveyor or Elevator.5
A fe! months
after MenoEs patent !as approved, Neorge A. =heeler patented his ideas for a more
recogni%ale moving staircase, tho"gh it !as never "ilt.
=heelerJs patents !ere
o"ght y Charles -eeergerC some feat"res of =heelerJs designs !ere incorporated in
-eeergerJs prototype "ilt y the <tis Elevator Company in 14//.
Meno prod"ced the first !orking escalator 'he act"ally called it the 5inclined elevator5)
and installed it alongside the <ld *ron &ier at Coney *sland, Ge! Bork in 14/3.
partic"lar device !as little more than an inclined elt !ith cast$iron slats or cleats on the
s"rface for traction, and traveled along a 2;Q incline. A fe! months later, the same
prototype !as "sed for a monthlong trial period on the Manhattan side of the Irooklyn
Iridge. Meno event"ally :oined forces !ith <tis Elevator Company, and retired once his
patents !ere p"rchased o"tright. -ome Meno$type escalators !ere still eing "sed in the
Ioston s"!ay "ntil constr"ction for the Iig Dig precipitated their removal. #he
-mithsonian *nstit"tion considered re$assemling one of these historic "nits from 1/1+ in
their collection of Americana, "t 5logistics and reassemly costs !on o"t over
nostalgia5, and the pro:ect !as discarded.
Aro"nd May 14/;, Charles -eeerger egan dra!ings on a form of escalator similar to
those patented y =heeler in 14/2. #his device act"ally consisted of flat, moving stairs,
not "nlike the escalators of today, e(cept for one important detail6 the step s"rface !as
smooth, !ith no com effect to safely g"ide the riderEs feet off at the ends. *nstead, the
passenger had to step off side!ays. #o facilitate this, at the top or ottom of the escalator
the steps contin"ed moving hori%ontally eyond the end of the handrail 'like a miniat"re
moving side!alk) "ntil they disappeared "nder a triang"lar 5divider5 !hich g"ided the
passenger to either side. -eeerger teamed !ith <tis Elevator Company in 14//, and
together they prod"ced the first commercial escalator !hich !on the first pri%e at the
&aris 1/00 Exposition Universelle in 8rance. Also on display at the Exposition !ere
MenoEs inclined elevator, a similar model y Fames M. Dodge and the 9ink Ielt
Machinery Co., and t!o different devices y 8rench man"fact"rers @allR and &iat.
[edit] Early European manufacturers- .all5, .oc6uardt, and Piat
&iat installed its 5stepless5 escalator in @arrods Dnightsridge store on =ednesday,
Govemer 13, 14/4, tho"gh the company relin7"ished its patent rights to the department
store. Goted y Iill 9ancaster in The Department Store: a Social History, 5c"stomers
"nnerved y the e(perience !ere revived y shopmen dispensing free smelling salts and
#he @arrods "nit !as a contin"o"s leather elt made of 522+ pieces . . .
strongly linked together traveling in an "p!ard direction,5 and !as the first 5moving
staircase5 in England.
@oc7"ardt received E"ropean patent rights for the Fahrtreppe in 1/03. After the
Exposition, @allR contin"ed to sell its escalator device in E"rope, "t !as event"ally
eclipsed in sales y other ma:or man"fact"rers.
[edit] Ma7or competitors and product nomenclature
*n the first half of the t!entieth cent"ry, several man"fact"rers developed their o!n
escalator prod"cts, tho"gh they had to market their devices "nder different names, d"e to
<tisJ hold on the trademark rights to the !ord Kescalator.L Ge! Bork$ased &eelle
Company called their models the Motorstair, and =estingho"se called their model an
Electric Stairway. #he #oledo$ased @a"ghton Elevator company referred to their
prod"ct as simply Moving Stairs.
[edit] Manufacturing mergers and "uyouts- the playing field narrows
Done and -chindler introd"ced their first escalator models several decades after the <tis
Elevator Co., "t gre! to dominance in the field over time. #oday, they and Mits"ishi
are <tisE primary rivals.
-chindler no! stands as the largest maker of escalators and second largest maker of
elevators in the !orld, tho"gh their first escalator installation did not occ"r "ntil 1/.3.

*n 1/7/, the company entered the ,nited -tates market y p"rchasing @a"ghton
ElevatorC nine years later, -chindler ass"med control of the Gorth American
escalatorOelevator operations of =estingho"se.
Done e(panded internationally y ac7"isition in the 1/70s, "ying o"t -!edish elevator
man"fact"rer Asea$Nraham, and p"rchasing other minor 8rench, Nerman, and A"strian
elevator makers efore ass"ming control of =estingho"seJs E"ropean elevator "siness.
As the last 5ig fo"r5 man"fact"rers held on to the escalator market, Done first ac7"ired
Montgomery Elevator Company, then took control of NermanyJs <renstein S Doppel
[edit] Model de,elopment and design types
[edit] 8Cleat$type8 escalators
Fesse MenoEs escalators did not resemle modern escalators too closely. &assengersE feet
tilted "p!ard at an angle, and the treads consisted of cleated metal 'initially) or !ood
'later models). Meno !orked on his o!n for several years, gaining s"ccess !ith
installations from #oronto to Cape #o!n, -o"th Africa. -imilar "nits of the day y other
man"fact"rers resemled conveyor elts more than moving staircases. 8or a time, <tis
Elevator sold MenoEs escalators as their o!n 5cleat$type5 escalators.
[edit] 8Step$type8 escalators
-eeergerEs model, o"ght y <tis, clearly ecame the first 5step$type5 escalator, so
called after its vis"al likeness to steps on a reg"lar staircase. #he company later comined
the est aspects of oth inventions 'g"iding slats and flat steps) and in 1/21 prod"ced an
escalator similar to the type "sed today6 they called it the 59$type5 escalator. *t !as
s"cceeded y the 5M$type5, the 5<$type5, and c"rrent models y <tis s"ch as the 5GCE$
type5 escalator.
[edit] Spiral escalators- from 2eno to Mitsu"ishi
Meno, in addition to his notoriety for the first KpracticalL escalator in p"lic "se, also
ears the "ni7"e distinction of designing the very first escalators installed in any
"ndergro"nd s"!ay system – a single spiral escalator in the 9ondon ,ndergro"nd in
1/03, forgotten for several decades.
Also the first f"lly operational spiral escalator,
MenoJs design !as nonetheless only one in a series of several similar proposed
contraptions. -o"der patented t!o spiral designs 'see aove), =heeler drafted spiral
stair!ay plans in 1/0;, -eeerger devised at least t!o different spiral "nits et!een 1/03
and 1/11 'incl"ding an "nreali%ed arrangement for the 9ondon ,ndergro"nd), and
Nilert 9"na otained =est Nerman, Fapanese, and ,nited -tates patents for his version
of a spiral escalator y 1/7.. =hen intervie!ed for the Los Aneles Times that year, 9"na
!as in the process of soliciting Kma:or firmsL for ac7"isition of his patents and company,
"t statistics are "nclear on the o"tcome of his endeavors in that regard.
#he Mits"ishi Electric Corporation !as most s"ccessf"l in its development of 5spiral5
'more 5c"rve5 than tr"e spiral) escalators, and has sold them e(cl"sively since the mid$
1/40s. #he !orldEs first 5practical5 spiral escalator?a Mits"ishi model?!as installed
in <saka, Fapan, in 1/4;.
*n "se, a ma:or planning advantage presented y spiral escalators is that they take "p
m"ch less hori%ontal floor space than traditional "nits, !hich fre7"ently ho"se large
machine rooms "nderneath the tr"ss.
[edit] Etymology
-everal a"thors and historians have contri"ted their o!n differing interpretations of the
so"rce of the !ord KescalatorL, and some degree of misinformation has heretofore
proliferated on the *nternet. 8or reference, contradictory citations y seven separate
individ"als, incl"ding the <tis Elevator Company itself, are provided elo!.
[edit] 0ame de,elopment and original intentions
Charles -eeerger trademarked the !ord 5escalator5 in 1/00, to coincide !ith his
deviceJs de"t at the Exposition Universelle. According to his o!n acco"nt, in 14/;, his
legal co"nsel advised him to name his ne! invention, and he then set o"t to devise a title
for it on his o!n. As evidenced in -eeergerEs o!n hand!ritten doc"ments, archived at
the <tis Elevator Company head7"arters in 8armington, Connectic"t, the inventor
cons"lted 5a 9atin le(icon5 and 5adopted as the root of the ne! !ord, E-calaEC as a prefi(,
EEE and as a s"ffi(, E#or.E5
@is o!n ro"gh translation of the !ord th"s created !as
5means of traversing from5, and he intended for the !ord to e prono"nced, 5es kTl U tUr5 ‧ ʹ‧
5Escalator5 !as not a comination of other 8rench or Nreek !ords, and !as never a
derivative of 5elevator5 in the original sense, !hich means 5one !ho raises "p, a
deliverer5 in 9atin.
-imilarly, the root !ord 5scala5 does not mean 5a flight of steps5,
"t is defined y 9e!is and -hortJs A Latin Dictionary as the sing"lar form of the pl"ral
no"n 5scalae5, !hich denotes any of the follo!ing6 5a flight of steps or stairs, a staircaseC
a ladder, 0or2 a scaling$ladder.5
#he alleged intended capitali%ation of 5escalator5 is like!ise a topic of deate.
-eeergerJs trademark application lists the !ord not only !ith the 5E5 "t also !ith all of
the letters capitali%ed 'in t!o different instances), and he specifies that, 5any other form
and character of type may e employed . . . !itho"t altering in any essential manner the
character of 0the2 trade$mark.5
#hat his initial specifications are ostensily
inconsistent, and since <tis Elevator Co. advertisements so fre7"ently capitali%ed all of
the letters in the !ord, s"ppositions ao"t the 5capital VeJ5 are diffic"lt to form"late.
[edit] Deri,ati,es of 9escalator9
#he ver 5escalate5 originated in 1/22, and has t!o "ses, the primary6 5to clim or reach
y means of an escalator5 or 5to travel on an escalator5, and the secondary6 5to increase
or develop y s"ccessive stagesC spec! to develop from EconventionalE !arfare into n"clear
#he latter definition !as first printed in the Manchester "#ardian in 1/;/,
"t gre! to prominent "se d"ring the late 1/30s and early 1/70s.
[edit] (oss of trademar& rights
-ee also6 Nenerici%ed trademark
*n 1/;0, the landmark case Ha#hton Elevator $o! v! See%erer precipitated the end of
<tisE reign over e(cl"sive "se of the !ord 5escalator5, and sim"ltaneo"sly created a
ca"tionary st"dy for companies and individ"als interested in trademark retention.

Confirming the contention of the E(aminer of #rademark *nterferences, Assistant
Commissioner of &atents M"rphyJs decision re:ected the <tis Elevator CompanyJs appeal
to keep their trademark intact, and noted that 5the term EescalatorE is recogni%ed y the
general p"lic as the name for a moving stair!ay and not the so"rce thereof5, oserving
that the <tis Elevator Co. had 5"sed the term as a generic descriptive termWin a n"mer
of patents !hich 0had2 een iss"ed to them andWin their advertising matter.5
trademark protections !ere removed from the !ord 5escalator5, the term !as officially
generici%ed, and it fell into the p"lic domain.
[edit] Primary uses and application
[edit] Department stores:shopping
As noted aove, a fe! escalator types !ere installed in ma:or department stores
'incl"ding @arrods) efore the Expo. Escalators proved instr"mental in the layo"t and
design of shopping ven"es in the t!entieth cent"ry.
Iy 14/4, the first of MenoJs 5inclined elevators5 !ere incorporated into the Iloomingdale
Iros. store at #hird Aven"e and ;/th -treet. #his !as the first retail application of the
devices in the ,-, and no small coincidence, considering that MenoEs primary financier
!as 9yman Iloomingdale, co$o!ner of the department store !ith rother Foseph
#he longest escalators in the =estern @emisphere, at the =heaton station, =ashington
DC Metro
[edit] Pu"lic transportation
#he first 5standard5 escalator installed on the 9ondon ,ndergro"nd !as a -eeerger
model at Earls Co"rt. Goted aove, 9ondonEs ,ndergro"nd installed a rare spiral
escalator designed y Meno, =illiam @enry Aston and -cott Diet%man for the @ollo!ay
Moad ,ndergro"nd station in 1/03C it !as r"n for a short time "t !as taken o"t of
service the same day it de"ted.
#he older lines of the 9ondon ,ndergro"nd had many
escalators !ith !ooden treads 'ca. 1/.0s) "ntil they !ere rapidly replaced follo!ing the
DingEs Cross fire, noted aove.
[edit] Other applications
[edit] ;actories and other industrial production en,ironments
*n 1/0;, the American =oolen CompanyJs =ood Mill in 9a!rence, Massach"setts 'then
5the largest single !orsted mill in the !orld5) "tili%ed <tisE -eeerger$type 5reversile5
escalators to carry its !orkers et!een floors fo"r times a day.
#he machines did not
r"n all day6 rather, escalators ran solely to transport employees toOfrom midday meals and
inOo"t of the mill. *n its advertising, <tis Elevator Company hailed this "nconventional
"se for its "ni7"e enefits to oth !orkers and o!ners6 5#he profitale and practicale
feat"re of the Escalator, from the vie!point of the o!ner, is the increased efficiency of
each operator d"e to the elimination of stair climing.5
[edit] Military use
*n -an 8rancisco, an escalator at @"nters &oint Gaval -hipyard !as "sed to convey
personnel et!een the first and third floors. At the time of its constr"ction in 1/+4, it !as
to"ted th"s6 50it has the2 highest lift of any ind"strial "ilding in the !orld. *t rises +2
Escalators !ere also "tili%ed on aircraft carriers s"ch as the ,-- Hornet 'CA$12), to
transport pilots from 5ready rooms5 to the flight deck.
[edit] E<tant historic escalator models
MacyEs @erald -7"are store in Ge! Bork City holds some of the more famo"s historic
escalators. #he models sho!n here, retrofitted !ith metal steps in the 1//0s, are among
the oldest of the storeEs +0 escalators. <tis 59$type5 escalators !ith distinctive !ood
treads 'not sho!n) have operated in the store since 1/27.
=ooden treads on a 1/.0s <tis escalator at =ynyard rail!ay station, -ydney, A"stralia
A fe! notale e(amples of historic escalators still in operation are6
[edit] %ustralia
• #o!n @all Mail!ay -tation, -ydney, A"stralia
• =ynyard Mail!ay -tation, -ydney, A"stralia
[edit] Europe
• -t. Anna &edestrian #"nnel "nderneath the -chelde in Ant!erp, Ielgi"m. #his
t"nnel !as opened in 1/...
• #yne Cyclist and &edestrian #"nnel, #yne and =ear, England
$#hese escalators, man"fact"red y =aygood <tis in 1/;1, !ere 5elieved to e
the longest single lift escalators in the !orld5, at the time of installation.
&res"maly the first escalators in Iritain designed specifically for cyclists, they
are also 5tho"ght to e still5 the longest escalators in the ,nited Dingdom. At
most, they may e the longest e(tant !ooden escalators in operation in the !orld.
• Nreenford -tation, Nreenford, England
[edit] 0orth %merica
• MacyEs @erald -7"are department store, <tis 9$type "nits !ith !ood treads and
replacement metal treads, Ge! Bork, Ge! Bork
• Da"fmannEs department store 'no! MacyEs), t!o 13$inch '+00 mm) <tis 9$type
"nits !ith original floorplates, several +0$inch '1000 mm) <tis escalators ca.
1/;0s, &itts"rgh, &ennsylvania
• =estfield -an 8rancisco Centre 'formerly #he Empori"m), chrome$and$glass
escalator y Eleanor 9eMaire for <tis, -an 8rancisco, California
[edit] Escalators- superlati,es
[edit] (ongest systems
• Central$Mid$9evels escalator6 in @ong Dong, tens of tho"sands of comm"ters
travel each !ork day et!een Central, the central "siness district, and the Mid$
levels, a residential district h"ndreds of feet "phill, "sing this long distance system
of escalators and moving !alk!ays. *t is the !orldEs longest o"tdoor escalator
system 'not a single escalator span), at a total length of 2,300 feet '7/0 m). *t goes
only one !ay at a timeC the direction reverses depending on r"sh ho"r traffic
• <cean &ark, @ong Dong6 a long escalator system connecting t!o parts of the
&ark, !ith an overall length of 7.0 feet '220 m).
[edit] (ongest indi,idual escalators
[edit] %sia and Europe
-everal 5metro5 or 5s"!ay5 systems in Central and Eastern E"rope feat"re very long
0citation needed2

*n the &ark &oedy station of the Mosco! Metro, opened in 200., the escalators
are +10 feet '120 m), or 7+0 steps, long, and take nearly three min"tes to transit.
Deep "ndergro"nd stations in -t. &eters"rg have escalators "p to appro(imately
..0 feet '100 m) long.

#he Diev Metro Dreschatik stationEs lo!er$level second e(it escalator 'a type XY$
2, circa 1/3;), lifts riders 213 feet '33 m), or 7+. steps, "p a +.2$foot '1.2 m)$
long incline.
0citation needed2

#he longest escalator in &rag"e is at the GZm[st\ M\r" station at 2/0 feet '44 m).

#he longest escalator of a E"ropean shopping mall is at My]eil, 8rankf"rt,
Nermany, !ith a length of 1;0 feet.

#he tallest escalator on the 9ondon ,ndergro"nd system is at Angel station !ith a
length of 1/7 feet '30 m), and a vertical rise of /0 feet '27 m).

#he longest !ooden escalators in the ,nited Dingdom are at the #yne #"nnel,
!ith a length of 200 feet '31 m). '-ee aove.)

#he longest escalator on the -tockholm Metro, and in =estern E"rope, is at
A^stra skogen !ith a length of 220 feet '37 m) and in @elsinki Metro at Damppi
station !ith a length of 210 feet '3+ m).

#he largest 5single tr"ss escalator5 is in the Ientall Centre in Dingston "pon
#hames in Nreater 9ondon, ,D. *t connects the gro"nd floor !ith the second
floor !ith only top and ottom s"pports.
0citation needed2
[edit] 0orth and South %merica
• #he longest set of single$span "ninterr"pted escalators in the =estern @emisphere
is at the =heaton station of the =ashington Metro system. #hey are ;04 feet
'1;; m)
long !ith a 'pres"maly) vertical rise of 2.0 feet '70 m),
and take
!hat is vario"sly descried as 2 min"tes and +; seconds
0citation needed2
or nearly three$
and$a$half min"tes,
to ascend or descend !itho"t !alking.

#he longest escalator in the ,nited -tates !est of the Mississippi is reportedly in
the =ilshireOAermont metro station in 9os Angeles.
0citation needed2

#he longest freestandin 's"pported only at the ends) escalator in the !orld is
inside CGG CenterJs atri"m in Atlanta, Neorgia. *t rises 4 stories and is 20; feet
'32 m) long. <riginally "ilt as the entrance to the am"sement park #he =orld of
-id and Marty Drofft, the escalator is no! "sed for CGG st"dio to"rs.
[edit] Shortest escalators
[edit] %sia
According to N"inness, the shortest escalator in the !orld is in the <kadaya Mores
shopping mall in Da!asaki, Fapan. *ts vertical rise is only .2.4 inches '4. cm).
0citation needed2
[edit] 0orth %merica
#he shortest escalator in the ,nited -tates is a -chindler "nit at the entrance to the
FC&enney Department -tore in =estfield Narden -tate &la%a in &aram"s, Ge! Fersey.
0citation needed2
[edit] 0ota"le spiral escalator installations
Escalators in the Bokohama Minato Mirai 21, Fapan.
[edit] %sia
• =heelock &lace, -ingapore
• Feddah @ilton, -a"di Araia
• 9andmark #o!er, Fapan
• #imes -7"are shopping mall, @ong Dong, China
• 9otte =orld, -o"th Dorea
• #he Aenetian hotel and casino, Maca", China
• =#C Mangga D"a, Fakarta, *ndonesia 'the only one in *ndonesia)
• #aipei, #ai!an
[edit] 0orth %merica

#he 8or"m -hops at Caesars, 9as Aegas, Gevada, ,nited -tates

'8ormer) -an 8rancisco Centre, -an 8rancisco, California, ,nited -tates?the
first s"ch installation in the =estern @emisphere.
[edit] 3allery
Escalators at
Angel -tation,
9ondon, England.
<kadaya Mores
=estfield Narden
-tate &la%a,
&aram"s, Ge!
Fersey, ,nited
Escalators in a
@elsinki metro
station, 8inland.
A very small
escalator at
@arrods, 9ondon,
Escalator in Ielo
@ori%onte, Ira%il.
-piral escalators
at Caesars
&alace, 9as
Aegas, Gevada,
,nited -tates.
-piral escalator
inside the #ime
-7"are shopping
mall in @ong
Escalators at
,niversity -tation
in -ydney,
Escalators at
Caot Circ"s
shopping center,
Iristol, England.
Entrance to the
9evels Escalators
in @ong Dong.
Early <tis
escalator at #.
Company in
Aie! from
escalators at &ark
&oedy -tation,
Mosco!, M"ssia.
Escalator in
D"pont Circle,
=ashington, DC
[edit] See also
• Central$Mid$9evels escalator '@ong Dong)
• Moving !alk!ay
• &eople mover
• Cartveyor -hopping Cart Escalator
[edit] 2eferences and notes
1. = @o"se of Mepresentatives Mesol"tion +//;, F"ly 22, 200+6
2. = -trakosch, Neorge M. &ertical Transportation' Elevators and Escalators, Ge!
Bork6 Fohn =iley S -ons, 1/4..
.. = http6OO!!!.vmdaily.r"Oarticle.php`aida100;;
+. = http6OOncdrc.nic.inO<&412001.html
;. = Escalator fatality leads to H;M la!s"it b Daily Mecord, #he 'Ialtimore) b 8ind
Articles at
3. = http6OO!!!.t!!OinfoOcE3c4Ac40cE;cI4cAIcE;cA0cI1O+.1$
7. = Daniel, Mac. 5Man is -trangled After Clothing -nags in MI#A Escalator.5 The
(oston "lo%e' March 2, 200;, availale6
4. = http6OO!!!.nrk.noOnyheterOdistriktOsorlandetO1.3221+41 M"lletrappa i
k:dpesenteret -entr"msgerden i 9yngdal hadde ikke pe"dt fallsikring
/. = http6OO!!!.dt.seOnyheterOfal"nOarticle+22.7/.ece Foakim k"nde inte r^ddas
10. = 8fll mot dfden fren r"lltrappa
11. = Moodie, D. K#he DingJs Cross 8ire6 Damage Assessment and <vervie! of the
#echnical *nvestigation.L VJ8ire -afety Fo"rnalJJ, Aol. 14, 1//26 1.–...
12. = L-am =e Considers the Concl"sions of the 8ennell Meport,L VJI"ilding
DesignJJ, Gov. 1/, 1/446 2.
1.. = LI"ilding Design Editorial6 the DingJs Cross *n7"iry,L VJI"ilding DesignJJ,
Gov. 1/, 1/446 /
1+. = LGegligence6 Escalator Got an Attractive G"isance,L Michian La) Revie),
Aol. .4, Go. 2 'Dec. 1/./)6 23; – 237.
1;. = LADA Me7"irements, Govemer 2., 1//4,L ,.-. Department of F"stice, Civil
Mights Division, 1//46 ..
13. = Elevator Escalator -afety 8o"ndation, 5@o! to Mide -afely on Elevators,
Escalators, and Moving =alks,5 2007.
17. = Ames, G. 5Mevolving -tairs,5 ,. -. &atent 2;073. A"g. /, 14;/. Availale6
14. = -o"der, 9eamon. 5-tair!ay,5 ,. -. &atent +03.1+. F"ly 2, 144/. Availale6
1/. = Meno, Fesse =. 5Endless Conveyer or Elevator,5 ,. -. &atent +70/141;. March
14/2. Availale6 http6OO"
20. = =heeler, N. A., 5Elevator,5 ,. -. &atent +7/43+, A"g. 2, 14/2. Availale6
21. = <n record and in practice, this is accepted as the !orldEs first operale escalator
installation. Dates for the @arrods &iat escalator installation are inconsistent.
22. = #opel, Michael. 5Ancient Escalator =as a 9ink to @istory5, The *atriot+Leder,
Apr. ., 1//;. -ee also Ding, Fohn. 5A Matter of &erception6 Escalators, Moving
=alks, and the Motion of -ociety5, in Up Do)n Across: Elevators' Escalators
and Movin Side)al,s. 'Alisa Noet%, ed.) 9ondon6 Merrell, 200.6 7/–4/.
2.. = 9ancaster, Iill. The Department Store: a Social History. 9ondon6 9eicester
,niversity &ress, 1//;6 ;0.
2+. = 5#he 8irst Moving -taircase in England,5 The Drapers- Record, Gov. 1/, 14/46
2;. = Dorsch, Feff. 5-chindler @olding 9td.,5 Hoover.s (#siness Data%ase,
http6OO!!!, Mar. 2007.
23. = 9#M collection 9ondonEs #ransport M"se"m &hotographic Collection, 51/03
Escalator <perated on <pening Day of Nreat Gorthern &icadilly and Irompton
Mail!ay, Decemer 1;, 1/03.5
27. = @illinger, Charles. 5-piral Escalator May Ie his =heel of 8ort"ne5, Los
Aneles Times' Gov. 11, 1/7.6 ..
24. = Elevators S Escalators $ M*#-,I*-@* E9EC#M*C
2/. = -ee6 Iarro!, Dennis. 5-eeerg.doc5, *nternal doc"ment, <tis Elevator Co.,
8armington, C#6 ,nited #echnologiesC 5escalator, no#n.5 /ED /nline. F"ne 200+.
<(ford ,niversity &ress, availale6 http6OOdictionary.oed.comOcgiOentryO;0077410C
5<tis 8irsts6 Escalators in the Naslight Era5, <tis Elevator Co., availale6
ml)C 5-":ect6 @istory of the Escalator5 '"nn"mered sales circ"lar letter).
*nternal doc"ment, <tis Elevator Co., 8armington, C#6 ,nited #echnologies,
<ctoer 13, 1/32C 5#he =ord VEscalatorJ5, H#man 0nterest, <nline. #he M"se"m
for the &reservation of Elevating @istory, availale6
http6OO!!!.theelevatorm"se"m.orgOhOh$1.htmC =orthington, Fr., =illiam. 5Early
Misers5, American Heritae of 0nvention 1 Technoloy, Aol. +, Go. . '=inter
1/4/)6 +2C and =osk, F"lie. 5&erspectives on the Escalator in &hotography and
Art5, in Up Do)n Across: Elevators' Escalators and Movin Side)al,s! 'Alisa
Noet%, ed.) 9ondon6 Merrell, 200..
.0. = De 8a%io, Diane @. Li,e (lood to the &eins: Escalators' their History' and the
Ma,in of the Modern 2orld 'MasterEs #hesis, Col"mia ,niversity Nrad"ate
-chool of Architect"re, &lanning, and &reservation), 20076 ;4 – 31.
.1. = De 8a%io, 30. -eeerger noted that the p"lic had come to call his invention the
5escU lg tUr5 'es$ca$ ‧ʹ‧ (>$tor) y 1/03.
.2. = 9e!is, Charlton #. and Charles -hort. A Latin Dictionary: Fo#nded on
Andre)s. Edition of Fre#nd.s Latin Dictionary. <(ford6 Clarendon &ress, 1/4+.
... = *id.
.+. = -eeerger, Charles D. 5#rade$mark for &assenger$Elevators.5 U! S! Trade+mar,
3o! 45675! May 2/, 1/00. Availale6 http6OO"
.;. = 5escalate, ver%.5 #he /xford Enlish Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1/4/. /ED /nline.
<(ford ,niversity &ress 8e. 2007.
.3. = 5escalate, ver%.h5 The /xford Enlish Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1/4/. /ED /nline.
<(ford ,niversity &ress. 8e. 2007.
.7. = 8olsom, Malph @. and 9arry 9. #eply. 5#rademarked Neneric =ords5, The 8ale
La) 9o#rnal, Aol. 4/, Go. 7 'F"n. 1/40)6 1.2.–1.;/.
.4. = Ha#hton Elevator $o! v! See%erer4; ,. -. &. i. 'IGA) 40–41 'Dec. Comm.
&at. 1/;0).
./. = N"srae, N. I. 5Moving -ide!alks5, Architect#ral Record, F"ne 1/;36 220.
+0. = 9ondonEs #ransport M"se"m &hotographic Collection, same as reference P21
aove. -ee also <rton, May. Movin *eople from Street to *latform: :;; 8ears
Underro#nd, Moile, A96 Elevator =orld, *nc. 22$23, 2000.
+1. = 59a!rence !ill Add 2;,000 to its &op"lation !ithin t!o Bears5, (oston Daily,
Mar. +, 1/036 -M11.
+2. = <tis Elevator Company, /tis Escalators. Ge! Bork6 <tis Elevator Co., 1/126 /–
+.. = http6OO!!!.flickr.comOphotosO+/;02//;;17jG01O2233/07.
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