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Power systems protection 302




Name: Ubayeda Shaqer
Student number: 15975669
Title of the experiment: Experiment 1: Phase Unbalance and
Under-voltage Protection of a Three-Phase
Induction Motor

Laboratory group: Monday (1400-1600) (Even)
Laboratory supervisor: Hadi
Laboratory partners: Scott
Date performed the experiment: -09-2014
Due date: 06-09-2014
Date submitted: 06-09-2014



I hereby declare that the report presents entirely my own work and have not copied from any
other student or past student.
Student signature: ________________________________________

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Table of Contents

Introduction: ........................................................................................................................................... 3
Aim: ......................................................................................................................................................... 3
Summary of report: ................................................................................................................................. 3
Theory ..................................................................................................................................................... 3
Procedure ................................................................................................................................................ 5
Equipment ........................................................................................................................................... 6
The Function of the protection relay: ................................................................................................. 6
Results ..................................................................................................................................................... 7
Discussion................................................................................................................................................ 8
Answers to the questions ..................................................................................................................... 10
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................. 13
. References .......................................................................................................................................... 13







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Experiment 1: Phase Unbalance and
Under-voltage Protection of a Three-Phase Induction Motor
Introduction:

This lab tests the protection against phase unbalance and under-voltage protection of a three
phase induction motor.
Aim:

This lab has been designed to test the phase unbalance and under-voltage protections of a
three phase motors. The under voltage or phase unbalance can be due interruption in the
power supply which could lead to build of large fault currents which can damage the
system. Hence relays are used to protect the system.
Summary of report:

The experiment was successfully completed. Faults that occurred in the protection zone was
identified and cleared- but the power supply was continuously disconnected due to some
unobservable error.
Theory

This laboratory deals with two types of protection one against under-voltages and phase
imbalance. Both these faults are dealt with similar principle. Voltage unbalance is regarded as
a power quality problem of significant concern at the electricity distribution level. Although
the voltages are quite well balanced at the generator and transmission levels the voltages at
the utilisation level can become unbalanced due to the unequal system impedances and the
unequal distribution of single-phase loads.
An excessive level of voltage unbalance can have serious impacts on mains connected
induction motors. The level of current unbalance that is present is several times the level of
voltage unbalance. Such an unbalance in the line currents can lead to excessive losses in the
stator and rotor that may cause protection systems to operate causing loss of production.
Motors may stall when subjected to prolonged under-voltage conditions. Transient under-
voltages will generally allow a motor to recover when the voltage is restored; unless the
supply is weak.
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Where a specific under-voltage trip is required, a definite time under-voltage element is
used. An interlock with the motor starter is required to block relay operation when the
starting device is open, otherwise a start will never be permitted. The voltage and time delay
settings will be system and motor dependent.
They must allow for all rapid voltage changes likely to occur on the system during transient
faults, starting of motors, etc. to avoid nuisance trips.
Another factor that is caused by under voltages is the negative sequence currents. Although
this laboratory investigation does not deal with negative sequence currents it major problem
caused by the under voltages. Negative phase sequence current is generated from any
unbalanced voltage condition, such as unbalanced loading, loss of a single phase, or single-
phase faults. The actual value of the negative sequence current depends on the degree of
unbalance in the supply voltage and the ratio of the negative to the positive sequence
impedance of the machine. Negative sequence current in the machine leads to excessive
heating. Negative sequence current is at twice supply frequency.
Skin effect in the rotor means that the heating effect in the rotor of a given negative sequence
current is larger than the same positive sequence current. Thus, negative sequence current
may result in rapid heating of the motor.
Loss of a phase or phase imbalances gives rise to large negative sequence currents, and
therefore a much shorter time delay is required. This phase unbalance causes 3-phase motors
to run at temperatures above their standard ratings. These high temperatures soon result in
insulation breakdown and shortened motor life.
Therefore both under voltage and phase imbalance introduce negative sequence currents and
high currents in motor circuit. These high currents are detected by relay definite time relays
;in order for the sensors to distinguish between actual faults and normal high currents.


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Procedure

The EMS Workstation and the Protective Relaying Control Station was set up according to
the schematic provided.


Figure 1: Schematics of the protection system

The circuit was connected according to each connection i.e. for the red wire phase A of the 3
phase circuit was selected and connected from the input to its end at Squirrel cage induction
motor (1). Following colour one by one starting and ending its connection was procedure
used to begin and complete the circuit.
A three-phase induction motor is protected against phase unbalance and under-voltage
using a phase balance/sequence relay and a three-phase under-voltage relay. Under
normal operating conditions, the output relay of each protective relay is energized (the
normally-close contact is opened).
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Equipment

Power supply
Voltage transformers
AC ammeter
AC voltmeter
Phase Balance/Sequence relay
Three-Phase/under voltage relay
Four-Pole squirrel cage induction motor.
Transmission grid A
The Function of the protection relay:

When a severe phase unbalance occurs (more than 10%), the phase
balance/sequence relay trips (its output relay is "de-energized") after its internal
time delay has elapsed. This initiates a trip current in control relay CR1. Contact
CR1-C closes to memorize the fault and light up the corresponding reset
button. Contact CR1-B opens to open contactor CR1, thereby disconnecting the
induction motor from the power source.

When a severe under-voltage occurs (more than 20%), the under-voltage relay
trips (its output relay is "deenergized"). This energizes time delay relay TD2.
Once the time delay has elapsed, a trip current is initiated in control relay
CR2. Contact CR2-C closes to memorize the fault and light up the
corresponding reset button. Contact CR2-B opens to open contactor CR1, thereby
disconnecting the induction motor from the power source.

Figure 2: Completed circuit

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Results

6.11 Turn the voltage control knob counter clockwise to reduce the supply voltages until the Three-
Phase Under/Over Voltage Relay trips.

Voltage (volts)
E1 = 360
E2 = 360
E3 = 360


6.13 On Transmission Grid "A", set the switch S4 to the 0 (open) positions to open contactor CR4.
This opens one of the supply voltage lines to the motor.

Voltage (volts)
E1 = 300
E2 = 415
E3 = 320








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Discussion

In this laboratory investigation the under-voltage has been manually introduced into the
circuit. As the voltage available to the motor is decreased, the current drawn by the motor
increases, resulting in generated heat which deteriorates the motor insulation. At a particular
percentage of drop in voltage, when the current becomes too high the relay detects this
change- and trips the circuit. . This isolates the motor and prevents any damage due the
increase in temperature due to the rapid increase in current. However the relay has been
adjusted to a certain threshold level therefore prevents the relay to operate when the motor
starts- where there is rush in current in the system. The relay operates on a definite time
therefore in order for the relay to trip the high current must hold for few seconds (time is set
up internally) unlike starting current of a motor which exists for very small amount of time
(will not be mistaken for a fault no nuisance trip).The relay only trips when this threshold
has been reached for a definite amount of time then the relay trips the circuits and fault is
cleared.
Voltage unbalance can occur when incoming line voltages delivered by the power company
are of different levels, or when single-phase loads such as lighting, electrical outlets and
single-phase motors are connected on individual phases and not distributed in a balanced
way. In either case, a current unbalance will result on the system which shortens motor life
and diminishes motor efficiency. An unbalanced voltage applied to a three-phase motor can
result in a current unbalance in the motor windings equal to several times the voltage
unbalance. This will increase the heat generated, a major cause of rapid deterioration of
motor insulation. Therefore the under-voltage relay has been installed to protect the motor
from this kind of detritions.
Phase unbalance relay also operates in the same principle as the under-voltage relay. The
severe phase difference has been manually introduced into the circuit. The phase unbalance
relay only trips the circuit only if the unbalances occur from a definite amount of time. This
setting is adjusted in order to prevent any nuisance trips that might occur when the motor
starts or if there is a sudden imbalance from the supply.
Unbalance of a 3-phase power system occurs when single phase loads are connected such that
one or two of the lines carry more or less of the load. In practical setting careful attention is
given to balancing of loads on new installations of 3-phase power systems. However, as
additional single phase loads are added to the system, a phase unbalance can begin to occur.
This phase unbalance causes 3-phase motors to run at temperatures above their standard
ratings. These high temperatures soon result in insulation breakdown and shortened motor
life. Thermal overloads, magnetic breakers and other such devices usually will not detect this
gradual unbalance, and therefore do not provide sufficient protection.
In this laboratory investigation the S4 controls balance unbalance and the CR3 is used to
isolate the control system. An extreme case of phase unbalance is the total loss of one of the
three phases, generally known as single-phasing. Phase loss can occur when a single phase
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overload condition causes a fuse to blow, by a 3-phase circuit being struck by lightning, or by
a mechanical failure within the switching equipment on machinery.
The most serious result of single phasing is that it can go undetected on most systems long
enough to cause motor failure. A 3-phase motor running on single phase will continue to run,
drawing all of its current from the remaining two lines.
The under voltage and phase imbalance relay both operate under the same principle because
both of these phenomenon introduce the same kind of problem in the circuit.





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Answers to the questions

6.9 Turn on the Power Supply. Slowly set the voltage control knob so that the line-to-line
voltage (indicated by the voltmeters) is equal to the motor nominal voltage. While doing this,
observe the relay energization indicators (red LED) on the Phase Balance/Sequence Relay
and the Three-Phase Under/Over Voltage Relay.

Are the output relays of the Phase Balance/Sequence Relay and Three Phase Under/Over
Voltage Relay energized? Briefly explain why.

Yes No

Yes because there is no fault in the system that is there is under-voltage or phase
imbalance therefore relay was not de-energized these were the normal operating
conditions.

6.11 On the Power Supply, slowly turn the voltage control knob counter clockwise to reduce
the supply voltages until the Three-Phase Under/Over Voltage Relay trips.
Record the supply voltages in the following blank spaces.

E1 = 360V

E2 = 360V

E3 = 360V

Did the Three-Phase Under/Over Voltage Relay trip when the supply voltages fall below
approximately 90% of the motor nominal voltage?

Yes No


6.13 On Transmission Grid "A", set the switch S4 to the 0 (open) position to open contactor
CR4. This opens one of the supply voltage lines to the motor.
Record the supply voltages:

E1 = 300V

E2 = 415V

E3 = 320V

Are the output relays of the Phase Balance/Sequence Relay and three Phase Under/Over
Voltage Relay energized?

Yes No

When of the phases disconnected both the Over and Under voltages relay trips. After
the fault has been detected reset is required before the motor can be supplied with
power again. The under voltage relay does not require a reset.
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6.14 On Transmission Grid "A", set the switch S4 to the I (close) position to close contactor
C R4 and return to normal operating conditions.

Describe what happens when one of the supply voltages is lost.

When one of the supply voltages is lost this leads to phase imbalance which is detected
by the relay (CR-4 is energized). When one phase is disconnected the voltage demand in
the remaining two phases increases. Therefore the input voltage drops and the under
voltage relay detects this. Since these disturbances continues for definite time the
current in the systems increase. The relay discriminates/recognizes this to be a fault
which causes the under-voltage relay to trip. The imbalance in voltage can be seen at
question 6.13

6.17 On the Power Supply, slowly turn the voltage control knob counter-clockwise to reduce
the supply voltages to approximately 75% of the motor nominal voltage. While doing this,
observe the relay energization indicators on the Phase Balance/Sequence Relay and Three-
Phase Under/Over Voltage Relay

Describe what has happened.

When voltage is reduced the current in the system increases. So this is treated as a
fault; the relay switches off and disconnects the motor. The path way of the protection
as seen in the protection schematic (figure 1) first under voltage is created manually -
protection system detects this Activates TD2 closes the contacts energizes
CR5 CR5 will be open which activates CR1 which then isolates the motor.
The definite time interval after which the relay trips, is about 4 to 5 seconds.

Is efficient protection against under-voltage provided?

Yes No

6.21 On Transmission Grid "A", set the switch S4 to the 0 (open) positions to open contactor
CR4. This opens one of the supply voltage lines to the motor. Observe the supply voltages on
the voltmeters and the relay energization indicators on the Phase Balance/Sequence Relay
and Three Phase Under/Over Voltage Relay.

Describe what has happened.

When one phase is disconnected- the voltage demand in the remaining two phases
increases; this causes the input voltage to drop and the under voltage relay detects this.
(CR-4 is energized). Since these disturbances continues for definite time (about 4-5
seconds) the current in the systems increase. The relay discriminates/recognizes this to
be a fault which causes the under-voltage relay to trip.

Is efficient protection against phase unbalance provided?

Yes No

A faster response time may be preferred as long as it doesnt reduce the reliability of
the protection system. (Operates when required; no nuisance trips).
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6.23 Swap two phases of power supply (terminals 4 &5) to change the direction of induction
motor.
6.24 On Transmission Grid "A", set switch S2 to the I (close) position to start the induction
motor.

Is sequence relay tripped the induction motor?

Yes No


The protection system protects the motor but the under-voltage relay doesnt trip
because there is no under-voltage problem but the top relay switches off the system.















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Conclusion

The under-voltage protection and phase imbalance successfully operated in this investigation
as they were reliable (they did not fail to operate), successfully selective (able to isolate the
motor) during a fault and successfully able to discriminate high fault currents from high
starting currents. The protection system meets all the criterias of a protection scheme.
References

http://www.fecime.org/referencias/npag/chap16-254-279.pdf(Accessed 22
nd
September 2014)
http://www.electrical4u.com/armature-reaction-in-synchronous-machine-alternator/(Accessed 24
th

September 2014)
http://www05.abb.com/global/scot/scot229.nsf/veritydisplay/e16a37a523bb5f1fc12573680034fbb
c/$file/appl_ref_542plus_restricted_756411_ena.pdf(Accessed 27
th
September 2014)
http://www05.abb.com/global/scot/scot229.nsf/veritydisplay/4cc069cfc7020ba4c125716f004e39f8
/$file/rej525_tob_751205enc.pdf(Accessed 1
st
October 2014)
http://schneiderenergy.pl/files_mce/katalog_produktow/publikacje/katalogi/se_katalog_sn_en_201
2_03_30.pdf (Accessed 4
th
October 2014)
Lecture Notes (Accessed October/September 2014)